527 relations: A priori and a posteriori, A. C. Grayling, Abhidharma, Absolute (philosophy), Abstract and concrete, Accident (philosophy), Action (philosophy), Adam Smith, Advaita Vedanta, Aesthetics, African Americans, African diaspora, African philosophy, African-American literature, Africana philosophy, Afterlife, Age of Enlightenment, Ahimsa, Ajñana, Al-Ghazali, Al-Kindi, Al-Nahda, Alan Bullock, Algonquian languages, Allegory of the Cave, Analytic philosophy, Anatta, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Egyptian philosophy, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek philosophy, Ancient philosophy, Animal rights, Anselm of Laon, Anton Wilhelm Amo, Applied ethics, Arab world, Arabian Peninsula, Arete of Cyrene, Aristotelianism, Aristotle, Art, Arthashastra, Astronomy, Atomism, Augustine of Hippo, Averroes, Avicenna, Avidyā (Buddhism), Axiology, ..., Ayn Rand, Aztec codices, Aztec philosophy, Ājīvika, Āstika and nāstika, Ātman (Hinduism), Śūnyatā, B. F. 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The Latin phrases a priori ("from the earlier") and a posteriori ("from the latter") are philosophical terms of art popularized by Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason (first published in 1781, second edition in 1787), one of the most influential works in the history of philosophy.
Anthony Clifford Grayling (born 3 April 1949), usually known as A. C. Grayling, is a British philosopher and author.
Abhidharma (Sanskrit) or Abhidhamma (Pali) are ancient (3rd century BCE and later) Buddhist texts which contain detailed scholastic reworkings of doctrinal material appearing in the Buddhist sutras, according to schematic classifications.
In philosophy, the concept of The Absolute, also known as The (Unconditioned) Ultimate, The Wholly Other, The Supreme Being, The Absolute/Ultimate Reality, and other names, is the thing, being, entity, power, force, reality, presence, law, principle, etc.
Abstract and concrete are classifications that denote whether a term describes an object with a physical referent or one with no physical referents.
An accident, in philosophy, is an attribute that may or may not belong to a subject, without affecting its essence.
In philosophy, an action is something which is done by an agent.
Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.
Advaita Vedanta (अद्वैत वेदान्त, IAST:, literally, "not-two"), originally known as Puruṣavāda, is a school of Hindu philosophy and religious practice, and one of the classic Indian paths to spiritual realization.
Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
The African diaspora consists of the worldwide collection of communities descended from Africa's peoples, predominantly in the Americas.
African philosophy is philosophy produced by African people, philosophy that presents African worldviews, or philosophy that uses distinct African philosophical methods.
African-American literature is the body of literature produced in the United States by writers of African descent.
Africana philosophy is the work of philosophers of African descent and others whose work deals with the subject matter of the African diaspora.
Afterlife (also referred to as life after death or the hereafter) is the belief that an essential part of an individual's identity or the stream of consciousness continues to manifest after the death of the physical body.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Ahimsa (IAST:, Pāli) means 'not to injure' and 'compassion' and refers to a key virtue in Indian religions.
Ajñana was one of the ''nāstika'' or "heterodox" schools of ancient Indian philosophy, and the ancient school of radical Indian skepticism.
Al-Ghazali (full name Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghazālī أبو حامد محمد بن محمد الغزالي; latinized Algazelus or Algazel, – 19 December 1111) was one of the most prominent and influential philosophers, theologians, jurists, and mysticsLudwig W. Adamec (2009), Historical Dictionary of Islam, p.109.
Abu Yūsuf Yaʻqūb ibn ʼIsḥāq aṣ-Ṣabbāḥ al-Kindī (أبو يوسف يعقوب بن إسحاق الصبّاح الكندي; Alkindus; c. 801–873 AD) was an Arab Muslim philosopher, polymath, mathematician, physician and musician.
Al-Nahda (النهضة / ALA-LC: an-Nahḍah; Arabic for "awakening" or "renaissance") was a cultural renaissance that began in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in Egypt, then later moving to Ottoman-ruled Arabic-speaking regions including Lebanon, Syria and others.
