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Peru (Perú; Piruw; Piruw), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. [1]

362 relations: Administrative divisions of Peru, Afro-Latin American, Agrarian reform, Aguaruna language, Alan García, Alberto Fujimori, Alejandro Toledo, Alliance for the Great Change, Alpamayo, Altiplano, Amazon basin, Amazon rainforest, Amazon River, Amazonas Department, Amazonas Region, American Popular Revolutionary Alliance, Ancash Region, Ancient Peru, Andean Community, Andes, Anticucho, Antonio José de Sucre, Apurímac Region, Architecture of Peru, Arequipa, Arequipa Region, Arica Province (Peru), Army of the Andes, Asháninka language, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Asian Latin American, Augusto B. Leguía, Ayacucho, Ayacucho Region, Aymara language, Baroque, Barrios Altos massacre, Battle of Ayacucho, Battle of Cajamarca, Battle of Carabobo, Battle of Chacabuco, Battle of Junín, Battle of Maipú, Battle of Pichincha, Bay of San Miguel, BBC News, Bernardo O'Higgins, Biodiversity, Bogotá, Bolivia, ..., Bora language, Bourbon Reforms, Brazil, Buenos Aires, Bullion, Cajamarca Region, Cajón, Callao, Camelid, Caral, César Vallejo, Cenepa War, Central America, Ceviche, Chan Chan, Charango, Chavín culture, Chavín de Huantar, Chiclayo, Chile, Chilean–Peruvian maritime dispute, Chimú culture, Chimbote, Chincha Islands War, Christian literature, Christmas, Chronic inflation, Chronicle, Ciro Alegría, Civil and political rights, Civil defense, Civilista Party, Climate of Peru, Colombia, Commander-in-chief, Common Era, Compulsory education, Compulsory voting, Congress of Panama, Congress of the Republic of Peru, Conquistador, Conscription, Corpus Christi (feast), Costumbrismo, Counter-terrorism, Creole peoples, Criollo people, Cultural periods of Peru, Cupisnique, Cusco, Cusco Region, Cuzco School, Decentralization, Democracy, Dependency theory, Developing country, Diablada, Direct election, Drainage basin, Drinking water, Eclecticism in art, Economic interventionism, Ecuador, Ecuadorian–Peruvian War, El Niño Southern Oscillation, Encyclopædia Britannica, Endemism, Ethnic groups in Europe, Evangelicalism, Fernando Belaúnde Terry, Foreign direct investment, Francisco Bolognesi, Francisco de Toledo, Francisco Morales Bermúdez, Francisco Pizarro, Free Trade Area of the Americas, Fuerza 2011, Garcilaso de la Vega (chronicler), Genealogical DNA test, Gonzalo Garland, Great Depression, Gross domestic product, Guano, Guano Era, Guayaquil, Guayaquil Conference, Hard currency, Head of government, Head of state, History of Spain (1810–73), Holy Week, Huaca, Huacho, Huallaga River, Huancavelica, Huancavelica Region, Huancayo, Huascarán, Huascarán National Park, Huayno, Huánuco Region, Huáscar, Human Development Index, Humboldt Current, Iberian Union, Ica Region, Inca Empire, Income distribution, Indigenismo, Indigenous languages of the Americas, Indigenous peoples in Peru, Infection, Inflation, Inquisition, Internal conflict in Peru, International Monetary Fund, Inti, Inti Raymi, Iquitos, Irrigation, Javary River, Javier Pérez de Cuéllar, Jehovah's Witnesses, Joaquín de la Pezuela, 1st Marquis of Viluma, José de la Serna e Hinojosa, José de San Martín, José María Arguedas, Juan Velasco Alvarado, Judaism, Junín Region, La Cantuta massacre, La Libertad Region, Lake Titicaca, Lambayeque Region, Languages of Peru, Latin America, Latin American Boom, Latin American wars of independence, Latina Televisión, Leticia Incident, Leticia, Amazonas, Liberalization, Lima, Lima Metropolitan Area, Lima Province, Lima Region, List of Nobel laureates in Literature, List of Presidents of Peru, List of South American countries by population, Loreto Region, Machu Picchu, Madre de Dios Region, Man and the Biosphere Programme, Manú National Park, Mantaro River, Manuel A. Odría, Manuel Prado Ugarteche, Marañón River, Marinera, Mario Vargas Llosa, Mestizo, Miguel Grau Seminario, Military, Ministry of Defense (Peru), Mit'a, Moche culture, Moquegua Region, Multi-party system, Multinational state, Music of Peru, National Anthem of Peru, National Police of Peru, National Solidarity Party (Peru), Native Americans in the United States, Nazca culture, Neo-Inca State, Non-governmental organization, Norte Chico civilization, Official language, Ollanta Humala, Organization of American States, Outline of Peru, Pachacuti, Pachamama, Pachamanca, Pacific Ocean, Panama, Paquisha War, Paracas (municipality), Paracas culture, Pasco Region, Pedro Arias Dávila, Pedro Cateriano, Peru Wins, Peru–Bolivian Confederation, Peru–United States Trade Promotion Agreement, Peruvian Air Force, Peruvian Amazon, Peruvian Army, Peruvian art, Peruvian cuisine, Peruvian dances, Peruvian general election, 2006, Peruvian inti, Peruvian literature, Peruvian Navy, Peruvian nuevo sol, Peruvian sol, Peruvian War of Independence, Peruvians of European descent, Philippines, Pisco, Peru, Piura, Piura Region, Political corruption, Politics of Peru, Populism, Portuguese colonization of the Americas, Potosí, Pre-Columbian era, Presidential system, Price controls, Primary sector of the economy, Prime Minister of Peru, Protectionism, Protestantism, Puno Region, Putumayo River, Quechua people, Quechuan languages, Quena, Qurikancha, Ramón Castilla, Reciprocity (cultural anthropology), Redistribution (cultural anthropology), Redistribution of income and wealth, Regions of Peru, Representative democracy, Republic, Ricardo Palma, Ricardo Pérez Godoy, Rio Protocol, Romanticism, Royalist (Spanish American Independence), San Isidro District, Lima, San Martín Region, Sanitation, Sapa Inca, Seal (emblem), Secondary sector of the economy, Secretary-General of the United Nations, Self-coup, Sewage treatment, Shining Path, Simón Bolívar, Solar deity, South America, Spanish colonization of the Americas, Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire, Spanish cuisine, Spanish Empire, Spanish language, Sub-Saharan Africa, Syncretism, Tacna, Tacna Province, Tacna Region, Tarapacá Department (Peru), Tarata bombing, Túpac Amaru II, Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement, Telephone numbers in Peru, Terms of trade, Terrace (agriculture), Tertiary sector of the economy, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald, Thomas Turino, Time in Peru, Tinya, Tiwanaku, Tondero, Topa Inca Yupanqui, Treaty of Lima, Treaty of Tordesillas, Trujillo, Peru, Tumbes Region, Ucayali Region, Ucayali River, Uncontacted peoples, Unicameralism, Union of South American Nations, Unitary state, United Nations, Upper Peru, Urubamba River, Valentín Paniagua, Viceroyalty of New Granada, Viceroyalty of Peru, Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, Vilcabamba, Peru, Volunteer military, War of the Pacific, Wari culture, Water, Wayback Machine, White Latin American, World Trade Organization, Zamacueca, .pe, 1997 Asian financial crisis, 2007 Peru Census. 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The administrative divisions of Peru have changed from time to time, since the nation gained independence from Spain in the early 19th century.

