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Index Aesthetics

Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty. [1]

204 relations: Abraham Moles, Addison Gallery of American Art, Aesthetic Realism, Affective fallacy, African sculpture, Albrecht Dürer, Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten, Algorithm, Algorithmic information theory, Ancient Greek, André Malraux, Annemarie Gethmann-Siefert, Applied aesthetics, Architectural design values, Art, Art periods, Arthur Danto, Artificial intelligence, Artificial neural network, Authorial intent, Autonomy, Awe, Ayn Rand, Barnett Newman, Beard, Beauty, Benedetto Croce, Bit, Brian Massumi, Carol Armstrong, Carolyn Korsmeyer, Categorical imperative, Catherine de Zegher, Choice, Christine Buci-Glucksmann, Cognitive psychology, Complexity, Compressibility, Conceptual art, Contemporary art, Cosmology, Critique of Judgment, Cubism, Curiosity, Darwinian literary studies, David Goldblatt, David Hume, David Orrell, Definition, Denis Dutton, ..., Derivative, Desire, Edwardian era, Either/Or, Elaine Scarry, Eli Siegel, Empirical evidence, Epistemology, Evolution, Evolution of emotion, Evolutionary musicology, Evolutionary psychology, Experiment, Experimental aesthetics, Facial expression, Félix Guattari, Feeling, Formal language, Formalism (art), Fountain (Duchamp), Fractal, Free will, Frieder Nake, Friedrich Schiller, Gastronomy, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, George David Birkhoff, George Dickie (philosopher), George Santayana, Gilles Deleuze, Gregory Loewen, Griselda Pollock, Gustav Fechner, Guy Sircello, Habitat, Hal Foster (art critic), Hans Hofmann, History of aesthetics before the 20th century, Homo sapiens, Human sexuality, Ian Stewart (mathematician), Immanuel Kant, Inductive reasoning, Industrial design, Information processing, Information theory, Instinct, Interest (emotion), Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Jacques Lacan, Jadranka Skorin-Kapov, James Page (Australian educationist), Jürgen Schmidhuber, Jean-François Lyotard, John Cage, John Dewey, John Keats, Judgement, Karl Marx, Kitsch, Knowledge, Lamborghini, Landscape, Lectures on Aesthetics, Leo Tolstoy, Leonardo da Vinci, Louis Althusser, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Machine learning, Madonna (art), Marcel Duchamp, Marcelo Gleiser, Mario Costa (philosopher), Mario Perniola, Markand Thakar, Marshall McLuhan, Marxist aesthetics, Mathematical beauty, Mathematician, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Max Bense, Media culture, Minimum description length, Mise-en-scène, Modern English, Monroe Beardsley, Morality, Natural science, Nature, Neuroesthetics, Neuroscience, New Criticism, Noël Carroll, Norbert Schwarz, Occam's razor, Ode on a Grecian Urn, Ontology, Ornithology, Oxford University Press, Peace education, Pennsylvania State University, Peter Kivy, Peter Osborne (philosopher), Pharyngeal reflex, Philosophy, Physical attractiveness, Pierre Bourdieu, Pleasure, Post-conceptual, Postmodernism, Predictability, Preference, Processing fluency, Psychoanalysis, Raymond Williams, Reader-response criticism, Realism (arts), Reinforcement learning, Richard Wollheim, Robert M. Pirsig, Rococo, Rutherford Institute, Søren Kierkegaard, Self-similarity, Sense, Sigmund Freud, Social constructionism, Soup, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanley Fish, Stephen Davies (philosopher), Steven Pinker, Style (visual arts), Subject (philosophy), Subjectivity, Sublime (philosophy), Susan L. Feagin, Symmetry, Taste, Taste (sociology), Terry Eagleton, The Blank Slate, Theodor W. Adorno, Theoretical physics, Theory of art, Thomas Hirschhorn, Truth, Victorian era, Władysław Tatarkiewicz, What Is Art?, William K. Wimsatt, Work of art, Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance, 4′33″. Expand index (154 more) »

Abraham Moles

Abraham Moles (1920 – 22 May 1992) was an engineer of electrical engineering and acoustics, and a doctor of physics and philosophy.

