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ABC-CLIO, LLC is a publishing company for academic reference works and periodicals primarily on topics such as history and social sciences for educational and public library settings.
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Abolition of the han system
The in the Empire of Japan and its replacement by a system of prefectures in 1871 was the culmination of the Meiji Restoration begun in 1868, starting year of Meiji period (currently, there are 47 prefectures from Hokkaido to Okinawa in Japan).
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Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film
The Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film is one of the Academy Awards handed out annually by the U.S.-based Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS).
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The Academy Awards, also known as the Oscars, are a set of 24 awards for artistic and technical merit in the American film industry, given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), to recognize excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership.
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Acer palmatum, commonly known as palmate maple, Japanese maple or smooth Japanese-maple (Japanese: irohamomiji,, or momiji), is a species of woody plant native to Japan, China, Korea, eastern Mongolia, and southeast Russia.
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An activist shareholder is a shareholder that uses an equity stake in a corporation to put pressure on its management.
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, commonly written AEON Co., Ltd., is the holding company of ÆON Group.
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Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.
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AFC Asian Cup
The AFC Asian Cup is an international association football tournament run by the Asian Football Confederation (AFC).
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Agency for Cultural Affairs
The is a special body of the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT).
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An agglutinative language is a type of synthetic language with morphology that primarily uses agglutination.
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Aging of Japan
The aging of Japan is thought to outweigh all other nations, with Japan being purported to have the highest proportion of elderly citizens.
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Agriculture, forestry, and fishing in Japan
Agriculture, farming, and fishing form the primary sector of industry of the Japanese economy together with the Japanese mining industry, but together they account for only 1.3% of gross national product.
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Ainu (Ainu: アイヌ・イタㇰ Aynu.
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The Ainu or the Aynu (Ainu アィヌ ''Aynu''; Japanese: アイヌ Ainu; Russian: Айны Ajny), in the historical Japanese texts the Ezo (蝦夷), are an indigenous people of Japan (Hokkaido, and formerly northeastern Honshu) and Russia (Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands, and formerly the Kamchatka Peninsula).
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, also known as the Venus Climate Orbiter (VCO) and Planet-C, is a Japanese (JAXA) space probe tasked to study the atmosphere of Venus.
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, first called Jūbei from his clan and later from his title, was a samurai and general who lived during the Sengoku period of Feudal Japan.
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is a common name for the area around Akihabara Station in the Chiyoda ward of Tokyo, Japan.
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is the current Emperor of Japan.
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was a Japanese film director and screenwriter, who directed 30 films in a career spanning 57 years.
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Allies of World War I
The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.
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Allies of World War II
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
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Amami Ōshima language
The Amami language or languages (島口, シマユムタ, Shimayumuta), also known as Amami Ōshima or simply Ōshima ('Big Island'), is a Ryukyuan language spoken in the Amami Islands south of Kyūshū.
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Americans in Japan
comprise people from the United States residing in Japan and their descendants.
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The Amurian Plate (or Amur Plate; also occasionally referred to as the China Plate) is a minor tectonic plate in the northern and eastern hemispheres.
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Anime is a style of hand-drawn and computer animation originating in, and commonly associated with, Japan.
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Animism (from Latin anima, "breath, spirit, life") is the religious belief that objects, places and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence.
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An anti-ballistic missile (ABM) is a surface-to-air missile designed to counter ballistic missiles (see missile defense).
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The Anti-Comintern Pact was an anti-Communist pact concluded between Germany and Japan (later to be joined by other, mainly fascist, governments) on November 25, 1936, and was directed against the Communist International.
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The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972.
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Arabic numerals, also called Hindu–Arabic numerals, are the ten digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, based on the Hindu–Arabic numeral system, the most common system for the symbolic representation of numbers in the world today.
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The archaeological record is the body of physical (not written) evidence about the past.
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An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands.
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Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution
is a clause in the national Constitution of Japan outlawing war as a means to settle international disputes involving the state.
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is a leading brewery and soft drink company based in Tokyo, Japan.
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The is one of the five national newspapers in Japan.
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The, also known as the,Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric.
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was the founder and first shōgun of the Ashikaga shogunate.
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was the 3rd shōgun of the Ashikaga shogunate, which was in power from 1368 to 1394 during the Muromachi period of Japan.
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Asia Rugby Championship
The Asia Rugby Championship, or ARC, is an annual rugby union competition held amongst national rugby sides within the Asia Rugby region.
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Asia Times is a Hong Kong-based Philippine English-language news website covering politics, economics, business and culture "from an Asian perspective specially Philippine".
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Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a forum for 21 Pacific Rim member economies.
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The was a period in the history of Japan lasting from 538 to 710 (or 592 to 645), although its beginning could be said to overlap with the preceding Kofun period.
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Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
During the final stage of World War II, the United States detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively.
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Attack on Pearl Harbor
The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Territory, on the morning of December 7, 1941.
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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
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The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
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The is the final phase of the in Japan.
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The was a civil war that lasted from 1467 to 1477, during the Muromachi period in Japan.
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Baekje (18 BC – 660 AD) was a kingdom located in southwest Korea.
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refers to the final years of the Edo period when the Tokugawa shogunate ended.
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Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
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Baseball in Japan
Baseball was first introduced to Japan in 1872 and is currently among the country's most popular participatory and spectator sports.
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Basic research, also called pure research or fundamental research, has the scientific research aim to improve scientific theories for improved understanding or prediction of natural or other phenomena.
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Battle of Hong Kong
The Battle of Hong Kong (8–25 December 1941), also known as the Defence of Hong Kong and the Fall of Hong Kong, was one of the first battles of the Pacific War in World War II.
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Battle of Nanking
The Battle of Nanking (or Nanjing) was fought in early December 1937 during the Second Sino-Japanese War between the Chinese National Revolutionary Army and the Imperial Japanese Army for control of Nanking (Nanjing), the capital of the Republic of China.
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Battle of Sekigahara
The was a decisive battle on October 21, 1600 (Keichō 5, 15th day of the 9th month), that preceded the establishment of the Tokugawa shogunate.
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is a group of volcanic rocks in the Philippine Sea about south of Tokyo and south-southeast of Aogashima, in the south portion of the Izu archipelago, Japan.
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The Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, abbreviated BGB, is the civil code of Germany.
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BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
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BepiColombo is a joint mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) to the planet Mercury.
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A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.
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Big Bang (South Korean band)
Big Bang is a South Korean boy band formed by YG Entertainment.
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Biochemical oxygen demand
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD, also called Biological Oxygen Demand) is the amount of dissolved oxygen needed (i.e. demanded) by aerobic biological organisms to break down organic material present in a given water sample at certain temperature over a specific time period.
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The Black Ships (in 黒船, kurofune, Edo-period term) was the name given to Western vessels arriving in Japan in the 16th and 19th centuries.
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Bloomberg L.P. is a privately held financial, software, data, and media company headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.
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Bombing of Singapore (1941)
The bombing of Singapore was an attack on 8 December 1941 by seventeen G3M ''Nell'' bombers of Mihoro Air Group (Mihoro Kaigun Kōkūtai), Imperial Japanese Navy, flying from Thu Dau Mot in southern Indochina.
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or just is a Japanese Buddhist custom to honor the spirits of one's ancestors.
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The Bonin Islands, also known as the, are an archipelago of over 30 subtropical and tropical islands, some directly south of Tokyo, Japan.
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Book of Han
The Book of Han or History of the Former Han is a history of China finished in 111, covering the Western, or Former Han dynasty from the first emperor in 206 BCE to the fall of Wang Mang in 23 CE.
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Book of Sui
The Book of Sui (Suí Shū) is the official history of the Sui dynasty.
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The, sometimes known as the Japanese Revolution, was a civil war in Japan, fought from 1868 to 1869 between forces of the ruling Tokugawa shogunate and those seeking to return political power to the Imperial Court.
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Boso Triple Junction
Boso Triple Junction (also known as Off-Boso Triple Junction) is a triple junction off the coast of Japan; it is the only known example of a trench-trench-trench triple junction on the Earth.
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Brazilians (brasileiros in Portuguese) are citizens of Brazil.
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Brazilians in Japan
There is a significant community of Brazilians in Japan, consisting largely but not exclusively of Brazilians of Japanese ethnicity.
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() is a multinational auto and truck parts manufacturer founded in 1931 by in the city of Kurume, Fukuoka, Japan.
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The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is a bear that is found across much of northern Eurasia and North America.
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Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
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Buddhism in Japan
Buddhism in Japan has been practiced since its official introduction in 552 CE according to the Nihon Shoki from Baekje, Korea, by Buddhist monks.
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Buddhist temples in Japan
Buddhist temples are, together with Shinto shrines, considered to be among the most numerous, famous, and important religious buildings in Japan.
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The, commonly known in English as the Laws for the Military Houses, was a collection of edicts issued by Japan's Tokugawa shogunate governing the responsibilities and activities of daimyō (feudal lords) and the rest of the samurai warrior aristocracy.
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, also known as Ningyō jōruri (人形浄瑠璃), is a form of traditional Japanese puppet theatre, founded in Osaka in the beginning of 17th century.
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is an outcaste group at the bottom of the Japanese social order that has historically been the victim of severe discrimination and ostracism.
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Cabinet of Japan
The is the executive branch of the government of Japan.
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is a Japanese multinational corporation specializing in the manufacture of imaging and optical products, including cameras, camcorders, photocopiers, steppers, computer printers and medical equipment. It's headquartered in Ōta, Tokyo, Japan."." Canon. Retrieved on 13 January 2009. Canon has a primary listing on the Tokyo Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the TOPIX index. It has a secondary listing on the New York Stock Exchange.
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Capital of Japan
The current de facto capital of Japan is Tokyo, with the seat of the Emperor, National Diet and many government organizations.
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Carnival (see other spellings and names) is a Western Christian and Greek Orthodox festive season that occurs before the liturgical season of Lent.
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The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
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Central Highland (Japan)
The, or, is an inland region on central Honshū in Japan.
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Central Intelligence Agency
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
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A ceremony is an event of ritual significance, performed on a special occasion.
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Chang'an was an ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history, today known as Xi'an.
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was a social class that emerged in Japan during the early years of the Tokugawa period.
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The was a feudal domain of Japan during the Edo period (1603–1867).
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The, also known as the, is the westernmost region of Honshū, the largest island of Japan.
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A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.
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A cherry blossom is the flower of any of several trees of genus Prunus, particularly the Japanese cherry, Prunus serrulata, which is called sakura after the Japanese (桜 or 櫻; さくら).
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Children's Day (Japan)
is a Japanese national holiday which takes place annually on May 5 and is the final celebration in Golden Week.
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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
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Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.
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Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
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Chinese law is one of the oldest legal traditions in the world.
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Chinese people in Japan
Chinese people in Japan consist of migrants from the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China, and the previous imperial dynasties to Japan and their descendants.
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Chinese philosophy originates in the Spring and Autumn period and Warring States period, during a period known as the "Hundred Schools of Thought", which was characterized by significant intellectual and cultural developments.
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is a special ward located in central Tokyo, Japan.
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ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
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Christianity in Japan
Christianity in Japan is among the nation's minority religions.
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Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
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Chubu Centrair International Airport
is an international airport on an artificial island in Ise Bay, Tokoname City in Aichi Prefecture, south of Nagoya in central Japan.
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Cinema of Japan
The has a history that spans more than 100 years.
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Civil law (legal system)
Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.
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Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
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CNNMoney.com is a financial news and information website, operated by CNN.
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The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
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Colonization of the Moon
The colonization of the Moon is a proposed establishment of permanent human communities or robotic industries on the Moon.
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Comfort women were women and girls forced into sexual slavery by the Imperial Japanese Army in occupied territories before and during World War II.
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Coming of Age Day
is a Japanese holiday held annually on the second Monday of January.
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Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
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Company competition, or competitiveness, pertains to the ability and performance of a firm, sub-sector or country to sell and supply goods and services in a given market, in relation to the ability and performance of other firms, sub-sectors or countries in the same market.
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Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
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Conservation is an ethic of resource use, allocation, and protection.
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Constitution Memorial Day
is a national holiday in Japan.
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Constitution of Japan
The is the fundamental law of Japan.
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Constitutional Democratic Party of Japan
The, frequently abbreviated to CDP,, or, is a centre-left political party in Japan.
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A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
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Convention of Kanagawa
On March 31, 1854, the or was the first treaty between the United States and the Tokugawa shogunate.
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Cornell University Press
The Cornell University Press is a division of Cornell University housed in Sage House, the former residence of Henry William Sage.
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Cultural Property (Japan)
A is administered by the Japanese government's Agency for Cultural Affairs, and includes tangible properties (structures and works of art or craft); intangible properties (performing arts and craft techniques); folk properties both tangible and intangible; monuments historic, scenic and natural; cultural landscapes; and groups of traditional buildings.
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is a national holiday held annually in Japan on November 3 for the purpose of promoting culture, the arts, and academic endeavor.
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Culture of Japan
The culture of Japan has evolved greatly over the millennia, from the country's prehistoric time Jōmon period, to its contemporary modern culture, which absorbs influences from Asia, Europe, and North America.
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Cursive script (East Asia)
Cursive script, often mistranslated as grass script, is a style of Chinese calligraphy.
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The were powerful Japanese feudal lords who, until their decline in the early Meiji period, ruled most of Japan from their vast, hereditary land holdings.
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The, also known as is a system of voluntary and long-term affiliation between Buddhist temples and households in use in Japan since the Heian period.