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An Afro-Latin American (also Afro-Latino in the United States) is a Latin American person of significant Saharan Africa ancestry; the term may also refer to historical or cultural elements in Latin America thought to emanate from this community.

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Agrarian reform can refer either, narrowly, to government-initiated or government-backed redistribution of agricultural land (see land reform) or, broadly, to an overall redirection of the agrarian system of the country, which often includes land reform measures.

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Aguaruna is an indigenous American language of the Jivaroan family spoken by about 45,000 Aguaruna people in Peru.

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Alan Gabriel Ludwig García Pérez (born 23 May 1949) is a Peruvian lawyer, sociologist and politician who was President of Peru from 1985 to 1990 and again from 2006 to 2011.

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Alberto Fujimori (or;; 藤森アルベルト Fujimori Aruberuto; born 28 July 1938) is a former Peruvian politician.

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Alejandro Toledo (born 28 March 1946) is a Peruvian politician who was president of Peru, from 2001 to 2006.

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The Alliance for the Great Change — PPK (Alianza por el Gran Cambio — PPK) is an electoral alliance in Peru formed for the general election, 2011 to promote the presidential candidacy of Pedro Pablo Kuczynski ("PPK").

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Alpamayo (in hispanicized spelling), Allpamayu (Quechua allpa earth, mayu river, "earth river") or Shuyturahu (Ancash Quechua huytu, shuytu oblong, slim and long, Quechua rahu snow, ice, mountain with snow, "slim and long snow-covered mountain") is one of the most conspicuous peaks in the Cordillera Blanca of the Peruvian Andes.

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The Altiplano (Spanish for "high plain"), Andean Plateau or Bolivian Plateau, in west-central South America, where the Andes are at their widest, is the most extensive area of high plateau on Earth outside of Tibet.

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The Amazon basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries.

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The Amazon rainforest (Portuguese: Floresta Amazônica or Amazônia; Selva Amazónica, Amazonía or usually Amazonia; Forêt amazonienne; Amazoneregenwoud), also known in English as Amazonia or the Amazon Jungle, is a moist broadleaf forest that covers most of the Amazon basin of South America.

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The Amazon River (or; Spanish and Amazonas) in South America is the largest river by discharge of water in the world, averaging a discharge of about 209,000 cubic meters per second (7,381,000 cu ft/s, 209,000,000 liters or 55,211,960 gallons/sec), greater than the next seven largest independent rivers combined.

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Department of Amazonas (Departamento del Amazonas) is a department of Colombia in the south of the country.

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Amazonas is a region of northern Peru bordered by Ecuador on the north and west, Cajamarca Region on the west, La Libertad Region on the south, and Loreto Region and San Martín Region on the east.

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The American Popular Revolutionary Alliance - Peruvian Aprista Party (Spanish: Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana - Partido Aprista Peruano) is a centre-left Peruvian political party.

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Ancash is a region of northern Peru.

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Peruvian territory was inhabited 14,000 years ago by hunters and gatherers.

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The Andean Community (Comunidad Andina, CAN) is a customs union comprising the South American countries of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.

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The Andes is the longest continental mountain range in the world.

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Anticuchos (singular anticucho, Quechua for Cut Stew Meat) are popular and inexpensive dishes that originated in Peru in the pre-Columbian era; other Andean states, such as Chile and Bolivia, adopted the recipe.

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Antonio José de Sucre y Alcalá (1795–1830), known as the "Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho" ("Grand Marshal of Ayacucho"), was a Venezuelan independence leader.

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Apurímac is a region in southern-central Peru.

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Peruvian architecture is the architecture carried out during any time in what is now Peru, and by Peruvian architects worldwide.

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Arequipa is the capital and largest city of the Arequipa Region and the seat of the Constitutional Court of Peru.

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Arequipa is a region in southwestern Peru.

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The Province of Arica was a historical territorial division of Peru, which existed between 1823 and 1883.

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The Army of the Andes (Ejército de los Andes) was a military force created by the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata (Argentina) and mustered by general José de San Martín in his campaign to free Chile from the Spanish Empire.

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Asháninka is an Arawakan language spoken by the Asháninca people along the Apurímac, Ene, Perené, and Tambo rivers and tributaries in Perú.

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Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a forum for 21 Pacific Rim member economies.

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Asian Latin Americans are Latin Americans of East Asian, Southeast Asian or South Asian descent.

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Augusto Bernardino Leguía y Salcedo (February 19, 1863 – February 7, 1932) was a Peruvian politician who twice served as President of Peru, from 1908 to 1912 and from 1919 to 1930.

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Ayacucho (Ayacuchu), also known as Huamanga, is the capital city of Huamanga Province, Ayacucho Region, Peru.

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Ayacucho is a region of Peru, located in the south-central Andes of the country.

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Aymara (Aymar aru) is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara people of the Andes.

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The Baroque is often thought of as a period of artistic style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture, literature, dance, theater, and music.

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The Barrios Altos massacre took place on 3 November 1991, in the Barrios Altos neighborhood of Lima, Peru.

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The Battle of Ayacucho (Batalla de Ayacucho) was a decisive military encounter during the Peruvian War of Independence. It was the battle that secured the independence of Peru and ensured independence for the rest of South America. In Peru it is considered the end of the Spanish American wars of independence, although the campaign of the victor Antonio José de Sucre, continued through 1825 in Upper Peru and the siege of the fortresses Chiloé and Callao finally ended in 1826. As of late 1824, Royalists still had control of most of the south of Peru as well as of Real Felipe Fort in the port of Callao. On December 9, 1824, the Battle of Ayacucho (Battle of La Quinua) took place at Pampa de Ayacucho (or Quinua), a few kilometers away from Ayacucho, near the town of Quinua between Royalist and Independentist forces. Independentist forces were led by Simón Bolívar's lieutenant Sucre. Viceroy José de la Serna was wounded, and after the battle second commander-in-chief José de Canterac signed the final capitulation of the Royalist army. The modern Peruvian Army celebrates the anniversary of this battle.

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The Battle of Cajamarca was the ambush and capture of the Inca ruler Atahualpa by Francisco Pizarro and a small Spanish force on November 16, 1532.

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The Battle of Carabobo, 24 June 1821, was fought between independence fighters, led by Venezuelan General Simón Bolívar, and the Royalist forces, led by Spanish Field Marshal Miguel de la Torre.

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The Battle of Chacabuco, fought during the Chilean War of Independence, occurred on February 12, 1817.

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The Battle of Junín was a military engagement of the Peruvian War of Independence, fought in the highlands of the Junín Region on August 6, 1824.

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The Battle of Maipú (Spanish: Batalla de Maipú) was a battle fought near Santiago, Chile on April 5, 1818 between South American rebels and Spanish royalists, during the Chilean War of Independence.