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Addison Gallery of American Art

The Addison Gallery of American Art, as a department of Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts, is an academic museum dedicated to collecting American art.

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Aesthetic Realism

Aesthetic Realism is a philosophy founded by poet and critic Eli Siegel (1902–1978) in 1941.

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Affective fallacy

Affective fallacy is a term from literary criticism used to refer to the supposed error of judging or evaluating a text on the basis of its emotional effects on a reader.

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African sculpture

Most African sculpture was historically in wood and other organic materials that have not survived from earlier than at most a few centuries ago; older pottery figures are found from a number of areas.

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Albrecht Dürer

Albrecht Dürer (21 May 1471 – 6 April 1528)Müller, Peter O. (1993) Substantiv-Derivation in Den Schriften Albrecht Dürers, Walter de Gruyter.

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Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten

Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten (17 JulyJan Lekschas, 1714 – 27 May 1762) was a German philosopher.

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In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.

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Algorithmic information theory

Algorithmic information theory is a subfield of information theory and computer science that concerns itself with the relationship between computation and information.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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André Malraux

André Malraux DSO (3 November 1901 – 23 November 1976) was a French novelist, art theorist and Minister of Cultural Affairs.

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Annemarie Gethmann-Siefert

Annemarie Gethmann-Siefert (born 1945) is a professor of philosophy at the University of Hagen, Germany.

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Applied aesthetics

Applied aesthetics is the application of the branch of philosophy of aesthetics to cultural constructs.

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Architectural design values

Architectural design values make up an important part of what influences architects and designers when they make their design decisions.

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Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual idea, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power.

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Art periods

An art period is a phase in the development of the work of an artist, groups of artists or art movement.

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Arthur Danto

Arthur Coleman Danto (January 1, 1924 – October 25, 2013) was an American art critic and philosopher.

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Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.

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Artificial neural network

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) or connectionist systems are computing systems vaguely inspired by the biological neural networks that constitute animal brains.

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Authorial intent

In literary theory and aesthetics, authorial intent refers to an author's intent as it is encoded in his or her work.

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In development or moral, political, and bioethical philosophy, autonomy is the capacity to make an informed, un-coerced decision.

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Awe is an emotion comparable to wonder but less joyous.

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Ayn Rand

Ayn Rand (born Alisa Zinovyevna Rosenbaum; – March 6, 1982) was a Russian-American writer and philosopher.

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Barnett Newman

Barnett Newman (January 29, 1905 – July 4, 1970) was an American artist.

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A beard is the collection of hair that grows on the chin and cheeks of humans and some non-human animals.

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Beauty is a characteristic of an animal, idea, object, person or place that provides a perceptual experience of pleasure or satisfaction.

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Benedetto Croce

Benedetto Croce (25 February 1866 – 20 November 1952) was an Italian idealist philosopher, historian and politician, who wrote on numerous topics, including philosophy, history, historiography and aesthetics.

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The bit (a portmanteau of binary digit) is a basic unit of information used in computing and digital communications.

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Brian Massumi

Brian Massumi (born 1956) is a Canadian philosopher and social theorist.

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Carol Armstrong

Carol Armstrong is an American professor, art historian, art critic, and photographer.

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Carolyn Korsmeyer

Carolyn Korsmeyer (born 1950) is an author and Professor of Philosophy at the University of Buffalo in New York.

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Categorical imperative

The categorical imperative (kategorischer Imperativ) is the central philosophical concept in the deontological moral philosophy of Immanuel Kant.

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Catherine de Zegher

Catherine de Zegher (born Groningen, April 14, 1955) is a prominent international curator, and a modern and contemporary art critic and art historian.

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Choice involves decision making.

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Christine Buci-Glucksmann

Christine Buci-Glucksmann is a French philosopher and Professor Emeritus from University of Paris VIII specializing in the aesthetics of the Baroque, Japan and computer art.

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Cognitive psychology

Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes such as "attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity, and thinking".

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Complexity characterises the behaviour of a system or model whose components interact in multiple ways and follow local rules, meaning there is no reasonable higher instruction to define the various possible interactions.

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In thermodynamics and fluid mechanics, compressibility (also known as the coefficient of compressibility or isothermal compressibility) is a measure of the relative volume change of a fluid or solid as a response to a pressure (or mean stress) change.