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, in old Western documents Latinised as Deshima, Decima, Desjima, Dezima, Disma, or Disima, was a Dutch trading post notable for being the single place of direct trade and exchange between Japan and the outside world during the Edo period. It was a small fan-shaped artificial island formed by digging a canal through a small peninsula in the bay of Nagasaki in 1634 by local merchants. Dejima was built to constrain foreign traders. Originally built to house Portuguese traders, it was used by the Dutch as a trading post from 1641 until 1853. Covering an area of or, it was later integrated into the city through the process of land reclamation. In 1922, the "Dejima Dutch Trading Post" was designated a Japanese national historic site.
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Deputy Prime Minister of Japan
The is a senior member of the Cabinet of Japan.
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A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
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The or the Dai-Ichi Kangyo Group was the largest Japanese keiretsu in the late 1990s.
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The dot-com bubble (also known as the dot-com boom, the dot-com crash, the Y2K crash, the Y2K bubble, the tech bubble, the Internet bubble, the dot-com collapse, and the information technology bubble) was a historic economic bubble and period of excessive speculation that occurred roughly from 1997 to 2001, a period of extreme growth in the usage and adaptation of the Internet.
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Duke University Press
Duke University Press is an academic publisher of books and journals, and a unit of Duke University.
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Durham University (legally the University of Durham) is a collegiate public research university in Durham, North East England, with a second campus in Stockton-on-Tees.
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Ease of doing business index
The ease of doing business index is an index created by Simeon Djankov at the World Bank Group.
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East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
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East Asia Summit
The East Asia Summit (EAS) is a forum held annually by leaders of, initially, 16 countries in the East Asian, Southeast Asian and South Asian regions.
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East Asian rainy season
The East Asian rainy season, commonly called the plum rain (затяжные), is caused by precipitation along a persistent stationary front known as the Mei-Yu front for nearly two months during the late spring and early summer between eastern Russia, China, Taiwan, Korea, and Japan.
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East China Sea
The East China Sea is a marginal sea east of China.
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East Japan Railway Company
is a major passenger railway company in Japan and one of the seven Japan Railways Group companies.
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Eastern Orthodox Church
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
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Economic freedom or economic liberty is the ability of people of a society to take economic actions.
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, also romanized as Jedo, Yedo or Yeddo, is the former name of Tokyo.
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The or is the period between 1603 and 1868 in the history of Japan, when Japanese society was under the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate and the country's 300 regional daimyō.
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Education in the Empire of Japan
Education in the Empire of Japan was a high priority for the government, as the leadership of the early Meiji government realized the critical need for universal public education in its drive to modernize and westernize Japan.
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Edwin O. Reischauer
Edwin Oldfather Reischauer (October 15, 1910 – September 1, 1990) was an American educator and professor at Harvard University.
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Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.
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Elementary schools in Japan
in Japan is compulsory.
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Emperor Go-Daigo (後醍醐天皇 Go-Daigo-tennō) (November 26, 1288 – September 19, 1339) was the 96th emperor of Japan,Imperial Household Agency (Kunaichō):; retrieved 2013-8-28.
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(August 6, 1180 – March 28, 1239) was the 82nd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
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was the 107th Emperor of Japan,Imperial Household Agency (Kunaichō): according to the traditional order of succession.
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was the first Emperor of Japan, according to legend.
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was the 50th emperor of Japan,Imperial Household Agency (Kunaichō):; retrieved 2013-8-22.
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Emperor of Japan
The Emperor of Japan is the head of the Imperial Family and the head of state of Japan.
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Empire of Japan
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
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The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
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End of World War II in Asia
The end of World War II in Asia occurred on 14 and 15 August 1945, when armed forces of the Empire of Japan surrendered to the forces of the Allies.
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An endangered language, or moribund language, is a language that is at risk of falling out of use as its speakers die out or shift to speaking another language.
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English-language education in Japan
English-language education in Japan began as early as 1600 with the initial contacts between the Japanese and Europeans.
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Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and interest of an audience, or gives pleasure and delight.
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Environmental Performance Index
The Environmental Performance Index (EPI) is a method of quantifying and numerically marking the environmental performance of a state's policies.
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An epithet (from ἐπίθετον epitheton, neuter of ἐπίθετος epithetos, "attributed, added") is a byname, or a descriptive term (word or phrase), accompanying or occurring in place of a name and having entered common usage.
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An equinox is commonly regarded as the moment the plane (extended indefinitely in all directions) of Earth's equator passes through the center of the Sun, which occurs twice each year, around 20 March and 22-23 September.
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Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
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The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
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Eutrophication (from Greek eutrophos, "well-nourished"), or hypertrophication, is when a body of water becomes overly enriched with minerals and nutrients that induce excessive growth of plants and algae.
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RIMPAC, the Rim of the Pacific Exercise, is the world's largest international maritime warfare exercise.
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In general, expansionism consists of policies of governments and states that involve territorial, military or economic expansion.
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Expressways of Japan
The expressways (高速道路 kōsoku-dōro, lit. high-speed road) of Japan make up a large network of controlled-access toll expressways.
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Fermentation in food processing
Fermentation in food processing is the process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms—yeasts or bacteria—under anaerobic conditions.
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The Fields Medal is a prize awarded to two, three, or four mathematicians under 40 years of age at the International Congress of the International Mathematical Union (IMU), a meeting that takes place every four years.
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The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA; French for "International Federation of Association Football") is an association which describes itself as an international governing body of association football, futsal, and beach soccer.
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Filipinos in Japan
Filipinos in Japan (在日フィリピン人 Zainichi Firipinjin, Mga Pilipino sa Hapon) formed a population of 260,553 individuals at year-end 2017, making them Japan's fourth-largest foreign community along with Vietnamese, according to the statistics of the Ministry of Justice.
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First Sino-Japanese War
The First Sino-Japanese War (25 July 1894 – 17 April 1895) was fought between Qing dynasty of China and Empire of Japan, primarily for influence over Joseon.
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Fish as food
Many species of fish are consumed as food in virtually all regions around the world.
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Fishing industry by country
This page lists the world fisheries production for 2005.
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FIVB Volleyball Women's World Championship
The FIVB Volleyball Women's World Championship is an international volleyball competition contested by the senior women's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB), the sport's global governing body.
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A föhn or foehn is a type of dry, warm, down-slope wind that occurs in the lee (downwind side) of a mountain range.
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Food and Agriculture Organization
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
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Food processing is the transformation of cooked ingredients, by physical or chemical means into food, or of food into other forms.
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Forbes is an American business magazine.
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A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
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Four Big Pollution Diseases of Japan
The were a group of man-made diseases all caused by environmental pollution due to improper handling of industrial wastes by Japanese corporations.
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Fuji Network System
Fuji Network System (FNS) is a Japanese television network operated by Fuji Television Network, Inc., which itself is controlled by the Sankei Shimbun newspaper.
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, trading as Fujifilm (stylized as FUJiFILM), or simply Fuji, is a Japanese multinational photography and imaging company headquartered in Tokyo.
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Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster
The was an energy accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Ōkuma, Fukushima Prefecture, initiated primarily by the tsunami following the Tōhoku earthquake on 11 March 2011.
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Fundamental Law of Education
is a Japanese law which sets the standards for the Japanese education system.
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is the head shrine of the god Inari, located in Fushimi Ward in Kyoto, Japan.
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In Japanese architecture, are vertical rectangular panels which can slide from side to side to redefine spaces within a room, or act as doors.
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In finance, a futures contract (more colloquially, futures) is a standardized forward contract, a legal agreement to buy or sell something at a predetermined price at a specified time in the future.
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is a Japanese keiretsu descended from the Yasuda zaibatsu, a major business grouping in Japan up to World War II.
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The G20 (or Group of Twenty) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union.
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The G4 nations comprising Brazil, Germany, India, and Japan are four countries which support each other’s bids for permanent seats on the United Nations Security Council.
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is a type of Japanese classical music that has been performed at the Imperial Court in Kyoto for several centuries and today by Board of Ceremonies at Tokyo Imperial Palace.
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A game is a structured form of play, usually undertaken for enjoyment and sometimes used as an educational tool.
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GameSpot is a video gaming website that provides news, reviews, previews, downloads, and other information on video games.
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(),, or are Japanese women who study the ancient tradition of art, dance and singing, and are distinctively characterized by traditional costumes and makeup.
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The (1180–1185) was a conflict between the Taira and Minamoto clans during the late-Heian period of Japan.
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is a district of Kyoto, Japan, originally developed in the Sengoku period, in front of Yasaka Shrine (Gion Shrine).
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Global Competitiveness Report
The Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) is a yearly report published by the World Economic Forum.
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Global Peace Index
Global Peace Index (GPI) measures the relative position of nations' and regions' peacefulness.
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Godzilla (1954 film)
is a 1954 Japanese science fiction kaiju film featuring Godzilla, produced and distributed by Toho.
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Gonzalo Garland (born April 17, 1959 in Lima, Peru) is a professor of Economics, and the vice-president of External Relations at IE Business School and an international consultant in emerging economies.
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A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.
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Government debt (also known as public interest, public debt, national debt and sovereign debt) is the debt owed by a government.
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Government of Japan
The government of Japan is a constitutional monarchy in which the power of the Emperor is limited and is relegated primarily to ceremonial duties.
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Government Seal of Japan
The Government Seal of Japan, one of the national seals, is an emblem (mon) of paulownia used by the Cabinet and the Government of Japan on official documents.
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In Japan, the is the highest ranking executive of a prefecture.
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Great Hanshin earthquake
The, or Kobe earthquake, occurred on January 17, 1995 at 05:46:53 JST (January 16 at 20:46:53 UTC) in the southern part of Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan, known as Hanshin.
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A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.
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Green tea ice cream
or matcha ice (抹茶アイス Matcha aisu) is a Japanese ice cream flavor.
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The present observation of as a national holiday in Japan stems from the celebration of the Emperor Shōwa's birthday on April 29 every year during the Shōwa era.
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Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
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Group of Eight
The G8, reformatted as G7 from 2014 due to the suspension of Russia's participation, was an inter-governmental political forum from 1997 until 2014, with the participation of some major industrialized countries in the world, that viewed themselves as democracies.
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Group of Seven
The Group of Seven (G7) is a group consisting of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
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Guided missile destroyer
A guided-missile destroyer is a destroyer designed to launch guided missiles.
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H-IIA (H2A) is an active expendable launch system operated by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) for the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency.
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A is a type of Japanese festival, or matsuri, in which participants wear a minimum amount of clothing; usually just a Japanese loincloth (called fundoshi), sometimes with a short happi coat, and rarely completely naked.
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Haikai (Japanese 俳諧 comic, unorthodox) may refer in both Japanese and English to haikai no renga (renku), a popular genre of Japanese linked verse, which developed in the sixteenth century out of the earlier aristocratic renga.
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(plural haiku) is a very short Japan poem with seventeen syllables and three verses.
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The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
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, commonly known as, Tokyo Haneda Airport, and Haneda International Airport, is one of the two primary airports that serve the Greater Tokyo Area, and is the primary base of Japan's two major domestic airlines, Japan Airlines (Terminal 1) and All Nippon Airways (Terminal 2), as well as Air Do, Skymark Airlines, Solaseed Air, and StarFlyer.
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Happy Monday System
The refers to a set of modifications to Japanese law in 1998 and 2001 to move a number of public holidays in Japan to Mondays, creating three-day weekends for those with five-day work weeks.
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is a Japanese writer.
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is the first Shinto shrine visit of the Japanese New Year.
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is a Japanese film director, producer, screenwriter, animator, author, and manga artist.
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The word is used in Japanese to refer to somebody who is biracial, i.e., ethnically half Japanese.
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The in the history of Japan was a family who controlled the hereditary title of shikken (regent) of the Kamakura shogunate between 1203 and 1333.
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Head of government
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
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Health and Sports Day
, also known as Health-Sports Day or Sports Day, is a national holiday in Japan held annually on the second Monday in October.
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The is the last division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185.
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Heian-kyō was one of several former names for the city now known as Kyoto.
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was the imperial residence in the Japanese capital city Heijō-kyō (today's Nara), during most of the Nara period.
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Hideki Shirakawa (白川 英樹 Shirakawa Hideki, born August 20, 1936) is a Japanese chemist, engineer, and Professor Emeritus at the University of Tsukuba and Zhejiang University.
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, was a Japanese theoretical physicist and the first Japanese Nobel laureate.
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The Higashiyama culture (東山文化 Higashiyama bunka) is a segment of Japanese culture originated and promoted in the 15th century by the shōgun Ashikaga Yoshimasa, after he retired to his villa in the eastern hills (東山 Higashiyama) of the capital city Kyoto.
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Higher education in Japan
Higher education in Japan is provided at universities (大学 daigaku), junior colleges (短期大学 tanki daigaku), colleges of technology (高等専門学校 kōtō senmon gakkō) and special training schools and community colleges (専修学校 senshū gakkō).
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is a hilltop Japanese castle complex situated in the city of Himeji which is located in the Hyōgo Prefecture of Japan.
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Hinduism in Japan
Hinduism, unlike the closely related Buddhism, is a minority religion in Japan.
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is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system, along with katakana, kanji, and in some cases rōmaji (Latin script).
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is a Japanese physicist and inventor specializing in the field of semiconductor technology.
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Utagawa Hiroshige (歌川 広重), also Andō Hiroshige (安藤 広重; 1797 – 12 October 1858), was a Japanese ukiyo-e artist, considered the last great master of that tradition.
