186 relations: Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī, Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi, Adalbert Krueger, Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Kathir al-Farghani, Alexandria, Almagest, Alpha Centauri, American English, American Philosophical Society, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek astronomy, Andromeda Galaxy, Annie Jump Cannon, Anu, Apparent magnitude, Arabic, Arabs, Aratus, Argo Navis, Aristyllus, Asterism (astronomy), Astrograph, Astrometry, Astronomical catalog, Astronomische Nachrichten, Astronomy, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Astronomy in the medieval Islamic world, Axial precession, Babylonia, Babylonian astronomy, Babylonian star catalogues, Bonn, Book of Documents, Book of Fixed Stars, Brill Publishers, Cambridge University Press, Carbon star, Carte du Ciel, Catalogues of Fundamental Stars, Córdoba, Argentina, Celestial equator, Celestial sphere, Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg, Chinese astronomy, Chinese calendar, Chinese constellations, Chinese philosophy, Chinese temple architecture, Circumpolar star, ..., Classic of Poetry, Classical antiquity, Clay tablet, Color, Constellation, Decan, Declination, Dorrit Hoffleit, Double star, Dover Publications, Durchmusterung, Earth, Ecliptic, Eduard Schönfeld, Edward Charles Pickering, Egypt (Roman province), Egyptian astronomy, Eisenbrauns, English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Enki, Enlil, Enuma Anu Enlil, Epoch (astronomy), Equinox Publishing (Sheffield), Eudoxus of Cnidus, European Space Agency, Frank Elmore Ross, Friedrich Wilhelm Argelander, Gaia (spacecraft), Gamma Cygni, Gan De, Genitive case, Germans, Gliese 436, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greek alphabet, Han dynasty, Hartmut Jahreiß, Harvard College Observatory, HD 1237, Henry Draper, Henry L. Giclas, Hipparchus, Hipparcos, Histoire Céleste Française, History of China, History of Iran, Hubble Space Telescope, Indian astronomy, Islamic Golden Age, Japan, Jérôme Lalande, Johann Bayer, John Flamsteed, John M. Thome, Journal of the British Astronomical Association, Kassites, Korea, Lacquerware, Large Magellanic Cloud, Lü Buwei, Lüshi Chunqiu, List of Arabic star names, List of astronomical catalogues, List of nearest stars and brown dwarfs, Longitude, Louise Freeland Jenkins, Maragheh observatory, Max Wolf, Maya civilization, Mesopotamia, Messier object, MUL.APIN, Naked eye, Nakshatra, Neo-Assyrian Empire, Neo-Babylonian Empire, Oracle bone, Oxford University Press, Paris Codex, Paris Observatory, Past & Present (journal), Photometry (astronomy), PPM Star Catalogue, Proper motion, Ptolemy, Qin (state), Records of the Grand Historian, Richard van der Riet Woolley, Right ascension, Robert Grant Aitken, Schmidt camera, Shang dynasty, Shi Shen, Sima Qian, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Spectroscopy, Springer Science+Business Media, Star, Star catalogue, Star chart, Star clock, Stellar classification, Stellar parallax, Sumer, Telescope, The Astronomical Journal, Timocharis, Toledan Tables, Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng, Twenty-Eight Mansions, Tycho Brahe, Tycho-2 Catalogue, Ulugh Beg, United States Naval Observatory, United States Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station, University of Oklahoma Press, Uranometria, Variable star, Variable star designation, Vedas, W. W. Norton & Company, Warring States period, Wars of Alexander the Great, Wilhelm Gliese, Willem Jacob Luyten, Yale University, Yale University Observatory, Zhang Heng, Zhou dynasty, Zij, Zij-i Ilkhani, Zij-i Sultani, Zuo zhuan, 47 Ursae Majoris, 61 Cygni. Expand index (136 more) » « Shrink index
, also known as Al-Zarkali or Ibn Zarqala (1029–1087), was an Arab Muslim instrument maker, astrologer, and one of the leading astronomers of his time.
'Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi (عبدالرحمن صوفی (December 7, 903 in Rey, Iran – May 25, 986 in Shiraz, Iran) was a Persian astronomer also known as 'Abd ar-Rahman as-Sufi, 'Abd al-Rahman Abu al-Husayn, 'Abdul Rahman Sufi, or 'Abdurrahman Sufi and, historically, in the West as Azophi and Azophi Arabus. The lunar crater Azophi and the minor planet 12621 Alsufi are named after him. Al-Sufi published his famous Book of Fixed Stars in 964, describing much of his work, both in textual descriptions and pictures. Al-Biruni reports that his work on the ecliptic was carried out in Shiraz. He lived at the Buyid court in Isfahan.
Karl Nikolaus Adalbert Krueger (9 December 1832 – 21 April 1896) was a German astronomer.
. (800/805-870) also known as Alfraganus in the West, was a Persian astronomer in the Abbasid court in Baghdad, and one of the most famous astronomers in the 9th century.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
The Almagest is a 2nd-century Greek-language mathematical and astronomical treatise on the apparent motions of the stars and planetary paths, written by Claudius Ptolemy. One of the most influential scientific texts of all time, its geocentric model was accepted for more than 1200 years from its origin in Hellenistic Alexandria, in the medieval Byzantine and Islamic worlds, and in Western Europe through the Middle Ages and early Renaissance until Copernicus.
Alpha Centauri (α Centauri, abbreviated Alf Cen or α Cen) is the star system closest to the Solar System, being from the Sun.
American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.
The American Philosophical Society (APS), founded in 1743 and located in Philadelphia, is an eminent scholarly organization of international reputation that promotes useful knowledge in the sciences and humanities through excellence in scholarly research, professional meetings, publications, library resources, and community outreach.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Greek astronomy is astronomy written in the Greek language in classical antiquity.
The Andromeda Galaxy, also known as Messier 31, M31, or NGC 224, is a spiral galaxy approximately 780 kiloparsecs (2.5 million light-years) from Earth, and the nearest major galaxy to the Milky Way.
Annie Jump Cannon (December 11, 1863 – April 13, 1941) was an American astronomer whose cataloging work was instrumental in the development of contemporary stellar classification.
Anu (𒀭𒀭, Anu‹m› or Ilu) or An (𒀭, from 𒀭 an "Sky, Heaven") is the divine personification of the sky, supreme God, and ancestor of all the deities in ancient Mesopotamian religion.
The apparent magnitude of a celestial object is a number that is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Aratus (Ἄρατος ὁ Σολεύς; ca. 315 BC/310 BC240) was a Greek didactic poet.
Argo Navis (the Ship Argo), or simply Argo, was a large constellation in the southern sky that has since been divided into the three constellations of Carina, Puppis and Vela.
Aristyllus (Ἀρίστυλλος; fl. c. 261 BC) was a Greek astronomer, presumably of the school of Timocharis (c. 300 BC).
In observational astronomy, an asterism is a popular known pattern or group of stars that are recognised in the night sky.
An astrograph (astrographic camera) is a telescope designed for the sole purpose of astrophotography.
Astrometry is the branch of astronomy that involves precise measurements of the positions and movements of stars and other celestial bodies.
An astronomical catalog or catalogue is a list or tabulation of astronomical objects, typically grouped together because they share a common type, morphology, origin, means of detection, or method of discovery.
Astronomische Nachrichten (Astronomical Notes), one of the first international journals in the field of astronomy, was founded in 1821 by the German astronomer Heinrich Christian Schumacher.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
Astronomy & Astrophysics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering theoretical, observational, and instrumental astronomy and astrophysics.
Islamic astronomy comprises the astronomical developments made in the Islamic world, particularly during the Islamic Golden Age (9th–13th centuries), and mostly written in the Arabic language.
In astronomy, axial precession is a gravity-induced, slow, and continuous change in the orientation of an astronomical body's rotational axis.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
The history of astronomy in Mesopotamia, and the world, begins with the Sumerians who developed the earliest writing system—known as cuneiform—around 3500–3200 BC.
