418 relations: Administrative divisions of Peru, Afro-Latin Americans, Afro-Peruvian, Agrarian reform, Aguaruna language, Alan García, Alberto Fujimori, Alejandro Toledo, Alliance for Progress (Peru), Alpamayo, Altiplano, Amazon basin, Amazon rainforest, Amazon River, Amazonas Department, Amazonas Region, American Popular Revolutionary Alliance, Ana Jara, Anchovy, Andean civilizations, Andean Community, Andes, Anticucho, Antonio José de Sucre, Apurímac Region, Architecture of Peru, Arequipa, Arequipa Region, Argentina, Arica Province (Peru), Army of the Andes, Asháninka language, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Asian Latin Americans, Asian Peruvians, Augusto B. Leguía, Ayacucho, Ayacucho Region, Aymara language, Áncash Region, Baroque, Barrios Altos massacre, Bass (fish), Battle of Ayacucho, Battle of Cajamarca, Battle of Carabobo, Battle of Chacabuco, Battle of Junín, Battle of Maipú, Battle of Pichincha, ..., Bay of San Miguel, BBC News, Bernardo O'Higgins, Biodiversity, Biotechnology, Bird, Bogotá, Bolivia, Bora language, Bourbon Reforms, Brazil, Broad Front (Peru), Bromeliaceae, Buenos Aires, Bullion, Cabinet of Peru, Cactus, Cajamarca Region, Cajón, Callao, Camelid, Catholic Church, César Vallejo, César Villanueva, Cenepa War, Ceviche, Chan Chan, Charango, Chavín culture, Chavín de Huantar, Chiclayo, Chile, Chilean–Peruvian maritime dispute, Chimú culture, Chimbote, Christian literature, Christmas, Chronic inflation, Chronicle, Ciro Alegría, Civil and political rights, Civil defense, Civilista Party, Colombia, Commander-in-chief, Common Era, Compulsory education, Compulsory voting, Congress of Panama, Congress of the Republic of Peru, Conquistador, Conscription, Coricancha, Corpus Christi (feast), Costumbrismo, Counter-terrorism, Creole peoples, Criollo people, Crisis in Venezuela (2012–present), Crustacean, Cupisnique, Cusco, Cusco Region, Cusco School, Decentralization, Democracy, Dependency theory, Desert climate, Diablada, Direct election, Drainage basin, Drinking water, Eclecticism in art, Economic interventionism, Ecuador, Ecuadorian–Peruvian War, El Niño–Southern Oscillation, Emerging markets, Encyclopædia Britannica, Endemism, Evangelicalism, Fernando Belaúnde Terry, Firme y feliz por la unión, Flora of Peru, Flounder, Foreign direct investment, Francisco Bolognesi, Francisco de Toledo, Francisco Morales-Bermúdez, Francisco Pizarro, Free Trade Area of the Americas, Freedom House, Freedom in the World, Gonzalo Garland, Great Depression, Gross domestic product, Guano, Guano Era, Guayaquil, Guayaquil Conference, Hard currency, Head of government, Head of state, History of Spain (1810–73), Holy Week, Huaca, Huacho, Huallaga River, Huancavelica, Huancavelica Region, Huancayo, Huascarán, Huayno, Huánuco Region, Huáscar, Human Development Index, Human rights in Peru, Humboldt Current, Iberian Union, Ica Region, Inca Empire, Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, Income distribution, Indigenismo, Indigenous language, Indigenous peoples in Peru, Infection, Inflation, Inquisition, Internal conflict in Peru, International Monetary Fund, Inti, Inti Raymi, Iquitos, Irreligion, Irrigation, Jaguar, Jarava ichu, Javary River, Javier Pérez de Cuéllar, Jehovah's Witnesses, Jews, Joaquín de la Pezuela, 1st Marquess of Viluma, José de la Serna e Hinojosa, José de San Martín, José María Arguedas, Juan Velasco Alvarado, Junín Region, La Cantuta massacre, La Libertad Region, Lake Titicaca, Lambayeque Region, Languages of Peru, Latin America, Latin American Boom, Latin American wars of independence, Latina Televisión, Leticia Incident, Leticia, Amazonas, Liberalization, Lima, Lima Group, Lima metropolitan area, Lima Province, Lima Region, List of countries by intentional homicide rate, List of lakes of Peru, List of metropolitan areas in the Americas, List of Nobel laureates in Literature, List of South American countries by population, Lomas, Loreto Region, Machu Picchu, Madre de Dios Region, Mammal, Man and the Biosphere Programme, Manú National Park, Mantaro River, Manuel A. Odría, Manuel Prado Ugarteche, Marañón River, Marinera, Mario Vargas Llosa, Martín Vizcarra, Megadiverse countries, Mercedes Aráoz, Mestizo, Middle power, Miguel Grau Seminario, Military, Ministry of Defense (Peru), Mit'a, Moche culture, Moquegua Region, Moss, Motion of no confidence, Multi-party system, Multinational state, Music of Peru, National Anthem of Peru, National Police of Peru, Nazca culture, Neo-Inca State, Non-governmental organization, Norte Chico civilization, Official language, Ollanta Humala, Orchidaceae, Organization of American States, Outline of Peru, Pachacuti, Pachamama, Pachamanca, Pacific Alliance, Pacific Ocean, Palgrave Macmillan, Panama, Paquisha War, Paracas (municipality), Paracas culture, Paracas National Reserve, Pasco Region, Pedro Arias Dávila, Pedro Pablo Kuczynski, Periodization of pre-Columbian Peru, Peru–Bolivian Confederation, Peru–United States Trade Promotion Agreement, Peruvian Air Force, Peruvian Amazonia, Peruvian Army, Peruvian art, Peruvian cuisine, Peruvian dances, Peruvian general election, 2006, Peruvian inti, Peruvian literature, Peruvian Navy, Peruvian sol, Peruvian sol (1863–1985), Peruvian Spanish, Peruvian War of Independence, Peruvians for Change, Peruvians of European descent, Philippines, Pisco, Peru, Piura, Piura Region, Poechos Reservoir, Political corruption, Politics of Peru, Popular Action (Peru), Popular Force, Populism, Portuguese colonization of the Americas, Potosí, Pre-Columbian era, President of Peru, Presidential system, Price controls, Primary sector of the economy, Prime Minister of Peru, Protectionism, Protestantism, Puma (genus), Puna grassland, Puno Region, Putumayo River, Puya raimondii, Quechua people, Quechuan languages, Quena, Ramón Castilla, Reciprocity (cultural anthropology), Redistribution (cultural anthropology), Redistribution of income and wealth, Regions of Peru, Representative democracy, Reptile, Republic, Ricardo Palma, Ricardo Pérez Godoy, Rio Protocol, Romanticism, Royalist (Spanish American independence), San Isidro District, Lima, San Martín Region, Sanitation, Sapa Inca, Seal (emblem), Secondary sector of the economy, Secretary-General of the United Nations, Self-coup, Semi-presidential system, Sewage treatment, Shark, Shellfish, Shining Path, Simón Bolívar, Solar deity, South America, Spanish colonization of the Americas, Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire, Spanish cuisine, Spanish Empire, Spanish language, Species, Spectacled bear, Sperm whale, Syncretism, Tacna, Tacna Province, Tacna Region, Tarapacá Department (Peru), Tarata bombing, Túpac Amaru II, Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement, Telephone numbers in Peru, Terms of trade, Terrace (agriculture), Tertiary sector of the economy, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, The Pacific Pumas, Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald, Thomas Turino, Time in Peru, Tinya, Tiwanaku, Tondero, Topa Inca Yupanqui, Toponymy, Trans-Pacific Partnership, Treaty of Lima, Treaty of Tordesillas, Trujillo, Peru, Tumbes Region, Tuna, U.S. News & World Report, Ucayali Region, Ucayali River, Uncontacted peoples, Unicameralism, Union of South American Nations, Unitary state, United Nations, United States, Upper Peru, Urubamba River, Valentín Paniagua, Vice President of Peru, Viceroyalty of New Granada, Viceroyalty of Peru, Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, Vilcabamba, Peru, Volunteer military, War of the Pacific, Wari culture, Water, Water resources management in Peru, Wayback Machine, Whale, White Latin Americans, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Zamacueca, .pe, 1997 Asian financial crisis, 2007 Peru Census, 2017 Peru Census. 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Administrative divisions of Peru
The administrative divisions of Peru have changed from time to time, since the nation gained independence from Spain in the early 19th century.
