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North Sea

Index North Sea

The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France. [1]

399 relations: Aberdeen, Algae, Alosinae, Amber, American Association of Port Authorities, Ammophila arenaria, Amphidromic point, Amsterdam, Angles, Anglo-Dutch Wars, Antwerp, Archipelago, Ascophyllum, Atlantic jackknife clam, Atlantic Ocean, Atmospheric pressure, Auk, Baltic Sea, Baltic Shield, Batoidea, Battle of Dogger Bank (1915), Battle of Heligoland Bight (1914), Battle of Jutland, Beach nourishment, Bearded seal, Belgium, Bergen, Birdwatching, Borkum, Bremen, Bremerhaven, Brent Crude, Bridlington, British Empire, British Isles, Broad Fourteens, Bycatch, Calais, Caridea, Central Europe, Central Powers, Cetacea, Clam, Cleaver Bank, Climate change, Clockwise, Coastal management, Cod, Common Fisheries Policy, Continental shelf, ..., Convention on the Continental Shelf, Copepod, Cormorant, Costa Head, Crangon crangon, Cretaceous, Crustacean, Cuxhaven, Dagebüll, Den Helder, Denmark, Devil's Hole (North Sea), Dogger Bank, Dogger Bank incident, Dogger Bank Wind Farm, Doggerland, Dolphin, Drainage basin, Dredging, Dundee, Dunkirk, Dunnet Head, Dutch Golden Age, East Anglia, Eday, Ekofisk oil field, Elbe, Emden, Ems (river), End of Roman rule in Britain, Endangered species, English Channel, English language, Esbjerg, Europe, European Atlas of the Seas, European Marine Energy Centre, European Union, Eutrophication, Farne Islands, Faroe Islands, Fathom, Fife, Fish, Fisher Bank, Fishery, Fishing, Fishing industry, Fjord, Flamingo, Floodplain, Food chain, Fossil fuel, Fowlsheugh, France, Fresh water, Frisia, Frisian Islands, Fucus vesiculosus, Gannet, Geest, Germany, Glacier, Glorious Revolution, Grand Fleet, Gravel, Gray whale, Great Britain, Greater Gabbard wind farm, Grimsby, Gull, Habitat, Haddock, Hamburg, Hanseatic League, Hanstholm, Harbor seal, Harbour porpoise, Harlingen, Netherlands, Harp seal, Hartmann Schedel, Harwich, Hermaness, Herring, High Middle Ages, Hirtshals, Holland, Hooded seal, Horns Rev, Horse Holm, Hoy, Humber, Hunstanton, Hvide Sande, Ice sheet, IJssel, IJsselmeer, Imperial German Navy, Inland sea (geology), International Court of Justice, International Hydrographic Organization, Introduced species, Jade Bight, Jurassic, Jutes, Jutland, Kattegat, Katwijk, Kelp, Kelvin wave, Kiel Canal, Kilobyte, King's Lynn, Kingston upon Hull, Lagoon, Land bridge, Land reclamation, Last Glacial Maximum, Latin, Lerwick, Limfjord, Lincolnshire, Lindesnes, Lindisfarne, Links (golf), List of busiest container ports, List of busiest ports by cargo tonnage, List of languages of the North Sea, List of North Sea ports, List of rivers discharging into the North Sea, List of seas, List of the largest islands in the North Sea, Littoral zone, Lobster, London Array, London Bridge, Long Forties, Long-distance trail, Longship, Longshore drift, Loon, Lost city, Mackerel, Maerl, Mainland, Orkney, Mainland, Shetland, Mandal, Norway, Maritime and Coastguard Agency, MARPOL 73/78, Megabyte, Mergini, Metre, Meuse, Migration Period, Minesweeper, Moraine, Muckle Flugga, Mudflat, Mudflat hiking, Mussel, National Academy of Sciences, NATO, Natural gas, Natural gas field, Nature reserve, Nephrops norvegicus, Netherlands, Noordhinder Bank, Nordfriesland (district), North Atlantic right whale, North East England, North Frisian language, North Ronaldsay, North Sea Canal, North Sea Commission, North Sea flood of 1953, North Sea flood of 1962, North Sea Mine Barrage, North Sea Offshore Grid, North Sea oil, North Sea Trail, North Sea Wind Power Hub, North Shields, Northern Europe, Northern fulmar, Northwest Passage, Norway, Norwegian Sea, Norwegian trench, Ocean, Ocean current, Offshore construction, Offshore wind power, Oil & Gas UK, Oil platform, Oil reserves, Oil tanker, Oligocene, Orkney, Oslo, OSPAR Convention, Oude Rijn (Utrecht and South Holland), Overfishing, Oyster, Pacific oyster, Pandalus borealis, Papa Westray, Paratethys, Pelican, Petrel, Petroleum, Petroleum industry, Phillips Petroleum Company, Pinniped, Pipeline transport, Piper Alpha, Pirate radio, Plaice, Plateosaurus, Pollachius virens, Pollution, Porpoise, Port of Felixstowe, Port of Zeebrugge, Ports of Bremen, Ports of the Baltic Sea, Prevailing winds, Quaternary, Quaternary glaciation, Rabbitfish, Rhine, Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta, Richter magnitude scale, Rift, Ringed seal, Ringkøbing Fjord, River Dee, Aberdeenshire, River Don, Aberdeenshire, River Forth, River Great Ouse, River Spey, River Tay, River Tees, River Thames, River Tyne, Robin Hood's Bay, Roll-on/roll-off, Roman conquest of Britain, Rotterdam, Rungholt, Russo-Japanese War, Saint Marcellus' flood, Salinity, Salmon, Sand, Sand eel, Sargassum muticum, Satellite navigation, Saxons, Scandinavia, Scarborough, North Yorkshire, Scheldt, Scotland, Scottish Natural Heritage, Sea, Sea level, Seagrass, Seahouses, Seaton Carew, Seaton Carew Golf Club, Seine, Shetland, Skagen, Skagerrak, Skate (fish), Skegness, Sole (fish), Spit (landform), Sprat, St Andrews, St Margaret's at Cliffe, St. Pauli Piers, Statfjord oil field, Stavanger, Storegga Slide, Storm surge, Strait of Dover, Sturgeon, Submarine warfare, Surface runoff, Sylt, Tectonic uplift, Teesside, TenneT, Tern, Terp, Territorial waters, Tethys Ocean, Thames Estuary, The Fens, The Wash, Thyborøn, Tidal power, Torpedo boat, Trade route, Trawling, Trisopterus luscus, Troll A platform, Troll gas field, Tsunami, United Kingdom, University of Groningen, University of Porto, Unst, Vessel traffic service, Viking Age, Waal (river), Wadden Sea, Wadden Sea National Parks, Walney Wind Farm, Walrus, Watt, Wave Dragon, Wave power, Weser, Westerland, Germany, Western Europe, Westray, Whale, Whitby, Whiting (fish), Wilhelmshaven, William III of England, Wind farm, Wind power, Wind wave, Wrack (seaweed), Yell, Shetland, Ythan Estuary, Zeebrugge, Zeelandic, Zooplankton, Zostera, Zuiderzee, 1580 Dover Straits earthquake, 1755 Lisbon earthquake, 1931 Dogger Bank earthquake, 1973 oil crisis, 61st parallel north. Expand index (349 more) »


Aberdeen (Aiberdeen,; Obar Dheathain; Aberdonia) is Scotland's third most populous city, one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas and the United Kingdom's 37th most populous built-up area, with an official population estimate of 196,670 for the city of Aberdeen and for the local authority area.