Babylonian astronomy collated earlier observations and divinations into sets of Babylonian star catalogues, during and after the Kassite rule over Babylonia.
The Federal City of Bonn is a city on the banks of the Rhine in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, with a population of over 300,000.
The Book of Documents (Shujing, earlier Shu-king) or Classic of History, also known as the Shangshu ("Esteemed Documents"), is one of the Five Classics of ancient Chinese literature.
The Book of Fixed Stars (كتاب صور الكواكب) is an astronomical text written by Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi (Azophi) around 964.
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
A carbon star is typically an asymptotic giant branch star, a luminous red giant, whose atmosphere contains more carbon than oxygen; the two elements combine in the upper layers of the star, forming carbon monoxide, which consumes all the oxygen in the atmosphere, leaving carbon atoms free to form other carbon compounds, giving the star a "sooty" atmosphere and a strikingly ruby red appearance.
The Carte du Ciel (literally, 'Map of the Sky') and the Astrographic Catalogue (or Astrographic Chart) were two distinct but connected components of a massive international astronomical project, initiated in the late 19th century, to catalogue and map the positions of millions of stars as faint as 11th or 12th magnitude.
The Catalogue of Fundamental Stars is a series of six astrometric catalogues of high precision positional data for a small selection of stars to define a celestial reference frame, which is a standard coordinate system for measuring positions of stars.
Córdoba is a city in the geographical center of Argentina, in the foothills of the Sierras Chicas on the Suquía River, about northwest of the Buenos Aires.
The celestial equator is the great circle of the imaginary celestial sphere on the same plane as the equator of Earth.
In astronomy and navigation, the celestial sphere is an abstract sphere with an arbitrarily large radius concentric to Earth.
The Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS; English translation: Strasbourg Astronomical Data Center) is a data hub which collects and distributes astronomical information.
Astronomy in China has a long history, beginning from the Shang Dynasty (Chinese Bronze Age).
The traditional Chinese calendar (official Chinese name: Rural Calendar, alternately Former Calendar, Traditional Calendar, or Lunar Calendar) is a lunisolar calendar which reckons years, months and days according to astronomical phenomena.
Traditional Chinese astronomy has a system of dividing the celestial sphere into asterisms or constellations, known as "officials" (Chinese xīng guān).
Chinese philosophy originates in the Spring and Autumn period and Warring States period, during a period known as the "Hundred Schools of Thought", which was characterized by significant intellectual and cultural developments.
Chinese temple architecture refer to a type of structures used as place of worship of Chinese Buddhism, Taoism or Chinese folk religion/Shenism, where people revere ethnic Chinese gods and ancestors.
A circumpolar star is a star, as viewed from a given latitude on Earth, that never sets below the horizon due to its apparent proximity to one of the celestial poles.
The Classic of Poetry, also Shijing or Shih-ching, translated variously as the Book of Songs, Book of Odes, or simply known as the Odes or Poetry is the oldest existing collection of Chinese poetry, comprising 305 works dating from the 11th to 7th centuries BC.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
In the Ancient Near East, clay tablets (Akkadian ṭuppu(m) 𒁾) were used as a writing medium, especially for writing in cuneiform, throughout the Bronze Age and well into the Iron Age.
Color (American English) or colour (Commonwealth English) is the characteristic of human visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, orange, yellow, green, blue, or purple.
A constellation is a group of stars that are considered to form imaginary outlines or meaningful patterns on the celestial sphere, typically representing animals, mythological people or gods, mythological creatures, or manufactured devices.
The decans (Egyptian bakiu) are 36 groups of stars (small constellations) used in the Ancient Egyptian astronomy.
In astronomy, declination (abbreviated dec; symbol δ) is one of the two angles that locate a point on the celestial sphere in the equatorial coordinate system, the other being hour angle.
Ellen Dorrit Hoffleit (March 12, 1907 – April 9, 2007) was an American senior research astronomer at Yale University.