Alan Louis Charles Bullock, Baron Bullock, (13 December 1914 – 2 February 2004) was a British historian.
The Algonquian languages (or; also Algonkian) are a subfamily of Native American languages which includes most of the languages in the Algic language family.
The Allegory of the Cave, or Plato's Cave, was presented by the Greek philosopher Plato in his work Republic (514a–520a) to compare "the effect of education (παιδεία) and the lack of it on our nature".
Analytic philosophy (sometimes analytical philosophy) is a style of philosophy that became dominant in the Western world at the beginning of the 20th century.
In Buddhism, the term anattā (Pali) or anātman (Sanskrit) refers to the doctrine of "non-self", that there is no unchanging, permanent self, soul or essence in living beings.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Almost nothing is known of Ancient Egyptian philosophy.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire.
This page lists some links to ancient philosophy.
Animal rights is the idea in which some, or all, non-human animals are entitled to the possession of their own lives and that their most basic interests—such as the need to avoid suffering—should be afforded the same consideration as similar interests of human beings.
Anselm of Laon (Anselmus; 1117), properly Ansel (Ansellus), was a French theologian and founder of a school of scholars who helped to pioneer biblical hermeneutics.
Anton Wilhelm Amo or Anthony William Amo (c. 1703 – c. 1759) was an African philosopher from what is now Ghana.
Applied ethics is the branch of ethics concerned with the analysis of particular moral issues in private and public life.
The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Arete of Cyrene (Ἀρήτη; fl. 5th–4th century BC) was a Cyrenaic philosopher who lived in Cyrene, Libya.
Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual idea, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power.
The Arthashastra is an ancient Indian treatise on statecraft, economic policy and military strategy, written in Sanskrit.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
Atomism (from Greek ἄτομον, atomon, i.e. "uncuttable", "indivisible") is a natural philosophy that developed in several ancient traditions.
Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.
Ibn Rushd (ابن رشد; full name; 1126 – 11 December 1198), often Latinized as Averroes, was an Andalusian philosopher and thinker who wrote about many subjects, including philosophy, theology, medicine, astronomy, physics, Islamic jurisprudence and law, and linguistics.
Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
Avidyā (Sanskrit; Pāli: avijjā; Tibetan phonetic: ma rigpa) in Buddhist literature is commonly translated as "ignorance".
Axiology (from Greek ἀξία, axia, "value, worth"; and -λογία, -logia) is the philosophical study of value.
Ayn Rand (born Alisa Zinovyevna Rosenbaum; – March 6, 1982) was a Russian-American writer and philosopher.
Aztec codices (Mēxihcatl āmoxtli) are books written by pre-Columbian and colonial-era Nahuas in pictorial and/or alphabetic form.
Aztec philosophy was a school of philosophy that developed out of Aztec culture.
Ajivika (IAST) is one of the nāstika or "heterodox" schools of Indian philosophy.
Āstika derives from the Sanskrit asti, "there is, there exists", and means “one who believes in the existence (of God, of another world, etc.)” and nāstika means "an atheist or unbeliever".
Ātma is a Sanskrit word that means inner self or soul.
Śūnyatā (Sanskrit; Pali: suññatā), pronounced ‘shoonyataa’, translated into English most often as emptiness and sometimes voidness, is a Buddhist concept which has multiple meanings depending on its doctrinal context.
Burrhus Frederic Skinner (March 20, 1904 – August 18, 1990), commonly known as B. F. Skinner, was an American psychologist, behaviorist, author, inventor, and social philosopher.
The history of astronomy in Mesopotamia, and the world, begins with the Sumerians who developed the earliest writing system—known as cuneiform—around 3500–3200 BC.
Bantu Philosophy (La philosophie bantoue in French) is a 1945 book written by Placide Tempels which argues that the people of Sub-Saharan Africa (the use of the term "Bantu" as an ethnic label is now largely discredited) have a distinctive philosophy, and attempts to describe the underpinnings of that philosophy.
Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa,; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin.
Basic beliefs (also commonly called foundational beliefs or core beliefs) are, under the epistemological view called foundationalism, the axioms of a belief system.
Beauty is a characteristic of an animal, idea, object, person or place that provides a perceptual experience of pleasure or satisfaction.
Being is the general concept encompassing objective and subjective features of reality and existence.
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.
Bimal Krishna Matilal (1935–1991) was an Indian philosopher whose influential writings present the Indian philosophical tradition as a comprehensive system of logic incorporating most issues addressed by themes in Western philosophy.
Black existentialism or Africana critical theory is a school of thought that "critiques domination and affirms the empowerment of Black people in the world".
Anicius Manlius Severinus Boëthius, commonly called Boethius (also Boetius; 477–524 AD), was a Roman senator, consul, magister officiorum, and philosopher of the early 6th century.
In Hinduism, Brahman connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe.P. T. Raju (2006), Idealistic Thought of India, Routledge,, page 426 and Conclusion chapter part XII In major schools of Hindu philosophy, it is the material, efficient, formal and final cause of all that exists.For dualism school of Hinduism, see: Francis X. Clooney (2010), Hindu God, Christian God: How Reason Helps Break Down the Boundaries between Religions, Oxford University Press,, pages 51–58, 111–115;For monist school of Hinduism, see: B. Martinez-Bedard (2006), Types of Causes in Aristotle and Sankara, Thesis – Department of Religious Studies (Advisors: Kathryn McClymond and Sandra Dwyer), Georgia State University, pages 18–35 It is the pervasive, genderless, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes. Brahman as a metaphysical concept is the single binding unity behind diversity in all that exists in the universe. Brahman is a Vedic Sanskrit word, and it is conceptualized in Hinduism, states Paul Deussen, as the "creative principle which lies realized in the whole world". Brahman is a key concept found in the Vedas, and it is extensively discussed in the early Upanishads.Stephen Philips (1998), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Brahman to Derrida (Editor; Edward Craig), Routledge,, pages 1–4 The Vedas conceptualize Brahman as the Cosmic Principle. In the Upanishads, it has been variously described as Sat-cit-ānanda (truth-consciousness-bliss) and as the unchanging, permanent, highest reality. Brahman is discussed in Hindu texts with the concept of Atman (Soul, Self), personal, impersonal or Para Brahman, or in various combinations of these qualities depending on the philosophical school. In dualistic schools of Hinduism such as the theistic Dvaita Vedanta, Brahman is different from Atman (soul) in each being.Michael Myers (2000), Brahman: A Comparative Theology, Routledge,, pages 124–127 In non-dual schools such as the Advaita Vedanta, Brahman is identical to the Atman, is everywhere and inside each living being, and there is connected spiritual oneness in all existence.Arvind Sharma (2007), Advaita Vedānta: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass,, pages 19–40, 53–58, 79–86.
In philosophy, the brain in a vat (alternately known as brain in a jar) is a scenario used in a variety of thought experiments intended to draw out certain features of human conceptions of knowledge, reality, truth, mind, consciousness and meaning.
Bruce Kuklick (born March 3, 1941 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) is an American historian.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Buddhism in the West broadly encompasses the knowledge and practice of Buddhism outside Asia in Europe, the Americas, Australia and New Zealand.
Buddhist logico-epistemology is a term used in Western scholarship for pramāṇa-vada (doctrine of proof) and Hetu-vidya (science of causes).
Buddhist meditation is the practice of meditation in Buddhism and Buddhist philosophy.
Buddhist modernism (also referred to as Modern Buddhism, modernist Buddhism and Neo-Buddhism) are new movements based on modern era reinterpretations of Buddhism.
Buddhist philosophy refers to the philosophical investigations and systems of inquiry that developed among various Buddhist schools in India following the death of the Buddha and later spread throughout Asia.
The Canadian Philosophical Association (CPA; L'Association canadienne de philosophie, ACP) was founded in 1958 as a bilingual non-profit organization devoted to philosophy professionals in Canada.