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Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.

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The Alosinae, or the shads, ITIS are a subfamily of fishes in the herring family Clupeidae.

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Amber is fossilized tree resin, which has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic times.

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American Association of Port Authorities

The American Association of Port Authorities (AAPA) is a trade association founded in 1912 that represents over 130 port authorities in the Western Hemisphere, including the United States, Canada, the Caribbean, and Latin America.

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Ammophila arenaria

Ammophila arenaria is a species of grass known by the common names European marram grass and European beachgrass.

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Amphidromic point

An amphidromic point is a point of zero amplitude of one harmonic constituent of the tide.

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Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.

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The Angles (Angli) were one of the main Germanic peoples who settled in Great Britain in the post-Roman period.

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Anglo-Dutch Wars

The Anglo-Dutch wars (Engels–Nederlandse Oorlogen or Engelse Zeeoorlogen) were a series of conflicts fought, on one side, by the Dutch States (the Dutch Republic, later the Batavian Republic) and, on the other side, first by England and later by the Kingdom of Great Britain/the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

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Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.

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An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands.

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Ascophyllum nodosum is a large, common brown alga (Phaeophyceae) in the family Fucaceae, being the only species in the genus Ascophyllum.

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Atlantic jackknife clam

The Atlantic jackknife clam, Ensis directus, also known as the bamboo clam, American jackknife clam or razor clam (but note that "razor clam" sometimes refers to different species), is a large species of edible marine bivalve mollusc, found on the North American Atlantic coast, from Canada to South Carolina.

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Atlantic Ocean

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.

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Atmospheric pressure

Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).

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An auk or alcid is a bird of the family Alcidae in the order Charadriiformes.

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Baltic Sea

The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.

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Baltic Shield

The Baltic Shield (or Fennoscandian Shield) is a segment of the Earth's crust belonging to the East European Craton, representing a large part of Fennoscandia, northwestern Russia and the northern Baltic Sea.

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Batoidea is a superorder of cartilaginous fish commonly known as rays.

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Battle of Dogger Bank (1915)

The Battle of Dogger Bank was a naval engagement on 24 January 1915, near the Dogger Bank in the North Sea, during the First World War, between squadrons of the British Grand Fleet and the German High Seas Fleet.

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Battle of Heligoland Bight (1914)

The First Battle of Heligoland Bight was the first naval battle of the First World War, fought on 28 August 1914, between the United Kingdom and Germany.

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Battle of Jutland

The Battle of Jutland (Skagerrakschlacht, the Battle of Skagerrak) was a naval battle fought by the British Royal Navy's Grand Fleet under Admiral Sir John Jellicoe, against the Imperial German Navy's High Seas Fleet under Vice-Admiral Reinhard Scheer during the First World War.

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Beach nourishment

Beach nourishment (also referred to as beach renourishment, beach replenishment, or sand replenishment) describes a process by which sediment, usually sand, lost through longshore drift or erosion is replaced from other sources.

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Bearded seal

The bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus), also called the square flipper seal, is a medium-sized pinniped that is found in and near to the Arctic Ocean.

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Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.

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Bergen, historically Bjørgvin, is a city and municipality in Hordaland on the west coast of Norway.

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Birdwatching, or birding, is a form of wildlife observation in which the observation of birds is a recreational activity or citizen science.

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Borkum is an island and a municipality in the Leer District in Lower Saxony, northwestern Germany.

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The City Municipality of Bremen (Stadtgemeinde Bremen) is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany, which belongs to the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (also called just "Bremen" for short), a federal state of Germany.

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Bremerhaven (literally "Bremen's harbour", Low German: Bremerhoben) is a city at the seaport of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen, a state of the Federal Republic of Germany.

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Brent Crude

Brent Crude is a major trading classification of sweet light crude oil that serves as a major benchmark price for purchases of oil worldwide.

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Bridlington is a coastal town and civil parish on the Holderness Coast of the North Sea, situated in the unitary authority and ceremonial county of the East Riding of Yorkshire approximately north of Hull.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.

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British Isles

The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and over six thousand smaller isles.

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Broad Fourteens

The Broad Fourteens on a map by Delisle (1743) The Broad Fourteens is an area of the southern North Sea that is fairly consistently fourteen fathoms (84 feet/26 metres) deep.

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Bycatch, in the fishing industry, is a fish or other marine species that is caught unintentionally while catching certain target species and target sizes of fish, crabs etc.

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Calais (Calés; Kales) is a city and major ferry port in northern France in the department of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sub-prefecture.

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The Caridea, commonly known as caridean shrimp, are an infraorder of shrimp within the order Decapoda.

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Central Europe

Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.

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Central Powers

The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).

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Cetacea are a widely distributed and diverse clade of aquatic mammals that today consists of the whales, dolphins, and porpoises.

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Clam is a common name for several kinds of bivalve molluscs.

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Cleaver Bank

The Cleaver Bank (Dutch: Klaverbank) is a sandbank in the North Sea about off the west coast of the Netherlands and south of the Dogger Bank.

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Climate change

Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).

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Two-dimensional rotation can occur in two possible directions.

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Coastal management

Coastal management is defence against flooding and erosion, and techniques that stop erosion to claim lands.

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Cod is the common name for the demersal fish genus Gadus, belonging to the family Gadidae.

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Common Fisheries Policy

The Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) is the fisheries policy of the European Union (EU).

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Continental shelf

The continental shelf is an underwater landmass which extends from a continent, resulting in an area of relatively shallow water known as a shelf sea.

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Convention on the Continental Shelf

The Convention on the Continental Shelf was an international treaty created to codify the rules of international law relating to continental shelves.

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Copepods (meaning "oar-feet") are a group of small crustaceans found in the sea and nearly every freshwater habitat.

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Phalacrocoracidae is a family of approximately 40 species of aquatic birds commonly known as cormorants and shags.

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Costa Head

Costa Head is a prominent headland on Eynhallow Sound on the northwestern coast of the Orkney Mainland, Scotland.

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Crangon crangon

Crangon crangon is a commercially important species of caridean shrimp fished mainly in the southern North Sea, although also found in the Irish Sea, Baltic Sea, Mediterranean Sea, and Black Sea, as well as off much of Scandinavia and parts of Morocco's Atlantic coast.

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The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.

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Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.

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Cuxhaven is an independent town and seat of the Cuxhaven district, in Lower Saxony, Germany.

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Dagebüll (Mooring North Frisian: Doogebel; Dagebøl) is a municipality located at the west coast of Schleswig-Holstein in the Nordfriesland district, Germany.

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Den Helder

Den Helder is a municipality and a city in the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland.

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Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.

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Devil's Hole (North Sea)

The Devil's Hole is a group of deep trenches in the North Sea about 200 km (125 mi) east of Dundee, Scotland.

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Dogger Bank

Dogger Bank (Dutch: Doggersbank, German: Doggerbank, Danish: Doggerbanke) is a large sandbank in a shallow area of the North Sea about off the east coast of England.