In observational astronomy, a double star or visual double is a pair of stars that appear close to each other in the sky as seen from Earth when viewed through an optical telescope.
Dover Publications, also known as Dover Books, is an American book publisher founded in 1941 by Hayward Cirker and his wife, Blanche.
In astronomy, Durchmusterung or Bonner Durchmusterung (BD), is the comprehensive astrometric star catalogue of the whole sky, compiled by the Bonn Observatory (Germany) from 1859 to 1903.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
The ecliptic is the circular path on the celestial sphere that the Sun follows over the course of a year; it is the basis of the ecliptic coordinate system.
Eduard Schönfeld (December 22, 1828 – May 1, 1891) was a German astronomer.
Prof Edward Charles Pickering FRS(For) HFRSE (July 19, 1846 – February 3, 1919) was an American astronomer and physicist and the older brother to William Henry Pickering.
The Roman province of Egypt (Aigyptos) was established in 30 BC after Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) defeated his rival Mark Antony, deposed Queen Cleopatra VII, and annexed the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt to the Roman Empire.
Egyptian astronomy begins in prehistoric times, in the Predynastic Period.
Eisenbrauns, an imprint of The Pennsylvania State University Press, is an academic publisher specializing in the ancient Near East and biblical studies.
The use of the English language in most member countries of the Commonwealth of Nations was inherited from British colonisation.
Enki (Sumerian: dEN.KI(G)) is the Sumerian god of water, knowledge (gestú), mischief, crafts (gašam), and creation (nudimmud).
Enlil, later known as Elil, was the ancient Mesopotamian god of wind, air, earth, and storms.
Enuma Anu Enlil (The Assyrian Dictionary, volume 7 (I/J) – inūma, The Oriental Institute, Chicago 1960, s. 160. When the gods Anu and Enlil), abbreviated EAE, is a major series of 68 or 70 tablets (depending on the recension) dealing with Babylonian astrology.
In astronomy, an epoch is a moment in time used as a reference point for some time-varying astronomical quantity, such as the celestial coordinates or elliptical orbital elements of a celestial body, because these are subject to perturbations and vary with time.
Equinox Publishing Ltd is an independent academic publisher founded in 2003 by Janet Joyce and based in Sheffield.
Eudoxus of Cnidus (Εὔδοξος ὁ Κνίδιος, Eúdoxos ho Knídios) was an ancient Greek astronomer, mathematician, scholar, and student of Archytas and Plato.
The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.
Frank Elmore Ross (April 2, 1874 – September 21, 1960) was an American astronomer and physicist.
Friedrich Wilhelm August Argelander (22 March 1799 – 17 February 1875) was a German astronomer.
Gaia is a space observatory of the European Space Agency (ESA) designed for astrometry: measuring the positions and distances of stars with unprecedented precision.
Gamma Cygni (γ Cygni, abbreviated Gamma Cyg, γ Cyg), also named Sadr, is a star in the northern constellation of Cygnus, forming the intersection of an asterism of five stars called the Northern Cross.
Gan De (fl. 4th century BC) was a Chinese astronomer/astrologer born in the State of Qi also known as the Lord Gan (Gan Gong).
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Gliese 436 is a red dwarf approximately away in the zodiac constellation of Leo.
The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is a major NASA space research laboratory located approximately northeast of Washington, D.C. in Greenbelt, Maryland, United States.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Hartmut Jahreiß (born 1942) is a German astronomer associated with Astronomisches Rechen-Institut specializing in the study of nearby stars.
The Harvard College Observatory (HCO) is an institution managing a complex of buildings and multiple instruments used for astronomical research by the Harvard University Department of Astronomy.
HD 1237 is a binary star system approximately 57 light-years away in the constellation of Hydrus (the Water Snake).
Henry Draper (March 7, 1837 – November 20, 1882) was an American doctor and amateur astronomer.
Henry Lee Giclas (December 9, 1910 – April 2, 2007) was an American astronomer and a discoverer of minor planets and comets.