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is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture and the largest city in the Chūgoku region of western Honshu - the largest island of Japan.
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Hiroshima Peace Memorial
The, originally the Hiroshima Prefectural Industrial Promotion Hall, and now commonly called the Genbaku Dome,, is part of the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park in Hiroshima, Japan and was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1996.
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Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto (Kyoto, Uji and Otsu Cities)
The UNESCO World Heritage Site Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto (Kyoto, Uji and Otsu Cities) encompasses 17 locations in Japan within the city of Kyoto and its immediate vicinity.
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Historic Monuments of Ancient Nara
The UNESCO World Heritage Site Historic Monuments of Ancient Nara encompasses eight places in the old capital Nara in Nara Prefecture, Japan.
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History of China
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
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History of Japan
The first human habitation in the Japanese archipelago has been traced to prehistoric times.
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(), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is the second largest island of Japan, and the largest and northernmost prefecture.
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Hokkien (from) or (閩南語/閩南話), is a Southern Min Chinese dialect group originating from the Minnan region in the south-eastern part of Fujian Province in Southeastern China and Taiwan, and spoken widely there and by the Chinese diaspora in Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines and other parts of Southeast Asia, and by other overseas Chinese all over the world.
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was a Japanese artist, ukiyo-e painter and printmaker of the Edo period.
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is a Japanese public multinational conglomerate corporation primarily known as a manufacturer of automobiles, aircraft, motorcycles, and power equipment.
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Honorific speech in Japanese
The Japanese language has many honorifics, referred to as keigo (敬語, literally "respectful language"), parts of speech that show respect.
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Honshu is the largest and most populous island of Japan, located south of Hokkaido across the Tsugaru Strait, north of Shikoku across the Inland Sea, and northeast of Kyushu across the Kanmon Straits.
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is one of three basic styles of Japanese cuisine and a highly ritualized form of serving food, in which prescribed dishes are carefully arranged and served on legged trays; full-course dinner, regular dinner.
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House of Councillors (Japan)
The is the upper house of the National Diet of Japan.
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House of Representatives (Japan)
The is the lower house of the National Diet of Japan.
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Housing in Japan
Housing in Japan includes modern and traditional styles.
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Human Development Index
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
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Humid continental climate
A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.
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Humid subtropical climate
A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and mild to cool winters.
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A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
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Hydropower or water power (from ύδωρ, "water") is power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes.
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was a Japanese poet and creator of the "floating world" genre of Japanese prose (ukiyo-zōshi).
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is the Japanese art of flower arrangement.
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Immigration to Japan
According to the Japanese Ministry of Justice, the number of foreign residents in Japan has steadily increased in the post Second World War period, and the number of foreign residents (excluding illegal immigrants and short-term foreign visitors and tourists staying less than 90 days in Japan) was more than 2.23 million at the end of 2015.
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Imperial House of Japan
The, also referred to as the Imperial Family and the Yamato Dynasty, comprises those members of the extended family of the reigning Emperor of Japan who undertake official and public duties.
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The is an official inauguration ceremony whereby the Emperor of Japan formally appoints the designated Chief Justice or Prime Minister of Japan to office.
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Improved sanitation is a term used to categorize types or levels of sanitation for monitoring purposes.
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Improved water source
An improved water source (or improved drinking-water source or improved water supply) is a term used to categorize certain types or levels of water supply for monitoring purposes.
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Index of Japan-related articles
This page lists Japan-related articles.
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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
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Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
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An industrial robot is a robot system used for manufacturing.
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Infant mortality refers to deaths of young children, typically those less than one year of age.
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Information integration (II) is the merging of information from heterogeneous sources with differing conceptual, contextual and typographical representations.
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Intercontinental Cup (football)
The Intercontinental Cup, also known as European/South American Cup, and also Toyota Cup from 1980 to 2004 for commercial reasons by agreement with the automaker, was an official international football competition endorsed by the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) and the Confederación Sudamericana de Fútbol (CONMEBOL), contested between representative clubs from these confederations, usually the winners of the European Champions' Cup (now known as the UEFA Champions League), and the South American Copa Libertadores namely was played by representatives clubs of most developed continents in the football world.
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International Business Times
The International Business Times is an American online news publication that publishes seven national editions and four languages.
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International Federation of Audit Bureaux of Circulations
The International Federation of Audit Bureaux of Circulations (IFABC) is an organisation founded in 1963 in Stockholm, Sweden IFABC is a voluntary cooperative federation of industry-sponsored organizations established in nations throughout the world to verify and report facts about the circulations of publications and related data. (IFABC website) A General Assembly of members is held every second year since 1963.
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International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
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International Military Tribunal for the Far East
The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE), also known as the Tokyo Trial or the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal, was a military trial convened on April 29, 1946, to try the leaders of the Empire of Japan for joint conspiracy to start and wage war (categorized as "Class A" crimes), conventional war crimes ("Class B") and crimes against humanity ("Class C").
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International Monetary Fund
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
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International Road Assessment Programme
The International Road Assessment Programme or iRAP assesses roads all over the world and aims to significantly reduce road casualties by improving the safety of road infrastructure.
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International Space Station
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.
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International Style (architecture)
The International Style is the name of a major architectural style that developed in the 1920s and 1930s and strongly related to Modernism and Modern architecture.
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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
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is a Japanese physicist, specializing in the field of semiconductor technology and Nobel Prize laureate, best known for inventing the bright gallium nitride (GaN) p-n junction blue LED in 1989 and subsequently the high-brightness GaN blue LED as well.
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was a Japanese film director, screenwriter and producer.
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Ise Grand Shrine
The, located in the city of Ise, Mie Prefecture of Japan, is a Shinto shrine dedicated to the sun goddess Amaterasu.
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, sometimes miscredited in foreign releases as "Inoshiro Honda", was a Japanese film director and screenwriter.
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Islam in Japan
The history of Islam in Japan is relatively brief in relation to the religion's longstanding presence in other nearby countries.
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An island country is a country whose primary territory consists of one or more islands or parts of islands.
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J-pop (often stylized as J-POP; ジェイポップ jeipoppu; an abbreviation for Japanese pop), natively also known simply as, is a musical genre that entered the musical mainstream of Japan in the 1990s.
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The (is Japan's professional football league including the first division J1 League, second division J2 League and third division J3 League. J1 League is one of the most successful leagues in Asian club football. It is currently sponsored by Meiji Yasuda Life and thus officially known as the Meiji Yasuda J.League.
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Japan Air Self-Defense Force
The (JASDF), sometimes referred to as the Japanese Air Force, is the air warfare branch of the Japan Self-Defense Forces, responsible for the defense of Japanese airspace and for other aerospace operations.
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, also known as, is the flag carrier airline of Japan. It is headquartered in Shinagawa, Tokyo, Japan; and its main hubs are Tokyo's Narita International Airport and Tokyo International Airport (Haneda Airport), as well as Osaka's Kansai International Airport and Osaka International Airport.
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Japan Business Federation
is an economic organization founded in May 2002 by amalgamation of Keidanren (Japan Federation of Economic Organizations, established 1946) and Nikkeiren (Japan Federation of Employers' Associations, established 1948), with Nikkeiren being absorbed into Keidanren.
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Japan during World War I
Japan participated in World War I from 1914 to 1918 in an alliance with Entente Powers and played an important role in securing the sea lanes in the West Pacific and Indian Oceans against the Imperial German Navy.
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Japan Ground Self-Defense Force
The (JGSDF), sometimes referred to as the Japanese Army is the land-warfare branch of the Japan Self-Defense Forces, and is the de facto army of Japan.
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Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force
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Japan National Tourism Organization
The, JNTO, provides information about Japan to promote travel to and in the country.
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Japan Post Holdings
is a Japanese state-owned conglomerate headquartered in Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda, Tokyo.
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Japan Railways Group
The Japan Railways Group, more commonly known as, consists of seven for-profit companies that took over most of the assets and operations of the government-owned Japanese National Railways on April 1, 1987.
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Japan Self-Defense Forces
The (JSDF), occasionally referred to as the Japan Defense Forces (JDF), Self-Defense Forces (SDF), or Japanese Armed Forces, are the unified military forces of Japan that were established in 1954, and are controlled by the Ministry of Defense.
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Japan Standard Time
is the standard timezone in Japan, 9 hours ahead of UTC (i.e. it is UTC+09:00).
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Japan Tourism Agency
The, JTA, is an organization which was set up on October 1, 2008 as an agency of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism.
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The modern study of Japanese aesthetics only started a little over two hundred years ago in the West.
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The is the group of islands that forms the country of Japan, and extends roughly from northeast to southwest along the northeastern coast of the Eurasia mainland, washing upon the northwestern shores of the Pacific Ocean.
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Japanese art covers a wide range of art styles and media, including ancient pottery, sculpture, ink painting and calligraphy on silk and paper, ukiyo-e paintings and woodblock prints, ceramics, origami, and more recently manga—modern Japanese cartooning and comics—along with a myriad of other types.
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Japanese asset price bubble
The was an economic bubble in Japan from 1986 to 1991 in which real estate and stock market prices were greatly inflated.
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are Brazilian citizens who are nationals or naturals of Japanese ancestry, or Japanese immigrants living in Brazil.
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Japanese Buddhist architecture
Examples of Buddhist architecture in Japan Japanese Buddhist architecture is the architecture of Buddhist temples in Japan, consisting of locally developed variants of architectural styles born in China.
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also called is a form of calligraphy, or artistic writing, of the Japanese language.
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Japanese colonial empire
The Japanese colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies established by Imperial Japan in the Western Pacific and East Asia region from 1895.
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in Japan has a long tradition and history.
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Japanese cuisine encompasses the regional and traditional foods of Japan, which have developed through centuries of social and economic changes.
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Japanese declaration of war on the United States and the British Empire
The declaration of war by the Empire of Japan on the United States and the British Empire was published on December 8, 1941 (Japan time; December 7 in the United States), after Japanese forces had executed an attack on the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor and attacks on British forces in Malaya, Singapore, and Hong Kong.
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The Japanese diaspora, and its individual members known as or, are the Japanese immigrants from Japan and their descendants that reside in a foreign country.
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are one of the traditional Japanese crafts.
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Japanese economic miracle
The Japanese economic miracle was Japan's record period of economic growth between the post-World War II era to the end of Cold War.
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Japanese era name
The, also known as, is the first of the two elements that identify years in the Japanese era calendar scheme.
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Japanese festivals are traditional festive occasions.
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Japanese general election, 2012
A general election was held in Japan on 16 December 2012.
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Japanese giant salamander
The Japanese giant salamander (Andrias japonicus) is endemic to Japan, where it is known as, literally meaning "giant pepper fish".
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Japanese invasion of French Indochina
The was a short undeclared military confrontation between the Empire of Japan and Vichy France in northern Indochina.
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Japanese invasion of Manchuria
The Japanese invasion of Manchuria began on 18 September 1931, when the Kwantung Army of the Empire of Japan invaded Manchuria immediately following the Mukden Incident.
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Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98)
The Japanese invasions of Korea comprised two separate yet linked operations: an initial invasion in 1592, a brief truce in 1596, and a second invasion in 1597.
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Japanese Iraq Reconstruction and Support Group
The Japanese Iraq Reconstruction and Support Group Retrieved on December 5, 2008.
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is a Japanese craft with a wide range of fine and decorative arts, as lacquer has been used in urushi-e, prints, and on a wide variety of objects from Buddha statues to bento boxes for food.
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is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
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Early works of Japanese literature were heavily influenced by cultural contact with China and Chinese literature, often written in Classical Chinese.
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The Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata), also known as the snow monkey, is a terrestrial Old World monkey species that is native to Japan.
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Japanese martial arts
Japanese martial arts refer to the variety of martial arts native to the country of Japan.
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refers to the ideology in the Empire of Japan that militarism should dominate the political and social life of the nation, and that the strength of the military is equal to the strength of a nation.
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Japanese new religions
Japanese new religions are new religious movements established in Japan.
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Japanese New Year
The is an annual festival with its own customs.
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Japanese newspapers (新聞 "shinbun"), similar to their worldwide counterparts, run the gamut from general news-oriented papers to special interest newspapers devoted to economics, sports, literature, industry, and trade.
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Noodles are a staple part of Japanese cuisine.
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is one of the oldest and most highly refined of the Japanese visual arts, encompassing a wide variety of genres and styles.
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The is the period of human inhabitation in Japan predating the development of pottery, generally before 10,000 BCE.
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are a nation and an ethnic group that is native to Japan and makes up 98.5% of the total population of that country.
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Japanese Peruvians (peruano-japonés or nipo-peruano, 日系ペルー人, Nikkei Perūjin) are Peruvian citizens of Japanese origin or ancestry.
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Japanese poetry is poetry of or typical of Japan, or written, spoken, or chanted in the Japanese language, which includes Old Japanese, Early Middle Japanese, Late Middle Japanese, and Modern Japanese, and some poetry in Japan which was written in the Chinese language or ryūka from the Okinawa Islands: it is possible to make a more accurate distinction between Japanese poetry written in Japan or by Japanese people in other languages versus that written in the Japanese language by speaking of Japanese-language poetry.
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Japanese pottery and porcelain
(also 焼きもの yakimono, or 陶芸 tōgei), is one of the oldest Japanese crafts and art forms, dating back to the Neolithic period.
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Japanese raccoon dog
The Japanese raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus), also known as in Japanese, is a subspecies of the Asian raccoon dog.
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Japanese regional cuisine
Japanese cuisine has a vast array of regional specialities known as kyōdo ryōri (郷土料理) in Japanese, many of them originating from dishes prepared using local ingredients and traditional recipes.