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The Battle of Pichincha took place on 24 May 1822, on the slopes of the Pichincha volcano, 3,500 meters above sea-level, right next to the city of Quito, in modern Ecuador.

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The Bay of San Miguel is located on the Pacific coast of Darién, a district of eastern Panama.

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BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Bernardo O'Higgins Riquelme (1778–1842) was a Chilean independence leader who, together with José de San Martín, freed Chile from Spanish rule in the Chilean War of Independence.

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Global Biodiversity is the variety of different types of life found on Earth and the variations within species.

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Bogotá is the capital of Colombia and Cundinamarca Department, with a population of 8,854,722 in 2015.

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Bolivia (Buliwya; Wuliwya; Volívia), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.

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Bora is an indigenous American language spoken in the jungle regions of South America.

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The Bourbon Reforms (in Spanish: Reformas Borbónicas) were a set of economic and political legislation introduced by the Spanish Crown under various kings of the House of Bourbon throughout the 18th century.

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Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and the Latin American region.

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Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina, and the second-largest metropolitan area in South America.

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Bullion traditionally stands for gold bars, silver bars, other precious metals bars or ingots.

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Cajamarca is a state Region in Peru.

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A cajón ((Ka-hon), "box", "crate" or "drawer") is nominally a six sided, box-shaped percussion instrument originally from Peru, played by slapping the front or rear faces (generally thin plywood) with the hands, fingers, or sometimes various implements such as brushes, mallets, or sticks.

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El Callao is the chief seaport of Peru.

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Camelids are members of the biological family Camelidae, the only currently living family in the suborder Tylopoda.

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Caral, or Caral-Supe, was a large settlement in the Supe Valley, near Supe, Barranca province, Peru, some 200 km north of Lima.

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César Abraham Vallejo Mendoza (March 16, 1892 – April 15, 1938) was a Peruvian poet, writer, playwright, and journalist.

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The Cenepa War (January 26 – February 28, 1995), also known as the Alto Cenepa War, was a brief and localized military conflict between Ecuador and Peru, fought over control of an area in Peruvian territory (i.e. in the eastern side of the Cordillera del Cóndor, Province of Condorcanqui, Región Amazonas, Republic of Perú) near the border between the two countries (see map shown in the infobox).

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Central America (América Central, Centroamérica or América del Centro) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with South America on the southeast.

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Ceviche is a seafood dish popular in the coastal regions of Latin America.

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The largest Pre-Columbian city in South America, Chan Chan is an archaeological site in the Peruvian region of La Libertad, 5 km west of Trujillo.

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The charango is a small Andean stringed instrument of the lute family, which probably originated in the Quichua and Aymara populations in post-Columbian times, after European stringed instruments were introduced by the Spanish and other colonial powers.

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The Chavín culture is an extinct, prehistoric Paleo-Indian civilization, named for Chavín de Huántar, the principal archaeological site at which its artifacts have been found.

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Chavín de Huántar is an archaeological site containing ruins and artifacts constructed beginning at least by 1200 BC and occupied by later cultures until around 400-500 BC by the Chavín, a major pre-Inca culture.

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Chiclayo is the capital city of the Lambayeque region in northern Peru.

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Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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Peru v Chile (also called the Chilean–Peruvian maritime dispute) is a public international law case concerning a territorial dispute between the South American republics of Peru and Chile over the sovereignty of an area at sea in the Pacific Ocean approximately in size.

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The Chimú were the residents of Chimor, with its capital at the city of Chan Chan, a large adobe city in the Moche Valley of present-day Trujillo city.

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Chimbote is the largest city in the Ancash Region of Peru, and the capital of both Santa Province and Chimbote District.

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The Chincha Islands War (Guerra hispano-sudamericana) was a series of coastal and naval battles between Spain and its former colonies of Peru and Chile from 1864 to 1866.

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Christian literature is writing that deals with Christian themes and incorporates the Christian world view.

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Christmas or Christmas Day (Crīstesmæsse, meaning "Christ's Mass") is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Chronic inflation occurs when a country experiences high inflation for a prolonged period of time (several years or decades) due to undue expansion or increase of the money supply.

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A chronicle (chronica, from Greek χρονικά, from χρόνος, chronos, "time") is a historical account of facts and events ranged in chronological order, as in a time line.

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Ciro Alegría Bazán (November 4, 1909 – February 17, 1967) was a Peruvian journalist, politician, and novelist.

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Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations and private individuals, and which ensure one's ability to participate in the civil and political life of the society and state without discrimination or repression.

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Civil defense, civil defence (see spelling differences) or civil protection is an effort to protect the citizens of a state (generally non-combatants) from military attack.

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The Civilista Party (Spanish: Partido Civil) was a conservative political party in Peru.

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The climate of Peru is very diverse, with a large variety of climates and microclimates, including 30 of the 32 world climates.

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Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a country situated in the northwest of South America, bordered to the northwest by Panama; to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; and it shares maritime limits with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Jamaica, Dominican Republic and Haiti.

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A commander-in-chief is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces or significant elements of those forces.

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Common Era (also Current Era or Christian Era), abbreviated as CE, is an alternative naming of the calendar era Anno Domini ("in the year of the/our Lord", abbreviated AD).

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Compulsory education refers to a period of education that is required of persons, imposed by law.

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Compulsory voting is a system in which electors are obliged to vote in elections or attend a polling place on voting day.

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The Congress of Panama (often referred to as the Amphictyonic Congress, in homage to the Amphictyonic League of Ancient Greece) was a congress organized by Simón Bolívar in 1826 with the goal of bringing together the new republics of Latin America to develop a unified policy towards Spain.

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The Congress of the Republic of Peru (Congreso de la República) or the National Congress of Peru (Congreso Nacional del Perú) is the unicameral body that assumes legislative power in Peru.

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Conquistadors (from Portuguese or Spanish conquistadores "conquerors") is a term used to refer to the soldiers and explorers of the Spanish Empire or the Portuguese Empire in a general sense.

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Conscription, or drafting, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.

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The Feast of Corpus Christi (Latin for Body of Christ), also known as Corpus Domini, is a Latin Rite liturgical solemnity celebrating the tradition and belief in the body and blood of Jesus Christ and his Real Presence in the Eucharist.

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Costumbrismo (sometimes anglicized as Costumbrism) is the literary or pictorial interpretation of local everyday life, mannerisms, and customs, primarily in the Hispanic scene, and particularly in the 19th century.

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Counter-terrorism (also called anti-terrorism) incorporates the practice, military tactics, techniques, and strategy that government, military, police, violent non-state actors and business organizations use to combat or prevent terrorism.

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The term Creole and its cognates in other languages — such as crioulo, criollo, creolo, créole, kriolu, criol, kreyol, kreol, kriol, krio, etc.

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The Criollo (or "creole" people) were a social class in the caste system of the overseas colonies established by Spain in the 16th century, especially in Hispanic America, comprising the locally born people of confirmed Spanish ancestry.

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This is a chart of cultural periods of Peru and the Andean Region developed by Edward Lanning and used by some archaeologists studying the area.