Carl Philipp Gottfried (or Gottlieb) von Clausewitz (1 June 1780 – 16 November 1831)Bassford, Christopher (2002).
Cara Carleton "Carly" Fiorina (née Sneed; born September 6, 1954) is an American businesswoman and political figure, known primarily for her tenure as CEO of Hewlett-Packard (HP).
Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Chanakya (IAST:,; fl. c. 4th century BCE) was an Indian teacher, philosopher, economist, jurist and royal advisor.
Charles Margrave Taylor (born 1931) is a Canadian philosopher from Montreal, Quebec, and professor emeritus at McGill University best known for his contributions to political philosophy, the philosophy of social science, the history of philosophy, and intellectual history.
Charvaka (IAST: Cārvāka), originally known as Lokāyata and Bṛhaspatya, is the ancient school of Indian materialism.
Chinese Buddhism or Han Buddhism has shaped Chinese culture in a wide variety of areas including art, politics, literature, philosophy, medicine, and material culture.
Chinese Marxist Philosophy is the philosophy of Dialectical Materialism that was introduced into China in the early 1900s and continues in the Chinese Academy to the current day.
Chinese philosophy originates in the Spring and Autumn period and Warring States period, during a period known as the "Hundred Schools of Thought", which was characterized by significant intellectual and cultural developments.
Christian philosophy is a development in philosophy that is characterised by coming from a Christian tradition.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes.
Coherentism is the name given to a few philosophical theories in modern epistemology.
Colin McGinn (born 10 March 1950) is a British philosopher.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
Computational logic is the use of logic to perform or reason about computation.
Computer engineering is a discipline that integrates several fields of computer science and electronics engineering required to develop computer hardware and software.
Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
Confucius (551–479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.
Consequentialism is the class of normative ethical theories holding that the consequences of one's conduct are the ultimate basis for any judgment about the rightness or wrongness of that conduct.
Contemporary Islamic philosophy revives some of the trends of medieval Islamic philosophy, notably the tension between Mutazilite and Asharite views of ethics in science and law, and the duty of Muslims and role of Islam in the sociology of knowledge and in forming ethical codes and legal codes, especially the fiqh (or "jurisprudence") and rules of jihad (or "just war").
Contemporary philosophy is the present period in the history of Western philosophy beginning at the end of the 19th century with the professionalization of the discipline and the rise of analytic and continental philosophy.
Continental philosophy is a set of 19th- and 20th-century philosophical traditions from mainland Europe.
Cosmology (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.
Critical race theory (CRT) is a theoretical framework in the social sciences that uses critical theory to examine society and culture as they relate to categorizations of race, law, and power.
Critical theory is a school of thought that stresses the reflective assessment and critique of society and culture by applying knowledge from the social sciences and the humanities.
Cubism is an early-20th-century art movement which brought European painting and sculpture historically forward toward 20th century Modern art.
Curtis White is an American essayist and author.
Cynicism (κυνισμός) is a school of thought of ancient Greek philosophy as practiced by the Cynics (Κυνικοί, Cynici).
David John Chalmers (born 20 April 1966) is an Australian philosopher and cognitive scientist specializing in the areas of philosophy of mind and philosophy of language.
David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.
Dōgen Zenji (道元禅師; 19 January 1200 – 22 September 1253), also known as Dōgen Kigen (道元希玄), Eihei Dōgen (永平道元), Kōso Jōyō Daishi (高祖承陽大師), or Busshō Dentō Kokushi (仏性伝東国師), was a Japanese Buddhist priest, writer, poet, philosopher, and founder of the Sōtō school of Zen in Japan.
Decision theory (or the theory of choice) is the study of the reasoning underlying an agent's choices.
Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic, logical deduction is the process of reasoning from one or more statements (premises) to reach a logically certain conclusion.
Deep ecology is an ecological and environmental philosophy promoting the inherent worth of living beings regardless of their instrumental utility to human needs, plus a radical restructuring of modern human societies in accordance with such ideas.