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Japanese rice refers to a number of short-grain cultivars of Japonica rice including ordinary rice (uruchimai) and glutinous rice (mochigome).
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The sculpture of Japan started from the clay figure.
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A is one of several types of traditionally made swords from Japan.
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Japanese tea ceremony
The Japanese tea ceremony, also called the Way of Tea, is a Japanese cultural activity involving the ceremonial preparation and presentation of matcha (抹茶), powdered green tea.
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Japanese television drama
, also called, are television programs that are a staple of Japanese television and are broadcast daily.
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Japanese traditional dance
Japanese traditional dance has a long history, the oldest known ones may be among those transmitted through the kagura tradition, or folk dances relating to food producing activities such as planting rice (dengaku) and fishing, including rain dances.
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Japanese variety show
A Japanese variety show is an entertainment television program made up of a variety of original stunts, musical performances, comedy skits, quiz contests, and other acts.
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Japanese war crimes
War crimes of the Empire of Japan occurred in many Asia-Pacific countries during the period of Japanese imperialism, primarily during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II.
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Japanese work environment
Many both in and outside Japan share an image of the Japanese work environment that is based on a and " model used by large companies as well as a reputation of long work-hours and strong devotion to one's company.
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Japanese writing system
The modern Japanese writing system uses a combination of logographic kanji, which are adopted Chinese characters, and syllabic kana.
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The is the official currency of Japan.
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The Japonic or Japanese-Ryukyuan language family includes the Japanese language spoken on the main islands of Japan as well as the Ryukyuan languages spoken in the Ryukyu Islands.
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First described by French art critic and collector Philippe Burty in 1872, Japonism, from the French Japonisme, is the study of Japanese art and artistic talent.
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The is the Japanese national aerospace and space agency.
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, also known as Shin Buddhism or True Pure Land Buddhism, is a school of Pure Land Buddhism.
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, also known as Jōdo Buddhism, is a branch of Pure Land Buddhism derived from the teachings of the Japanese ex-Tendai monk Hōnen.
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is the generic name of people who lived in the Japanese archipelago during the Jōmon period.
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The is the time in Japanese prehistory, traditionally dated between 14,000–300 BCE, recently refined to about 1000 BCE, during which Japan was inhabited by a hunter-gatherer culture, which reached a considerable degree of sedentism and cultural complexity.
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John Lie (professor)
John Lie is professor of sociology at the University of California, Berkeley.
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Joint Strike Fighter program
Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) is a development and acquisition program intended to replace a wide range of existing fighter, strike, and ground attack aircraft for the United States, the United Kingdom, Turkey, Italy, Canada, Australia, the Netherlands and their allies.
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JS Kongō (DDG-173) is a guided missile destroyer in the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF).
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Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
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Judicial system of Japan
In the judicial system of Japan, the Constitution of Japan guarantees that "all judges shall be independent in the exercise of their conscience and shall be bound only by this constitution and the Laws" (Article 76).
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was created as a physical, mental and moral pedagogy in Japan, in 1882, by Jigoro Kano (嘉納治五郎).
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was one of the major writers of modern Japanese literature, and perhaps the most popular Japanese novelist after Natsume Sōseki.
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is a Japanese politician who was the 56th Prime Minister of Japan from 2001 to 2006.
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K-pop (abbreviation of Korean pop) characterized by a wide variety of audiovisual elements.
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is a classical Japanese dance-drama.
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were roads in Japan dating from the Edo period.
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(from Japanese "strange beast") is a Japanese film genre that features giant monsters, usually attacking major cities and engaging the military and other monsters in battle.
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or is a traditional multi-course Japanese dinner.
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is a Japanese shaved ice dessert flavored with syrup and a sweetener, often condensed milk.
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is a city in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan.
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The is a period of Japanese history that marks the governance by the Kamakura shogunate, officially established in 1192 in Kamakura by the first shōgun, Minamoto no Yoritomo.
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The Kamakura shogunate (Japanese: 鎌倉幕府, Kamakura bakufu) was a Japanese feudal military governmentNussbaum, Louis-Frédéric.
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are the spirits or phenomena that are worshipped in the religion of Shinto.
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are syllabic Japanese scripts, a part of the Japanese writing system contrasted with the logographic Chinese characters known in Japan as kanji (漢字).
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Kanji (漢字) are the adopted logographic Chinese characters that are used in the Japanese writing system.
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A, also called, is the person responsible for the maintenance of a as well as for leading worship of a given kami.
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Kansai International Airport
is an international airport located on an artificial island in the middle of Osaka Bay off the Honshu shore, southwest of Ōsaka Station, located within three municipalities, including Izumisano (north),.
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Karaoke, is a form of interactive entertainment or video game developed in Japan in which an amateur singer sings along with recorded music (a music video) using a microphone.
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(Okinawan pronunciation) is a martial art developed in the Ryukyu Kingdom.
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is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system along with hiragana, kanji, and in some cases the Latin script (known as rōmaji).
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Kūkai (空海), also known posthumously as, 774–835, was a Japanese Buddhist monk, civil servant, scholar, poet, and artist who founded the Shingon or "True Word" school of Buddhism.
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() is a Japanese telecommunications operator formed in October 1, 2000 through the merger of DDI Corp.
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() is a private railway operator in Tokyo, Japan, and the central firm of the that is involved in transport, retail, real estate and other industries.
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A is a set of companies with interlocking business relationships and shareholdings.
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is a traditional Japanese martial art, which descended from swordsmanship (kenjutsu) and uses bamboo swords (shinai) and protective armour (bōgu).
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Kenichi Fukui (福井 謙一 Fukui Ken'ichi, October 4, 1918 – January 9, 1998) was a Japanese chemist, known as the first Asian scientist to receive a chemistry Nobel Prize.
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was a Japanese film director and screenwriter.
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The (1333–1336) is the name given to both the three-year period of Japanese history between the Kamakura period and the Muromachi period, and the political events that took place in it.
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is a Japanese writer and a major figure in contemporary Japanese literature.
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was a Japanese architect, and winner of the 1987 Pritzker Prize for architecture.
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Kibo (ISS module)
The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), nicknamed, is a Japanese science module for the International Space Station (ISS) developed by JAXA.
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The Kikai language (しまゆみた Shimayumita) is spoken on Kikai Island, Kagoshima Prefecture of southwestern Japan.
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is the national anthem of Japan.
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The is a traditional Japanese garment.
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, referred to as, is a Japanese passenger railway company, managing infrastructure and operating passenger train service.
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is an integrated beverages company.
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, better known by the pen name, was a Japanese manga artist and nihonga artist.
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is a Japanese engineer who shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2002 for developing a novel method for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules with John Bennett Fenn and Kurt Wüthrich (the latter for work in NMR spectroscopy).
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, also sometimes read as Furukotofumi, is the oldest extant chronicle in Japan, dating from the early 8th century (711–712) and composed by Ō no Yasumaro at the request of Empress Genmei with the purpose of sanctifying the imperial court's claims to supremacy over rival clans.
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The, commonly abbreviated as, is an early anthology of the waka form of Japanese poetry, dating from the Heian period.
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Kokugaku (kyūjitai: 國學/shinjitai: 国学; literally national study) was an academic movement, a school of Japanese philology and philosophy originating during the Tokugawa period.
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is the ecclesiastic head temple of Koyasan Shingon Buddhism, located on, Wakayama prefecture, Japan.
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Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.
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Korea under Japanese rule
Korea under Japanese rule began with the end of the short-lived Korean Empire in 1910 and ended at the conclusion of World War II in 1945.
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Korean dramas or K-dramas are television dramas in the Korean language, made in South Korea.
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The Korean Wave (a neologism literally meaning "flow of Korea") is the increase in global popularity of South Korean culture since the 1990s.
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Koreans in Japan
comprise ethnic Koreans who have permanent residency status in Japan, or who have become Japanese citizens, and whose immigration to Japan originated before 1945, or who are descendents of those immigrants.
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The koto (Japanese: 箏) is a traditional Japanese stringed musical instrument derived from the Chinese zheng, and similar to the Mongolian yatga, the Korean gayageum, and the Vietnamese đàn tranh.
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Kujikata Osadamegaki (公事方御定書, "book of rules for public officials") was a two-volume rulebook for Japanese judicial bureaucrats during the Edo period (江戸時代).
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The Kunigami or Northern Okinawan language is a Ryukyuan language of northern Okinawa Island in Kunigami District and city of Nago, otherwise known as the Yanbaru region, historically the territory of the Hokuzan kingdom.
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Kuril Islands dispute
The Kuril Islands dispute, also known as the Northern Territories dispute, is a disagreement between Japan and Russia and also some individuals of the Ainu people over sovereignty of the South Kuril Islands.
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, officially, is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture, located in the Kansai region of Japan.
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The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits state parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that (part one) global warming is occurring and (part two) it is extremely likely that human-made CO2 emissions have predominantly caused it.
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, or is a national university in Kyoto, Japan.
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is the third largest island of Japan and most southwesterly of its four main islands.
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Labor Thanksgiving Day
is a national holiday in Japan which takes place annually on November 23.
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is the largest freshwater lake in Japan, located in Shiga Prefecture (west-central Honshu), northeast of the former capital city of Kyoto.
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A landmark is a recognizable natural or artificial feature used for navigation, a feature that stands out from its near environment and is often visible from long distances.
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Languages of Japan
The most widely spoken language in Japan is Japanese, which is separated into a large number of dialects with Tokyo dialect considered standard Japanese.
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Large Japanese field mouse
The large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) is a nocturnal species of rodent in the family Muridae.
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The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
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Latin Americans (Latinoamericanos, Latino-americanos) are the citizens of the Latin American countries and dependencies.
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Law of Japan
The Law of Japan refers to the entirety of the legally achieved norms in Japan.
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League of Nations
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
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Reona Esaki (江崎 玲於奈 Esaki Reona, born March 12, 1925), also known as Leo Esaki, is a Japanese physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1973 with Ivar Giaever and Brian David Josephson for his discovery of the phenomenon of electron tunneling.
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is the luxury vehicle division of Japanese car maker Toyota.
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The Liancourt Rocks, also known as Dokdo or Tokto ("solitary island") in Korean, and in Japanese, are a group of small islets in the Sea of Japan (East Sea).
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Liberal Democratic Party (Japan)
The, frequently abbreviated to LDP or, is a conservative political party in Japan.
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Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
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Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
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List of busiest airports by passenger traffic
The world's busiest airports by passenger traffic are measured by total passengers (data from Airports Council International), defined as passengers enplaned plus passengers deplaned plus direct-transit passengers.
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List of countries and dependencies by area
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
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List of countries and dependencies by population
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population.
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List of countries and dependencies by population density
This is a list of countries and dependent territories ranked by population density, measured by the number of human inhabitants per square kilometer.
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List of countries by exports
This is a list of countries by merchandise exports, based on The World Factbook of the CIA.
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List of countries by GDP (nominal)
Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.
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List of countries by GDP (PPP)
This article includes a list of countries by their forecasted estimated gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity, abbreviated GDP (PPP).
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List of countries by imports
This is a list of countries by merchandise imports, based on The World Factbook of the CIA.
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List of countries by life expectancy
This is a collection of lists of countries by average life expectancy at birth.
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List of countries by military expenditures
This article is a list of countries by military expenditure in a given year.
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List of countries by natural disaster risk
This is a list of countries by natural disaster risk, as measured in the World Risk Index, calculated by the United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS) and featured in the 2016 World Risk Report (WRR 2016) published by the Alliance Development Works/Bündnis Entwicklung Hilft (BEH).
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List of countries by oil imports
This is a list of countries by oil imports based on The World Factbook and other sources.
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List of countries by research and development spending
This is a list of countries by research and development (R&D) spending in real terms and as per latest data available.
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List of countries by tax revenue to GDP ratio
This article lists countries alphabetically, with total tax revenue as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) for the listed countries.
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List of countries by unemployment rate
This is a list of countries by unemployment rate.
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List of ecoregions in Japan
Japan is home to a nine forest ecoregions, which reflect its climate and geography.
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List of films considered the best
This is a list of films considered "the best ever", so voted in a notable national or international survey of either critics or the public.
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List of government space agencies
This is a list of government agencies engaged in activities related to outer space and space exploration.
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List of islands of Japan
The four main islands of Japan are.
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List of Japanese Nobel laureates
Since 1949, there have been twenty-six Japanese winners of the Nobel Prize (Nobelpriset).
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List of Japanese poetry anthologies
This is a list of significant Japanese poetry anthologies.
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List of life sciences
The life sciences or biological sciences comprise the branches of science that involve the scientific study of life and organisms – such as microorganisms, plants, and animals including human beings – as well as related considerations like bioethics.
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List of national parks of Japan
and in Japan are places of scenic beauty designated for protection and sustainable usage by the Minister of the Environment under the of 1957.
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List of newspapers by circulation
This is a list of paid daily newspapers in the world by average circulation.
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List of railway companies in Japan
List of railway companies in Japan lists Japanese railway operators.
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List of Ramsar sites in Japan
The Ramsar Convention (Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat) is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands.
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List of regions of Japan
The regions of Japan are not official administrative units, but have been traditionally used as the regional division of Japan in a number of contexts.
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List of traditional Japanese games
This is a list of traditional Japanese games.
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List of World Heritage Sites in Japan
Japan accepted the UNESCO World Heritage Convention on 30 June 1992.