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Cupisnique was a pre-Columbian culture which flourished from ca.

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Cusco, often spelled Cuzco (Cuzco,; Qusqu or Qosqo), is a city in southeastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley of the Andes mountain range.

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Cusco (Qosqo suyu, also spelled Cuzco) is a region in Peru.

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The Cuzco School (Escuela Cuzqueña) was a Roman Catholic artistic tradition based in Cusco, Peru (the former capital of the Inca Empire) during the Colonial period, in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries.

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Decentralization or decentralisation is the process of redistributing or dispersing functions, powers, people or things away from a central location or authority.

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Democracy, or democratic government, is "a system of government in which all the people of a state or polity...

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Dependency theory is the notion that resources flow from a "periphery" of poor and underdeveloped states to a "core" of wealthy states, enriching the latter at the expense of the former.

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A developing country, also called a less developed country or underdeveloped country, is a nation with an underdeveloped industrial base, and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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The Diablada or Danza de los Diablos (Dance of the Devils), is a dance characterized by the mask and devil suit worn by the performers.

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Direct election is a term describing a system of choosing political officeholders in which the voters directly cast ballots for the person, persons, or political party that they desire to see elected.

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A drainage basin or catchment basin is an extent or an area of land where surface water from rain, melting snow, or ice converges to a single point at a lower elevation, usually the exit of the basin, where the waters join another waterbody, such as a river, lake, reservoir, estuary, wetland, sea, or ocean.

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Drinking water, also known as potable water or improved drinking water, is water safe enough for drinking and food preparation.

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Eclecticism is a kind of mixed style in the fine arts: "the borrowing of a variety of styles from different sources and combining them".

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Economic interventionism (sometimes state interventionism) is an economic policy perspective favoring government intervention in the market process to correct market failures and promote the general welfare.

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Ecuador, officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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The Ecuadorian–Peruvian War, also known as the War of '41 (Guerra del 41), was a border war fought from 5-31 July 1941.

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El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an irregularly periodical climate change caused by variations in sea surface temperatures over the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean, affecting much of the tropics and subtropics.

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The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.

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The ethnic groups in Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various ethnic groups that reside in the nations of Europe.

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Evangelicalism, Evangelical Christianity, or Evangelical Protestantism is a worldwide, transdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity, maintaining that the essence of the gospel consists in the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.

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Fernando Belaúnde Terry (October 7, 1912 – June 4, 2002) was President of Peru for two non-consecutive terms (1963–1968 and 1980–1985).

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A Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is a controlling ownership in a business enterprise in one country by an entity based in another country.

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Francisco Bolognesi Cervantes (1816-1880) was a Peruvian military hero.

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Francisco Álvarez de Toledo (10 July 1515 – 15 August 1582) also known as The Virreinal Solon, was an aristocrat and military of the Kingdom of Spain, who was the fifth Viceroy of Peru.

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Francisco Morales Bermúdez Cerruti (born October 4, 1921) is a Peruvian general who came to power in Peru in 1975 after deposing his predecessor, General Juan Velasco.

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Francisco Pizarro González (circa 1471 or 1476 – 26 June 1541) was a Spanish conquistador who conquered the Incan Empire.

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The Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) (Área de Libre Comercio de las Américas, Zone de libre-échange des Amériques, Área de Livre Comércio das Américas, Vrijhandelszone van Amerika) was a proposed agreement to eliminate or reduce the trade barriers among all countries in the Americas, excluding Cuba.

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Popular Force (Fuerza Popular, FP), until 2012 called Force 2011 (Fuerza 2011), is a conservative Fujimorista political party in Peru.

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Garcilaso de la Vega (12 April 1539 – 23 April 1616), born Gómez Suárez de Figueroa and known as El Inca or Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, was a chronicler and writer born in the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru.

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A genealogical DNA test looks at a person's genome at specific locations.

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Gonzalo Garland (born April 17, 1959 in Lima, Peru) is a professor of Economics, and the vice-president of External Relations at IE Business School and an international consultant in emerging economies.

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The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the 1930s.

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Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is a measure of the size of an economy.

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Guano (via Spanish, ultimately from the Quechua wanu) is the excrement of seabirds, cave-dwelling bats, pinnipeds, or (in English usage) birds in general.

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The Guano Era refers to a period of stability and prosperity in Peru during the mid-19th century.

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Guayaquil, officially Santiago de Guayaquil (Santiago of Guayaquil), is the largest and the most populous city in Ecuador, with around 2.69 million people in the metropolitan area, as well as the nation's main port.

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The Guayaquil Conference (Conferencia de Guayaquil) was a meeting that took place on July 26, 1822, in Guayaquil, Ecuador, between José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar, to discuss the future of Perú (and South America in general).

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Hard currency, or safe-haven currency is any globally traded currency that serves as a reliable and stable store of value.

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Head of government is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony who often presides over a cabinet.

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A head of state is the highest-ranking constitutional position in a sovereign state and is vested with powers to act as the chief public representative of that state.

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Spain in the 19th century was a country in turmoil.

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Holy Week (Latin: Hebdomas Sancta or Hebdomas Maior, "Greater Week"; Greek: Ἁγία καὶ Μεγάλη Ἑβδομάς, Hagia kai Megale Hebdomas, "Holy and Great Week") in Christianity is the week just before Easter.

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In Quechua, a Native American language of South America, a wak'a is an object that represents something revered, typically a monument of some kind.

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Huacho is a city in Peru, capital of the Huaura Province and capital of the Lima Region.

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The Huallaga River is a tributary of the Marañón River, part of the Amazon Basin.

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Huancavelica or Wankawilka in Quechua is a city in Peru.

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Huancavelica is a region in Peru with an area of 22,131.47 km² and a population of 454,797 (2007 census).

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Huancayo (in Wanka Quechua: Wankayuq, '(place) with a (sacred) rock') is the capital of the Junín Region, in the central highlands of Peru.

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Huascarán or Nevado Huascarán is a mountain in the Peruvian province of Yungay (Ancash Departament), situated in the Cordillera Blanca range of the western Andes.

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Huascarán National Park (Parque Nacional Huascarán) is a Peruvian national park that comprises most of the mountain range known as Cordillera Blanca (the world's highest tropical mountain range) which is part of the central Andes, in the region of Ancash.

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Huayno (Wayñu in Aymara and Quechua) is a genre of popular Andean Music and dance originally from Serrania, Peru.

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Huánuco is a region in central Peru.

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Huáscar Inca (Quechua: Waskar Inka, of uncertain meaning, said to be related to his birthplace Huascarpata; 1503–1532) was Sapa Inca of the Inca Empire from 1527 to 1532 AD, succeeding his father Huayna Capac and brother Ninan Cuyochi, both of whom died of smallpox while campaigning near Quito.

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The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.

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The Humboldt Current is a cold, low-salinity ocean current that flows north along the west coast of South America from the southern tip of Chile to northern Peru.

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Iberian Union is the historical designation of the political union of the Crown of Portugal with the Spanish Crown - through a dynastic union, under the Spanish Habsburgs, after the War of the Portuguese Succession - that included all the Iberian Peninsula, the Spanish Empire and the Portuguese Empire, from 1580 to 1640.