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Dogger Bank incident

The Dogger Bank incident (also known as the North Sea Incident, the Russian Outrage or the Incident of Hull) occurred on the night of 21/22 October 1904, when the Russian Baltic Fleet mistook a British trawler fleet from Kingston upon Hull in the Dogger Bank area of the North Sea for an Imperial Japanese Navy force and fired on them.

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Dogger Bank Wind Farm

Dogger Bank Wind Farm is a proposed offshore wind farm to be located between 125 to 290 kilometres (78 to 180 mi) off the east coast of Yorkshire, in the North Sea, England.

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Doggerland is the name of a land mass now beneath the southern North Sea that connected Great Britain to continental Europe.

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Dolphins are a widely distributed and diverse group of aquatic mammals.

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Drainage basin

A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.

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Dredging is an excavation activity usually carried out underwater, in harbours, shallow seas or freshwater areas with the purpose of gathering up bottom sediments to deepen or widen the sea bottom / channel.

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Dundee (Dùn Dè) is Scotland's fourth-largest city and the 51st-most-populous built-up area in the United Kingdom.

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Dunkirk (Dunkerque; Duinkerke(n)) is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.

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Dunnet Head

Dunnet Head (Ceann Dùnaid) is a peninsula in Caithness, on the north coast of Scotland.

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Dutch Golden Age

The Dutch Golden Age (Gouden Eeuw) was a period in the history of the Netherlands, roughly spanning the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science, military, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world.

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East Anglia

East Anglia is a geographical area in the East of England.

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Eday is one of the islands of Orkney, which are located to the north of the Scottish mainland.

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Ekofisk oil field

Ekofisk is an oil field in block 2/4 of the Norwegian sector of the North Sea about southwest of Stavanger.

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The Elbe (Elbe; Low German: Elv) is one of the major rivers of Central Europe.

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Emden is an independent city and seaport in Lower Saxony in the northwest of Germany, on the river Ems.

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Ems (river)

The Ems (Ems; Eems) is a river in northwestern Germany.

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End of Roman rule in Britain

The end of Roman rule in Britain was the transition from Roman Britain to post-Roman Britain.

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Endangered species

An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as very likely to become extinct.

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English Channel

The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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Esbjerg is a seaport town and seat of Esbjerg Municipality on the west coast of the Jutland peninsula in southwest Denmark.

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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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European Atlas of the Seas

The European Atlas of the Seas is an interactive electronic atlas on the coasts and seas within and around Europe.

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European Marine Energy Centre

The European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) Ltd is a UKAS accredited test and research centre focusing on wave and tidal power development based in the Orkney Islands, UK.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Eutrophication (from Greek eutrophos, "well-nourished"), or hypertrophication, is when a body of water becomes overly enriched with minerals and nutrients that induce excessive growth of plants and algae.

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Farne Islands

The Farne Islands are a group of islands off the coast of Northumberland, England.

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Faroe Islands

The Faroe Islands (Føroyar; Færøerne), sometimes called the Faeroe Islands, is an archipelago between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic, about halfway between Norway and Iceland, north-northwest of Scotland.

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A fathom is a unit of length in the imperial and the U.S. customary systems equal to, used especially for measuring the depth of water.

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Fife (Fìobha) is a council area and historic county of Scotland.

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Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.

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Fisher Bank

The Fisher Bank is a sand bank in the North Sea, off the west coast of Denmark.

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Generally, a fishery is an entity engaged in raising or harvesting fish which is determined by some authority to be a fishery.

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Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish.

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Fishing industry

The fishing industry includes any industry or activity concerned with taking, culturing, processing, preserving, storing, transporting, marketing or selling fish or fish products.

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Geologically, a fjord or fiord is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by a glacier.

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Flamingos or flamingoes are a type of wading bird in the family Phoenicopteridae, the only bird family in the order Phoenicopteriformes.

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A floodplain or flood plain is an area of land adjacent to a stream or river which stretches from the banks of its channel to the base of the enclosing valley walls, and which experiences flooding during periods of high discharge.

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Food chain

A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the Sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria).

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Fossil fuel

A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.

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Fowlsheugh is a coastal nature reserve in Kincardineshire, northeast Scotland, known for its seventy metre high cliff formations and habitat supporting prolific seabird nesting colonies.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Fresh water

Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.

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Frisia (Fryslân, Dutch and Friesland) is a coastal region along the southeastern corner of the North Sea in what today is mostly a large part of the Netherlands, including modern Friesland, and smaller parts of northern Germany.

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Frisian Islands

The Frisian Islands, also known as the Wadden Islands or the Wadden Sea Islands, form an archipelago at the eastern edge of the North Sea in northwestern Europe, stretching from the northwest of the Netherlands through Germany to the west of Denmark.

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Fucus vesiculosus

Fucus vesiculosus, known by the common name bladder wrack or bladderwrack, is a seaweed found on the coasts of the North Sea, the western Baltic Sea, and the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, also known by the common names black tang, rockweed, bladder fucus, sea oak, black tany, cut weed, dyers fucus, red fucus, and rock wrack.

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Gannets are seabirds comprising the genus Morus, in the family Sulidae, closely related to boobies.

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Geest is a type of landform, slightly raised above the surrounding countryside, that occurs on the plains of Northern Germany, the Northern Netherlands and Denmark.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.

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Glorious Revolution

The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law.

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Grand Fleet

The Grand Fleet was the main fleet of the British Royal Navy during the First World War.

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Gravel is a loose aggregation of rock fragments.

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Gray whale

The gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus), also known as the grey whale,Britannica Micro.: v. IV, p. 693.

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Great Britain

Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.

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Greater Gabbard wind farm

Greater Gabbard is a 504 MW wind farm on sandbanks off the coast of Suffolk in England at a cost of £1.5 billion.

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Grimsby, also known as Great Grimsby, is a large coastal English town and seaport in North East Lincolnshire, of which it is the administrative centre.

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Gulls or seagulls are seabirds of the family Laridae in the suborder Lari.

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In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.

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The haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) is a saltwater fish from the family Gadidae, the true cods, it is the only species in the monotypic genus Melanogrammus.

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Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.

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Hanseatic League

The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.

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Hanstholm is a small town and a former island, now elevated area in Thisted municipality of Region Nordjylland, located in the northern part of Denmark.

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Harbor seal

The harbor (or harbour) seal (Phoca vitulina), also known as the common seal, is a true seal found along temperate and Arctic marine coastlines of the Northern Hemisphere.

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Harbour porpoise

The harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) is one of six species of porpoise.

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Harlingen, Netherlands

Harlingen (West Frisian: Harns) is a municipality and a city in the northern Netherlands, in the province of Friesland on the coast of Wadden Sea.

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Harp seal

The harp seal or saddleback seal, Pagophilus groenlandicus is a species of earless seal, or true seal, native to the northernmost Atlantic Ocean and Arctic Ocean.

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Hartmann Schedel

Hartmann Schedel (13 February 1440 – 28 November 1514) was a German physician, humanist, historian, and one of the first cartographers to use the printing press.

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Harwich is a town in Essex, England and one of the Haven ports, located on the coast with the North Sea to the east.