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Lost Decade (Japan)
The is a period of economic stagnation in Japan following the Japanese asset price bubble's collapse in late 1991 and early 1992.
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Loyalty, in general use, is a devotion and faithfulness to a nation, cause, philosophy, country, group, or person.
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Luís Fróis (1532 – 8 July 1597) was a Portuguese missionary.
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are the findings of the Lytton Commission, entrusted in 1931 by the League of Nations in an attempt to evaluate the Mukden Incident, which led to the Empire of Japan's seizure of Manchuria.
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A machine tool is a machine for shaping or machining metal or other rigid materials, usually by cutting, boring, grinding, shearing, or other forms of deformation.
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A magazine is a publication, usually a periodical publication, which is printed or electronically published (sometimes referred to as an online magazine).
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The is one of the major newspapers in Japan, published by.
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Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball (MLB) is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada.
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Makoto Kobayashi (physicist)
(born April 7, 1944 in Nagoya, Japan) is a Japanese physicist known for his work on CP-violation who was awarded one fourth of the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physics "for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature.".
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Malay (Bahasa Melayu بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.
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The Malayan Campaign was a military campaign fought by Allied and Axis forces in Malaya, from 8 December 1941 – 31 January 1942 during the Second World War.
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The is the oldest existing collection of Japanese poetry, compiled sometime after AD 759 during the Nara period.
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Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.
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are comics created in Japan or by creators in the Japanese language, conforming to a style developed in Japan in the late 19th century.
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Manufacturing in Japan
Japan's major export industries include automobiles, consumer electronics (see Electronics industry in Japan), computers, semiconductors, copper, iron and steel.
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Acer is a genus of trees or shrubs commonly known as maple.
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Marco Polo (1254January 8–9, 1324) was an Italian merchant, explorer, and writer, born in the Republic of Venice.
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, also known as "Ocean Day" or "Sea Day", is a Japanese national holiday celebrated on the third Monday in July.
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Marius Berthus Jansen (April 11, 1922 – December 10, 2000) was an American academic, historian, and Emeritus Professor of Japanese History at Princeton University.
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A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
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Marriage in Japan
Marriage in Japan is a legal and social institution at the center of the household.
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is a Japanese physicist, known as one of the founders of Neutrino astronomy and jointly won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2002.
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is finely ground powder of specially grown and processed green tea leaves.
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, born 松尾 金作, then, was the most famous poet of the Edo period in Japan.
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Matthew C. Perry
Matthew Calbraith Perry (April 10, 1794 – March 4, 1858) was a Commodore of the United States Navy who commanded ships in several wars, including the War of 1812 and the Mexican–American War (1846–48).
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May 15 Incident
The was an attempted coup d'état in the Empire of Japan, on May 15, 1932, launched by reactionary elements of the Imperial Japanese Navy, aided by cadets in the Imperial Japanese Army and civilian remnants of the ultra nationalist League of Blood.
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, commonly referred to as simply Mazda, is a Japanese multinational automaker based in Fuchū, Aki District, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.
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The Constitution of the Empire of Japan (Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國憲法; Shinjitai: 大日本帝国憲法 Dai-Nippon Teikoku Kenpō), known informally as the Meiji Constitution (明治憲法 Meiji Kenpō), was the constitution of the Empire of Japan which had the proclamation on February 11, 1889, and had enacted since November 29, 1890 until May 2, 1947.
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The Meiji oligarchy was the name used to describe the new ruling class of Meiji period Japan.
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The, also known as the Meiji Ishin, Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was an event that restored practical imperial rule to the Empire of Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji.
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In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic.
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was a post-war Japanese architectural movement that fused ideas about architectural megastructures with those of organic biological growth.
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Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.
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Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
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Metropolis (free magazine)
Metropolis is a 32-to-48-page free monthly city guide, news and classified ads glossy magazine published by Japan Partnership KK targeting English-speaking foreigners in Tokyo, Japan.
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A middle school (also known as intermediate school or junior high school) is an educational stage which exists in some countries, providing education between primary school and secondary school.
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A is a divine palanquin (also translated as portable Shinto shrine).
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Minamoto no Yoritomo
was the founder and the first shōgun of the Kamakura Shogunate of Japan.
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Minister of State
Minister of State is a title borne by politicians or officials in certain countries governed under a parliamentary system.
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Ministry of Defense (Japan)
The is a cabinet-level ministry of the Government of Japan.
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Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology
The, also known as MEXT, Monka-shō, and formerly the, is one of the ministries of the Japanese government.
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Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare
The is a cabinet level ministry of the Japanese government.
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Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications
The is a cabinet-level ministry in the Government of Japan.
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Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism
The, abbreviated MLIT, is a ministry of the Japanese government.
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Ministry of the Environment (Japan)
The is a Cabinet-level ministry of the government of Japan responsible for global environmental conservation, pollution control, and nature conservation.
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are vernacular houses constructed in any one of several traditional Japanese building styles.
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Mission Network News
Mission Network News (MNN) is the broadcast ministry of Cornerstone University that reports on the work on mission agencies and relief organizations around the world.
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A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize and/or perform ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development.
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The is a group of autonomous Japanese multinational companies in a variety of industries.
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is one of the largest real-estate developers in Japan and is involved in property management and architecture research and design.
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The Mitsubishi F-2 is a multirole fighter derived from the General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon, and manufactured by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Lockheed Martin for the Japan Air Self-Defense Force, with a 60/40 split in manufacturing between Japan and the United States.
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Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group
is a Japanese bank holding / financial services company headquartered in Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan.
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is one of the largest keiretsu in Japan and one of the largest corporate groups in the world.
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Mitsui Sumitomo Insurance Group
is a Japanese insurance holding company headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.
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Miyabi (雅) is one of the traditional Japanese aesthetic ideals, though not as prevalent as Iki or Wabi-sabi.
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The Miyakoan language (宮古口/ミャークフツ Myaakufutsu or 島口/スマフツ Sumafutsu) is a language spoken in the Miyako Islands, located southwest of Okinawa.
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Mizuho Financial Group
, abbreviated as MHFG, or simply called Mizuho, is a banking holding company headquartered in the Ōtemachi district of Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan.
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is Japanese rice cake made of mochigome, a short-grain japonica glutinous rice.
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Modern architecture or modernist architecture is a term applied to a group of styles of architecture which emerged in the first half of the 20th century and became dominant after World War II.
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Mongol invasions of Japan
The, which took place in 1274 and 1281, were major military efforts undertaken by Kublai Khan to conquer the Japanese archipelago after the submission of Goryeo (Korea) to vassaldom.
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Monoculturalism is the policy or process of supporting, advocating, or allowing the expression of the culture of a single social or ethnic group.
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Moody's Investors Service
Moody's Investors Service, often referred to as Moody's, is the bond credit rating business of Moody's Corporation, representing the company's traditional line of business and its historical name.
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Lieutenant-General, known by his pen name Mori Ōgai, was a Japanese Army Surgeon general officer, translator, novelist, poet and father of famed author Mari Mori.
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, located on Honshū, is the highest mountain in Japan at 3,776.24 m (12,389 ft), 2nd-highest peak of an island (volcanic) in Asia, and 7th-highest peak of an island in the world.
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In everyday language is the name of a huge temple settlement in Wakayama Prefecture to the south of Osaka.
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is a mountain located in the town of Yoshino in Yoshino District, Nara Prefecture, Japan.
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Mountain Day refers to three different and unrelated events: (1) Mountain Day, a student celebration in some colleges in the United States in which classes are cancelled without prior notice, and the student body heads to the mountains or a park, (2) International Mountain Day, held each year on 11 December, which was established by the UN General Assembly in 2003 to encourage sustainable development in mountains, and (3) Mountain Day, a national holiday in Japan as of 2016.
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A multinational state is a sovereign state that comprises two or more nations.
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Multirole combat aircraft
A multirole combat aircraft (MRCA) is a combat aircraft intended to perform different roles in combat.
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Municipal mergers and dissolutions in Japan
can take place within one municipality or between multiple municipalities and are required to be based upon consensus.
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was a Japanese novelist, poet and lady-in-waiting at the Imperial court during the Heian period.
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The is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1336 to 1573.
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is a submarine volcano located about 450 kilometers south of Tokyo on the Izu-Ogasawara Ridge in the Izu Islands.
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was the capital of Japan from 784 to 794.
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() is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture on the island of Kyushu in Japan.
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is a prefecture of Japan located on the island of Kyushu.
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was a state which was located in and around modern-day Fukuoka City, on the Japanese island of Kyūshū, from the 1st to early 3rd centuries.
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Names of Japan
The word Japan is an exonym, and is used (in one form or another) by a large number of languages.
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refers to Japanese art of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries influenced by contact with the or 'Southern barbarians', traders and missionaries from Europe and specifically from Portugal.
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The or the in the history of Japan extends from the arrival of the first Europeans – Portuguese explorers, missionaries and merchants – to Japan in 1543, to their near-total exclusion from the archipelago in 1614, under the promulgation of the "Sakoku" Seclusion Edicts.
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Nanjing, formerly romanized as Nanking and Nankin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region, with an administrative area of and a total population of 8,270,500.
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The Nanking Massacre was an episode of mass murder and mass rape committed by Japanese troops against the residents of Nanjing (Nanking), then the capital of the Republic of China, during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
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The of the history of Japan covers the years from AD 710 to 794.
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is the capital city of Nara Prefecture located in the Kansai region of Japan.
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Narita International Airport
, also known as Tokyo Narita Airport, formerly and originally known as, is an international airport serving the Greater Tokyo Area of Japan.
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National Basketball Association
The National Basketball Association (NBA) is a men's professional basketball league in North America; composed of 30 teams (29 in the United States and 1 in Canada).
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The is Japan's bicameral legislature.
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National Foundation Day
is a national holiday in Japan celebrated annually on February 11, celebrating the mythological foundation of Japan and the accession of its first emperor, Emperor Jimmu at Kashihara gū on 11 February 660 BC.
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A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) that has some connection—de facto or de jure—with people and the territory they occupy.
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National Museum of Nature and Science
The is in the northeast corner of Ueno Park in Tokyo.
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National Security Council (Japan)
The of Japan is an inter-agency body established to coordinate the national security policies of Japan.
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National Treasure (Japan)
Some of the National Treasures of Japan A National Treasure (国宝: kokuhō) is the most precious of Japan's Tangible Cultural Properties, as determined and designated by the Agency for Cultural Affairs (a subsidiary of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology).
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, born, was a Japanese novelist.
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Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
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The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
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News is information about current events.
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A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events.
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is Japan's national public broadcasting organization.
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The, sometimes translated as The Chronicles of Japan, is the second-oldest book of classical Japanese history.
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The Ningbo dialect is a dialect of Wu Chinese, one subdivision of Chinese language.
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Nintendo Co., Ltd. is a Japanese multinational consumer electronics and video game company headquartered in Kyoto.
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Nippon Professional Baseball
or NPB is the highest level of baseball in Japan.
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Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal
(), was formed in 2012 with the merger of Nippon Steel and Sumitomo Metal.
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Nippon Telegraph and Telephone
, commonly known as NTT, is a Japanese telecommunications company headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.
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, doing business as Nippon TV, is a television network based in the Shiodome area of Minato, Tokyo, Japan and is controlled by the Yomiuri Shimbun publishing company.
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is a town located in Shiribeshi Subprefecture, Hokkaido, Japan.
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, usually shortened to Nissan (or; Japanese), is a Japanese multinational automobile manufacturer headquartered in Nishi-ku, Yokohama.
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The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
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Nobel Prize in Chemistry
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.
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Nobel Prize in Literature
The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").
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Nobel Prize in Physics
The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.
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Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.
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, derived from the Sino-Japanese word for "skill" or "talent", is a major form of classical Japanese musical drama that has been performed since the 14th century.
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is a Japanese financial holding company and a principal member of the Nomura Group.
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North American Plate
The North American Plate is a tectonic plate covering most of North America, Greenland, Cuba, the Bahamas, extreme northeastern Asia, and parts of Iceland and the Azores.
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North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
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North Korea and weapons of mass destruction
North Korea has a military nuclear weapons program and also has a significant quantity of chemical and biological weapons.
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In atmospheric chemistry, is a generic term for the nitrogen oxides that are most relevant for air pollution, namely nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide.
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Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.
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Nuclear power in Japan
Prior to the earthquake and tsunami of March 2011, Japan had generated 30% of its electrical power from nuclear reactors and planned to increase that share to 40%.
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Occupation of Japan
The Allied occupation of Japan at the end of World War II was led by General Douglas MacArthur, the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, with support from the British Commonwealth.
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was a powerful daimyō (feudal lord) of Japan in the late 16th century who attempted to unify Japan during the late Sengoku period, and successfully gained control over most of Honshu.
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The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
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Official development assistance
Official development assistance (ODA) is a term coined by the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to measure aid.
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is the capital city of Okayama Prefecture in the Chūgoku region of Japan.
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is a Japanese word meaning a side dish to accompany rice; subsidiary articles of diet.
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The Okhotsk Plate is a minor tectonic plate covering the Sea of Okhotsk, the Kamchatka Peninsula, Sakhalin Island and Tōhoku and Hokkaidō in Japan.
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is the largest of the Okinawa Islands and the Ryukyu (Nansei) Islands of Japan.
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The Okinawa Plate is a minor tectonic plate in the northern and eastern hemispheres stretching from the northern end of Taiwan to the southern tip of the island of Kyūshū.
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is the southernmost prefecture of Japan.
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is the Japanese language as spoken by people of Okinawa Prefecture.