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Ica is a region (formerly known as a department) in Peru.

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The Inca Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, "The Four Regions"), also known as the Incan Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America.

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In economics, income distribution is how a nation’s total GDP is distributed amongst its population.

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Indigenismo is a political ideology in several Latin American countries emphasizing the relation between the nation state and Indigenous minorities.

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Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas.

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Indigenous peoples in Peru, or Native Peruvians, comprise a large number of distinct ethnic groups who have inhabited the country of Peru's territory since before its discovery by Europeans around 1500.

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Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to these organisms and the toxins they produce.

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In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in the general price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.

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The Inquisition is a group of institutions within the judicial system of the Roman Catholic Church whose aim was to combat heresy.

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It has been estimated that nearly 70,000 people have died in the internal conflict in Peru that started in 1980, an ongoing conflict which is considered to have wound down by 2000 and violence erupted in 2014 between the Peruvian Army and guerrilla fighters in Peru proper.

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The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, DC, of "188 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world".

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Inti is the ancient Incan sun god.

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The Inti Raymi ("Festival of the Sun") was a religious ceremony of the Inca Empire in honor of the god Inti, one of the most venerated deities in Inca religion.

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Iquitos also known as Iquitos City, is the capital city of the Maynas Province and Loreto Region.

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Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the land or soil.

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The Javary River, Javari River or Yavarí River (Río Yavarí; Rio Javari) is a tributary of the Amazon that forms the boundary between Brazil and Peru for more than.

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Javier Felipe Ricardo Pérez de Cuéllar y de la Guerra KCMG (born January 19, 1920) is a Peruvian diplomat who served as the fifth Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1982 to December 31, 1991.

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Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.

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Joaquín de la Pezuela Griñán y Sánchez Muñoz de Velasco, 1st marquis of Viluma (Joaquín de la Pezuela Griñán y Sánchez Muñoz de Velasco, primer Marqués de Viluma) (1761–1830) was a Spanish military officer and viceroy of Peru during the War of Independence.

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José de la Serna e Hinojosa, 1st Count of los Andes (José de la Serna e Hinojosa, primer conde de los Andes) (1770 –1832) was a Spanish general and colonial official.

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José Francisco de San Martín y Matorras (25 February 1778 – 17 August 1850), known simply as José de San Martín, was an Argentine general and the prime leader of the southern part of South America's successful struggle for independence from the Spanish Empire.

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José María Arguedas Altamirano (18 January 1911 – 2 December 1969) was a Peruvian novelist, poet, and anthropologist.

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Juan Francisco Velasco Alvarado (June 16, 1910 – December 24, 1977) was a left-wing Peruvian General who ruled Peru from 1968 to 1975 under the title of "President of the Revolutionary Government".

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Judaism (from Iudaismus, derived from Greek Ἰουδαϊσμός, originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; in Hebrew:, Yahadut, the distinctive characteristics of the Judean ethnos) encompasses the religion, philosophy, culture and way of life of the Jewish people.

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Junín is a region in the central highlands and westernmost Amazonia of Peru.

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The La Cantuta massacre, in which a university professor and nine students from Lima's La Cantuta University were abducted by a military death squad and "disappeared", took place in Peru on 18 July 1992 during the presidency of Alberto Fujimori.

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La Libertad is a region in northwestern Peru.

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Titicaca (in the hispanicized spelling) or Titiqaqa (Quechua) is a large, deep lake in the Andes on the border of Peru and Bolivia.

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Lambayeque is a region in northwestern Peru known for its rich Moche and Chimú historical past.

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Peru is a multilingual nation.

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Latin America is a region of the Americas that comprises countries where Romance languages are predominant; primarily Spanish and Portuguese, but also French.

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The Latin American Boom was a flourishing of literature, poetry and criticism in Latin America during the 1960s and 1970s, when writers from this region explored new ideas and came to international renown in a way that had not happened previously.

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The Latin American Wars of Independence were the revolutions that took place during the late 18th and early 19th centuries and resulted in the creation of a number of independent countries in Latin America.

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Latina (formerly Frecuencia Latina) is a Peruvian television network, founded on January 23, 1983.

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The Leticia Incident, also called the Leticia War or the Colombia–Peru War (1 September 1932 – 24 May 1933), was a short-lived armed conflict between the Republic of Colombia and the Republic of Peru over territory in the Amazon Rainforest.

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Leticia is the southernmost city in the Republic of Colombia, capital of the department of Amazonas, Colombia's southernmost town (4.09° south 69.57° west) and one of the major ports on the Amazon river.

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In general, liberalization (or liberalisation) refers to a relaxation of previous government restrictions, usually in such areas of social, political and economic policy.

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Lima is the capital and the largest city of Peru.

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The Lima Metropolitan Area (Área Metropolitana de Lima, also known as Lima Metropolitana), is an area formed by the conurbation of the Peruvian cities of Lima (the nation's capital) and Callao.

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Lima Province is located in the central coast of Peru and is the only province in the country not belonging to any of the twenty-five regions.

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Lima Region, also known as Departamento de Lima, is one of the twenty-five regions of Peru.

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The Nobel Prize in Literature (Swedish: Nobelpriset i litteratur) is awarded annually by the Swedish Academy to authors for outstanding contributions in the field of literature.

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Established in the Constitution of 1993, the President of Peru, officially the President of the Republic (Presidente de la República), is the head of state and head of government of Peru and represents the republic in official international matters.

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This is a list of the countries of South American countries and dependent territories by population, which is sorted by the 2015 mid-year normalized demographic projections.

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Loreto is Peru's northernmost region.

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Machu Picchu (in hispanicized spelling) or Machu Pikchu (Quechua machu old, old person, pikchu peak; mountain or prominence with a broad base which ends in sharp peaks, "old peak", pronunciation) is a 15th-century Inca site located above sea level.

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Madre de Dios is a region in southeastern Peru, bordering Brazil, Bolivia and the Peruvian regions of Puno, Cusco and Ucayali, in the Amazon Basin.

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Launched in 1971, UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) is an Intergovernmental Scientific Programme that aims to establish a scientific basis for the improvement of relationships between people and their environments.

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Manú National Park (Parque Nacional del Manu) is a biosphere reserve located in Madre de Dios and Paucartambo, Cusco.

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The Mantaro River (Río Mantaro, Hatunmayu) is a long river running through the central region of Peru.

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Manuel Arturo Odría Amoretti (November 26, 1896 – February 18, 1974) was the President of Peru from 1948 to 1956, essentially ruling as a military dictator.

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Manuel Carlos Prado y Ugarteche (April 21, 1889 – August 15, 1967) was a Peruvian banker and political figure.

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The Marañón River (Río Marañón) is the principal or mainstem source of the Amazon River, arising about 160 km to the northeast of Lima, Peru, and flowing through a deeply eroded Andean valley in a northwesterly direction, along the eastern base of the Cordillera of the Andes, as far as 5 degrees 36' southern latitude; from where it makes a great bend to the northeast, and cuts through the jungle Andes, until at the Pongo de Manseriche it flows into the flat Amazon basin.