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Afro-Latin Americans or Black Latin Americans refers to Latin American people of significant African ancestry.
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Afro-Peruvians (also Afro Peruvians) are citizens of Peru descended from Africans who were enslaved and brought to the Western hemisphere with the arrival of the conquistadors towards the end of the slave trade.
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Agrarian reform can refer either, narrowly, to government-initiated or government-backed redistribution of agricultural land (see land reform) or, broadly, to an overall redirection of the agrarian system of the country, which often includes land reform measures.
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Aguaruna is an indigenous American language of the Jivaroan family spoken by about 45,000 Aguaruna people in Peru.
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Alan Gabriel Ludwig García Pérez (born 23 May 1949) is a Peruvian politician who served as President of Peru from 1985 to 1990 and again from 2006 to 2011.
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Alberto Kenya Fujimori Fujimori (born 26 July 1938 or 4 August 1938) is a Peruvian former politician who served as the President of Peru from 28 July 1990 to 22 November 2000.
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Alejandro Celestino Toledo Manrique (born 28 March 1946) is a Peruvian politician who served as the 63rd President of Peru, from 2001 to 2006.
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Alliance for Progress (Peru)
The Alliance for Progress (Spanish: Alianza para el Progreso) is a Peruvian conservative-liberal political party founded on December 8, 2001 in Trujillo by Cesar Acuña Peralta.
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Alpamayo (possibly from Quechua allpa earth, mayu river, "earth river") or Shuyturaju (possibly from Ancash Quechua huytu, shuytu oblong, slim and long, Quechua rahu snow, ice, mountain with snow) is one of the most conspicuous peaks in the Cordillera Blanca of the Peruvian Andes.
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The Altiplano (Spanish for "high plain"), Collao (Quechua and Aymara: Qullaw, meaning "place of the Qulla"), Andean Plateau or Bolivian Plateau, in west-central South America, is the area where the Andes are the widest.
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The Amazon basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries.
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The Amazon rainforest (Portuguese: Floresta Amazônica or Amazônia; Selva Amazónica, Amazonía or usually Amazonia; Forêt amazonienne; Amazoneregenwoud), also known in English as Amazonia or the Amazon Jungle, is a moist broadleaf forest in the Amazon biome that covers most of the Amazon basin of South America.
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The Amazon River (or; Spanish and Amazonas) in South America is the largest river by discharge volume of water in the world, and either the longest or second longest.
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Department of Amazonas (Departamento del Amazonas) is a department of Colombia in the south of the country.
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Amazonas is a region of northern Peru bordered by Ecuador on the north and west, Cajamarca Region on the west, La Libertad Region on the south, and Loreto Region and San Martín Region on the east.
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American Popular Revolutionary Alliance
The American Popular Revolutionary Alliance - Peruvian Aprista Party (Spanish: Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana - Partido Aprista Peruano) is a centre-left Peruvian political party.
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Ethel Ana del Rosario Jara Velásquez (born May 11, 1968) is a Peruvian lawyer and politician who was Prime Minister of Peru from July 2014 until April 2015.
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An anchovy is a small, common forage fish of the family Engraulidae.
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The Andean civilizations were a patchwork of different cultures and peoples that developed from the Andes of Colombia southward down the Andes to northern Argentina and Chile, plus the coastal deserts of Peru and northern Chile.
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The Andean Community (Comunidad Andina, CAN) is a customs union comprising the South American countries of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.
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The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.
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Anticuchos (singular anticucho, Quechua for cut stew meat) are popular and inexpensive meat dishes that originated in the Andes during the pre-Columbian era.
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Antonio José de Sucre
Antonio José de Sucre y Alcalá (1795–1830), known as the "Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho" ("Grand Marshal of Ayacucho"), was a Venezuelan independence leader who served as the fourth President of Peru and the second President of Bolivia.
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Apurímac is a region in southern-central Peru.
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Architecture of Peru
Peruvian architecture is the architecture carried out during any time in what is now Peru, and by Peruvian architects worldwide.
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Arequipa is the capital and largest city of the Arequipa Region and the seat of the Constitutional Court of Peru.
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Arequipa (Ariqipa; Ariqipa) is a region in southwestern Peru.
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Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
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Arica Province (Peru)
The Province of Arica was a historical territorial division of Peru, which existed between 1823 and 1883.
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Army of the Andes
The Army of the Andes (Ejército de los Andes) was a military force created by the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata (Argentina) and mustered by general José de San Martín in his campaign to free Chile from the Spanish Empire.
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Asháninka (sometimes referred to as Campa, although this name is derogatory) is an Arawakan language spoken by the Asháninka people of Peru and Acre, Brazil.
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Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a forum for 21 Pacific Rim member economies.
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Asian Latin Americans
Asian Latin Americans are Latin Americans of East Asian, Southeast Asian or South Asian descent.
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Asian Peruvians, primarily Chinese and Japanese, constitute some 5-7% of Peru's population, which in proportion to the overall population is one of the largest of any Latin American nation.
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Augusto B. Leguía
Augusto Bernardino Leguía y Salcedo (February 19, 1863 – February 7, 1932) was a Peruvian politician who served as the 43rd (1908 - 1912), the 44th and the first year of the 45th (1919 - 1930) President of Peru.
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Ayacucho (Ayacuchu), is the capital city of Huamanga Province, Ayacucho Region, Peru.
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Ayacucho is a region of Peru, located in the south-central Andes of the country.
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Aymara (Aymar aru) is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara people of the Andes.
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Ancash (Anqash) (Áncash) is a region of northern Peru.
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The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
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Barrios Altos massacre
The Barrios Altos massacre took place on 3 November 1991, in the Barrios Altos neighborhood of Lima, Peru.
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Bass is a name shared by many species of fish.
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Battle of Ayacucho
The Battle of Ayacucho (Batalla de Ayacucho) was a decisive military encounter during the Peruvian War of Independence. It was the battle that secured the independence of Peru and ensured independence for the rest of South America. In Peru it is considered the end of the Spanish American wars of independence, although the campaign of the victor Antonio José de Sucre, continued through 1825 in Upper Peru and the siege of the fortresses Chiloé and Callao finally ended in 1826. As of late 1824, Royalists still had control of most of the south of Peru as well as of Real Felipe Fort in the port of Callao. On 9 December 1824, the Battle of Ayacucho (Battle of La Quinua) took place at Pampa de Ayacucho (or Quinua), a few kilometers away from Ayacucho, near the town of Quinua between Royalist and Independentist forces. Independentist forces were led by Simón Bolívar's lieutenant Sucre. Viceroy José de la Serna was wounded, and after the battle second commander-in-chief José de Canterac signed the final capitulation of the Royalist army. The modern Peruvian Army celebrates the anniversary of this battle.
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Battle of Cajamarca
The 'Battle' of Cajamarca was the unexpected ambush and seizure of the Inca ruler Atahualpa by a small Spanish force led by Francisco Pizarro, on November 16, 1532.
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Battle of Carabobo
The Battle of Carabobo, on 24 June 1821, was fought between independence fighters, led by Venezuelan General Simón Bolívar, and the Royalist forces, led by Spanish Field Marshal Miguel de la Torre.
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Battle of Chacabuco
The Battle of Chacabuco, fought during the Chilean War of Independence, occurred on February 12, 1817.
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Battle of Junín
The Battle of Junín was a military engagement of the Peruvian War of Independence, fought in the highlands of the Junín Region on August 6, 1824.