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Central Okinawan, or simply the Okinawan language (沖縄口/ウチナーグチ Uchinaaguchi), is a Northern Ryukyuan language spoken primarily in the southern half of the island of Okinawa, as well as in the surrounding islands of Kerama, Kumejima, Tonaki, Aguni, and a number of smaller peripheral islands.
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Okinoerabu dialect cluster
The Okinoerabu dialect cluster (島ムニ Shimamuni), also Oki-no-Erabu, is a dialect cluster spoken on Okinoerabu Island, Kagoshima Prefecture of southwestern Japan.
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The is a Japanese uninhabited atoll with a total area of.
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Oku no Hosomichi
, translated alternately as The Narrow Road to the Deep North and The Narrow Road to the Interior, is a major work of haibun by the Japanese poet Matsuo Bashō, considered one of the major texts of Japanese literature of the Edo period.
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Old Book of Tang
The Old Book of Tang, or simply the Book of Tang, is the first classic historical work about the Tang dynasty, comprising 200 chapters, and is one of the Twenty-Four Histories.
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Old Mandarin or Early Mandarin was the speech of northern China during the Jin and Yuan dynasties (12th to 14th centuries).
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Olivier Eugène Prosper Charles Messiaen (December 10, 1908 – April 27, 1992) was a French composer, organist, and ornithologist, one of the major composers of the 20th century.
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An onsen is a Japanese hot spring; the term also extends to cover the bathing facilities and traditional inns frequently situated around a spring.
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Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
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Organized religion (or organised religion—see spelling differences), also known as institutional religion, is religion in which belief systems and rituals are systematically arranged and formally established.
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) is the art of paper folding, which is often associated with Japanese culture.
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Osaka Bay (大阪湾 Ōsaka-wan) is a bay in western Japan.
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is a Japanese organic chemist and marine biologist, and Professor Emeritus at Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) in Woods Hole, Massachusetts and Boston University School of Medicine.
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was a Japanese manga artist, cartoonist, animator, and film producer.
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Outline of Japan
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Japan: Japan – an island nation in East Asia, located in the Pacific Ocean.
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A country's Pacific coast is the part of its coast bordering the Pacific Ocean.
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The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
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The Pacific Plate is an oceanic tectonic plate that lies beneath the Pacific Ocean.
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The Pacific War, sometimes called the Asia-Pacific War, was the theater of World War II that was fought in the Pacific and Asia. It was fought over a vast area that included the Pacific Ocean and islands, the South West Pacific, South-East Asia, and in China (including the 1945 Soviet–Japanese conflict). The Second Sino-Japanese War between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China had been in progress since 7 July 1937, with hostilities dating back as far as 19 September 1931 with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. However, it is more widely accepted that the Pacific War itself began on 7/8 December 1941, when Japan invaded Thailand and attacked the British possessions of Malaya, Singapore, and Hong Kong as well as the United States military and naval bases in Hawaii, Wake Island, Guam and the Philippines. The Pacific War saw the Allies pitted against Japan, the latter briefly aided by Thailand and to a much lesser extent by the Axis allied Germany and Italy. The war culminated in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and other large aerial bomb attacks by the Allies, accompanied by the Soviet declaration of war and invasion of Manchuria on 9 August 1945, resulting in the Japanese announcement of intent to surrender on 15 August 1945. The formal surrender of Japan ceremony took place aboard the battleship in Tokyo Bay on 2 September 1945. Japan's Shinto Emperor was forced to relinquish much of his authority and his divine status through the Shinto Directive in order to pave the way for extensive cultural and political reforms. After the war, Japan lost all rights and titles to its former possessions in Asia and the Pacific, and its sovereignty was limited to the four main home islands.
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Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
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, formerly known as, is a Japanese multinational electronics corporation headquartered in Kadoma, Osaka, Japan.
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A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
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The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
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Peacekeeping refers to activities intended to create conditions that favour lasting peace.
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Penguin Classics is an imprint published by Penguin Books, a subsidiary of Penguin Random House.
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People's Liberation Army
The Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Communist Party of China (CPC).
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Permanent employees, regular employees or the directly employed, work for an employer and are paid directly by that employer.
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Peruvians (Peruanos) are the citizens of the Republic of Peru or their descendants abroad.
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Philippine Sea Plate
The Philippine Sea Plate or Philippine Plate is a tectonic plate comprising oceanic lithosphere that lies beneath the Philippine Sea, to the east of the Philippines.
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A phonogram is a grapheme (written character) which represents a phoneme (speech sound) or combination of phonemes, such as the letters of the Latin alphabet or the Japanese kana.
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A pit-house (or pithouse) is a building that is partly dug into the ground, and covered by a roof.
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The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.
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Port of Nagoya
The, located in Ise Bay, is the largest and busiest trading port in Japan, accounting for about 10% of the total trade value of Japan.
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Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
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The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.
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Post-Impressionism (also spelled Postimpressionism) is a predominantly French art movement that developed roughly between 1886 and 1905, from the last Impressionist exhibition to the birth of Fauvism.
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Post–World War II baby boom
The end of World War II brought a baby boom to many countries, especially Western ones.
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Postmodern architecture is a style or movement which emerged in the 1960s as a reaction against the austerity, formality, and lack of variety of modern architecture, particularly in the international style advocated by Le Corbusier and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe.
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Pottery is the ceramic material which makes up pottery wares, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain.
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In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
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Prefectures of Japan
Japan is divided into 47, forming the first level of jurisdiction and administrative division.
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Primary education and elementary education is typically the first stage of formal education, coming after preschool and before secondary education (The first two grades of primary school, Grades 1 and 2, are also part of early childhood education).
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Prime Minister of Japan
The is the head of government of Japan.
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, also known as or, was a semi-legendary regent and a politician of the Asuka period in Japan who served under Empress Suiko.
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Privy Council of Japan
was an advisory council to the Emperor of Japan that operated from 1888 to 1947.
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Programme for International Student Assessment
The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a worldwide study by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in member and non-member nations intended to evaluate educational systems by measuring 15-year-old school pupils' scholastic performance on mathematics, science, and reading.
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Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
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Public broadcasting includes radio, television and other electronic media outlets whose primary mission is public service.
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Purchasing power parity
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
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Pure Land Buddhism
Pure Land Buddhism (浄土仏教 Jōdo bukkyō; Korean:; Tịnh Độ Tông), also referred to as Amidism in English, is a broad branch of Mahayana Buddhism and one of the most widely practiced traditions of Buddhism in East Asia.
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Radical (Chinese characters)
A Chinese radical is a graphical component of a Chinese character under which the character is traditionally listed in a Chinese dictionary.
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Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.
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is a form of Japanese verbal entertainment.
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is a Japanese dish.
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Rangaku (Kyūjitai: 學/Shinjitai: 蘭学, literally "Dutch learning", and by extension "Western learning") is a body of knowledge developed by Japan through its contacts with the Dutch enclave of Dejima, which allowed Japan to keep abreast of Western technology and medicine in the period when the country was closed to foreigners, 1641–1853, because of the Tokugawa shogunate's policy of national isolation (sakoku).
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is a 1950 Japanese period film directed by Akira Kurosawa, working in close collaboration with cinematographer Kazuo Miyagawa.
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Recitative (also known by its Italian name "recitativo") is a style of delivery (much used in operas, oratorios, and cantatas) in which a singer is allowed to adopt the rhythms of ordinary speech.
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Records of the Three Kingdoms
The Records of the Three Kingdoms is a Chinese historical text which covers the history of the late Eastern Han dynasty (c. 184–220 AD) and the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD).
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Red bean paste
Red bean paste or red bean jam, also called adzuki bean paste, is a paste made of red beans (also called "adzuki beans"), used in East Asian cuisine.
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was a pianist and one of the best-known composers of Japan.
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Research and development
Research and development (R&D, R+D, or R'n'D), also known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), refers to innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in developing new services or products, or improving existing services or products.
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Respect for the Aged Day
is a Japanese designated public holiday celebrated annually to honor elderly citizens.
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Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
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Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
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Rice brokers, which rose to power and significance in Osaka and Edo in the Edo period (1603-1867) of Japanese history, were the forerunners to Japan's banking system.
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RIM-161 Standard Missile 3
The RIM-161 Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) is a ship-based missile system used by the United States Navy to intercept short- and intermediate-range ballistic missiles as a part of Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System.
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Ring of Fire
The Ring of Fire is a major area in the basin of the Pacific Ocean where many earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur.
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Robotics is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering and science that includes mechanical engineering, electronics engineering, computer science, and others.
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Rubber stamp (politics)
A rubber stamp, as a political metaphor, refers to a person or institution with considerable de jure power but little de facto power; one that rarely or never disagrees with more powerful organs.
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Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.
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Rugby World Cup
The Rugby World Cup is a men's rugby union tournament contested every four years between the top international teams.
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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
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The Russo–Japanese War (Russko-yaponskaya voina; Nichirosensō; 1904–05) was fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea.
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is a Japanese chemist.
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, art name Chōkōdō Shujin(澄江堂主人) was a Japanese writer active in the Taishō period in Japan.
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A is a type of traditional Japanese inn that has existed since the eighth century A.D. during the Keiun period, in which the oldest hotel in the world, Nishiyama Onsen Keiunkan, was created in 705 A.D. Another old ryokan called Hōshi Ryokan was founded in 718 A.D and was also known as the world's second oldest hotel.
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The, also known as the or the, are a chain of islands annexed by Japan that stretch southwest from Kyushu to Taiwan: the Ōsumi, Tokara, Amami, Okinawa, and Sakishima Islands (further divided into the Miyako and Yaeyama Islands), with Yonaguni the southernmost.
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The are the indigenous languages of the Ryukyu Islands, the southernmost part of the Japanese archipelago.
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The; also Lewchewan or) are the indigenous peoples of the Ryukyu Islands between the islands of Kyushu and Taiwan. Politically, they live in either Okinawa Prefecture or Kagoshima Prefecture. Their languages make up the Ryukyuan languages, considered to be one of the two branches of the Japonic language family, the other being Japanese and its dialects. Ryukyuans are not a recognized minority group in Japan, as Japanese authorities consider them just a subgroup of the Japanese people, akin to the Yamato people and Ainu. Although unrecognized, Ryukyuans constitute the largest ethnolinguistic minority group in Japan, with 1.3 million living in Okinawa Prefecture alone. There is also a considerable Ryukyuan diaspora. As many as 600,000 more ethnic Ryukyuans and their descendants are dispersed elsewhere in Japan and worldwide; mostly in Hawaii and, to a lesser extent, in other territories where there is also a sizable Japanese diaspora. In the majority of countries, the Ryukyuan and Japanese diaspora are not differentiated so there are no reliable statistics for the former. Recent genetic and anthropological studies indicate that the Ryukyuans are significantly related to the Ainu people and share the ancestry with the indigenous prehistoric Jōmon period (pre 10,000–1,000 BCE) people, who arrived from Southeast Asia, and with the Yamato people who are mostly an admixture of the Yayoi period (1,000 BCE–300 CE) migrants from East Asia (specifically China and the Korean peninsula). The Ryukyuans have a specific culture with some matriarchal elements, native religion, and cuisine which had fairly late 12th century introduction of rice. The population lived on the islands in isolation for many centuries, and in the 14th century from the three divided Okinawan political polities emerged the Ryukyu Kingdom (1429–1879) which continued the maritime trade and tributary relations started in 1372 with Ming dynasty China. In 1609 the kingdom was invaded by Satsuma Domain which allowed its independence being in vassal status because the Tokugawa Japan was prohibited to trade with China, being in dual subordinate status between both China and Japan. During the Meiji period, the kingdom became Ryukyu Domain (1872–1879), after which it was politically annexed by the Empire of Japan. In 1879, after the annexation, the territory was reorganized as Okinawa Prefecture with the last king Shō Tai forcibly exiled to Tokyo. China renounced its claims to the islands in 1895. During this period, Okinawan ethnic identity, tradition, culture and language were suppressed by the Meiji government, which sought to assimilate the Ryukyuan people as Japanese (Yamato). After World War II, the Ryūkyū Islands were occupied by the United States between 1945–1950 and 1950–1972. During this time, there were many violations of human rights. Since the end of World War II, there exists strong resentment against the Japanese government and US military facilities stationed in Okinawa, as seen in the Ryukyu independence movement. United Nations special rapporteur on discrimination and racism Doudou Diène in his 2006 report, noted perceptible level of discrimination and xenophobia against the Ryukyuans, with the most serious discrimination they endure linked to their dislike of American military installations in the archipelago. An investigation into fundamental human rights was suggested.
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was a Japanese Buddhist monk credited with founding the Tendai school of Buddhism based on the Chinese Tiantai school he was exposed to during his trip to Tang China beginning in 804.
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, also spelled saké, also referred to as a Japanese rice wine, is an alcoholic beverage made by fermenting rice that has been polished to remove the bran.
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Sakhalin (Сахалин), previously also known as Kuye Dao (Traditional Chinese:庫頁島, Simplified Chinese:库页岛) in Chinese and in Japanese, is a large Russian island in the North Pacific Ocean, lying between 45°50' and 54°24' N.
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was the isolationist foreign policy of the Japanese Tokugawa shogunate under which relations and trade between Japan and other countries were severely limited, nearly all foreigners were barred from entering Japan, and common Japanese people were kept from leaving the country for a period of over 220 years.
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were the military nobility and officer caste of medieval and early-modern Japan.