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Hermaness is the northernmost headland of Unst, the most northernly inhabited island of Shetland, Scotland.

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Herring are forage fish, mostly belonging to the family Clupeidae.

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High Middle Ages

The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period of European history that commenced around 1000 AD and lasted until around 1250 AD.

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Hirtshals is a town and seaport on the coast of Skagerrak on the island of Vendsyssel-Thy at the top of the Jutland peninsula in northern Denmark, Europe.

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Holland is a region and former province on the western coast of the Netherlands.

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Hooded seal

The hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) is a large phocid found only in the central and western North Atlantic, ranging from Svalbard in the east to the Gulf of St. Lawrence in the west.

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Horns Rev

Horns Rev (also known as Horns Reef) is a shallow area (glacial and sea deposits of sand, GEUS News nr 4, 2003. Retrieved March 2010.) in the eastern North Sea, about 15 km / 10 miles off the westernmost point of Denmark, Blåvands Huk.

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Horse Holm

The Horse Holm, referred to on maps as Horse Island, known to locals simply as Da Holm, and used as an alignment point by local fishermen for several fishing marks, lies about 2.3 km west of Sumburgh Head at the south tip of the Mainland, Shetland.

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Hoy (from Norse Háey meaning high island) is an island in Orkney, Scotland measuring — ranked largest in the archipelago after the Mainland.

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The Humber is a large tidal estuary on the east coast of Northern England.

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Hunstanton is a seaside town in Norfolk, England.

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Hvide Sande

Hvide Sande is a small town in the middle of the Holmsland Dunes and placed around the artificial canal which connects Ringkøbing Fjord to the North Sea, in the western part of Central Denmark Region, formerly (until 1 January 2007) Ringkjøbing County, Denmark.

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Ice sheet

An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than, this is also known as continental glacier.

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The river IJssel (Iessel(t)), sometimes called Gelderse IJssel ("Gueldern IJssel") to avoid confusion with the Hollandse IJssel, is the branch of the Rhine in the Dutch provinces of Gelderland and Overijssel.

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The IJsselmeer (West Frisian language: Iselmar), is a closed off inland bay in the central Netherlands bordering the provinces of Flevoland, North Holland and Friesland.

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Imperial German Navy

The Imperial German Navy ("Imperial Navy") was the navy created at the time of the formation of the German Empire.

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Inland sea (geology)

An inland sea (also known as an epeiric sea or an epicontinental sea) is a shallow sea that covers central areas of continents during periods of high sea level that result in marine transgressions.

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International Court of Justice

The International Court of Justice (abbreviated ICJ; commonly referred to as the World Court) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN).

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International Hydrographic Organization

The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is the inter-governmental organisation representing hydrography.

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Introduced species

An introduced species (alien species, exotic species, non-indigenous species, or non-native species) is a species living outside its native distributional range, which has arrived there by human activity, either deliberate or accidental.

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Jade Bight

The Jade Bight (or Jade Bay; Jadebusen) is a bight or bay on the North Sea coast of Germany.

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The Jurassic (from Jura Mountains) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous Period Mya.

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The Jutes, Iuti, or Iutæ were a Germanic people.

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Jutland (Jylland; Jütland), also known as the Cimbric or Cimbrian Peninsula (Cimbricus Chersonesus; Den Kimbriske Halvø; Kimbrische Halbinsel), is a peninsula of Northern Europe that forms the continental portion of Denmark and part of northern Germany.

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The Kattegat (Kattegatt) is a sea area bounded by the Jutlandic peninsula in the west, the Danish straits islands of Denmark to the south and the provinces of Västergötland, Scania, Halland and Bohuslän in Sweden in the east.

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Katwijk is a coastal municipality and town in the province of South Holland, which is situated in the mid-western part of the Netherlands.

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Kelps are large brown algae seaweeds that make up the order Laminariales.

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Kelvin wave

A Kelvin wave is a wave in the ocean or atmosphere that balances the Earth's Coriolis force against a topographic boundary such as a coastline, or a waveguide such as the equator.

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Kiel Canal

The Kiel Canal (Nord-Ostsee-Kanal, literally "North--Baltic Sea canal", formerly known as the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Kanal) is a long freshwater canal in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein.

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The kilobyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.

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King's Lynn

King's Lynn, known until 1537 as Bishop's Lynn, is a seaport and market town in Norfolk, England, about north of London, north-east of Peterborough, north north-east of Cambridge and west of Norwich.

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Kingston upon Hull

Kingston upon Hull, usually abbreviated to Hull, is a city and unitary authority in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England.

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A lagoon is a shallow body of water separated from a larger body of water by barrier islands or reefs.

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Land bridge

A land bridge, in biogeography, is an isthmus or wider land connection between otherwise separate areas, over which animals and plants are able to cross and colonise new lands.

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Land reclamation

Land reclamation, usually known as reclamation, and also known as land fill (not to be confused with a landfill), is the process of creating new land from ocean, riverbeds, or lake beds.

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Last Glacial Maximum

In the Earth's climate history the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was the last time period during the last glacial period when ice sheets were at their greatest extension.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Lerwick (Scottish Gaelic: Liùrabhaig, Norwegian: Leirvik) is the main port of Shetland Islands, Scotland.

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The Limfjord (common Danish: Limfjorden, in north Jutlandish dialect: Æ Limfjord) is a shallow part of the sea, located in Denmark where it is regarded as a fjord ever since the Vikings.

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Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs) is a county in east central England.

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Lindesnes (English: the Naze) is a municipality in Vest-Agder county, Norway.

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The Holy Island of Lindisfarne, also known simply as Holy Island, is a tidal island off the northeast coast of England, which constitutes the civil parish of Holy Island in Northumberland.

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Links (golf)

A links is the oldest style of golf course, first developed in Scotland.

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List of busiest container ports

This is a list of the world's busiest container ports (ports with container terminals that specialize in handling goods transported in shipping containers) by total number of actual twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs) transported through the port.

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List of busiest ports by cargo tonnage

This is a list of the world's busiest seaports by cargo tonnage, the total mass of actual cargo transported through the port.

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List of languages of the North Sea

This is a list of the languages spoken on the shores of the North Sea.

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List of North Sea ports

This is a list of ports of the North Sea and its influent rivers.

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List of rivers discharging into the North Sea

No description.

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List of seas

This is a list of seas - large divisions of the World Ocean, including areas of water variously, gulfs, bights, bays, and straits.

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List of the largest islands in the North Sea

This is a list of the 50 largest islands in the North Sea.

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Littoral zone

The littoral zone is the part of a sea, lake or river that is close to the shore.

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Lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans.

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London Array

The London Array is a 175 turbine 630 MW Round 2 offshore wind farm located 20 km off the Kent coast in the outer Thames Estuary in the United Kingdom.

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London Bridge

Several bridges named London Bridge have spanned the River Thames between the City of London and Southwark, in central London.

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Long Forties

right Long Forties is an area of the northern North Sea that is fairly consistently forty fathoms (240 feet/73 metres) deep.

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Long-distance trail

A long-distance trail (or long-distance track, path, footpath or greenway) is a longer recreational trail mainly through rural areas, used for non-motorized recreational walking, backpacking, cycling, horse riding or cross-country skiing.