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Conceptual art

Conceptual art, sometimes simply called conceptualism, is art in which the concept(s) or idea(s) involved in the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic, technical, and material concerns.

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Contemporary art

Contemporary art is the art of today, produced in the late 20th century or in the 21st century.

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Cosmology (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.

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Critique of Judgment

The Critique of Judgment (Kritik der Urteilskraft, KdU), also translated as the Critique of the Power of Judgment, is a 1790 philosophical work by Immanuel Kant.

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Cubism is an early-20th-century art movement which brought European painting and sculpture historically forward toward 20th century Modern art.

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Curiosity (from Latin cūriōsitās, from cūriōsus "careful, diligent, curious", akin to cura "care") is a quality related to inquisitive thinking such as exploration, investigation, and learning, evident by observation in humans and other animals.

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Darwinian literary studies

Darwinian literary studies (also known as literary Darwinism) is a branch of literary criticism that studies literature in the context of evolution by means of natural selection, including gene-culture coevolution.

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David Goldblatt

David Goldblatt (29 November 1930 – 25 June 2018) was a South African photographer noted for his portrayal of South Africa during the period of apartheid and more recently that country's landscapes.

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David Hume

David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.

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David Orrell

David John Orrell (born 1962 in Edmonton) is a Canadian writer and mathematician.

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A definition is a statement of the meaning of a term (a word, phrase, or other set of symbols).

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Denis Dutton

The phrase "Dennis Dutton" redirects here.

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The derivative of a function of a real variable measures the sensitivity to change of the function value (output value) with respect to a change in its argument (input value).

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Desire is a sense of longing or hoping for a person, object, or outcome.

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Edwardian era

The Edwardian era or Edwardian period of British history covers the brief reign of King Edward VII, 1901 to 1910, and is sometimes extended in both directions to capture long-term trends from the 1890s to the First World War.

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Either/Or (Danish: Enten – Eller) is the first published work of the Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard.

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Elaine Scarry

Elaine Scarry (born June 30, 1946) is an American essayist and professor of English and American Literature and Language.

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Eli Siegel

Eli Siegel (August 16, 1902 – November 8, 1978) was the poet, critic, and educator who founded Aesthetic Realism, the philosophy that sees reality as the aesthetic oneness of opposites.

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Empirical evidence

Empirical evidence, also known as sensory experience, is the information received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and documentation of patterns and behavior through experimentation.

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Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.

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Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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Evolution of emotion

The study of the evolution of emotions dates back to the 19th century.

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Evolutionary musicology

Evolutionary musicology is a subfield of biomusicology that grounds the psychological mechanisms of music perception and production in evolutionary theory.

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Evolutionary psychology

Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological structure from a modern evolutionary perspective.

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An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis.

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Experimental aesthetics

Experimental aesthetics is a field of psychology founded by Gustav Theodor Fechner in the 19th century.

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Facial expression

A facial expression is one or more motions or positions of the muscles beneath the skin of the face.

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Félix Guattari

Pierre-Félix Guattari (April 30, 1930 – August 29, 1992) was a French psychotherapist, philosopher, semiologist, and activist.

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Feeling is the nominalization of the verb to feel.

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Formal language

In mathematics, computer science, and linguistics, a formal language is a set of strings of symbols together with a set of rules that are specific to it.

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Formalism (art)

In art history, formalism is the study of art by analyzing and comparing form and style.

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Fountain (Duchamp)

Fountain is a 1917 work produced by Marcel Duchamp.

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In mathematics, a fractal is an abstract object used to describe and simulate naturally occurring objects.

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Free will

Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded.

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Frieder Nake

Frieder Nake (born December 16, 1938 in Stuttgart, Germany) is a mathematician, computer scientist, and pioneer of computer art.

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Friedrich Schiller

Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (10 November 17599 May 1805) was a German poet, philosopher, physician, historian, and playwright.

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Gastronomy is the study of the relationship between food and culture, the art of preparing and serving rich or delicate and appetizing food, the cooking styles of particular regions, and the science of good eating.

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Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.

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George David Birkhoff

George David Birkhoff (March 21, 1884 – November 12, 1944) was an American mathematician best known for what is now called the ergodic theorem.