The population of Africa has grown rapidly over the past century, and consequently shows a large youth bulge, further reinforced by a low life expectancy of below 50 years in some African countries.
Demographically, the Roman Empire was an ordinary premodern state.
In moral philosophy, deontological ethics or deontology (from Greek δέον, deon, "obligation, duty") is the normative ethical position that judges the morality of an action based on rules.
Dharma (dharma,; dhamma, translit. dhamma) is a key concept with multiple meanings in the Indian religions – Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism.
Dialectic or dialectics (διαλεκτική, dialektikḗ; related to dialogue), also known as the dialectical method, is at base a discourse between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject but wishing to establish the truth through reasoned arguments.
Dignāga (a.k.a. Diṅnāga, c. 480 – c. 540 CE) was an Indian Buddhist scholar and one of the Buddhist founders of Indian logic (hetu vidyā).
A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD or Ph.D.; Latin Philosophiae doctor) is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most countries.
Dualism in cosmology is the moral or spiritual belief that two fundamental concepts exist, which often oppose each other.
Dukkha (Pāli; Sanskrit: duḥkha; Tibetan: སྡུག་བསྔལ་ sdug bsngal, pr. "duk-ngel") is an important Buddhist concept, commonly translated as "suffering", "pain", "unsatisfactoriness" or "stress".
Early Islamic philosophy or classical Islamic philosophy is a period of intense philosophical development beginning in the 2nd century AH of the Islamic calendar (early 9th century CE) and lasting until the 6th century AH (late 12th century CE).
Early modern philosophy is a period in the history of philosophy at the beginning or overlapping with the period known as modern philosophy.
The early Muslim conquests (الفتوحات الإسلامية, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) also referred to as the Arab conquests and early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
East Asian Buddhism is a collective term for the schools of Mahayana Buddhism that developed in the East Asian region and follow the Chinese Buddhist canon.
The "Sinosphere", or "East Asian cultural sphere", refers to a grouping of countries and regions in East Asia that were historically influenced by the Chinese culture.
Eastern philosophy or Asian philosophy includes the various philosophies that originated in East and South Asia including Chinese philosophy, Japanese philosophy, Korean philosophy which are dominant in East Asia and Vietnam, and Indian philosophy (including Buddhist philosophy) which are dominant in South Asia, Tibet and Southeast Asia.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
Edward John Craig (born 26 March 1942) is an English academic philosopher, editor of the Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, and former Knightbridge Professor of Philosophy at the University of Cambridge.
Elliott Sober (born 6 June 1948, Baltimore) is Hans Reichenbach Professor and William F. Vilas Research Professor in the Department of Philosophy at University of Wisconsin–Madison.
In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus, founded around 307 BC.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
In philosophy, essence is the property or set of properties that make an entity or substance what it fundamentally is, and which it has by necessity, and without which it loses its identity.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
Ethiopian philosophy is the philosophical corpus of the territories of present-day Ethiopia and Eritrea.
Ethnophilosophy is the study of indigenous philosophical systems.
Eudaimonia (Greek: εὐδαιμονία), sometimes anglicized as eudaemonia or eudemonia, is a Greek word commonly translated as happiness or welfare; however, "human flourishing or prosperity" has been proposed as a more accurate translation.
Eugenio Garin (May 9, 1909 – December 29, 2004) was an Italian philosopher and Renaissance historian.
The evil demon, also known as malicious demon and evil genius, is a concept in Cartesian philosophy.
Existence, in its most generic terms, is the ability to, directly or indirectly, interact with reality or, in more specific cases, the universe.
The existence of God is a subject of debate in the philosophy of religion and popular culture.
Existentialism is a tradition of philosophical inquiry associated mainly with certain 19th and 20th-century European philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences,Oxford Companion to Philosophy, ed.
Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service company based in Menlo Park, California.
In the context of religion, one can define faith as confidence or trust in a particular system of religious belief, within which faith may equate to confidence based on some perceived degree of warrant, in contrast to the general sense of faith being a belief without evidence.