Hipparchus of Nicaea (Ἵππαρχος, Hipparkhos) was a Greek astronomer, geographer, and mathematician.
Hipparcos was a scientific satellite of the European Space Agency (ESA), launched in 1989 and operated until 1993.
Histoire Céleste Française (French Celestial History) is an astrometric star catalogue published in 1801 by the French astronomer Jérôme Lalande and his staff at the Paris Observatory.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
The history of Iran, commonly also known as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia, the Bosphorus, and Egypt in the west to the borders of Ancient India and the Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.
The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990 and remains in operation.
Indian astronomy has a long history stretching from pre-historic to modern times.
The Islamic Golden Age is the era in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world was ruled by various caliphates, and science, economic development and cultural works flourished.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Joseph Jérôme Lefrançois de Lalande (11 July 1732 – 4 April 1807) was a French astronomer, freemason and writer.
Johann Bayer (1572 – 7 March 1625) was a German lawyer and uranographer (celestial cartographer).
John Flamsteed FRS (19 August 1646 – 31 December 1719) was an English astronomer and the first Astronomer Royal.
John Macon Thome (August 22, 1843 – September 27, 1908) was an American-Argentine astronomer.
The Journal of the British Astronomical Association is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of astronomy published by the British Astronomical Association since October 1890.
The Kassites were people of the ancient Near East, who controlled Babylonia after the fall of the Old Babylonian Empire c. 1531 BC and until c. 1155 BC (short chronology).
Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.
Lacquerware are objects decoratively covered with lacquer.
The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way.
Lü Buwei (291–235 BC) was a politician of the Qin state in the Warring States period of ancient China.
The Lüshi Chunqiu, also known in English as Master Lü's Spring and Autumn Annals, is an encyclopedic Chinese classic text compiled around 239 BC under the patronage of the Qin Dynasty Chancellor Lü Buwei.
This is a list of traditional Arabic names for stars.
An astronomical catalogue is a list or tabulation of astronomical objects, typically grouped together because they share a common type, morphology, origin, means of detection, or method of discovery.
The following two lists include all the known stars and brown dwarfs that are within of the Sun, or were/will be within in the astronomically near past or future.
Longitude, is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Louise Freeland Jenkins (July 5, 1888 – May 9, 1970) was an American astronomer who compiled a valuable catalogue of stars within 10 parsecs of the sun, as well as editing the 3rd edition of the Yale Bright Star Catalogue.
Maragheh observatory (رصدخانه مراغه), was an institutionalized astronomical observatory which was established in 1259 CE under the patronage of the Ilkhanid Hulagu and the directorship of Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, a Persian scientist and astronomer.
Maximilian Franz Joseph Cornelius "Max" Wolf (June 21, 1863 – October 3, 1932) was a German astronomer and a pioneer in the field of astrophotography.
The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its hieroglyphic script—the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
The Messier objects are a set of 110 astronomical objects, of which 103 were included in lists published by French astronomer Charles Messier in 1771 and 1781.
MUL.APIN is the conventional title given to a Babylonian compendium that deals with many diverse aspects of Babylonian astronomy and astrology.
Naked eye, also called bare eye or unaided eye, is the practice of engaging in visual perception unaided by a magnifying or light-collecting optical instrument, such as a telescope or microscope.
Nakshatra (Sanskrit: नक्षत्र, IAST: Nakṣatra) is the term for lunar mansion in Hindu astrology.
The Neo-Assyrian Empire was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC, and became the largest empire of the world up till that time.
The Neo-Babylonian Empire (also Second Babylonian Empire) was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 626 BC and ended in 539 BC.
Oracle bones are pieces of ox scapula or turtle plastron, which were used for pyromancy – a form of divination – in ancient China, mainly during the late Shang dynasty.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Paris Codex (also known as the Codex Peresianus and Codex Pérez) is one of three surviving generally accepted pre-Columbian Maya books dating to the Postclassic Period of Mesoamerican chronology (c. 900–1521 AD).