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George Dickie (philosopher)

George Dickie (born at 12. august 1926 in Palmetto, Florida) is a Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at University of Illinois at Chicago.

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George Santayana

Jorge Agustín Nicolás Ruiz de Santayana y Borrás, known in English as George Santayana (December 16, 1863September 26, 1952), was a philosopher, essayist, poet, and novelist.

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Gilles Deleuze

Gilles Deleuze (18 January 1925 – 4 November 1995) was a French philosopher who, from the early 1960s until his death in 1995, wrote on philosophy, literature, film, and fine art.

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Gregory Loewen

Gregory Victor Loewen (born 1966) is a social philosopher in the traditions of hermeneutics and phenomenology.

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Griselda Pollock

Griselda Pollock (born 11 March 1949) is a visual theorist, cultural analyst and scholar of international, postcolonial feminist studies in the visual arts.

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Gustav Fechner

Gustav Theodor Fechner (19 April 1801 – 18 November 1887), was a German philosopher, physicist and experimental psychologist.

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Guy Sircello

Guy Sircello (1936–1992) was an American philosopher best known for his analytic approach to philosophical aesthetics.

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In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.

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Hal Foster (art critic)

Harold Foss "Hal" Foster (born August 13, 1955) is an American art critic and historian.

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Hans Hofmann

Hans Hofmann (March 21, 1880 – February 17, 1966) was a German-born American painter, renowned as an artist and teacher in a career that spanned two generations and two continents, and is considered to have both preceded and influenced Abstract Expressionism.

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History of aesthetics before the 20th century

This description of the history of aesthetics before the twentieth century is based on an article from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition.

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Homo sapiens

Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.

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Human sexuality

Human sexuality is the way people experience and express themselves sexually.

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Ian Stewart (mathematician)

Ian Nicholas Stewart (born 24 September 1945) is a British mathematician and a popular-science and science-fiction writer.

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Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.

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Inductive reasoning

Inductive reasoning (as opposed to ''deductive'' reasoning or ''abductive'' reasoning) is a method of reasoning in which the premises are viewed as supplying some evidence for the truth of the conclusion.

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Industrial design

Industrial design is a process of design applied to products that are to be manufactured through techniques of mass production.

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Information processing

Information processing is the change (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer.

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Information theory

Information theory studies the quantification, storage, and communication of information.

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Instinct or innate behavior is the inherent inclination of a living organism towards a particular complex behavior.

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Interest (emotion)

Interest is a feeling or emotion that causes attention to focus on an object, event, or process.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (IEP) is a scholarly online encyclopedia, dealing with philosophy, philosophical topics, and philosophers.

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Jacques Lacan

Jacques Marie Émile Lacan (13 April 1901 – 9 September 1981) was a French psychoanalyst and psychiatrist who has been called "the most controversial psycho-analyst since Freud".

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Jadranka Skorin-Kapov

Jadranka Skorin-Kapov (born as Jadranka Boljunčić in Pula, Croatia in 1955) is a professor at the State University of New York at Stony Brook in the, and with affiliated positions in the and the.

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James Page (Australian educationist)

James Smith Page (born 1953) is an Australian educationist and anthropologist, and a recognised authority within the field of peace education.

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Jürgen Schmidhuber

Jürgen Schmidhuber (born 17 January 1963) is a computer scientist who works in the field of artificial intelligence.

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Jean-François Lyotard

Jean-François Lyotard (10 August 1924 – 21 April 1998) was a French philosopher, sociologist, and literary theorist.

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John Cage

John Milton Cage Jr. (September 5, 1912 – August 12, 1992) was an American composer and music theorist.

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John Dewey

John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, Georgist, and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform.

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John Keats

John Keats (31 October 1795 – 23 February 1821) was an English Romantic poet.

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Judgement (or judgment) is the evaluation of evidence to make a decision.

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Karl Marx

Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.

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Kitsch (loanword from German), also called cheesiness or tackiness, is art or other objects that appeal to popular rather than high art tastes.

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Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.

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Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A. is an Italian brand and manufacturer of luxury sports cars and SUVs based in Sant'Agata Bolognese and tractors Lamborghini Trattori in Pieve di Cento, Italy.