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Longships were a type of ship invented and used by the Norsemen (commonly known as the Vikings) for commerce, exploration, and warfare during the Viking Age.

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Longshore drift

Longshore drift is a geological process that consists of the transportation of sediments (clay, silt, sand and shingle) along a coast parallel to the shoreline, which is dependent on oblique incoming wind direction.

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The loons (North America) or divers (Great Britain/Ireland) are a group of aquatic birds found in many parts of North America and northern Eurasia.

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Lost city

A lost city is a settlement that fell into terminal decline and became extensively or completely uninhabited, with the consequence that the site's former significance was no longer known to the wider world.

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Mackerel is a common name applied to a number of different species of pelagic fish, mostly, but not exclusively, from the family Scombridae.

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Maerl (also known as rhodolith) is a collective name for non-geniculate coralline red algae with a certain growth habit.

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Mainland, Orkney

The Mainland is the main island of Orkney, Scotland.

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Mainland, Shetland

The Mainland is the main island of Shetland, Scotland.

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Mandal, Norway

is a municipality in Vest-Agder county, Norway.

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Maritime and Coastguard Agency

The Maritime and Coastguard Agency (MCA) is an executive agency of the United Kingdom working to prevent the loss of lives at sea and is responsible for implementing British and international maritime law and safety policy.

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MARPOL 73/78

The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973 as modified by the Protocol of 1978 (MARPOL 73/78, MARPOL is short for marine pollution and 73/78 short for the years 1973 and 1978) is one of the most important international marine environmental conventions.

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The megabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.

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The seaducks (Mergini) are a tribe of the duck subfamily of birds, the Anatinae.

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The metre (British spelling and BIPM spelling) or meter (American spelling) (from the French unit mètre, from the Greek noun μέτρον, "measure") is the base unit of length in some metric systems, including the International System of Units (SI).

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The Meuse (la Meuse; Walloon: Moûze) or Maas (Maas; Maos or Maas) is a major European river, rising in France and flowing through Belgium and the Netherlands before draining into the North Sea.

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Migration Period

The Migration Period was a period during the decline of the Roman Empire around the 4th to 6th centuries AD in which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.

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A minesweeper is a small naval warship designed to engage in minesweeping.

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A moraine is any glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris (regolith and rock) that occurs in both currently and formerly glaciated regions on Earth (i.e. a past glacial maximum), through geomorphological processes.

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Muckle Flugga

Muckle Flugga is a small rocky island north of Unst in the Shetland Islands, Scotland.

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Mudflats or mud flats, also known as tidal flats, are coastal wetlands that form when mud is deposited by tides or rivers.

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Mudflat hiking

Mudflat hiking (Vadehavsvandring, Wadlopen, West Frisian: Waadrinnen, Wattwandern) is a recreation enjoyed by Dutch, Germans, Danes, and others in the Netherlands, northwest Germany and in Denmark.

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Mussel is the common name used for members of several families of bivalve molluscs, from saltwater and freshwater habitats.

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National Academy of Sciences

The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization.

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The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.

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Natural gas

Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.

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Natural gas field

Natural gas originates by the same geological thermal cracking process that converts kerogen to petroleum.

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Nature reserve

A nature reserve (also called a natural reserve, bioreserve, (natural/nature) preserve, or (national/nature) conserve) is a protected area of importance for wildlife, flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research.

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Nephrops norvegicus

Nephrops norvegicus, known variously as the Norway lobster, Dublin Bay prawn, langoustine (compare langostino) or scampi, is a slim, orange-pink lobster which grows up to long, and is "the most important commercial crustacean in Europe".

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The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.

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Noordhinder Bank

Noordhinder Bank is a shoal in the southern part of the North Sea, between Antwerp and the mouth of the Thames.

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Nordfriesland (district)

Nordfriesland (English: "Northern Friesland" or "North Frisia") is the northernmost district of Germany, part of the state of Schleswig-Holstein.

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North Atlantic right whale

The North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis, which means "good, or true, whale of the ice") is a baleen whale, one of three right whale species belonging to the genus Eubalaena, all of which were formerly classified as a single species.

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North East England

North East England is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes.

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North Frisian language

North Frisian is a minority language of Germany, spoken by about 10,000 people in North Frisia.

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North Ronaldsay

North Ronaldsay is the northernmost island in the Orkney archipelago of Scotland.

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North Sea Canal

The North Sea Canal (Noordzeekanaal) is a Dutch ship canal from Amsterdam to the North Sea at IJmuiden, constructed between 1865 and 1876 to enable seafaring vessels to reach the port of Amsterdam.

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North Sea Commission

The North Sea Commission is an international organization founded in 1989.

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North Sea flood of 1953

The 1953 North Sea flood was a major flood caused by a heavy storm that occurred on the night of Saturday, 31 January 1953 and morning of Sunday, 1 February 1953.

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North Sea flood of 1962

The North Sea flood of 1962 was a natural disaster affecting mainly the coastal regions of Germany and in particular the city of Hamburg in the night from 16 February to 17 February 1962.

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North Sea Mine Barrage

The North Sea Mine Barrage, also known as the Northern Barrage, was a large minefield laid easterly from the Orkney Islands to Norway by the United States Navy (assisted by the Royal Navy) during World War I. The objective was to inhibit the movement of U-boats from bases in Germany to the Atlantic shipping lanes bringing supplies to the British Isles.

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North Sea Offshore Grid

The North Sea Offshore Grid, officially the North Seas Countries Offshore Grid Initiative (NSCOGI), is a collaboration between EU member-states and Norway to create an integrated offshore energy grid which links wind farms and other renewable energy sources across the northern seas of Europe.

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North Sea oil

North Sea oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons, comprising liquid petroleum and natural gas, produced from petroleum reservoirs beneath the North Sea.

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North Sea Trail

The North Sea Trail is an international long-distance path linking seven countries and 26 partner areas in Northern Europe around the North Sea.

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North Sea Wind Power Hub

North Sea Wind Power Hub is a proposed energy island complex to be built in the middle of the North Sea as part of a European system for sustainable electricity.

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North Shields

North Shields is a town on the north bank of the River Tyne in North East England, eight miles (13 km) north-east of Newcastle upon Tyne.

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Northern Europe

Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.

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Northern fulmar

The northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), fulmar, or Arctic fulmar is a highly abundant sea bird found primarily in subarctic regions of the North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans.

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Northwest Passage

The Northwest Passage (abbreviated as NWP) is, from the European and northern Atlantic point of view, the sea route to the Pacific Ocean through the Arctic Ocean, along the northern coast of North America via waterways through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

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Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.

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Norwegian Sea

The Norwegian Sea (Norskehavet) is a marginal sea in the Arctic Ocean, northwest of Norway.

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Norwegian trench

The Norwegian trench or Norwegian channel (Norskerenna; Norskerenden; Norska rännan) is an elongated depression in the sea floor off the southern coast of Norway.

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An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.

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Ocean current

An ocean current is a seasonal directed movement of sea water generated by forces acting upon this mean flow, such as wind, the Coriolis effect, breaking waves, cabbing, temperature and salinity differences, while tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the Sun and Moon.

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Offshore construction

Offshore construction is the installation of structures and facilities in a marine environment, usually for the production and transmission of electricity, oil, gas and other resources.