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, literally "Industrial and Economic Newspaper", is a daily newspaper in Japan published by the.The Sankei is abbreviation name of Sangyō Keizai.
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The was a leading Japanese keiretsu, based in Osaka, between World War II and the Japanese asset price bubble in the early 1990s.
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is a Japanese brewery founded in 1876.
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, also known as Kagoshima Domain, was a Japanese domain of the Edo period.
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School bullying is a type of bullying that occurs in any educational setting.
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Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
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The SCMaglev (superconducting maglev, formerly called the MLU) is a magnetic levitation (maglev) railway system developed by Central Japan Railway Company (JR Central) and the company's Railway Technical Research Institute.
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Sea of Japan
The Sea of Japan (see below for other names) is a marginal sea between the Japanese archipelago, Sakhalin, the Korean Peninsula and Russia.
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Sea of Okhotsk
The Sea of Okhotsk (Ohōtsuku-kai) is a marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean, between the Kamchatka Peninsula on the east, the Kuril Islands on the southeast, the island of Hokkaido to the south, the island of Sakhalin along the west, and a long stretch of eastern Siberian coast along the west and north.
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'Seasonal produce ' refers to the times of year when the harvest or the flavour of a given type food is at its peak.
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Second Sino-Japanese War
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945.
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Secondary education in Japan
Secondary education in Japan is split into junior high schools (中学校 chūgakkō), which cover the seventh through ninth grade, and senior high schools (高等学校 kōtōgakkō, abbreviated to 高校 kōkō), which mostly cover grades ten through twelve.
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The secret ballot is a voting method in which a voter's choices in an election or a referendum is anonymous, forestalling attempts to influence the voter by intimidation, blackmailing, and potential vote buying.
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Secularity (adjective form secular, from Latin saeculum meaning "worldly", "of a generation", "temporal", or a span of about 100 years) is the state of being separate from religion, or of not being exclusively allied with or against any particular religion.
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, (c. 966–1017/1025) was a Japanese author, poet and a court lady who served the Empress Teishi (Sadako) around the year 1000 during the middle Heian period.
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is a conglomerate based in Tokorozawa, Saitama, Japan, with principal business areas in railways, tourism, and real estate.
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SELENE (Selenological and Engineering Explorer), better known in Japan by its nickname, was the second Japanese lunar orbiter spacecraft following the Hiten probe.
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Self-defence (self-defense in some varieties of English) is a countermeasure that involves defending the health and well-being of oneself from harm.
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A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
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The is a period in Japanese history marked by social upheaval, political intrigue and near-constant military conflict.
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The are a group of uninhabited islands controlled by Japan in the East China Sea.
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Seto Inland Sea
The, also known as Setouchi or often shortened to Inland Sea, is the body of water separating Honshū, Shikoku, and Kyūshū, three of the four main islands of Japan.
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is the day before the beginning of spring in Japan.
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Seven & I Holdings Co.
is a Japanese diversified retail group headquartered in Nibancho, Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan.
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is a 1954 Japanese epic samurai drama film co-written, edited, and directed by Akira Kurosawa.
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The, also, both words mean "three strings", is a three-stringed traditional Japanese musical instrument derived from the Chinese instrument sanxian.
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The was the military dictator of Japan during the period from 1185 to 1868 (with exceptions).
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In traditional Japanese architecture, a shōji is a door, window or room divider consisting of translucent paper over a frame of wood which holds together a lattice of wood or bamboo.
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is a Japanese annual holiday held on April 29.
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is a volcanic lava dome in the Shikotsu-Toya National Park, Hokkaidō, Japan, next to Mount Usu.
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is the smallest (long and between wide) and least populous (3.8 million) of the four main islands of Japan, located south of Honshu and east of the island of Kyushu.
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, usually cited as Sin-Itiro Tomonaga in English, was a Japanese physicist, influential in the development of quantum electrodynamics, work for which he was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1965 along with Richard Feynman and Julian Schwinger.
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The Japanese term indicates the separation of Shinto from Buddhism, introduced after the Meiji Restoration which separated Shinto kami from buddhas, and also Buddhist temples from Shinto shrines, which were originally amalgamated.
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Shinbutsu-shūgō (神仏習合, "syncretism of kami and buddhas"), also called Shinbutsu-konkō (神仏混淆, "jumbling up" or "contamination of kami and buddhas"), is the syncretism of Buddhism and kami worship that was Japan's only organized religion up until the Meiji period.
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Shinee (Korean: 샤이니; Japanese: シャイニー; stylized as SHINee) is a South Korean boy band formed by SM Entertainment in 2008.
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is one of the major schools of Buddhism in Japan and one of the few surviving Vajrayana lineages in East Asia, originally spread from India to China through traveling monks such as Vajrabodhi and Amoghavajra.
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The, colloquially known in English as the bullet train, is a network of high-speed railway lines in Japan.
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or kami-no-michi (among other names) is the traditional religion of Japan that focuses on ritual practices to be carried out diligently to establish a connection between present-day Japan and its ancient past.
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Shinto sects and schools
, the folk religion of Japan, developed a diversity of schools and sects, outbranching from the original Koshintō (ancient Shintō) since Buddhism was introduced into Japan in the sixth century.
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A is a structure whose main purpose is to house ("enshrine") one or more kami.
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is a Japanese politician serving as the 63rd and current Prime Minister of Japan and Leader of the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) since 2012, previously being the 57th officeholder from 2006 to 2007.
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was a Japanese film director.
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A shrine (scrinium "case or chest for books or papers"; Old French: escrin "box or case") is a holy or sacred place, which is dedicated to a specific deity, ancestor, hero, martyr, saint, daemon, or similar figure of awe and respect, at which they are venerated or worshipped.
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is a Japanese-born American electronic engineer and inventor specializing in the field of semiconductor technology, professor at the Materials Department of the College of Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB), and is regarded as the inventor of the blue LED, a major breakthrough in lighting technology.
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Sight & Sound
Sight & Sound is a British monthly film magazine published by the British Film Institute (BFI).
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Sikhism (ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi,, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the fifth-largest. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them (20 million) living in Punjab, the Sikh homeland in northwest India, and about 2 million living in neighboring Indian states, formerly part of the Punjab. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539), and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014),, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield,, pages 17, 84-85William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press,, pages 241–242 Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth. The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life., page.
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Six Codes (六法), refers to the six main legal codes that make up the main body of law in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan (Republic of China).
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Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
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A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
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Society of Jesus
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
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is a Japanese multinational holding conglomerate headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.
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is a Japanese multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Kōnan, Minato, Tokyo.
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South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
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A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
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Soviet Armed Forces
The Soviet Armed Forces, also called the Armed Forces of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Armed Forces of the Soviet Union (Russian: Вооружённые Силы Союза Советских Социалистических Республик Vooruzhonnyye Sily Soyuza Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik, Вооружённые Силы Советского Союза) refers to the armed forces of the Russian SFSR (1917–1922), the Soviet Union (1922–1991) and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1912–1991) from their beginnings in the aftermath of the Russian Civil War to its dissolution on 26 December 1991.
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Soviet invasion of Manchuria
The Soviet invasion of Manchuria, formally known as the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation (Манчжурская стратегическая наступательная операция, lit. Manchzhurskaya Strategicheskaya Nastupatelnaya Operatsiya) or simply the Manchurian Operation (Маньчжурская операция), began on 9 August 1945 with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo.
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The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
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Space exploration is the discovery and exploration of celestial structures in outer space by means of evolving and growing space technology.
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A space probe is a robotic spacecraft that does not orbit the Earth, but, instead, explores further into outer space.
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The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as part of the Space Shuttle program.
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A staple food, or simply a staple, is a food that is eaten routinely and in such quantities that it constitutes a dominant portion of a standard diet for a given people, supplying a large fraction of energy needs and generally forming a significant proportion of the intake of other nutrients as well.
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Statism in Shōwa Japan
was a political syncretism of Japanese right-wing political ideologies, developed over a period of time from the Meiji Restoration.
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A stratovolcano, also known as a composite volcano, is a conical volcano built up by many layers (strata) of hardened lava, tephra, pumice and ash.
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(or) is the automobile manufacturing division of Japanese transportation conglomerate Subaru Corporation (formerly known as Fuji Heavy Industries), the twenty-second largest automaker by production worldwide in 2012.
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Subduction is a geological process that takes place at convergent boundaries of tectonic plates where one plate moves under another and is forced or sinks due to gravity into the mantle.
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The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and temperate zones (normally referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator.
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The Sui Dynasty was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance.
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Suicide in Japan
Suicide in Japan has become a major national social issue.
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The is one of the largest Japanese keiretsu, or business groups, founded by Masatomo Sumitomo around 1615.
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or sumo wrestling is a competitive full-contact wrestling sport where a rikishi (wrestler) attempts to force another wrestler out of a circular ring (dohyō) or into touching the ground with anything other than the soles of his feet.
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Super Formula Championship
Super Formula, formerly known as Formula Nippon, is a type of formula racing and the top level of single-seater racing in Japan.
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Super GT (stylized as SUPER GT) is a grand touring car racing series that began in 1993.
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Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers
The Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (SCAP) (originally briefly styled Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers) was the title held by General Douglas MacArthur during the Allied occupation of Japan following World War II.
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Supreme Court of Japan
The, located in Hayabusachō, Chiyoda, Tokyo, is the highest court in Japan.
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Surrender of Japan
The surrender of Imperial Japan was announced on August 15 and formally signed on September 2, 1945, bringing the hostilities of World War II to a close.
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is a Japanese dish of specially prepared, usually with some sugar and salt, combined with a variety of, such as seafood, vegetables, and occasionally tropical fruits.
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Susumu Tonegawa (利根川 進 Tonegawa Susumu, born September 5, 1939) is a Japanese scientist who was the sole recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1987, for his discovery of the genetic mechanism that produces antibody diversity.
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is a Japanese multinational corporation headquartered in Minami-ku, Hamamatsu, that manufactures automobiles, four-wheel drive vehicles, motorcycles, all-terrain vehicles (ATVs), outboard marine engines, wheelchairs and a variety of other small internal combustion engines.
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A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent the syllables or (more frequently) moras which make up words.
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was a major Japanese clan of samurai.
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The, or Taishō era, is a period in the history of Japan dating from July 30, 1912, to December 25, 1926, coinciding with the reign of the Emperor Taishō.
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Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
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, also known as the Star Festival, is a Japanese festival originating from the Chinese Qixi Festival.
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Tanegashima Space Center
The (TNSC) is a Japanese space development facility.
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The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
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Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').
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is a Japanese politician who is the Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance.
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A is a type of mat used as a flooring material in traditional Japanese-style rooms.
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was a Japanese composer and writer on aesthetics and music theory.
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Telephone numbers in Japan
Telephone numbers in Japan consist of an area code, an exchange number, and a subscriber number.
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Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound.
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Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest
Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest is a temperate climate terrestrial biome, with broadleaf tree ecoregions, and with conifer and broadleaf tree mixed coniferous forest ecoregions.
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Temperate coniferous forest
Temperate coniferous forest is a terrestrial biome found in temperate regions of the world with warm summers and cool winters and adequate rainfall to sustain a forest.
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A temple (from the Latin word templum) is a structure reserved for religious or spiritual rituals and activities such as prayer and sacrifice.
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is Japanese dish usually consisting of seafood or vegetables that have been battered and deep fried.
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is a Mahayana Buddhist school established in Japan in the year 806 by a monk named Saicho also known as.
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Tertiary sector of the economy
The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory.
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The 1st Shop of Coffee Prince
The 1st Shop of Coffee Prince (also known as Coffee Prince) is a 2007 South Korean television drama, starring Yoon Eun-hye, Gong Yoo, Lee Sun-kyun, and Chae Jung-an.
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The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
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The Emperor's Birthday
is a national holiday in the Japanese calendar celebrated on the birthday of the reigning Emperor, which is currently 23 December, as Emperor Akihito was born on that day in 1933.
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The Great Wave off Kanagawa
, also known as The Great Wave or simply The Wave, is a woodblock print by the Japanese ukiyo-e artist Hokusai.
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The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
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The Japan Times
The Japan Times is Japan's largest and oldest English-language daily newspaper.
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The New York Times
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
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The Nikkei,, is Nikkei, Inc.'s flagship publication and the world's largest financial newspaper, with a daily circulation exceeding three million.
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The Pillow Book
is a book of observations and musings recorded by Sei Shōnagon during her time as court lady to Empress Consort Teishi (定子) during the 990s and early 1000s in Heian Japan.
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The Straits Times
The Straits Times is an English-language daily broadsheet newspaper based in Singapore currently owned by Singapore Press Holdings (SPH).
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The Tale of Genji
is a classic work of Japanese literature written by the noblewoman and lady-in-waiting Murasaki Shikibu in the early years of the 11th century.
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The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter
is a 10th-century Japanese monogatari (fictional prose narrative) containing Japanese folklore.
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The Tale of the Heike
is an epic account compiled prior to 1330 of the struggle between the Taira and Minamoto clans for control of Japan at the end of the 12th century in the Genpei War (1180–1185).
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The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
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The Toyota Way
The Toyota Way is a set of principles and behaviors that underlie the Toyota Motor Corporation's managerial approach and production system.
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The Three Kingdoms (220–280) was the tripartite division of China between the states of Wei (魏), Shu (蜀), and Wu (吳).
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Tofu, also known as bean curd, is a food cultivated by coagulating soy milk and then pressing the resulting curds into soft white blocks.
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, abbreviated to, located in Sendai, Miyagi in the Tōhoku Region, Japan, is a Japanese national university.