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A landscape is the visible features of an area of land, its landforms and how they integrate with natural or man-made features.

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Lectures on Aesthetics

Lectures on Aesthetics (LA; Vorlesungen über die Ästhetik, VÄ) is a compilation of notes from university lectures on aesthetics given by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel in Heidelberg in 1818 and in Berlin in 1820/21, 1823, 1826 and 1828/29.

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Leo Tolstoy

Count Lyov (also Lev) Nikolayevich Tolstoy (also Лев) Николаевич ТолстойIn Tolstoy's day, his name was written Левъ Николаевичъ Толстой.

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Leonardo da Vinci

Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519), more commonly Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo, was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance, whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.

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Louis Althusser

Louis Pierre Althusser (16 October 1918 – 22 October 1990) was a French Marxist philosopher.

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Ludwig Wittgenstein

Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language.

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Machine learning

Machine learning is a subset of artificial intelligence in the field of computer science that often uses statistical techniques to give computers the ability to "learn" (i.e., progressively improve performance on a specific task) with data, without being explicitly programmed.

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Madonna (art)

A Madonna is a representation of Mary, either alone or with her child Jesus.

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Marcel Duchamp

Henri-Robert-Marcel Duchamp (28 July 1887 – 2 October 1968) was a French-American painter, sculptor, chess player and writer whose work is associated with Cubism, conceptual art, and Dada, although he was careful about his use of the term Dada and was not directly associated with Dada groups.

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Marcelo Gleiser

Marcelo Gleiser (born 19 March 1959) is a Brazilian physicist and astronomer.

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Mario Costa (philosopher)

Mario Costa (born 7 December 1936 in Torre del Greco) is an Italian philosopher.

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Mario Perniola

Mario Perniola (20 May 1941, Asti – 9 January 2018, Rome) was an Italian philosopher, professor of aesthetics and author.

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Markand Thakar

Markand Thakar (born 1955, New York City) is an American conductor.

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Marshall McLuhan

Herbert Marshall McLuhan (July 21, 1911December 31, 1980) was a Canadian professor, philosopher, and public intellectual.

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Marxist aesthetics

Marxist aesthetics is a theory of aesthetics based on, or derived from, the theories of Karl Marx.

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Mathematical beauty

Mathematical beauty describes the notion that some mathematicians may derive aesthetic pleasure from their work, and from mathematics in general.

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A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work, typically to solve mathematical problems.

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Maurice Merleau-Ponty

Maurice Merleau-Ponty (14 March 1908 – 3 May 1961) was a French phenomenological philosopher, strongly influenced by Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger.

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Max Bense

Max Bense (February 7, 1910 in Strasbourg – April 29, 1990 in Stuttgart) was a German philosopher, writer, and publicist, known for his work in philosophy of science, logic, aesthetics, and semiotics.

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Media culture

In cultural studies, media culture refers to the current Western capitalist society that emerged and developed from the 20th century, under the influence of mass media.

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Minimum description length

The minimum description length (MDL) principle is a formalization of Occam's razor in which the best hypothesis (a model and its parameters) for a given set of data is the one that leads to the best compression of the data.

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Mise-en-scène ("placing on stage") is an expression used to describe the design aspect of a theatre or film production, which essentially means "visual theme" or "telling a story"—both in visually artful ways through storyboarding, cinematography and stage design, and in poetically artful ways through direction.

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Modern English

Modern English (sometimes New English or NE as opposed to Middle English and Old English) is the form of the English language spoken since the Great Vowel Shift in England, which began in the late 14th century and was completed in roughly 1550.

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Monroe Beardsley

Monroe Curtis Beardsley (December 10, 1915 – September 18, 1985) was an American philosopher of art.

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Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.

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Natural science

Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.

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Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe.

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Neuroesthetics (not to be confused with the concept of Neuroaesthetics) is a relatively recent sub-discipline of empirical aesthetics.

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Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.

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New Criticism

New Criticism was a formalist movement in literary theory that dominated American literary criticism in the middle decades of the 20th century.

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Noël Carroll

Noël Carroll (born 1947) is an American philosopher considered to be one of the leading figures in contemporary philosophy of art.

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Norbert Schwarz

Norbert Schwarz is Provost Professor in the and the Marshall School of Business at the University of Southern California and a co-director of the.