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Battle of Maipú
The Battle of Maipú (Batalla de Maipú) was a battle fought near Santiago, Chile on April 5, 1818 between South American rebels and Spanish royalists, during the Chilean War of Independence.
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Battle of Pichincha
The Battle of Pichincha took place on 24 May 1822, on the slopes of the Pichincha volcano, 3,500 meters above sea-level, right next to the city of Quito, in modern Ecuador.
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Bay of San Miguel
The Bay of San Miguel is a bay of the Gulf of Panama, located on the Pacific coast of Darién Province in eastern Panama.
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BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
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Bernardo O'Higgins Riquelme (1778–1842) was a Chilean independence leader who freed Chile from Spanish rule in the Chilean War of Independence.
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Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
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Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).
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Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
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Bogotá, officially Bogotá, Distrito Capital, abbreviated Bogotá, D.C., and formerly known as Santafé de Bogotá between 1991 and 2000, is the capital and largest city of Colombia, administered as the Capital District, although often thought of as part of Cundinamarca.
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Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
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Bora is an indigenous language of South America spoken in the western region of Amazon rainforest.
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The Bourbon Reforms (Castilian: Reformas Borbónicas) were a set of economic and political legislation promulgated by the Spanish Crown under various kings of the House of Bourbon, mainly in the 18th century.
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Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
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Broad Front (Peru)
Broad Front (Frente Amplio), officially registered as The Broad Front for Justice, Life and Liberty (El Frente Amplio por Justicia, Vida y Libertad), ("general data"), Observatorio para la Gobernabilidad (in Spanish) is a political coalition of leftist parties and movements in Peru.
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The Bromeliaceae (the bromeliads) are a family of monocot flowering plants of 51 genera and around 3475 known species native mainly to the tropical Americas, with a few species found in the American subtropics and one in tropical west Africa, Pitcairnia feliciana.
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Buenos Aires is the capital and most populous city of Argentina.
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Bullion is gold, silver, or other precious metals in the form of bars or ingots.
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Cabinet of Peru
The Cabinet of Peru (also called the Presidential Cabinet of Peru or the Council of Ministers) is made up of all the Ministers of State.
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A cactus (plural: cacti, cactuses, or cactus) is a member of the plant family Cactaceae,Although the spellings of botanical families have been largely standardized, there is little agreement among botanists as to how these names are to be pronounced.
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Cajamarca (Kashamarka; Qajamarka) is a region in Peru.
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A cajón ("box", "crate" or "drawer") is a box-shaped percussion instrument originally from Peru, played by slapping the front or rear faces (generally thin plywood) with the hands, fingers, or sometimes various implements such as brushes, mallets, or sticks.
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El Callao is a city in Peru.
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Camelids are members of the biological family Camelidae, the only currently living family in the suborder Tylopoda.
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The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
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César Abraham Vallejo Mendoza (March 16, 1892 – April 15, 1938) was a Peruvian poet, writer, playwright, and journalist.
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César Villanueva Arévalo (born August 5, 1946) is a Peruvian politician who has been the Prime Minister of Peru since April 2018, and previously served as Prime Minister from 2013 to 2014.
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The Cenepa War (January 26 – February 28, 1995), also known as the Alto Cenepa War, was a brief and localized military conflict between Ecuador and Peru, fought over control of an area in Peruvian territory (i.e. in the eastern side of the Cordillera del Cóndor, Province of Condorcanqui, Región Amazonas, Republic of Perú) near the border between the two countries (see map shown in the infobox).
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Ceviche, also cebiche, seviche or sebiche, is a seafood dish popular in the Pacific coastal regions of Latin America.
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Chan Chan, the largest city of the pre-Columbian era in South America, is now an archaeological site in La Libertad Region west of Trujillo, Peru.
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The charango is a small Andean stringed instrument of the lute family, which probably originated in the Quechua and Aymara populations in post-Colombian times, after European stringed instruments were introduced by the Spanish during colonialization.
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The Chavín culture is an extinct, prehistoric civilization, named for Chavín de Huantar, the principal archaeological site at which its artifacts have been found.
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Chavín de Huantar
Chavín de Huántar is an archaeological site in Peru, containing ruins and artifacts constructed beginning at least by 1200 BC and occupied by later cultures until around 400-500 BC by the Chavín, a major pre-Inca culture.
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Chiclayo is the principal city of the Lambayeque region in northern Peru.
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Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
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Chilean–Peruvian maritime dispute
Peru v Chile (also called the Chilean–Peruvian maritime dispute) is a public international law case concerning a territorial dispute between the South American republics of Peru and Chile over the sovereignty of an area at sea in the Pacific Ocean approximately in size.
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The Chimú culture was centered on Chimor with the capital city of Chan Chan, a large adobe city in the Moche Valley of present-day Trujillo, Peru.
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Chimbote is the largest city in the Ancash Region of Peru, and the capital of both Santa Province and Chimbote District.
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Christian literature is writing that deals with Christian themes and incorporates the Christian world view.
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Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
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Chronic inflation is an economic phenomenon occurring when a country experiences high inflation for a prolonged period of time (several years or decades) due to undue expansion or increase of the money supply.
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A chronicle (chronica, from Greek χρονικά, from χρόνος, chronos, "time") is a historical account of facts and events ranged in chronological order, as in a time line.
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Ciro Alegría Bazán (November 4, 1909 – February 17, 1967) was a Peruvian journalist, politician, and novelist.
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Civil and political rights
Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.
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Civil defense or civil protection is an effort to protect the citizens of a state (generally non-combatants) from military attacks and natural disasters.
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The Civilista Party (Partido Civil, PC) was a political party in Peru.
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Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
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A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
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Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
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Compulsory education refers to a period of education that is required of all people and is imposed by government.
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Compulsory voting refers to laws which require eligible citizens to register and vote in national and/or local elections.
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Congress of Panama
The Congress of Panama (often referred to as the Amphictyonic Congress, in homage to the Amphictyonic League of Ancient Greece) was a congress organized by Simón Bolívar in 1826 with the goal of bringing together the new republics of Latin America to develop a unified policy towards Spain.
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Congress of the Republic of Peru
The Congress of the Republic of Peru (Congreso de la República) is the unicameral body that assumes legislative power in Peru.
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Conquistadors (from Spanish or Portuguese conquistadores "conquerors") is a term used to refer to the soldiers and explorers of the Spanish Empire or the Portuguese Empire in a general sense.
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Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
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Coricancha, Koricancha, Qoricancha or Qorikancha (from Quechua quri gold; kancha enclosure) was the most important temple in the Inca Empire.
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Corpus Christi (feast)
The Feast of Corpus Christi (Latin for "Body of Christ") is a Catholic liturgical solemnity celebrating the real presence of the body and blood of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, in the Eucharist—known as transubstantiation.
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Costumbrismo (sometimes anglicized as Costumbrism) is the literary or pictorial interpretation of local everyday life, mannerisms, and customs, primarily in the Hispanic scene, and particularly in the 19th century.
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Counter-terrorism (also spelled counterterrorism) incorporates the practice, military tactics, techniques, and strategy that government, military, law enforcement, business, and intelligence agencies use to combat or prevent terrorism.
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Creole peoples (and its cognates in other languages such as crioulo, criollo, creolo, créole, kriolu, criol, kreyol, kreol, kriol, krio, kriyoyo, etc.) are ethnic groups which originated from creolisation, linguistic, cultural and racial mixing between colonial-era emigrants from Europe with non-European peoples, climates and cuisines.
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The Criollo is a term which, in modern times, has diverse meanings, but is most commonly associated with Latin Americans who are of full or near full Spanish descent, distinguishing them from both multi-racial Latin Americans and Latin Americans of post-colonial (and not necessarily Spanish) European immigrant origin.
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Crisis in Venezuela (2012–present)
The crisis in Venezuela is the socioeconomic and political crisis that Venezuela has been experiencing since 2012 under the presidency of Hugo Chávez and which has continued into the current presidency of Nicolás Maduro.