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was the founder and first shōgun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan, which effectively ruled Japan from the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 until the Meiji Restoration in 1868.
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The Tokugawa shogunate, also known as the and the, was the last feudal Japanese military government, which existed between 1600 and 1868.
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The Tokunoshima language (シマグチ (島口) Shimaguchi or シマユミィタ Shimayumiita), also Toku-No-Shima, is a dialect cluster spoken on Tokunoshima, Kagoshima Prefecture of southwestern Japan.
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, officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and has been the capital since 1869.
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is a bay located in the southern Kantō region of Japan, and spans the coasts of Tokyo, Kanagawa Prefecture, and Chiba Prefecture.
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Tokyo Broadcasting System
, TBS Holdings, Inc. or TBSHD, is a stockholding company in Tokyo, Japan.
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Tokyo Electric Power Company
, also known as or TEPCO, is a Japanese electric utility holding company servicing Japan's Kantō region, Yamanashi Prefecture, and the eastern portion of Shizuoka Prefecture.
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Tokyo Institute of Technology
is a national research university located in Greater Tokyo Area, Japan.
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is a 1953 Japanese drama film directed by Yasujirō Ozu and starring Chishū Ryū and Chieko Higashiyama.
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A toll road, also known as a turnpike or tollway, is a public or private road for which a fee (or toll) is assessed for passage.
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, commonly known as Toshiba, is a Japanese multinational conglomerate headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.
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is a Japanese theoretical physicist known for his work on CP-violation who was awarded one quarter of the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physics "for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature.".
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Tourism in Tokyo
Tourism in Tokyo is a major industry.
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, usually shortened to Toyota, is a Japanese multinational automotive manufacturer headquartered in Toyota, Aichi, Japan.
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was the son and designated successor of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, the general who first united all of Japan.
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was a preeminent daimyō, warrior, general, samurai, and politician of the Sengoku period who is regarded as Japan's second "great unifier".
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Traditional Japanese musical instruments
Traditional Japanese musical instruments are musical instruments used in the traditional and folk music of Japan.
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Transport in Japan
Transport in Japan is modern and highly developed.
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Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report
The Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report was first published in 2007 by the World Economic Forum.
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Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security Between the United States and Japan
The, also known in Japan as or just for short, was first signed in 1954 at the San Francisco Presidio following the signing of the Treaty of San Francisco (commonly known as the Peace Treaty of San Francisco) at the San Francisco War Memorial Opera House.
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Treaty of San Francisco
, or commonly known as the Treaty of Peace with Japan, Peace Treaty of San Francisco, or San Francisco Peace Treaty), mostly between Japan and the Allied Powers, was officially signed by 48 nations on September 8, 1951, in San Francisco. It came into force on April 28, 1952 and officially ended the American-led Allied Occupation of Japan. According to Article 11 of the Treaty, Japan accepts the judgments of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East and of other Allied War Crimes Courts imposed on Japan both within and outside Japan. This treaty served to officially end Japan's position as an imperial power, to allocate compensation to Allied civilians and former prisoners of war who had suffered Japanese war crimes during World War II, and to end the Allied post-war occupation of Japan and return sovereignty to that nation. This treaty made extensive use of the United Nations Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights to enunciate the Allies' goals. This treaty, along with the Security Treaty signed that same day, is said to mark the beginning of the San Francisco System; this term, coined by historian John W. Dower, signifies the effects of Japan's relationship with the United States and its role in the international arena as determined by these two treaties and is used to discuss the ways in which these effects have governed Japan's post-war history. This treaty also introduced the problem of the legal status of Taiwan due to its lack of specificity as to what country Taiwan was to be surrendered, and hence some supporters of Taiwan independence argue that sovereignty of Taiwan is still undetermined.
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The Tripartite Pact, also known as the Berlin Pact, was an agreement between Germany, Italy and Japan signed in Berlin on 27 September 1940 by, respectively, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Galeazzo Ciano and Saburō Kurusu.
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Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests
Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests (TSMF), also known as tropical moist forests, are a tropical and subtropical forest biome, sometimes referred to as jungle.
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Truancy is any intentional, unjustified, unauthorized, or illegal absence from compulsory education.
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A tsunami (from 津波, "harbour wave"; English pronunciation) or tidal wave, also known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake.
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A tuna is a saltwater fish that belongs to the tribe Thunnini, a sub-grouping of the mackerel family (Scombridae).
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, also known as EX and, is a Japanese television network with its headquarters in Roppongi, Minato, Tokyo, Japan.
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TXN Network or TXN is a commercial television network in Japan.
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A typhoon is a mature tropical cyclone that develops between 180° and 100°E in the Northern Hemisphere.
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Ukiyo-e is a genre of Japanese art which flourished from the 17th through 19th centuries.
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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
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() is a Japanese casual wear designer, manufacturer and retailer.
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A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
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The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
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United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs
The United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA) is part of the United Nations Secretariat and is responsible for the follow-up to major United Nations Summits and Conferences, as well as services to the United Nations Economic and Social Council and the Second and Third Committees of the United Nations General Assembly.
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United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, is a United Nations programme with the mandate to protect refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless people, and assist in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country.
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United Nations peacekeeping
Peacekeeping by the United Nations is a role held by the Department of Peacekeeping Operations as "a unique and dynamic instrument developed by the organization as a way to help countries torn by conflict to create the conditions for lasting peace." It is distinguished from peacebuilding, peacemaking, and peace enforcement although the United Nations does acknowledge that all activities are "mutually reinforcing" and that overlap between them is frequent in practice.
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United Nations Security Council
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
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The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
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United States Department of Agriculture
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.
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United States Forces Japan
The is an active subordinate unified command of the United States Indo-Pacific Command (USINDOPACOM).
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United States Navy
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
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The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.
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University of California Press
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
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University of Colorado Boulder
The University of Colorado Boulder (commonly referred to as CU or Colorado) is a public research university located in Boulder, Colorado, United States.
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University of Tokyo
, abbreviated as or UTokyo, is a public research university located in Bunkyo, Tokyo, Japan.
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The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.
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Valentine's Day, also called Saint Valentine's Day or the Feast of Saint Valentine, is celebrated annually on February 14.
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Vernal Equinox Day
is a public holiday in Japan that occurs on the date of the Northward equinox in Japan Standard Time (the vernal equinox can occur on different dates in different time-zones), usually March 20 or 21.
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Video game console
A video game console is an electronic, digital or computer device that outputs a video signal or visual image to display a video game that one or more people can play.
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Voice of America
Voice of America (VOA) is a U.S. government-funded international radio broadcast source that serves as the United States federal government's official institution for non-military, external broadcasting.
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A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
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Japanese is the oldest recorded name of Japan.
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are traditional Japanese confections that are often served with tea, especially the types made of mochi, anko (azuki bean paste), and fruits.
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is a type of poetry in classical Japanese literature.
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Waste management or waste disposal are all the activities and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal.
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Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.
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Westernization (US) or Westernisation (UK), also Europeanization/Europeanisation or occidentalization/occidentalisation (from the Occident, meaning the Western world; see "occident" in the dictionary), is a process whereby societies come under or adopt Western culture in areas such as industry, technology, law, politics, economics, lifestyle, diet, clothing, language, alphabet, religion, philosophy, and values.
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Whaling in Japan
Japanese whaling, in terms of active hunting of these large mammals, is estimated by the Japan Whaling Association to have begun around the 12th century.
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Wildlife of Japan
The wildlife of Japan includes its flora, fauna and natural habitats.
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Winter Sonata (also known as Winter Love Story, Winter Love Song or Winter Ballad) is a South Korean television drama series that aired on KBS2 in 2002.
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Woodblock printing in Japan
Woodblock printing in Japan (木版画, mokuhanga) is a technique best known for its use in the ukiyo-e artistic genre of single sheets, but it was also used for printing books in the same period.
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World Heritage site
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
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World Rugby Pacific Nations Cup
The Pacific Nations Cup is an international rugby union competition currently held between three Pacific nations: Fiji, Samoa and Tonga.
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World Tourism rankings
The World Tourism rankings are compiled by the United Nations World Tourism Organization as part of their World Tourism Barometer publication, which is released three times throughout the year.
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World War I
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
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World War II
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
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Wu (Shanghainese:; Suzhou dialect:; Wuxi dialect) is a group of linguistically similar and historically related varieties of Chinese primarily spoken in the whole Zhejiang province, city of Shanghai, and the southern half of Jiangsu province, as well as bordering areas.
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The Yaeyama language (八重山物言/ヤイマムニ, Yaimamuni) is a Southern Ryukyuan language spoken in the Yaeyama Islands, the southernmost inhabited island group in Japan, with a combined population of about 53,000.
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or is the Sino-Japanese name of an ancient country in Wa (Japan) during the late Yayoi period The Chinese text Records of the Three Kingdoms first recorded as Yamatai guo or Yemayi guo as the domain of Priest-Queen Himiko (died Generations of Japanese historians, linguists, and archeologists have debated where Yamatai-koku was located and whether it was related to the later.
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The and are an East Asian ethnic group and nation native to the Japanese archipelago.
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was a Japanese film director and screenwriter.
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was a Japanese novelist and short story writer whose spare, lyrical, subtly-shaded prose works won him the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1968, the first Japanese author to receive the award.
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The is an Iron Age era in the history of Japan traditionally dated 300 BC–300 AD.
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was a Japanese-American physicist and professor at the University of Chicago.
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The is a Japanese newspaper published in Tokyo, Osaka, Fukuoka, and other major Japanese cities.
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The Yonaguni language (与那国物言/ドゥナンムヌイ Dunan Munui) is a Southern Ryukyuan language spoken by around 400 people on the island of Yonaguni, in the Ryukyu Islands, the westernmost of the chain lying just east of Taiwan.
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The Yoron language (ユンヌフトゥバ Yunnu Futuba) is a dialect continuum spoken on Yoronjima in Kagoshima Prefecture, southwestern Japan.
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is a Japanese politician who was Prime Minister of Japan from 2011 to 2012.
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is a Japanese cell biologist specializing in autophagy, the process that cells use to destroy and recycle cellular components.
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is the pen name of, a Japanese author, poet, playwright, actor, model, film director, founder of the Tatenokai, and nationalist.
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is a Japanese professional basketball player.
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Zen (p; translit) is a school of Mahayana Buddhism that originated in China during the Tang dynasty as Chan Buddhism.
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.jp is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Japan.
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100 Landscapes of Japan (Heisei era)
In 2009, in celebration of its 135th anniversary, the Yomiuri Shimbun formed a selection committee and, together with its readers, selected the.
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1923 Great Kantō earthquake
The struck the Kantō Plain on the Japanese main island of Honshū at 11:58:44 JST (02:58:44 UTC) on Saturday, September 1, 1923.
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1964 Summer Olympics
The 1964 Summer Olympics, officially known as the, was an international multi-sport event held in Tokyo, Japan, from 10 to 24 October 1964.
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1972 Winter Olympics
The 1972 Winter Olympics, officially known as the (French: Les XIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver), were a winter multi-sport event which was held from February 3 to February 13, 1972, in Sapporo, Hokkaidō, Japan.
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1973 oil crisis
The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo.
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1998 Winter Olympics
The 1998 Winter Olympics, officially the, and commonly known as Nagano 1998, was a winter multi-sport event celebrated from 7 to 22 February 1998 in Nagano, Japan.
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2002 FIFA World Cup
The 2002 FIFA World Cup was the 17th FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial world championship for men's national football teams organized by FIFA.
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2006 FIBA World Championship
The 2006 FIBA World Championship was an international basketball competition hosted by Japan from August 19 to September 3, 2006.
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2006 FIVB Volleyball Women's World Championship
The 2006 FIVB Volleyball Women's World Championship was the 15th edition of the FIVB Volleyball Women's World Championship, organized by the FIVB.
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2010 FIVB Volleyball Women's World Championship
The 2010 FIVB Volleyball Women's World Championship was the 16th edition of the FIVB Volleyball Women's World Championship.
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2011 FIFA Women's World Cup
The 2011 FIFA Women's World Cup was the sixth FIFA Women's World Cup competition, the world championship for women's national association football teams.
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2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami
The was a magnitude 9.0–9.1 (Mw) undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan that occurred at 14:46 JST (05:46 UTC) on Friday 11 March 2011, with the epicentre approximately east of the Oshika Peninsula of Tōhoku and the hypocenter at an underwater depth of approximately.
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2017 G20 Hamburg summit
The 2017 G20 Hamburg summit was the twelfth meeting of the Group of Twenty (G20), which was held on 7–8 July 2017, at Hamburg Messe, in the city of Hamburg, Germany.
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2018 FIVB Volleyball Women's World Championship
The 2018 World Women's Volleyball Championship will be the 18th staging of the FIVB Volleyball Women's World Championship organized by the sport's global governing body, the Fédération Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB).
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2020 Summer Olympics
The 2020 Summer Olympics, officially known as the and commonly known as Tokyo 2020, is a forthcoming international multi-sport event that is scheduled to take place from 24 July to 9 August 2020.
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20th-century classical music
20th-century classical music describes art music that was written nominally from 1901 to 2000.
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Etymology of Japan, ISO 3166-1:JP, JAPAN, JPN, JapaN, Japan (country), Japanese financial sector, Japang, Japao, Japian, Jpan, Modern–era Japan, Nihon, Nihon-koku, Nippon, Nippon-koku, Riben, Rìběn, State of Japan, The State of Japan, 日本, 日本国, 日本國, 🗾.