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Offshore wind power

Offshore wind power or offshore wind energy is the use of wind farms constructed in bodies of water, usually in the ocean on the continental shelf, to harvest wind energy to generate electricity.

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Oil & Gas UK

Oil & Gas UK is the leading trade association for the United Kingdom offshore oil and gas industry.

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Oil platform

An oil platform, offshore platform, or offshore drilling rig is a large structure with facilities for well drilling to explore, extract, store, process petroleum and natural gas which lies in rock formations beneath the seabed.

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Oil reserves

Oil reserves denote the amount of crude oil that can be technically recovered at a cost that is financially feasible at the present price of oil.

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Oil tanker

An oil tanker, also known as a petroleum tanker, is a ship designed for the bulk transport of oil or its products.

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The Oligocene is a geologic epoch of the Paleogene Period and extends from about 33.9 million to 23 million years before the present (to). As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the epoch are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are slightly uncertain.

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Orkney (Orkneyjar), also known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago in the Northern Isles of Scotland, situated off the north coast of Great Britain.

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Oslo (rarely) is the capital and most populous city of Norway.

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OSPAR Convention

The or OSPAR Convention is the current legislative instrument regulating international cooperation on environmental protection in the North-East Atlantic.

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Oude Rijn (Utrecht and South Holland)

The Oude Rijn (Old Rhine) is a branch of the Rhine delta in the Dutch provinces of Utrecht and South Holland.

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Overfishing is the removal of a species of fish from a body of water at a rate that the species cannot replenish in time, resulting in those species either becoming depleted or very underpopulated in that given area.

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Oyster is the common name for a number of different families of salt-water bivalve molluscs that live in marine or brackish habitats.

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Pacific oyster

The Pacific oyster, Japanese oyster, or Miyagi oyster (Magallana gigas) previously and currently also known as Crassostrea gigas, considered by part of the scientific community to be the proper denomination, an accepted alternative in.

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Pandalus borealis

Pandalus borealis is a species of caridean shrimp found in cold parts of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.

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Papa Westray

Papa Westray, also known as Papay, is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland, United Kingdom.

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The Paratethys ocean, Paratethys sea or just Paratethys was a large shallow sea that stretched from the region north of the Alps over Central Europe to the Aral Sea in Central Asia.

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Pelicans are a genus of large water birds that make up the family Pelecanidae.

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Petrels are tube-nosed seabirds in the bird order Procellariiformes.

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Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.

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Petroleum industry

The petroleum industry, also known as the oil industry or the oil patch, includes the global processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transporting (often by oil tankers and pipelines), and marketing of petroleum products.

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Phillips Petroleum Company

Phillips Petroleum Company was an American oil company incorporated in 1917 that expanded into petroleum refining, marketing and transportation, natural gas gathering and the chemicals sectors.

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Pinnipeds, commonly known as seals, are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals.

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Pipeline transport

Pipeline transport is the transportation of goods or material through a pipe.

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Piper Alpha

Piper Alpha was an oil production platform in the North Sea approximately north-east of Aberdeen, Scotland, that was operated by Occidental Petroleum (Caledonia) Limited.

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Pirate radio

Pirate radio or a pirate radio station is a radio station that broadcasts without a valid license.

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Plaice is a common name for a group of flatfish that comprises four species: the European, American, Alaskan and scale-eye plaice.

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Plateosaurus (probably meaning "broad lizard", often mistranslated as "flat lizard") is a genus of plateosaurid dinosaur that lived during the Late Triassic period, around 214 to 204 million years ago, in what is now Central and Northern Europe.

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Pollachius virens

The saithe, (Pollachius virens) is a species of marine fish in the Pollachius genus.

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Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.

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Porpoises are a group of fully aquatic marine mammals that are sometimes referred to as mereswine, all of which are classified under the family Phocoenidae, parvorder Odontoceti (toothed whales).

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Port of Felixstowe

The Port of Felixstowe, in Felixstowe, Suffolk is the United Kingdom's busiest container port, dealing with 42% of Britain's containerised trade.

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Port of Zeebrugge

The Port of Zeebrugge (also referred to as the Port of Bruges-Zeebrugge or Bruges Seaport) is a large container, bulk cargo, new vehicles and passenger ferry terminal port in the municipality of Bruges, Flanders, Belgium, handling over 50 million tonnes of cargo annually.

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Ports of Bremen

The Ports of Bremen, Bremen Ports or Bremish Ports, in German "Bremische Häfen" consist of the commercial ports in Bremen and Bremerhaven.

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Ports of the Baltic Sea

There are over 200 ports in the Baltic Sea.

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Prevailing winds

Prevailing winds are winds that blow predominantly from a single general direction over a particular point on the Earth's surface.

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Quaternary is the current and most recent of the three periods of the Cenozoic Era in the geologic time scale of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS).

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Quaternary glaciation

The Quaternary glaciation, also known as the Quaternary Ice Age or Pleistocene glaciation, is a series of glacial events separated by interglacial events during the Quaternary period from 2.58 Ma (million years ago) to present.

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Rabbitfishes or spinefoots are perciform fishes in the family Siganidae.

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--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.

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Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta

The Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta or Helinium is a river delta in the Netherlands formed by the confluence of the Rhine, the Meuse and the Scheldt rivers.

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Richter magnitude scale

The so-called Richter magnitude scale – more accurately, Richter's magnitude scale, or just Richter magnitude – for measuring the strength ("size") of earthquakes refers to the original "magnitude scale" developed by Charles F. Richter and presented in his landmark 1935 paper, and later revised and renamed the Local magnitude scale, denoted as "ML" or "ML".

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In geology, a rift is a linear zone where the lithosphere is being pulled apart and is an example of extensional tectonics.

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Ringed seal

The ringed seal (Pusa hispida or Phoca hispida), also known as the jar seal and as netsik or nattiq by the Inuit, is an earless seal (family: Phocidae) inhabiting the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions.

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Ringkøbing Fjord

Ringkøbing Fjord, despite its name, is in fact a shallow lagoon on the westcoast of Jutland.

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River Dee, Aberdeenshire

The River Dee (Uisge Dhè) is a river in Aberdeenshire, Scotland.

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River Don, Aberdeenshire

The River Don (Deathan) is a river in north-east Scotland.

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River Forth

The River Forth is a major river, long, whose drainage basin covers much of Stirlingshire in Scotland's Central Belt.

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River Great Ouse

The River Great Ouse is a river in the United Kingdom, the longest of several British rivers called "Ouse".

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River Spey

The River Spey (Scottish Gaelic: Uisge Spè) is a river in the northeast of Scotland.

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River Tay

The River Tay (Tatha) is the longest river in Scotland and the seventh-longest in the United Kingdom.

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River Tees

The River Tees is in northern England.

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River Thames

The River Thames is a river that flows through southern England, most notably through London.

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River Tyne

The River Tyne is a river in North East England and its length (excluding tributaries) is.

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Robin Hood's Bay

Robin Hood’s Bay is a small fishing village and a bay located within the North York Moors National Park, five miles south of Whitby and 15 miles north of Scarborough on the coast of North Yorkshire, England.