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Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.
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Cupisnique was a pre-Columbian culture which flourished from ca.
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Cusco (Cuzco,; Qusqu or Qosqo), often spelled Cuzco, is a city in southeastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley of the Andes mountain range.
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Cusco, also spelled Cuzco (Qusqu suyu), is a region in Peru.
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The Cusco School (Escuela Cuzqueña) or Cuzco School, was a Roman Catholic artistic tradition based in Cusco, Peru (the former capital of the Inca Empire) during the Colonial period, in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries.
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Decentralization is the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding planning and decision-making, are distributed or delegated away from a central, authoritative location or group.
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Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
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Dependency theory is the notion that resources flow from a "periphery" of poor and underdeveloped states to a "core" of wealthy states, enriching the latter at the expense of the former.
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The Desert climate (in the Köppen climate classification BWh and BWk, sometimes also BWn), also known as an arid climate, is a climate in which precipitation is too low to sustain any vegetation at all, or at most a very scanty shrub, and does not meet the criteria to be classified as a polar climate.
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The Diablada or Danza de los Diablos (Dance of the Demons), is an original and typical dance from the region of Oruro in Bolivia.
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Direct election is a system of choosing political officeholders in which the voters directly cast ballots for the person, persons, or political party that they desire to see elected.
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A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.
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Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation.
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Eclecticism in art
Eclecticism is a kind of mixed style in the fine arts: "the borrowing of a variety of styles from different sources and combining them".
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Economic interventionism (sometimes state interventionism) is an economic policy perspective favoring government intervention in the market process to correct the market failures and promote the general welfare of the people.
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Ecuador (Ikwadur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Ikwadur Ripuwlika), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
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The Ecuadorian–Peruvian War, known locally as the War of '41 (Guerra del 41), was a South American border war fought between 5–31 July 1941.
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El Niño–Southern Oscillation
El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an irregularly periodic variation in winds and sea surface temperatures over the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean, affecting climate of much of the tropics and subtropics.
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An emerging market is a country that has some characteristics of a developed market, but does not meet standards to be a developed market.
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The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
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Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
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Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.
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Fernando Belaúnde Terry
Fernando Belaúnde Terry (October 7, 1912 – June 4, 2002) was a Peruvian politician who served as the 57th and 60th President of Peru (1963–1968 and 1980–1985).
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Firme y feliz por la unión
Firm and Happy for the Union (Spanish:Firme y feliz por la unión) is a motto mentioned on Peruvian currency.
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Flora of Peru
The flora of Peru is very diverse.
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Flounders are a group of flatfish species.
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Foreign direct investment
A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.
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Francisco Bolognesi Cervantes (1816-1880) was a Peruvian military hero.
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Francisco de Toledo
Francisco Álvarez de Toledo (10 July 1515 – 21 April 1582) was an aristocrat and soldier of the Kingdom of Spain and the fifth Viceroy of Peru.
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Francisco Morales-Bermúdez Cerruti (born October 4, 1921) is a Peruvian general served as the President of Peru (2nd President of the Revolutionary Government of the Armed Forces) (1975–1980), after deposing his predecessor, General Juan Velasco.
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Francisco Pizarro González (– 26 June 1541) was a Spanish conquistador who led an expedition that conquered the Inca Empire.
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Free Trade Area of the Americas
The Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA; Área de Libre Comercio de las Américas, ALCA; Zone de libre-échange des Amériques, ZLÉA; Área de Livre Comércio das Américas, ALCA; Vrijhandelszone van Amerika) was a proposed agreement to eliminate or reduce the trade barriers among all countries in the Americas, excluding Cuba.
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Freedom House is a U.S.-based 501(c)(3) U.S. government-funded non-governmental organization (NGO) that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom, and human rights.
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Freedom in the World
Freedom in the World is a yearly survey and report by the U.S.-based non-governmental organization Freedom House that measures the degree of civil liberties and political rights in every nation and significant related and disputed territories around the world.
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Gonzalo Garland (born April 17, 1959 in Lima, Peru) is a professor of Economics, and the vice-president of External Relations at IE Business School and an international consultant in emerging economies.
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The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
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Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
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Guano (from Quechua wanu via Spanish) is the accumulated excrement of seabirds and bats.
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The Guano Era refers to a period of stability and prosperity in Peru during the mid-19th century.
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Guayaquil, officially Santiago de Guayaquil (St.), is the largest and the most populous city in Ecuador, with around 2 million people in the metropolitan area, as well as the nation's main port.
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The Guayaquil Conference (Conferencia de Guayaquil) was a meeting that took place on July 26, 1822, in Guayaquil, Ecuador, between José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar, to discuss the future of Perú (and South America in general).
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Hard currency, safe-haven currency or strong currency is any globally traded currency that serves as a reliable and stable store of value.
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Head of government
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
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Head of state
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
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History of Spain (1810–73)
Spain in the 19th century was a country in turmoil.
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Holy Week (Latin: Hebdomas Sancta or Hebdomas Maior, "Greater Week"; Greek: Ἁγία καὶ Μεγάλη Ἑβδομάς, Hagia kai Megale Hebdomas, "Holy and Great Week") in Christianity is the week just before Easter.
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In the Quechuan languages of South America, a huaca or wak'a is an object that represents something revered, typically a monument of some kind.
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Huacho is a city in Peru, capital of the Huaura Province and capital of the Lima Region.
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The Huallaga River is a tributary of the Marañón River, part of the Amazon Basin.
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Huancavelica or Wankawilka in Quechua is a city in Peru.
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Huancavelica is a region in Peru with an area of and a population of 454,797 (2007 census).
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Huancayo (in Wanka Quechua: Wankayuq, '(place) with a (sacred) rock') is the capital of Junín Region, in the central highlands of Peru.
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Huascarán is a mountain in the Peruvian province of Yungay (Ancash Region), situated in the Cordillera Blanca range of the western Andes.
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Huayno (Wayñu in Quechua) is a genre of popular Andean music and dance originally from the Andes highlands.
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Huánuco is a region in central Peru.
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Huáscar Inca (Quechua: Waskar Inka, 1503–1532) was Sapa Inca of the Inca Empire from 1527 to 1532.
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Human Development Index
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
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Human rights in Peru
Within Peru, human rights are protected under the Constitution.
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The Humboldt Current, also called the Peru Current, is a cold, low-salinity ocean current that flows north along the western coast of South America.
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The Iberian Union was the dynastic union of the Crown of Portugal and the Spanish Crown between 1580 and 1640, bringing the entire Iberian Peninsula, as well as Spanish and Portuguese overseas possessions, under the Spanish Habsburg kings Philip II, Philip III and Philip IV of Spain.
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Ica (Ika) is a region (formerly known as a department) in Peru.
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The Inca Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, "The Four Regions"), also known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America, and possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century.
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Inca Garcilaso de la Vega
Garcilaso de la Vega (12 April 1539 – 23 April 1616), born Gómez Suárez de Figueroa and known as El Inca or Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, was a chronicler and writer born in the Spanish Empire's Viceroyalty of Peru.
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In economics, income distribution is how a nation’s total GDP is distributed amongst its population.
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Indigenismo is a political ideology in several Latin American countries emphasizing the relation between the nation state and indigenous nations and indigenous minorities.
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An indigenous language or autochthonous language is a language that is native to a region and spoken by indigenous people, often reduced to the status of a minority language.
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Indigenous peoples in Peru
Indigenous peoples in Peru, or Native Peruvians, comprise a large number of distinct ethnic groups who have inhabited the country of Peru's territory since before the arrival of Europeans around 1500.
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Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
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In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.
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The Inquisition was a group of institutions within the government system of the Catholic Church whose aim was to combat public heresy committed by baptized Christians.