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Marinera is a coastal dance of Peru.

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Jorge Mario Pedro Vargas Llosa, 1st Marquis of Vargas Llosa (born March 28, 1936) is a Peruvian writer, politician, journalist, essayist, college professor, and recipient of the 2010 Nobel Prize in Literature.

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Mestizo (Peninsular Spanish:, Latin American Spanish) is a term traditionally used in Spain and Spanish America to mean a person of combined European and Amerindian descent, or someone who would have been deemed a Castizo (one European parent and one Mestizo parent) regardless if the person was born in Mexico or outside of Latin America.

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Miguel María Grau Seminario (Paita, Peru, 27 July 1834 – Punta Angamos, Bolivia, 8 October 1879) is the most renowned Peruvian naval officer and hero of the Naval Battle of Angamos during the War of the Pacific (1879–1884).

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The military, also called the armed forces, are forces authorized to use deadly force, and weapons, to support the interests of the state and some or all of its citizens.

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The Ministry of Defence of Peru (Ministerio de Defensa del Perú) is the agency of the Peruvian government responsible for safeguarding of national security on land, sea and air.

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Mit'a was mandatory public service in the society of the Inca Empire.

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The Moche civilization (alternatively, the Mochica culture, Early Chimu, Pre-Chimu, Proto-Chimu, etc.) flourished in northern Peru with its capital near present-day Moche and Trujillo, from about 100 AD to 800 AD, during the Regional Development Epoch.

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Moquegua is a small department in southern Peru that extends from the coast to the highlands.

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A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have a similar or equal chance of gaining control of government offices, separately or in coalition government.

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A multinational state is a sovereign state which is viewed as comprising two or more nations.

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The music of Peru is an amalgamation of sounds and styles drawing on Peru's Andean, Spanish, and African roots.

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The Peruvian National Anthem was adopted in 1821.

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The Peruvian National Police (Policía Nacional del Perú, PNP) is the national police force of Peru.

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National Solidarity Party (Spanish: Partido Solidaridad Nacional) is a Peruvian political party.

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In the United States, Native Americans are considered to be people whose pre-Columbian ancestors were indigenous to the lands within the nation's modern boundaries.

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The Nazca culture (also Nasca) was the archaeological culture that flourished from 100 BC to 800 AD beside the dry southern coast of Peru in the river valleys of the Rio Grande de Nazca drainage and the Ica Valley.

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The Neo-Inca State, also known as the Neo-Inca state of Vilcabamba, was the Inca state established by Inca emperor Huayna Capac's son Manco Inca Yupanqui in Vilcabamba in 1537.

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A non-governmental organization (NGO) is an organization that is neither a part of a government nor a conventional for-profit business.

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The Norte Chico civilization (also Caral or Caral-Supe civilization) was a complex pre-Columbian society that included as many as 30 major population centers in what is now the Norte Chico region of north-central coastal Peru.

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An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.

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Ollanta Moisés Humala Tasso (born June 27, 1962) is a Peruvian politician who has been President of Peru since 2011.

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The Organization of American States (Organización de los Estados Americanos, Organização dos Estados Americanos, Organisation des États Américains), or the OAS or OEA, is an inter-continental organization founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and cooperation among its member states.

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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Peru: Peru – country located in western South America, on the Pacific Coast, north of Chile.

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Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui or Pachacutec (in hispanicized spellings) or Pachakutiq Inka Yupanki (Quechua) was the ninth Sapa Inca (1438–1471/1472) of the Kingdom of Cusco which he transformed into the Inca Empire (Tawantinsuyu).

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Pachamama is a goddess revered by the indigenous people of the Andes.

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Pachamanca (from Quechua pacha "earth", manka "pot") is a traditional Peruvian dish based on the baking, with the aid of hot stones (the earthen oven is known as a huatia), of lamb, mutton, pork, chicken or guinea pig, marinated in spices.

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The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth's oceanic divisions.

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Panama (Panamá), officially called the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a country in Central America situated between North and South America.

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The Paquisha War was a brief military clash that took place between January and February 1981 between Ecuador and Peru over the control of three watchposts.

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Paracas ("sand rain" from Quechua: para (rain) and aco (sand)) is the capital of the Paracas District in the Ica Region in Peru.

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The Paracas culture was an Andean society between approximately 800 BCE and 100 BCE, with an extensive knowledge of irrigation and water management and significant contributions in the textile arts.

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Pasco is a region in central Peru.

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Pedrarias Dávila (Pedro Arias de Ávila) y Ortiz de Cota (Segovia, Castile, c. 1468 – León, March 6, 1531, aged 63), was a Spanish colonial administrator.

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Pedro Álvaro Cateriano Bellido (born 26 June 1958) is a Peruvian lawyer and politician, and current Prime Minister of Peru since 2 April 2015.

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Peru Wins (Gana Perú) is a left-wing political party in Peru formed as an alliance for the general election, 2011, dominated by the Peruvian Nationalist Party and led by presidential candidate Ollanta Humala.

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The Peru–Bolivian Confederation (or Confederacy) was a short-lived confederate state that existed in South America between 1836 and 1839.

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The United States–Peru Trade Promotion Agreement (Acuerdo de Promoción Comercial Perú – Estados Unidos o Tratado de Libre Comercio Perú – Estados Unidos) is a bilateral free trade agreement, whose objectives are eliminating obstacles to trade, consolidating access to goods and services and fostering private investment in and between the United States and Peru.

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The Peruvian Air Force (Fuerza Aérea del Perú, FAP) is the branch of the Peruvian Armed Forces tasked with defending the nation and its interests through the use of air power.

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The Peruvian Amazon (Amazonía del Perú) is the area of the Amazon rainforest included within the country of Peru, from east of the Andes to the borders with Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil and Bolivia.

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The Peruvian Army (Ejército del Perú, abbreviated EP) is the branch of the Peruvian Armed Forces tasked with safeguarding the independence, sovereignty and integrity of national territory on land through military force.

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Peruvian art has its origin in the Andean civilizations.

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Peruvian cuisine reflects local practices and ingredients—including influences from the indigenous population including the Inca and cuisines brought in with immigrants from Europe (Spanish cuisine, Italian cuisine, German cuisine), Asia (Chinese cuisine and Japanese cuisine) and West Africa.

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Peruvian dances are primarily of native origin.

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The first round of the 2006 Peruvian national election was held on April 9, 2006 to elect the President of the Republic, two Vice-Presidents, 120 Members of Congress, and five Peruvian members of the Andean Parliament (plus 10 substitutes), for the 2006-2011 period.

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The inti was the currency of Peru between 1985 and 1991.

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The term Peruvian literature not only refers to literature produced in the independent Republic of Peru, but also to literature produced in the Viceroyalty of Peru during the country's colonial period, and to oral artistic forms created by diverse ethnic groups that existed in the area during the prehispanic period, such as the Quechua, the Aymara and the Chanka indigenous groups.

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The Peruvian Navy (Marina de Guerra del Perú, abbreviated MGP) is the branch of the Peruvian Armed Forces tasked with surveillance, patrol and defense on lakes, rivers and the Pacific Ocean up to from the Peruvian littoral.