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Roll-on/roll-off (RORO or ro-ro) ships are vessels designed to carry wheeled cargo, such as cars, trucks, semi-trailer trucks, trailers, and railroad cars, that are driven on and off the ship on their own wheels or using a platform vehicle, such as a self-propelled modular transporter.

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Roman conquest of Britain

The Roman conquest of Britain was a gradual process, beginning effectively in AD 43 under Emperor Claudius, whose general Aulus Plautius served as first governor of Roman Britain (Britannia).

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Rotterdam is a city in the Netherlands, in South Holland within the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt river delta at the North Sea.

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Rungholt was a settlement in Nordfriesland, in what was then the Danish Duchy of Schleswig.

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Russo-Japanese War

The Russo–Japanese War (Russko-yaponskaya voina; Nichirosensō; 1904–05) was fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea.

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Saint Marcellus' flood

Saint Marcellus' flood or Grote Mandrenke (Low Saxon:; "Great Drowning of Men") was a massive southwesterly Atlantic gale (also known as a European windstorm) which swept across the British Isles, the Netherlands, northern Germany, and Denmark (including Schleswig/Southern Jutland) around 16 January 1362, causing at minimum 25,000 deaths.

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Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity).

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Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae.

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Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.

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Sand eel

Sand eel or sandeel is the common name used for a considerable number of species of fish.

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Sargassum muticum

Sargassum muticum, commonly known as Japanese wireweed, is a large brown seaweed of the genus Sargassum.

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Satellite navigation

A satellite navigation or satnav system is a system that uses satellites to provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning.

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The Saxons (Saxones, Sachsen, Seaxe, Sahson, Sassen, Saksen) were a Germanic people whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, Saxonia) near the North Sea coast of what is now Germany.

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Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.

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Scarborough, North Yorkshire

Scarborough is a town on the North Sea coast of North Yorkshire, England.

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The Scheldt (l'Escaut, Escô, Schelde) is a long river in northern France, western Belgium and the southwestern part of the Netherlands.

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Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.

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Scottish Natural Heritage

Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH; Dualchas Nàdair na h-Alba) is the Scottish public body responsible for the country's natural heritage, especially its natural, genetic and scenic diversity.

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A sea is a large body of salt water that is surrounded in whole or in part by land.

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Sea level

Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.

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Seagrasses are flowering plants (angiosperms) belonging to four families (Posidoniaceae, Zosteraceae, Hydrocharitaceae and Cymodoceaceae), all in the order Alismatales (in the class of monocotyledons), which grow in marine, fully saline environments.

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Seahouses is a large village on the North Northumberland coast in England.

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Seaton Carew

Seaton Carew is a small seaside resort in the town of Hartlepool, North East England, with a population of 6,018(2017).

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Seaton Carew Golf Club

Seaton Carew has held golf games since 1874, making it the tenth oldest golf club in England.

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The Seine (La Seine) is a river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France.

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Shetland (Old Norse: Hjaltland), also called the Shetland Islands, is a subarctic archipelago of Scotland that lies northeast of Great Britain.

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Skagen is Denmark's northernmost town and the area surrounding it.

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The Skagerrak is a strait running between the southeast coast of Norway, the southwest coast of Sweden, and the Jutland peninsula of Denmark, connecting the North Sea and the Kattegat sea area, which leads to the Baltic Sea.

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Skate (fish)

Skates are cartilaginous fish belonging to the family Rajidae in the superorder Batoidea of rays.

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Skegness is a seaside town and civil parish in the East Lindsey district of Lincolnshire, England, on the Lincolnshire coast of the North Sea, east of Lincoln.

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Sole (fish)

Sole is a fish belonging to several families.

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Spit (landform)

A spit or sandspit is a deposition bar or beach landform off coasts or lake shores.

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A sprat is the common name applied to a group of forage fish belonging to the genus Sprattus in the family Clupeidae.

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St Andrews

St Andrews (S.; Saunt Aundraes; Cill Rìmhinn) is a town on the east coast of Fife in Scotland, 10 miles (16 km) southeast of Dundee and 30 miles (50 km) northeast of Edinburgh.

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St Margaret's at Cliffe


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St. Pauli Piers

The St.

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Statfjord oil field

The Statfjord oil field is an enormous oil and gas field covering 580 km2 in the U.K.-Norwegian boundary of the North Sea at a water depth of 145 m, discovered in 1974 by Mobil and since 1987 operated by Statoil.

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Stavanger is a city and municipality in Norway.

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Storegga Slide

The three Storegga Slides are considered to be amongst the largest known landslides.

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Storm surge

A storm surge, storm flood or storm tide is a coastal flood or tsunami-like phenomenon of rising water commonly associated with low pressure weather systems (such as tropical cyclones and strong extratropical cyclones), the severity of which is affected by the shallowness and orientation of the water body relative to storm path, as well as the timing of tides.

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Strait of Dover

The Strait of Dover or Dover Strait, historically known as the Dover Narrows (pas de Calais - Strait of Calais); Nauw van Kales or Straat van Dover), is the strait at the narrowest part of the English Channel, marking the boundary between the Channel and North Sea, separating Great Britain from continental Europe. The shortest distance across the strait,, is from the South Foreland, northeast of Dover in the English county of Kent, to Cap Gris Nez, a cape near to Calais in the French département of Pas-de-Calais. Between these points lies the most popular route for cross-channel swimmers. The entire strait is within the territorial waters of France and the United Kingdom, but a right of transit passage under the UNCLOS exists allowing unrestricted shipping. On a clear day, it is possible to see the opposite coastline of England from France and vice versa with the naked eye, with the most famous and obvious sight being the white cliffs of Dover from the French coastline and shoreline buildings on both coastlines, as well as lights on either coastline at night, as in Matthew Arnold's poem "Dover Beach".

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Sturgeon is the common name for the 27 species of fish belonging to the family Acipenseridae.

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Submarine warfare

Submarine warfare is one of the four divisions of underwater warfare, the others being anti-submarine warfare, mine warfare and mine countermeasures.

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Surface runoff

Surface runoff (also known as overland flow) is the flow of water that occurs when excess stormwater, meltwater, or other sources flows over the Earth's surface.

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Sylt (Sild; Söl'ring North Frisian: Söl) is an island in northern Germany, part of Nordfriesland district, Schleswig-Holstein, and well known for the distinctive shape of its shoreline.

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Tectonic uplift

Tectonic uplift is the portion of the total geologic uplift of the mean Earth surface that is not attributable to an isostatic response to unloading.

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Teesside is the conurbation in the north east of England around the urban centre of Middlesbrough that is primarily made up of the towns Billingham, Redcar, Stockton-on-Tees, Thornaby and surrounding settlements near the River Tees.

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TenneT is a transmission system operator in the Netherlands and in a large part of Germany.

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Terns are seabirds in the family Laridae that have a worldwide distribution and are normally found near the sea, rivers, or wetlands.

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A terp, also known as a wierde, woerd, warf, warft, werf, wurt or værft, is an artificial dwelling mound found on the North European Plain that has been created to provide safe ground during storm surges, high tides and sea or river flooding.

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Territorial waters

Territorial waters or a territorial sea, as defined by the 2013 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, is a belt of coastal waters extending at most from the baseline (usually the mean low-water mark) of a coastal state.