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Internal conflict in Peru
The Peru's internal War on Terror, beginning in 1980, is an ongoing armed conflict between the government of Peru and some terrorist organizations such as the insurgent People's Guerilla Army (Ejército Guerrillero Popular), armed wing of the Communist Party of Peru (known as Shining Path or "PCP-SL") and the Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement which was also involved in the conflict from 1982 to 1997.
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International Monetary Fund
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
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Inti is the ancient Incan sun god.
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The Inti Raymi'rata (Quechua for "sun festival") is a religious ceremony of the Inca Empire in honor of the god Inti (Quechua for "sun"), the most venerated deity in Inca religion.
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Iquitos, also known as Iquitos City, is the capital city of Peru's Maynas Province and Loreto Region.
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Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
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Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.
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The jaguar (Panthera onca) is a wild cat species and the only extant member of the genus Panthera native to the Americas.
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Jarava ichu, commonly known as Peruvian feathergrass, ichhu, paja brava, and paja ichu, is a grass endemic to Guatemala, Mexico, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Venezuela, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, and Argentina, growing extensively in the Andean altiplano.
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The Javary River, Javari River or Yavarí River (Río Yavarí; Rio Javari) is a tributary of the Amazon that forms the boundary between Brazil and Peru for more than.
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Javier Pérez de Cuéllar
Javier Felipe Ricardo Pérez de Cuéllar de la Guerra KCMG (born January 19, 1920) is a Peruvian diplomat who served as the fifth Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1982 to December 31, 1991.
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Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
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Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
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Joaquín de la Pezuela, 1st Marquess of Viluma
Joaquín de la Pezuela y Sánchez, 1st Marquess of Viluma, OIC, LCSF, LH (1761–1830) was a Spanish military officer and viceroy of Peru during the War of Independence.
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José de la Serna e Hinojosa
José de la Serna e Hinojosa, 1st Count of los Andes (José de la Serna e Hinojosa, primer conde de los Andes) (1770 – 1832) was a Spanish general and colonial official.
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José de San Martín
José Francisco de San Martín y Matorras (25 February 1778 – 17 August 1850), known simply as José de San Martín or El Libertador of Argentina, Chile and Peru, was an Argentine general and the prime leader of the southern part of South America's successful struggle for independence from the Spanish Empire who served as the Protector of Peru.
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José María Arguedas
José María Arguedas Altamirano (18 January 1911 – 2 December 1969) was a Peruvian novelist, poet, and anthropologist.
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Juan Velasco Alvarado
Juan Francisco Velasco Alvarado (June 16, 1910 – December 24, 1977) was a left-wing Peruvian General who served as the 58th President of Peru from 1968 to 1975 under the title " President of the Revolutionary Government of the Armed Forces".
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Junín is a region in the central highlands and westernmost Peruvian Amazon.
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La Cantuta massacre
The La Cantuta massacre, in which supposed members of Sendero Luminoso, a university professor and nine students from Lima's La Cantuta University were abducted by a military death squad, took place in Peru on 18 July 1992 during the presidency of Alberto Fujimori.
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La Libertad Region
La Libertad is a region in northwestern Peru.
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Lake Titicaca (Lago Titicaca, Titiqaqa Qucha) is a large, deep lake in the Andes on the border of Bolivia and Peru.
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Lambayeque is a region in northwestern Peru known for its rich Moche and Chimú historical past.
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Languages of Peru
Peru is a multilingual nation.
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Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
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Latin American Boom
The Latin American Boom (Boom Latinoamericano) was a literary movement of the 1960s and 1970s when the work of a group of relatively young Latin American novelists became widely circulated in Europe and throughout the world.
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Latin American wars of independence
The Latin American wars of independence were the revolutions that took place during the late 18th and early 19th centuries and resulted in the creation of a number of independent countries in Latin America.
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Latina (formerly Frecuencia Latina) is a Peruvian television network, founded on January 23, 1983.
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The Leticia Incident, also called the Leticia War or the Colombia–Peru War (1 September 1932 – 24 May 1933), was a short-lived armed conflict between Colombia and Peru over territory in the Amazon rainforest.
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Leticia is the southernmost city in the Republic of Colombia, capital of the department of Amazonas, Colombia's southernmost town (4.09° south 69.57° west) and one of the major ports on the Amazon river.
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Liberalization (or liberalisation) is a general term for any process whereby a state lifts restrictions on some private individual activities.
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Lima (Quechua:, Aymara) is the capital and the largest city of Peru.
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The Lima Group (GL; Grupo de Lima, Grupo de Lima) is a multilateral body that was established following the Lima Declaration on 8 August 2017 in the Peruvian capital of Lima, where representatives of 17 countries met in order to establish a peaceful exit to the crisis in Venezuela.
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Lima metropolitan area
The Lima metropolitan area (Área Metropolitana de Lima, also known as Lima Metropolitana), is an area formed by the conurbation of the Peruvian cities of Lima (the nation's capital) and Callao.
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Lima Province is located in the central coast of Peru and is the only province in the country not belonging to any of the twenty-five regions.
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Lima Region is located in the central coast of the country, its regional seat (capital city) is Huacho.
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List of countries by intentional homicide rate
List of countries by intentional homicide rate per year per 100,000 inhabitants.
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List of lakes of Peru
The following is a list of lakes in Peru.
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List of metropolitan areas in the Americas
This is a list of the fifty most populous metropolitan areas in the Americas as of 2015, the most recent year for which official census results, estimates or projections are available for every major metropolitan area in the Americas.
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List of Nobel laureates in Literature
The Nobel Prize in Literature (Swedish: Nobelpriset i litteratur) is awarded annually by the Swedish Academy to authors for outstanding contributions in the field of literature.
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List of South American countries by population
This is a list of the countries of South American countries and dependent territories by population, which is sorted by the 2015 mid-year normalized demographic projections.
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Lomas (Spanish for "hills"), also called fog oases and mist oases, are areas of fog-watered vegetation in the coastal desert of Peru and northern Chile.
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Loreto is Peru's northernmost region.
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Machu Picchu (or,, Machu Pikchu) is a 15th-century Inca citadel situated on a mountain ridge above sea level.
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Madre de Dios Region
Madre de Dios is a region in southeastern Peru, bordering Brazil, Bolivia and the Peruvian regions of Puno, Cusco and Ucayali, in the Amazon Basin.
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Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
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Man and the Biosphere Programme
Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) is an intergovernmental scientific programme, launched in 1971 by UNESCO, that aims to establish a scientific basis for the improvement of relationships between people and their environments.
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Manú National Park
Manu National Park (Parque Nacional del Manu) is a national park and biosphere reserve located in the regions of Madre de Dios and Cusco.
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The Mantaro River (Río Mantaro, Hatunmayu) is a long river running through the central region of Peru.
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Manuel A. Odría
Manuel Arturo Odría Amoretti (26 November 1896 – 18 February 1974) was a military officer who served as the 34th President of Peru, essentially ruling as a military dictator.
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Manuel Prado Ugarteche
Manuel Carlos Prado y Ugarteche (April 21, 1889 – August 15, 1967) was a banker who served twice as President of Peru.
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The Marañón River (Río Marañón) is the principal or mainstem source of the Amazon River, arising about 160 km to the northeast of Lima, Peru, and flowing through a deeply eroded Andean valley in a northwesterly direction, along the eastern base of the Cordillera of the Andes, as far as 5° 36′ southern latitude; from where it makes a great bend to the northeast, and cuts through the jungle Andes, until at the Pongo de Manseriche it flows into the flat Amazon basin.
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Marinera is a coastal dance of Peru.
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Mario Vargas Llosa
Jorge Mario Pedro Vargas Llosa, 1st Marquess of Vargas Llosa (born March 28, 1936), more commonly known as Mario Vargas Llosa, is a Peruvian writer, politician, journalist, essayist and college professor.
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Martín Alberto Vizcarra Cornejo (born 22 March 1963) is a Peruvian engineer and politician who is the 67th and current President of Peru.
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The term megadiverse country refers to any one of a group of nations that harbour the majority of Earth's species and high numbers of endemic species.