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The Nuevo Sol ((new sun) plural: Nuevos Soles; currency sign: S/.) is the currency of Peru.

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The sol was the currency of Peru between 1863 and 1985.

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The Peruvian War of Independence was a series of military conflicts beginning in 1811 that culminated in the proclamation of the independence of Peru by José de San Martín on July 28, 1821.

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Peruvians of European descent, also known as White Peruvians, according to international reliable references, currently make up about 20% of the total population of Peru—about 12,860,000 people.

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The Philippines (Pilipinas), officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean.

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Pisco is a city located in the Ica Region of Peru, the capital of the Pisco Province.

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Piura is a city in northwestern Peru.

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Piura is a coastal region in northwestern Peru.

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Political corruption is the use of powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain.

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The politics of the Republic of Peru takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Peru is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system.

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Populism is a doctrine that appeals to the interests and conceptions (such as hopes and fears) of the general population, especially when contrasting any new collective consciousness push against the prevailing status quo interests of any predominant political sector.

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Portugal was the leading country in the European exploration of the world in the 15th century.

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Potosí is a city and the capital of the department of Potosí in Bolivia.

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The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.

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A presidential system is a system of government where a head of government is also head of state and leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.

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Price controls are governmental restrictions on the prices that can be charged for goods and services in a market.

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The primary sector of the economy is the sector of an economy making direct use of natural resources.

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The President of the Council of Ministers of Peru, informally called "Premier" (form of address) or "Prime Minister", heads the Council of Ministers, and is appointed by the President (pending ratification by Congress as with all members of the Council), however the Prime minister is not the head of government since Peru has a presidential system of government where the president serves as both head of state and head of government.

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Protectionism is the economic policy of restraining trade between states (countries) through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, and a variety of other government regulations designed to allow (according to proponents) fair competition between imports and goods and services produced domestically.

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Protestantism is a form of Christian faith and practice which originated with the Protestant Reformation, a movement against what its followers considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church.

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Puno is a region in southeastern Peru.

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The Putumayo River (Río Putumayo, Río Içá) is one of the tributaries of the Amazon River, west of and parallel to the Japurá River.

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Quechuas (also Runakuna, Kichwas, and Ingas) is the collective term for several indigenous ethnic groups in South America who speak a Quechua language (Southern Quechua mainly), belonging to several ethnic groups in South America, especially in Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia and Argentina.

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Quechuan, also known as runa simi ("people's language"), is a Native American language family spoken primarily in the Andes region of South America, derived from a common ancestral language.

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The quena (hispanicized spelling of Quechua qina, sometimes also written kena in English) is the traditional flute of the Andes.

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Qurikancha (Quechua quri gold, kancha enclosure, enclosed place, yard, a frame, or wall that encloses, hispanicized spelling Coricancha), originally named Inti Kancha (Quechua inti sun) or Inti Wasi (Quechua for "sun house"),, A Homage to the Mystical, Magical, most Famous and Oldest City of the American Continent was the most important temple in the Inca Empire, dedicated primarily to Inti, the Sun God.

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Ramón Castilla y Marquesado (31 August 1797 – 25 May 1867) was a Peruvian caudillo and President of Peru two times.

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In cultural anthropology, reciprocity refers to the non-market exchange of goods or labour ranging from direct barter (immediate exchange) to forms of gift exchange where a return is eventually expected (delayed exchange) as in the exchange of birthday gifts.

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In cultural anthropology and sociology, redistribution refers to a system of economic exchange involving the centralized collection of goods from members of a group followed by the redivision of those goods among those members.

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Redistribution of income and redistribution of wealth are respectively the transfer of income and of wealth (including physical property) from some individuals to others by means of a social mechanism such as taxation, monetary policies, welfare, land reform, charity, confiscation, divorce or tort law.

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The regions (regiones) of Peru are the first-level administrative subdivisions of Peru.

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Representative democracy (also indirect democracy or psephocracy) is a variety of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.

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A republic (from res publica) is a form of government or country in which power resides in elected individuals representing the citizen body and government leaders exercise power according to the rule of law.

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Manuel Ricardo Palma Soriano (February 7, 1833 – October 6, 1919) was a Peruvian author, scholar, librarian and politician.

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Ricardo Pío Pérez Godoy (9 June 1905 – 26 July 1982) was a general of the Peruvian army who launched a coup d'état in July 1962 and headed a military junta until March 1963.

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The Protocol of Peace, Friendship, and Boundaries between Peru and Ecuador, or Rio Protocol for short, was an international agreement signed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on January 29, 1942, by the foreign ministers of Peru and Ecuador, with the participation of the United States, Brazil, Chile, and Argentina as guarantors.

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Romanticism (also the Romantic era or the Romantic period) was an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.

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The royalists were the Latin American and European supporters of the various governing bodies of the Spanish Monarchy, during the Spanish American wars of independence, which lasted from 1808 until the king's death in 1833.

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San Isidro (Lima 27) is a district of the Lima Province in Peru, and one of the upscale districts that comprise the city of Lima.

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San Martín is a region in northern Peru.

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Sanitation is the hygienic means of promoting health through prevention of human contact with the hazards of wastes as well as the treatment and proper disposal of sewage or wastewater.

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The Sapa Inca (in hispanicized spelling) or Sapa Inka (Quechua for "the only Inca"), also known as Apu ("divinity"), Inka Qhapaq ("mighty Inca"), or simply Sapa ("the only one") was the ruler of the Kingdom of Cusco and later, the Emperor of the Inca Empire (Tawantinsuyu) and the Neo-Inca State.

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A seal is a device for making an impression in wax, clay, paper, or some other medium, including an embossment on paper, and is also the impression thus made.

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The secondary sector of the economy includes those economic sectors that produce a finished, usable product: production and construction.

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The Secretary-General of the United Nations (UNSG) is the head of the United Nations Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations.

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A self-coup (or autocoup) is a form of putsch or coup d'état in which a nation's leader, despite having come to power through legal means, dissolves or renders powerless the national legislature and unlawfully assumes extraordinary powers, not granted under normal circumstances.

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Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, primarily from household sewage.

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The Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso), also sometimes known as Communist Party of Peru (Spanish: Partido Comunista del Perú), is a Maoist guerrilla insurgent organization in Peru.

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Simón Bolívar, in full Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar y Palacios (24 July 1783 – 17 December 1830), was a Venezuelan military and political leader who played an instrumental role in the establishment of Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia, Peru and Colombia as personal fiefdoms independent of Spanish rule.

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A solar deity (also sun god or sun goddess) is a sky deity who represents the Sun, or an aspect of it, usually by its perceived power and strength.

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South America is a continent located in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.

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Colonial expansion under the crown of Castile was initiated by the Spanish conquistadores and developed by the Monarchy of Spain through its administrators and missionaries.

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The Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

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Spanish cuisine is a way of preparing varied dishes, which is enriched by the culinary contributions of the various regions that make up the country.

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The Spanish Empire (Imperio español) was one of the largest empires in world history and one of the first of global extent.