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Tethys Ocean

The Tethys Ocean (Ancient Greek: Τηθύς), Tethys Sea or Neotethys was an ocean during much of the Mesozoic Era located between the ancient continents of Gondwana and Laurasia, before the opening of the Indian and Atlantic oceans during the Cretaceous Period.

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Thames Estuary

The Thames Estuary is the estuary in which the River Thames meets the waters of the North Sea, in the south-east of Great Britain.

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The Fens

The Fens, also known as the, are a coastal plain in eastern England.

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The Wash

The Wash is a largely rectangular bay and estuary at the north-west corner of East Anglia on the East coast of England, where Norfolk meets Lincolnshire.

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Thyborøn is a fishing village in Jutland, Denmark with a population of 2,119 (1 January 2014), primarily famous for being the site of numerous shipwrecks, such as that of the Imperial Russian naval vessel Alexander Neuski.

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Tidal power

Tidal power or tidal energy is a form of hydropower that converts the energy obtained from tides into useful forms of power, mainly electricity.

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Torpedo boat

A torpedo boat is a relatively small and fast naval ship designed to carry torpedoes into battle.

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Trade route

A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo.

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Trawling is a method of fishing that involves pulling a fishing net through the water behind one or more boats.

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Trisopterus luscus

Trisopterus luscus (bib, pout whiting, pout or most commonly pouting) is a seafish belonging to the cod family (Gadidae).

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Troll A platform

The Troll A platform is a condeep offshore natural gas platform in the Troll gas field off the west coast of Norway.

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Troll gas field

Troll is a natural gas and oil field in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea, one of the biggest in the North Sea, holding 40% of Norway’s gas – it also possesses significant quantities of oil, in thin zones under the gas cap, to the west of the field.

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A tsunami (from 津波, "harbour wave"; English pronunciation) or tidal wave, also known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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University of Groningen

The University of Groningen (abbreviated as UG; Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, abbreviated as RUG) is a public research university in the city of Groningen in the Netherlands.

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University of Porto

The University of Porto (Universidade do Porto) is a Portuguese public university located in Porto, and founded on 22 March 1911.

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Unst is one of the North Isles of the Shetland Islands, Scotland.

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Vessel traffic service

A vessel traffic service (VTS) is a marine traffic monitoring system established by harbour or port authorities, similar to air traffic control for aircraft.

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Viking Age

The Viking Age (793–1066 AD) is a period in European history, especially Northern European and Scandinavian history, following the Germanic Iron Age.

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Waal (river)

The Waal (Dutch) is the main distributary branch of the river Rhine flowing approximately through the Netherlands.

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Wadden Sea

The Wadden Sea (Waddenzee, Wattenmeer, Wattensee or Waddenzee, Vadehavet, longname, di Heef) is an intertidal zone in the southeastern part of the North Sea.

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Wadden Sea National Parks

The Wadden Sea National Parks in Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands are located along the German Bight of the North Sea.

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Walney Wind Farm

Walney Wind Farm is an offshore wind farm 14 km west of Walney Island off the coast of Cumbria, in the Irish Sea, England.

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The walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) is a large flippered marine mammal with a discontinuous distribution about the North Pole in the Arctic Ocean and subarctic seas of the Northern Hemisphere.

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The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.

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Wave Dragon

Wave Dragon is a floating slack-moored energy converter of the overtopping type, developed by the Danish company Wave Dragon Aps.

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Wave power

Wave power is the capture of energy of wind waves to do useful work – for example, electricity generation, water desalination, or pumping water.

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The Weser is a river in Northwestern Germany.

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Westerland, Germany

Westerland (Vesterland; ''Söl'ring'' North Frisian: Weesterlön’) is a seaside resort and a former municipality located on the German North Sea island of Sylt.

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Western Europe

Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.

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Westray is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland, with a usual resident population of just under 600 people.

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Whales are a widely distributed and diverse group of fully aquatic placental marine mammals.

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Whitby is a seaside town, port and civil parish in the Borough of Scarborough and English county of North Yorkshire.

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Whiting (fish)

A number of Actinopterygiian fish have been given the common name whiting.

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Wilhelmshaven (meaning William's Harbour) is a coastal town in Lower Saxony, Germany.

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William III of England

William III (Willem; 4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702), also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702.

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Wind farm

A wind farm is a group of wind turbines in the same location used to produce electricity.

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Wind power

Wind power is the use of air flow through wind turbines to mechanically power generators for electricity.

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Wind wave

In fluid dynamics, wind waves, or wind-generated waves, are surface waves that occur on the free surface of bodies of water (like oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, canals, puddles or ponds).

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Wrack (seaweed)

Wrack is part of the common names of several species of seaweed in the family Fucaceae.

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Yell, Shetland

Yell is one of the North Isles of Shetland, Scotland.

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Ythan Estuary

The Ythan Estuary is the tidal component of the Ythan River, emptying into the North Sea north of Aberdeen, Scotland.

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Zeebrugge (from: Brugge aan zee meaning "Bruges on Sea", Zeebruges) is a village on the coast of Belgium and a subdivision of Bruges, for which it is the modern port.

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Zeelandic (Zeêuws; Zeeuws in Dutch) is a Low Franconian dialect of Dutch spoken in the southwestern parts of the Netherlands, more specifically the southernmost part of South Holland (Goeree-Overflakkee) and large parts of the province of Zeeland, with the notable exception of eastern Zeelandic Flanders.

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Zooplankton are heterotrophic (sometimes detritivorous) plankton.

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Zostera is a small genus of widely distributed seagrasses, commonly called marine eelgrass or simply eelgrass.

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The Zuiderzee (old spelling Zuyderzee) was a shallow bay of the North Sea in the northwest of the Netherlands, extending about 100 km (60 miles) inland and at most 50 km (30 miles) wide, with an overall depth of about 4 to 5 metres (13–16 feet) and a coastline of about 300 km (200 miles).

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1580 Dover Straits earthquake

Though severe earthquakes in the north of France and Britain are rare, the 1580 Dover Straits earthquake appears to have been one of the largest in the recorded history of England, Flanders or northern France.

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1755 Lisbon earthquake

The 1755 Lisbon earthquake, also known as the Great Lisbon earthquake, occurred in the Kingdom of Portugal on the morning of Saturday, 1 November, the holy day of All Saints' Day, at around 09:40 local time.

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1931 Dogger Bank earthquake

The Dogger Bank earthquake of 1931 was the strongest earthquake recorded in the United Kingdom since measurements began.

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1973 oil crisis

The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo.

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61st parallel north

The 61st parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 61 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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An Cuan a Tuath, Frisian Sea, German Ocean, German Sea, Germanic Ocean, Germanic Sea, Germanic ocean, Germanic sea, Lebermer, Libersee, Mare Frisicum, Mare Germanicum, Mer du Nord, Mere giliberōt, Morimaru, Morimarusa, Noardsee, Noordsee, Noordzee, Nordsjoen, Nordsjon, Nordsjön, Nordsjøen, Nordsoen, Nordsøen, North Sea Basin, North sea, North-Sea, Noôrdzeê, Nôordzêe, Septentrionalis Oceanus, The North Sea, Weestsiie.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Sea

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