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Mercedes Rosalba Aráoz Fernández (born 5 August 1961 in Lima) is a Peruvian economist, professor, politician, the current First Vice President of Peru since March 23, 2018, as well as Prime Minister, from September 17, 2017 to April 2, 2018.
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Mestizo is a term traditionally used in Spain, Latin America, and the Philippines that originally referred a person of combined European and Native American descent, regardless of where the person was born.
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In international relations, a middle power is a sovereign state that is not a superpower nor a great power, but still has large or moderate influence and international recognition.
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Miguel Grau Seminario
Miguel María Grau Seminario (Paita, Peru, 27 July 1834 – Punta Angamos, Bolivia, 8 October 1879) is the most renowned Peruvian naval officer and hero of the Naval Battle of Angamos during the War of the Pacific (1879–1884).
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A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
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Ministry of Defense (Peru)
The Ministry of Defense of Peru (Ministerio de Defensa del Perú) is the agency of the Peruvian government responsible for safeguarding of national security on land, sea and air.
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Mit'a was mandatory public service in the society of the Inca Empire.
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The Moche civilization (alternatively, the Mochica culture or the Early, Pre- or Proto-Chimú) flourished in northern Peru with its capital near present-day Moche, Trujillo, Peru from about 100 to 700 AD during the Regional Development Epoch.
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Moquegua is a department in southern Peru that extends from the coast to the highlands.
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Mosses are small flowerless plants that typically grow in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.
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Motion of no confidence
A motion of no confidence (alternatively vote of no confidence, no-confidence motion, or (unsuccessful) confidence motion) is a statement or vote which states that a person(s) in a position of responsibility (government, managerial, etc.) is no longer deemed fit to hold that position, perhaps because they are inadequate in some respect, are failing to carry out obligations, or are making decisions that other members feel are detrimental.
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A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coalition.
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A multinational state is a sovereign state that comprises two or more nations.
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Music of Peru
The music of Peru is an amalgamation of sounds and styles drawing on Peru's Andean, Spanish, and African roots.
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National Anthem of Peru
The "Himno Nacional del Perú" (National Anthem of Peru; also known as "Marcha Nacional del Perú", or National March of Peru) is the national anthem of the Republic of Peru.
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National Police of Peru
The Peruvian National Police (Policía Nacional del Perú, PNP) is the national police force of Peru.
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The Nazca culture (also Nasca) was the archaeological culture that flourished from beside the arid, southern coast of Peru in the river valleys of the Rio Grande de Nazca drainage and the Ica Valley.
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The Neo-Inca State, also known as the Neo-Inca state of Vilcabamba, was the Inca state established by Inca emperor Huayna Capac's son Manco Inca Yupanqui in Vilcabamba in 1537.
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Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.
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Norte Chico civilization
The Norte Chico civilization (also Caral or Caral-Supe civilization)The name is disputed.
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An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
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Ollanta Moisés Humala Tasso (born 27 June 1962) is a Peruvian politician who served as the 65th President of Peru from 2011 to 2016.
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The Orchidaceae are a diverse and widespread family of flowering plants, with blooms that are often colourful and fragrant, commonly known as the orchid family.
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Organization of American States
The Organization of American States (Organización de los Estados Americanos, Organização dos Estados Americanos, Organisation des États américains), or the OAS or OEA, is a continental organization that was founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and cooperation among its member states.
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Outline of Peru
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Peru: Peru – country located in western South America, on the Pacific Coast, north of Chile.
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Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui or Pachakutiq Inka Yupanki (Quechua) was the ninth Sapa Inca (1418–1471/1472) of the Kingdom of Cusco which he transformed into the Inca Empire (Tawantinsuyu).
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Pachamama is a goddess revered by the indigenous people of the Andes.
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Pachamanca (from Quechua pacha "earth", manka "pot") is a traditional Peruvian dish based on the baking, with the aid of hot stones (the earthen oven is known as a huatia), of lamb, mutton, pork, chicken or guinea pig, marinated in spices.
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The Pacific Alliance (Alianza del Pacífico) is a Latin American trade bloc, formed by — Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru, which all border the Pacific Ocean.
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The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
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Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.
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Panama (Panamá), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south.
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The Paquisha War was a brief military clash that took place between January and February 1981 between Ecuador and Peru over the control of three watchposts.
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Paracas ("sand rain" from Quechua: para (rain) and aco (sand)) is the capital of the Paracas District in the Ica Region in Peru.
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The Paracas culture was an Andean society existing between approximately 800 BCE and 100 BCE, with an extensive knowledge of irrigation and water management and that made significant contributions in the textile arts.
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Paracas National Reserve
The Paracas National Reserve is located in Ica, Peru and consists of the Paracas Peninsula, coastal areas and tropical desert extending to the south slightly past Punta Caimán, a total of (are marine waters, and are part of the mainland).
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Pasco is a region in central Peru.
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Pedro Arias Dávila
Pedro Arias de Ávila (c. 1440 - March 6, 1531) (often Pedrarias Dávila) was a Spanish soldier and colonial administrator.
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Pedro Pablo Kuczynski
Pedro Pablo Kuczynski Godard (born 3 October 1938), better known simply as PPK, is a Peruvian economist, politician and public administrator who served as the 66th President of Peru.
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Periodization of pre-Columbian Peru
This is a chart of cultural periods of Peru and the Andean Region developed by Edward Lanning and used by some archaeologists studying the area.
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The Peru–Bolivian Confederation was a short-lived state that existed in South America between 1836 and 1839.
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Peru–United States Trade Promotion Agreement
The United States–Peru Trade Promotion Agreement (Acuerdo de Promoción Comercial Perú – Estados Unidos o Tratado de Libre Comercio Perú – Estados Unidos) is a bilateral free trade agreement, whose objectives are eliminating obstacles to trade, consolidating access to goods and services and fostering private investment in and between the United States and Peru.
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Peruvian Air Force
The Peruvian Air Force (Fuerza Aérea del Perú, FAP) is the branch of the Peruvian Armed Forces tasked with defending the nation and its interests through the use of air power.
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The Peruvian Amazonia (Amazonía del Perú) is the area of the Amazon rainforest included within the country of Peru, from east of the Andes to the borders with Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil and Bolivia.
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The Peruvian Army (Ejército del Perú, abbreviated EP) is the branch of the Peruvian Armed Forces tasked with safeguarding the independence, sovereignty and integrity of national territory on land through military force.
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Peruvian art has its origin in the Andean civilizations.
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Peruvian cuisine reflects local practices and ingredients—including influences from the indigenous population including the Inca and cuisines brought in with immigrants from Europe (Spanish cuisine, Italian cuisine, German cuisine), Asia (Chinese cuisine and Japanese cuisine) and West Africa.
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Peruvian dances are primarily of native origin.
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Peruvian general election, 2006
The first round of the 2006 Peruvian national election was held on April 9, 2006 to elect the President of the Republic, two Vice-Presidents, 120 Members of Congress, and five Peruvian members of the Andean Parliament (plus 10 substitutes), for the 2006-2011 period.
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The inti was the currency of Peru between 1985 and 1991.
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The term Peruvian literature not only refers to literature produced in the independent Republic of Peru, but also to literature produced in the Viceroyalty of Peru during the country's colonial period, and to oral artistic forms created by diverse ethnic groups that existed in the area during the prehispanic period, such as the Quechua, the Aymara and the Chanka South American native groups.
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The Peruvian Navy (Marina de Guerra del Perú, abbreviated MGP, literally "Peruvian War Navy") is the branch of the Peruvian Armed Forces tasked with surveillance, patrol and defense on lakes, rivers and the Pacific Ocean up to from the Peruvian littoral.
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The sol (plural: soles; currency sign: S/) is the currency of Peru; it is subdivided into 100 céntimos ("cents").
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Peruvian sol (1863–1985)
The sol was the currency of Peru between 1863 and 1985.
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Peruvian Spanish is a family of dialects of the Spanish language that have been spoken in Peru since 1532.