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Spanish (español), also called Castilian, is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native-speakers.

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Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara Desert.

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Syncretism is the combining of different, often contradictory beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.

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Tacna is a city in southern Peru and the regional capital of the Tacna Region.

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Tacna is the largest of four provinces in the Tacna Region in southern Peru located on the border with Chile and Bolivia.

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Tacna is the southernmost region Peru.

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The Tarapacá department was an old territorial division of Peru, which existed between 1878 and 1884.

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The Tarata bombing was a terrorist attack in Lima, Peru, on July 16, 1992, by the Shining Path terrorist group.

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José Gabriel Túpac Amaru (March 19, 1738 – May 18, 1781) — known as Túpac Amaru II — was the leader of an indigenous uprising in 1780 against the Spanish in Peru.

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The Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (Movimiento Revolucionario Túpac Amaru, abbreviated MRTA) was a Peruvian revolutionary movement which started in the early 1980s.

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No description.

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Terms of trade (TOT) refers to the relative price of exports in terms of imports and is defined as the ratio of export prices to import prices.

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In agriculture, a terrace is a piece of sloped plane that has been cut into a series of successively receding flat surfaces or platforms, which resemble steps, for the purposes of more effective farming.

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The tertiary sector of the economy (also known as the service sector or the service industry) is one of the three economic sectors, the others being the secondary sector (approximately the same as manufacturing) and the primary sector (agriculture, fishing, and extraction such as mining).

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The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (the LDS Church or, informally, the Mormon Church) is a Christian restorationist church that is considered by its followers to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ.

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Admiral Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald, Marquess of Maranhão, GCB, ODM (14 December 1775 – 31 October 1860), styled Lord Cochrane between 1778 and 1831, was a British naval flag officer of the Royal Navy and radical politician.

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Thomas Turino is an American ethnomusicologist and author of several popular textbooks in the field: most notably the popular introductory book Music as Social Life: The Politics of Participation.

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Peru Time (PET) is always 5 hours behind Coordinated Universal Time (UTC−05:00).

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The tinya (Quechua)Diccionario Quechua - Español - Quechua, Academía Mayor de la Lengua Quechua, Gobierno Regional Cusco, Cusco 2005 (Quechua-Spanish dictionary) or kirki (Quechua) is a percussion instrument, a small handmade drum of leather which is used in the traditional music of the Andean region, particularly Peru.

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Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco or Tiahuanacu) is a Pre-Columbian archaeological site in western Bolivia, South America.

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Tondero is a dance and guitar rhythm from the Peruvian north coast (Piura–Lambayeque).

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Topa Inca Yupanqui or Túpac Inca Yupanqui ('Tupaq Inka Yupanki'), translated as "noble Inca accountant," was the second Sapa Inca (1471–93) of the Inca Empire, fifth of the Hanan dynasty, and tenth of the Inca civilization.

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Treaty of Lima refers to a number of treaties.

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The Treaty of Tordesillas (Tratado de Tordesilhas, Tratado de Tordesillas), signed at Tordesillas on June 7, 1494, and authenticated at Setúbal, Portugal, divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between Portugal and the Crown of Castile, along a meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands, off the west coast of Africa.

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Trujillo is a city in coastal northwestern Peru and the capital of La Libertad Region.

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Tumbes is a coastal region in northwestern Peru and southwestern Ecuador.

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Ucayali is an inland region in Peru.

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The Ucayali River (Río Ucayali) arises about north of Lake Titicaca, in the Arequipa region of Peru.

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Uncontacted people, also referred to as isolated people or lost tribes, are communities who live, or have lived, either by choice (peoples living in voluntary isolation) or by circumstance, without significant contact with globalized civilization.

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In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.

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The Union of South American Nations, USAN; (Unión de Naciones Suramericanas, UNASUR; União de Nações Sul-Americanas, UNASUL; Unie van Zuid-Amerikaanse Naties, UZAN) is an intergovernmental regional organization comprising 12 South American countries.

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A unitary state is a state governed as one single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (subnational units) exercise only powers that their central government chooses to delegate.

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The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation.

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Upper Peru was the region in the Viceroyalty of Peru, and after 1776, the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, comprising the governorships of Potosí, La Paz, Cochabamba, Chiquitos, Moxos and Charcas (since renamed Sucre).

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The Urubamba River or Willkamayu (Quechua for "sacred river") is a river in Peru.

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Valentín Paniagua Corazao (23 September 1936 – 16 October 2006) was a Peruvian politician and former Interim President of Peru.

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The Viceroyalty of New Granada (Virreinato de la Nueva Granada) was the name given on 27 May 1717, to the jurisdiction of the Spanish Empire in northern South America, corresponding mainly to modern Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela.

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The Viceroyalty of Peru (Virreinato del Perú) was a Spanish colonial administrative district, created in 1542, that originally contained most of Spanish-ruled South America, governed from the capital of Lima.

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The Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata (Virreinato del Río de la Plata) was the last and most short-lived Viceroyalty of the Spanish Empire in the Americas.

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Vilcabamba (in hispanicized spelling), Willkapampa (Aymara and Quechua) or Espíritu Pampa was a city founded by Manco Inca in 1539 and was the capital of the Neo-Inca State, the last refuge of the Inca Empire until it fell to the Spaniards in 1572, signaling the end of Inca resistance to Spanish rule.

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A volunteer military or all-volunteer military is one which derives its manpower from volunteers rather than conscription or mandatory service.

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The War of the Pacific (Guerra del Pacífico) (1879–1883) was fought in western South America, between Chile and allied Bolivia and Peru in a variety of terrain, including the Pacific Ocean, Atacama Desert and Peru's deserts and mountainous regions in the Andes.

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The Wari (Huari) were a Middle Horizon civilization that flourished in the south-central Andes and coastal area of modern-day Peru, from about AD 500 to 1000.

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Water (chemical formula: H2O) is a transparent fluid which forms the world's streams, lakes, oceans and rain, and is the major constituent of the fluids of organisms.

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The Wayback Machine is a digital archive of the World Wide Web and other information on the Internet created by the Internet Archive, a nonprofit organization, based in San Francisco, California.

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White Latin Americans are the people of Latin America who are considered white, typically due to European, or in some cases, Levantine descent.

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The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization which regulates international trade.

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The Zamacueca is an ancient colonial dance and music that originated in the Viceroyalty of Peru, taking its roots from African, Spanish, and Andean rhythms.

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.pe is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Peru and is managed by the Red Científica Peruana (RCP).

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The Asian financial crisis was a period of financial crisis that gripped much of East Asia beginning in July 1997 and raised fears of a worldwide economic meltdown due to financial contagion.

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The 2007 Peru Census was a detailed enumeration of the Peruvian population.

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Redirects here:

El Peru, El Perú, Etymology of Peru, ISO 3166-1:PE, Lower Peru, Name of Peru, Peruano, Peruvia, Peruvian, Peruvian Republic, Perù, Perú, Piruw, Piruw Ripuwlika, Piruw Suyu, Pérou, Péru, Republic of Peru, Republic of Perú, República del Perú.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peru

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