The Paris Observatory (Observatoire de Paris or Observatoire de Paris-Meudon), a research institution of PSL Research University, is the foremost astronomical observatory of France, and one of the largest astronomical centres in the world.
Past & Present is a British historical academic journal, which was a leading force in the development of social history.
Photometry is a technique of astronomy concerned with measuring the flux, or intensity of an astronomical object's electromagnetic radiation.
The PPM Star Catalogue (Positions and Proper Motions Star Catalogue) is the successor of the SAO Catalogue.
Proper motion is the astronomical measure of the observed changes in the apparent places of stars or other celestial objects in the sky, as seen from the center of mass of the Solar System, compared to the abstract background of the more distant stars.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
Qin (Old Chinese: *) was an ancient Chinese state during the Zhou dynasty.
The Records of the Grand Historian, also known by its Chinese name Shiji, is a monumental history of ancient China and the world finished around 94 BC by the Han dynasty official Sima Qian after having been started by his father, Sima Tan, Grand Astrologer to the imperial court.
Sir Richard van der Riet Woolley OBE FRS (24 April 1906 – 24 December 1986) was an English astronomer who became Astronomer Royal.
Right ascension (abbreviated RA; symbol) is the angular distance measured only eastward along the celestial equator from the Sun at the March equinox to the (hour circle of the) point above the earth in question.
Robert Grant Aitken (December 31, 1864 – October 29, 1951) was an American astronomer.
A Schmidt camera, also referred to as the Schmidt telescope, is a catadioptric astrophotographic telescope designed to provide wide fields of view with limited aberrations.
The Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty.
Shi Shen (fl. 4th century BC) was a Chinese astronomer and contemporary of Gan De born in the State of Wei, also known as the Shi Shenfu.
Sima Qian was a Chinese historian of the early Han dynasty (206AD220).
The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) is a research institute of the Smithsonian Institution headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts, where it is joined with the Harvard College Observatory (HCO) to form the Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA).
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
A star catalogue (Commonwealth English) or star catalog (American English), is an astronomical catalogue that lists stars.
A star chart or star map, also called a sky chart or sky map, is a map of the night sky.
A star clock (or nocturnal) is a method of using the stars to determine the time.
In astronomy, stellar classification is the classification of stars based on their spectral characteristics.
Stellar parallax is the apparent shift of position of any nearby star (or other object) against the background of distant objects.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).
The Astronomical Journal (often abbreviated AJ in scientific papers and references) is a peer-reviewed monthly scientific journal owned by the American Astronomical Society and currently published by IOP Publishing.
Timocharis of Alexandria (Τιμόχαρις or Τιμοχάρης, gen. Τιμοχάρους; c. 320–260 BC) was a Greek astronomer and philosopher.
The Toledan Tables, or Tables of Toledo, were astronomical tables which were used to predict the movements of the Sun, Moon and planets relative to the fixed stars.
The Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng is an important archaeological site in Leigudun Community (擂鼓墩社区), Nanjiao Subdistrict (南郊街道), Zengdu District, Suizhou (then Sui County), Hubei, China, dated sometime after 433 BC.
The Twenty-Eight Mansions, hsiu, xiu or sieu are part of the Chinese constellations system.
Tycho Brahe (born Tyge Ottesen Brahe;. He adopted the Latinized form "Tycho Brahe" (sometimes written Tÿcho) at around age fifteen. The name Tycho comes from Tyche (Τύχη, meaning "luck" in Greek, Roman equivalent: Fortuna), a tutelary deity of fortune and prosperity of ancient Greek city cults. He is now generally referred to as "Tycho," as was common in Scandinavia in his time, rather than by his surname "Brahe" (a spurious appellative form of his name, Tycho de Brahe, only appears much later). 14 December 154624 October 1601) was a Danish nobleman, astronomer, and writer known for his accurate and comprehensive astronomical and planetary observations.
The Tycho-2 Catalogue is an astronomical catalogue of more than 2.5 million of the brightest stars.