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Peruvian War of Independence
The Peruvian War of Independence was composed of a series of military conflicts in Peru beginning with viceroy Abascal military reconquest in 1811 in the battle of Guaqui, going with the definitive defeat of the Spanish Army in 1824 in the battle of Ayacucho, and culminated in 1826, with the Siege of Callao.
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Peruvians for Change
Peruvians for Change (Peruanos Por el Kambio, PPK) is a centre-right party in Peru.
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Peruvians of European descent
Peruvians of European descent, also known as White Peruvians, according to international reliable sources, make up about 19.5% of the total population of Peru.
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The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
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Pisco is a small city located in the Ica Region of Peru, the capital of the Pisco Province.
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Piura is a city in northwestern Peru.
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Piura is a coastal region in northwestern Peru.
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Poechos Reservoir is a middle-sized reservoir on Peru's Chira River in the border area between Peru and Ecuador.
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Political corruption is the use of powers by government officials or their network contacts for illegitimate private gain.
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Politics of Peru
The politics of the Republic of Peru takes place in a framework of a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Peru is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system.
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Popular Action (Peru)
The Popular Action (Acción Popular, AP) is a political party in Peru.
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Popular Force (Fuerza Popular, FP), until 2012 called Force 2011 (Fuerza 2011), is a right-wing populist Fujimorist political party in Peru.
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In politics, populism refers to a range of approaches which emphasise the role of "the people" and often juxtapose this group against "the elite".
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Portuguese colonization of the Americas
Portugal was the leading country in the European exploration of the world in the 15th century.
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Potosí is a capital city and a municipality of the department of Potosí in Bolivia.
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The Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.
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President of Peru
The President of the Republic of Peru (Presidente de la República del Perú) is the head of state and head of government of Peru and represents the republic in official international matters.
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A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.
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Price controls are governmental restrictions on the prices that can be charged for goods and services in a market.
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Primary sector of the economy
An industry involved in the extraction and collection of natural resources, such as copper and timber, as well as by activities such as farming and fishing.
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Prime Minister of Peru
The President of the Council of Ministers of Peru, informally called "Premier" (form of address) or "Prime Minister", heads the Council of Ministers, and is appointed by the President (pending ratification by Congress as with all members of the Council).
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Protectionism is the economic policy of restricting imports from other countries through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, import quotas, and a variety of other government regulations.
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Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
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Puma is a genus in the Felidae that contains the cougar (also known as the puma, among other names), and may also include several poorly known Old World fossil representatives (for example, Puma pardoides, or Owen's panther, a large, cougar-like cat of Eurasia's Pliocene).
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The Puna grassland ecoregion, of the montane grasslands and shrublands biome, is found in the central Andes Mountains of South America.
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Puno is a region in southeastern Peru.
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The Putumayo River or Içá River (Río Putumayo, Río Içá) is one of the tributaries of the Amazon River, west of and parallel to the Japurá River.
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Puya raimondii, also known as queen of the Andes (English), titanka (Quechua) or puya de Raimondi (Spanish), is the largest species of bromeliad.
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The Quechua people are the indigenous peoples of South America who speak any of the Quechua languages.
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Quechua, usually called Runasimi ("people's language") in Quechuan languages, is an indigenous language family spoken by the Quechua peoples, primarily living in the Andes and highlands of South America.
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The quena (hispanicized spelling of Quechua qina, sometimes also written kena in English) is the traditional flute of the Andes.
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Ramón Castilla y Marquesado (31 August 1797 – 30 May 1867) was a Peruvian caudillo who served as President of Peru three times as well as the Interim President of Peru (Revolution Self-proclaimed President) in 1863.
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Reciprocity (cultural anthropology)
In cultural anthropology, reciprocity refers to the non-market exchange of goods or labour ranging from direct barter (immediate exchange) to forms of gift exchange where a return is eventually expected (delayed exchange) as in the exchange of birthday gifts.
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Redistribution (cultural anthropology)
In cultural anthropology and sociology, redistribution refers to a system of economic exchange involving the centralized collection of goods from members of a group followed by the redivision of those goods among those members.
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Redistribution of income and wealth
Redistribution of income and redistribution of wealth are respectively the transfer of income and of wealth (including physical property) from some individuals to others by means of a social mechanism such as taxation, charity, welfare, public services, land reform, monetary policies, confiscation, divorce or tort law.
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Regions of Peru
The regions (regiones) of Peru are the first-level administrative subdivisions of Peru.
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Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
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Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
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A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
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Manuel Ricardo Palma Soriano (February 7, 1833 – October 6, 1919) was a Peruvian author, scholar, librarian and politician.
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Ricardo Pérez Godoy
Ricardo Pío Pérez Godoy (9 June 1905 – 26 July 1982) was a general of the Peruvian army who launched a coup d'état in July 1962, headed a military junta until March 1963 and served as the 55th President of Peru (1st President of the Military Junta).
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The Protocol of Peace, Friendship, and Boundaries between Peru and Ecuador, or Rio Protocol for short, was an international agreement signed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on January 29, 1942, by the foreign ministers of Peru and Ecuador, with the participation of the United States, Brazil, Chile, and Argentina as guarantors.
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Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
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Royalist (Spanish American independence)
The royalists were the Latin American and European supporters of the various governing bodies of the Spanish Monarchy, during the Spanish American wars of independence, which lasted from 1808 until the king's death in 1833.
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San Isidro District, Lima
San Isidro (Lima 27) is a district of the Lima Province in Peru, and one of the upscale districts that comprise the city of Lima.
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San Martín Region
San Martín is a department in northern Peru.
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Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage.
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The Sapa Inca (Hispanicized spelling) or Sapa Inka (Quechua for "the only Inca"), also known as Apu ("divinity"), Inka Qhapaq ("mighty Inca"), or simply Sapa ("the only one"), was the ruler of the Kingdom of Cusco and, later, the Emperor of the Inca Empire (Tawantinsuyu) and the Neo-Inca State.
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A seal is a device for making an impression in wax, clay, paper, or some other medium, including an embossment on paper, and is also the impression thus made.
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Secondary sector of the economy
The secondary sector of the economy includes industries that produce a finished, usable product or are involved in construction.
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Secretary-General of the United Nations
The Secretary-General of the United Nations (UNSG or just SG) is the head of the United Nations Secretariat, one of the six principal organs of the United Nations.
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A self-coup (or autocoup, from the Spanish autogolpe) is a form of putsch or coup d'état in which a nation's leader, despite having come to power through legal means, dissolves or renders powerless the national legislature and unlawfully assumes extraordinary powers not granted under normal circumstances.
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A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible for the legislature of a state.
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Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, primarily from household sewage.
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Sharks are a group of elasmobranch fish characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton, five to seven gill slits on the sides of the head, and pectoral fins that are not fused to the head.
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Shellfish is a food source and fisheries term for exoskeleton-bearing aquatic invertebrates used as food, including various species of molluscs, crustaceans, and echinoderms.
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The Communist Party of Peru - Shining Path (Partido Comunista del Perú - Sendero Luminoso), more commonly known as the Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso), is a Maoist guerrilla group in Peru.
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Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar Palacios Ponte y Blanco (24 July 1783 – 17 December 1830), generally known as Simón Bolívar and also colloquially as El Libertador, was a Venezuelan military and political leader who played a leading role in the establishment of Venezuela, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Panama as sovereign states, independent of Spanish rule.
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A solar deity (also sun god or sun goddess) is a sky deity who represents the Sun, or an aspect of it, usually by its perceived power and strength.
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South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
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Spanish colonization of the Americas
The overseas expansion under the Crown of Castile was initiated under the royal authority and first accomplished by the Spanish conquistadors.
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Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire
The Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
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Spanish cuisine is heavily influenced by regional cuisines and the particular historical processes that shaped culture and society in those territories.
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The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
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Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
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In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
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The spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus), also known as the Andean bear or Andean short-faced bear and locally as jukumari (Aymara), ukumari (Quechua) or ukuku, is the last remaining short-faced bear (subfamily Tremarctinae).