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Occam's razor

Occam's razor (also Ockham's razor or Ocham's razor; Latin: lex parsimoniae "law of parsimony") is the problem-solving principle that, the simplest explanation tends to be the right one.

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Ode on a Grecian Urn

"Ode on a Grecian Urn" is a poem written by the English Romantic poet John Keats in May 1819 and published anonymously in the January 1820, Number 15, issue of the magazine Annals of the Fine Arts (see 1820 in poetry).

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Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.

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Ornithology is a branch of zoology that concerns the study of birds.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Peace education

Peace education is the process of acquiring the values, the knowledge and developing the attitudes, skills, and behaviors to live in harmony with oneself, with others, and with the natural environment.

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Pennsylvania State University

The Pennsylvania State University (commonly referred to as Penn State or PSU) is a state-related, land-grant, doctoral university with campuses and facilities throughout Pennsylvania.

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Peter Kivy

Peter Kivy (October 22, 1934 – May 6, 2017) was professor emeritus of musicology and philosophy at Rutgers University.

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Peter Osborne (philosopher)

Peter Osborne (born 1958) is Professor of Modern European Philosophy and Director of the Centre for Research in Modern European Philosophy (CRMEP), Kingston University, London.

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Pharyngeal reflex

The pharyngeal reflex or gag reflex (also known as a laryngeal spasm) is a reflex contraction of the back of the throat, evoked by touching the roof of the mouth, the back of the tongue, the area around the tonsils, the uvula, and the back of the throat.

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Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

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Physical attractiveness

Physical attractiveness is the degree to which a person's physical features are considered aesthetically pleasing or beautiful.

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Pierre Bourdieu

Pierre Felix Bourdieu (1 August 1930 – 23 January 2002) was a French sociologist, anthropologist, philosopher, and public intellectual.

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Pleasure is a broad class of mental states that humans and other animals experience as positive, enjoyable, or worth seeking.

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Post-conceptual, Postconceptual, Post-conceptualism or Postconceptualism is an art theory that builds upon the legacy of conceptual art in contemporary art, where the concept(s) or idea(s) involved in the work takes some precedence over traditional aesthetic and material concerns.

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Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late-20th century across philosophy, the arts, architecture, and criticism and that marked a departure from modernism.

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Predictability is the degree to which a correct prediction or forecast of a system's state can be made either qualitatively or quantitatively.

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A preference is a technical term in psychology, economics and philosophy usually used in relation to choosing between alternatives; someone has a preference for A over B if they would choose A rather than B.

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Processing fluency

Processing fluency is the ease with which information is processed.

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Psychoanalysis is a set of theories and therapeutic techniques related to the study of the unconscious mind, which together form a method of treatment for mental-health disorders.

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Raymond Williams

Raymond Henry Williams (31 August 1921 – 26 January 1988) was a Welsh Marxist theorist, academic, novelist and critic.

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Reader-response criticism

Reader-response criticism is a school of literary theory that focuses on the reader (or "audience") and their experience of a literary work, in contrast to other schools and theories that focus attention primarily on the author or the content and form of the work.

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Realism (arts)

Realism, sometimes called naturalism, in the arts is generally the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, or implausible, exotic, and supernatural elements.

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Reinforcement learning

Reinforcement learning (RL) is an area of machine learning inspired by behaviourist psychology, concerned with how software agents ought to take actions in an environment so as to maximize some notion of cumulative reward.

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Richard Wollheim

Richard Arthur Wollheim (5 May 1923 – 4 November 2003) was a British philosopher noted for original work on mind and emotions, especially as related to the visual arts, specifically, painting.

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Robert M. Pirsig

Robert Maynard Pirsig (September 6, 1928 – April 24, 2017) was an American writer and philosopher.

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Rococo, less commonly roccoco, or "Late Baroque", was an exuberantly decorative 18th-century European style which was the final expression of the baroque movement.

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Rutherford Institute

The Rutherford Institute is a non-profit organization based in Charlottesville, Virginia, US dedicated to the defense of civil liberties and human rights.

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Søren Kierkegaard

Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic and religious author who is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher.

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In mathematics, a self-similar object is exactly or approximately similar to a part of itself (i.e. the whole has the same shape as one or more of the parts).