Mīrzā Muhammad Tāraghay bin Shāhrukh (میرزا محمد طارق بن شاہ رخ, میرزا محمد تراغای بن شاہ رخ), better known as Ulugh Beg (March 22, 1394 in Sultaniyeh, Persia – October 27, 1449, Samarkand), was a Timurid ruler as well as an astronomer, mathematician and sultan.
The United States Naval Observatory (USNO) is one of the oldest scientific agencies in the United States, with a primary mission to produce Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) for the United States Navy and the United States Department of Defense.
The United States Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station (NOFS), is an astronomical observatory near Flagstaff, Arizona, USA.
The University of Oklahoma Press (OU Press) is the publishing arm of the University of Oklahoma.
Uranometria is the short title of a star atlas produced by Johann Bayer.
A variable star is a star whose brightness as seen from Earth (its apparent magnitude) fluctuates.
Variable stars are designated using a variation on the Bayer designation format of an identifying label (as described below) combined with the Latin genitive of the name of the constellation in which the star lies.
The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.
The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.
The wars of Alexander the Great were fought by King Alexander III of Macedon ("The Great"), first against the Achaemenid Persian Empire under Darius III, and then against local chieftains and warlords as far east as Punjab, India.
Wilhelm Gliese (21 June 1915 – 12 June 1993) was a German astronomer who specialized in the study and cataloging of nearby stars.
Willem Jacob Luyten (March 7, 1899 – November 21, 1994) was a Dutch-American astronomer.
Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.
The Yale University Observatory, also known as the Leitner Family Observatory and Planetarium, is an astronomical observatory owned and operated by Yale University, and maintained for student use.
Zhang Heng (AD 78–139), formerly romanized as Chang Heng, was a Han Chinese polymath from Nanyang who lived during the Han dynasty.
The Zhou dynasty or the Zhou Kingdom was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty.
A zīj (زيج) is an Islamic astronomical book that tabulates parameters used for astronomical calculations of the positions of the Sun, Moon, stars, and planets.
Zīj-i Īlkhānī (زیجِ ایلخانی) or Ilkhanic Tables (literal translation: "The Ilkhan Stars", after ilkhan Hulagu, who was the patron of the author at that time) is a Zij book with astronomical tables of planetary movements.
Zīj-i Sultānī (زیجِ سلطانی) is a Zij astronomical table and star catalogue that was published by Ulugh Beg in 1438-1439.
The Zuo zhuan, generally translated The Zuo Tradition or The Commentary of Zuo, is an ancient Chinese narrative history that is traditionally regarded as a commentary on the ancient Chinese chronicle ''Spring and Autumn Annals'' (''Chunqiu'' 春秋).
47 Ursae Majoris (abbreviated 47 UMa), also named Chalawan (ชาละวัน), is a yellow dwarf star approximately 46 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Ursa Major.
61 Cygni Not to be confused with 16 Cygni, a more distant system containing two G-type stars harboring the gas giant planet 16 Cygni Bb.
Aitken's Double Star catalogue, Catalogue Astrographique, Catalogue astrographique, GCTP, General Catalogue of Trigonometric Parallaxes, General Catalogue of Trigonometric Stellar Parallaxes, General Catalogue of Trigonometric Stellar Parallaxes and Supplement, Henry L. Giclas catalogue, Luyten Five-Tenths catalogue, Luyten Four-Tenths catalogue, Luyten Half-Second Catalogue, Luyten Half-Second catalogue, Luyten Proper Motion catalogue, Luyten Proper-Motion Catalogue, Luyten Proper-Motion catalogue, Luyten Two-Tenths catalogue, Luyten-Palomar proper motion catalogue, NLTT, New Luyten Two-Tenths Catalogue, New Luyten Two-Tenths catalogue, Ross catalogue, Star catalog, Star catalogues, The General Catalogue of Trigonometric Stellar Parallaxes, Uvby98, Woolley Nearby Star Catalogue.