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The sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) or cachalot is the largest of the toothed whales and the largest toothed predator.
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Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.
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Tacna is a city in southern Peru and the regional capital of the Tacna Region.
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Tacna is the largest of four provinces in the Tacna Region in southern Peru located on the border with Chile and Bolivia.
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Tacna is the southernmost region Peru.
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Tarapacá Department (Peru)
The Tarapacá Department was an old territorial division of Peru, which existed between 1878 and 1884.
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The Tarata bombing was a terrorist attack in Lima, Peru, on July 16, 1992, by the Shining Path terrorist group.
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Túpac Amaru II
José Gabriel Túpac Amaru (March 10, 1738 – May 18, 1781) — known as Túpac Amaru II — was the leader of a large Andean uprising against the Spanish in Peru, where its quelling resulted in his death.
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Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement
The Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (Movimiento Revolucionario Túpac Amaru, abbreviated MRTA) was a Peruvian radical group which started in the early 1980s.
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Telephone numbers in Peru
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Terms of trade
The terms of trade (TOT) is the relative price of imports in terms of exports and is defined as the ratio of export prices to import prices.
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In agriculture, a terrace is a piece of sloped plane that has been cut into a series of successively receding flat surfaces or platforms, which resemble steps, for the purposes of more effective farming.
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Tertiary sector of the economy
The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory.
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The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), often informally known as the Mormon Church, is a nontrinitarian, Christian restorationist church that is considered by its members to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ.
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The Pacific Pumas
The Pacific Pumas are a political and economic grouping of countries along Latin America’s Pacific coast that includes Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru.
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Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald
Admiral Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald, Marquess of Maranhão, GCB, ODM, OSC (14 December 1775 – 31 October 1860), styled Lord Cochrane between 1778 and 1831, was a British naval flag officer of the Royal Navy, mercenary and radical politician.
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Thomas Turino (born December 12, 1951) is an American ethnomusicologist and author of several popular textbooks in the field: most notably the popular introductory book Music as Social Life: The Politics of Participation.
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Time in Peru
Peru Time (PET) is always 5 hours behind Coordinated Universal Time (UTC−05:00).
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The tinya (Quechua)Diccionario Quechua - Español - Quechua, Academía Mayor de la Lengua Quechua, Gobierno Regional Cusco, Cusco 2005 (Quechua-Spanish dictionary) or kirki (Quechua) is a percussion instrument, a small handmade drum of leather which is used in the traditional music of the Andean region, particularly Peru.
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Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco or Tiahuanacu) is a Pre-Columbian archaeological site in western Bolivia.
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Tondero is a dance and guitar rhythm from Peru that developed in the country's northern coastal region (Piura–Lambayeque).
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Topa Inca Yupanqui
Topa Inca Yupanqui or Túpac Inca Yupanqui ('Tupaq Inka Yupanki'), translated as "noble Inca accountant," was the eleventh Sapa Inca (1471–93) of the Inca Empire, fifth of the Hanan dynasty, and tenth of the Inca civilization.
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Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.
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The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) is a trade agreement between Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, Vietnam, and United States signed on 4 February 2016, which was not ratified as required and did not take effect.
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Treaty of Lima
Treaty of Lima refers to a number of treaties.
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Treaty of Tordesillas
The Treaty of Tordesillas (Tratado de Tordesilhas, Tratado de Tordesillas), signed at Tordesillas on June 7, 1494, and authenticated at Setúbal, Portugal, divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between the Portuguese Empire and the Crown of Castile, along a meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands, off the west coast of Africa.
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Tumbes is a coastal region in northwestern Peru and southwestern Ecuador.
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A tuna is a saltwater fish that belongs to the tribe Thunnini, a sub-grouping of the mackerel family (Scombridae).
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U.S. News & World Report
U.S. News & World Report is an American media company that publishes news, opinion, consumer advice, rankings, and analysis.
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Ucayali is an inland region in Peru.
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The Ucayali River (Río Ucayali) arises about north of Lake Titicaca, in the Arequipa region of Peru.
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Uncontacted people, also referred to as isolated people or lost tribes, are communities who live, or have lived, either by choice (people living in voluntary isolation) or by circumstance, without significant contact with modern civilization.
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In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
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Union of South American Nations
The Union of South American Nations (USAN; Unión de Naciones Suramericanas, UNASUR; União de Nações Sul-Americanas, UNASUL; Unie van Zuid-Amerikaanse Naties, UZAN; and sometimes referred to as the South American Union) is an intergovernmental regional organization comprising twelve South American countries.
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A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
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The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
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The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
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This article is about a historical region now in Bolivia.
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The Urubamba River or Vilcamayo River (possibly from Quechua Willkamayu, for "sacred river") is a river in Peru.
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Valentín Paniagua Corazao (23 September 1936 – 16 October 2006) was a Peruvian politician who served as Interim President of Peru.
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Vice President of Peru
The Republic of Peru has two Vice Presidents who are elected along with the President in democratic elections.
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Viceroyalty of New Granada
The Viceroyalty of New Granada (Virreinato de la Nueva Granada) was the name given on 27 May 1717, to the jurisdiction of the Spanish Empire in northern South America, corresponding to modern Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela.
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Viceroyalty of Peru
The Viceroyalty of Peru (Virreinato del Perú) was a Spanish colonial administrative district, created in 1542, that originally contained most of Spanish-ruled South America, governed from the capital of Lima.
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Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata
The Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata (Virreinato del Río de la Plata, also called Viceroyalty of the River Plate in some scholarly writings) was the last to be organized and also the shortest-lived of the Viceroyalties of the Spanish Empire in America.
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Vilcabamba (in hispanicized spelling), Willkapampa (Aymara and Quechua) or Espíritu Pampa was a city founded by Manco Inca in 1539 that served as the capital of the Neo-Inca State, the last refuge of the Inca Empire until it fell to the Spaniards in 1572, signaling the end of Inca resistance to Spanish rule.
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A volunteer military or all-volunteer military is one which derives its manpower from volunteers rather than conscription or mandatory service.
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War of the Pacific
The War of the Pacific (Guerra del Pacífico), also known as the Salpeter War (Guerra del Salitre) and by multiple other names (see the etymology section below) was a war between Chile on one side and a Bolivian-Peruvian alliance on the other.
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The Wari (Huari) were a Middle Horizon civilization that flourished in the south-central Andes and coastal area of modern-day Peru, from about AD 500 to 1000.
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Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
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Water resources management in Peru
While Peru accounts for about four per cent of the world's annual renewable water resources, over 98% of its water is available east of the Andes, in the Amazon region.
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The Wayback Machine is a digital archive of the World Wide Web and other information on the Internet.
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Whales are a widely distributed and diverse group of fully aquatic placental marine mammals.
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White Latin Americans
White Latin Americans or European Latin Americans are Latin Americans who are considered white, typically due to European, or in some cases Levantine, descent.
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The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
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World Trade Organization
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
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The Zamacueca is an ancient colonial dance and music that originated in the Viceroyalty of Peru, taking its roots from African, Spanish, and Andean rhythms.
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.pe is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Peru and is managed by the Red Científica Peruana (RCP).
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1997 Asian financial crisis
The Asian financial crisis was a period of financial crisis that gripped much of East Asia beginning in July 1997 and raised fears of a worldwide economic meltdown due to financial contagion.
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2007 Peru Census
The 2007 Peru Census was a detailed enumeration of the Peruvian population.
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2017 Peru Census
The 2017 Peru Census was a detailed enumeration of the Peruvian population.
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El Peru, El Perú, Etymology of Peru, ISO 3166-1:PE, Lower Peru, Name of Peru, Peruano, Peruvia, Peruvian Republic, Perù, Perú, Piruw, Piruw Ripuwlika, Piruw Suyu, Pérou, Péru, Republic of Peru, Republic of Perú, República del Perú.