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A sense is a physiological capacity of organisms that provides data for perception.

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Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.

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Social constructionism

Social constructionism or the social construction of reality (also social concept) is a theory of knowledge in sociology and communication theory that examines the development of jointly constructed understandings of the world that form the basis for shared assumptions about reality.

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Soup is a primarily liquid food, generally served warm or hot (but may be cool or cold), that is made by combining ingredients of meat or vegetables with stock, juice, water, or another liquid.

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Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.

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Stanley Fish

Stanley Eugene Fish (born April 19, 1938) is an American literary theorist, legal scholar, author and public intellectual.

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Stephen Davies (philosopher)

Stephen Davies is a Distinguished Professor of philosophy at the University of Auckland, New Zealand.

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Steven Pinker

Steven Arthur Pinker (born September 18, 1954) is a Canadian-American cognitive psychologist, linguist, and popular science author.

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Style (visual arts)

In the visual arts, style is a "...distinctive manner which permits the grouping of works into related categories" or "...any distinctive, and therefore recognizable, way in which an act is performed or an artifact made or ought to be performed and made".

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Subject (philosophy)

A subject is a being who has a unique consciousness and/or unique personal experiences, or an entity that has a relationship with another entity that exists outside itself (called an "object").

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Subjectivity is a central philosophical concept, related to consciousness, agency, personhood, reality, and truth, which has been variously defined by sources.

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Sublime (philosophy)

In aesthetics, the sublime (from the Latin sublīmis) is the quality of greatness, whether physical, moral, intellectual, metaphysical, aesthetic, spiritual, or artistic.

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Susan L. Feagin

Susan L. Feagin (born 11 July 1948) is a philosopher of art, working in the analytic tradition.

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Symmetry (from Greek συμμετρία symmetria "agreement in dimensions, due proportion, arrangement") in everyday language refers to a sense of harmonious and beautiful proportion and balance.

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Taste, gustatory perception, or gustation is one of the five traditional senses that belongs to the gustatory system.

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Taste (sociology)

In sociology, taste is an individual's personal and cultural patterns of choice and preference.

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Terry Eagleton

Terence Francis "Terry" Eagleton FBA (born 22 February 1943) is a British literary theorist, critic and public intellectual.

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The Blank Slate

The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature is a best-selling 2002 book by Steven Pinker, in which the author makes a case against tabula rasa models in the social sciences, arguing that human behavior is substantially shaped by evolutionary psychological adaptations.

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Theodor W. Adorno

Theodor W. Adorno (born Theodor Ludwig Wiesengrund; September 11, 1903 – August 6, 1969) was a German philosopher, sociologist, and composer known for his critical theory of society.

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Theoretical physics

Theoretical physics is a branch of physics that employs mathematical models and abstractions of physical objects and systems to rationalize, explain and predict natural phenomena.

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Theory of art

At the broadest level, a theory of art aims to shed light on some aspect of the project of defining art or to theorize about the structure of our concept of ‘art’ without providing classical definitions, namely definitions formulated in terms of “necessary and sufficient” conditions.

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Thomas Hirschhorn

Thomas Hirschhorn (born 16 May 1957 in Bern) is a Swiss artist.

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Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard.

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Victorian era

In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.

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Władysław Tatarkiewicz

Władysław Tatarkiewicz (3 April 1886, Warsaw – 4 April 1980, Warsaw) was a Polish philosopher, historian of philosophy, historian of art, esthetician, and ethicist.

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What Is Art?

What is Art? (Что такое искусство? Chto takoye iskusstvo?) is a book by Leo Tolstoy.

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William K. Wimsatt

William Kurtz Wimsatt Jr. (November 17, 1907 – December 17, 1975) was an American professor of English, literary theorist, and critic.

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Work of art

A work of art, artwork, art piece, piece of art or art object is an aesthetic physical item or artistic creation.

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Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance

Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance: An Inquiry into Values (ZAMM), by Robert M. Pirsig, is a book that was first published in 1974.

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4′33″ (pronounced "Four minutes, thirty-three seconds" or just "Four thirty-three"Solomon 1998/2002.) is a three-movement compositionPritchett, Kuhn, Grove.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aesthetics

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