Feeling is the nominalization of the verb to feel.
Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social equality of sexes.
Feminist philosophy is an approach to philosophy from a feminist perspective and also the employment of philosophical methods to feminist topics and questions.
The Fertile Crescent (also known as the "cradle of civilization") is a crescent-shaped region where agriculture and early human civilizations like the Sumer and Ancient Egypt flourished due to inundations from the surrounding Nile, Euphrates, and Tigris rivers.
Film theory is a set of scholarly approaches within the academic discipline of cinema studies that questions the essentialism of cinema and provides conceptual frameworks for understanding film's relationship to reality, the other arts, individual viewers, and society at large.
Formal sciences are formal language disciplines concerned with formal systems, such as logic, mathematics, statistics, theoretical computer science, robotics, information theory, game theory, systems theory, decision theory, and theoretical linguistics.
Foundationalism concerns philosophical theories of knowledge resting upon justified belief, or some secure foundation of certainty such as a conclusion inferred from a basis of sound premises.
The Four Noble Truths refer to and express the basic orientation of Buddhism in a short expression: we crave and cling to impermanent states and things, which are dukkha, "incapable of satisfying" and painful.
Frederick Charles Copleston, SJ, CBE (10 April 1907 – 3 February 1994) was a Jesuit priest, philosopher, and historian of philosophy, best known for his influential multi-volume A History of Philosophy (1946–74).
Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.
Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
Geonim (גאונים;; also transliterated Gaonim- singular Gaon) were the presidents of the two great Babylonian, Talmudic Academies of Sura and Pumbedita, in the Abbasid Caliphate, and were the generally accepted spiritual leaders of the Jewish community worldwide in the early medieval era, in contrast to the Resh Galuta (Exilarch) who wielded secular authority over the Jews in Islamic lands.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.
George Berkeley (12 March 168514 January 1753) — known as Bishop Berkeley (Bishop of Cloyne) — was an Irish philosopher whose primary achievement was the advancement of a theory he called "immaterialism" (later referred to as "subjective idealism" by others).
Gerd B. Achenbach (born February 11, 1947 in Hameln as Gerd Böttcher) is a German philosopher.
German idealism (also known as post-Kantian idealism, post-Kantian philosophy, or simply post-Kantianism) was a philosophical movement that emerged in Germany in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
Gitche Manitou (Gitchi Manitou, Kitchi Manitou, etc.) means "Great Spirit" in several Algonquian languages.
Gnosticism (from γνωστικός gnostikos, "having knowledge", from γνῶσις, knowledge) is a modern name for a variety of ancient religious ideas and systems, originating in Jewish-Christian milieus in the first and second century AD.
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.
In religion, ethics, philosophy, and psychology "good and evil" is a very common dichotomy.
Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print and by its codename Project Ocean) is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition (OCR), and stored in its digital database.
Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (or; Leibnitz; – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire, existing from approximately 240 to 590 CE.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Johanna "Hannah" Arendt (14 October 1906 – 4 December 1975) was a German-born American philosopher and political theorist.
Harry Gordon Frankfurt (born May 29, 1929) is an American philosopher.
The Haskalah, often termed Jewish Enlightenment (השכלה; literally, "wisdom", "erudition", Yiddish pronunciation Heskole) was an intellectual movement among the Jews of Central and Eastern Europe, with certain influence on those in Western Europe and the Muslim world.
Hermeneutics is the theory and methodology of interpretation, especially the interpretation of biblical texts, wisdom literature, and philosophical texts.
Hindu nationalism has been collectively referred to as the expressions of social and political thought, based on the native spiritual and cultural traditions of the Indian subcontinent.
Several contemporary groups, collectively termed Hindu reform movements or Hindu revivalism, strive to introduce regeneration and reform to Hinduism, both in a religious or spiritual and in a societal sense.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Hipparchia of Maroneia (Ἱππαρχία ἡ Μαρωνεῖτις; fl. c. 325 BC) was a Cynic philosopher, and wife of Crates of Thebes.
The historical Vedic religion (also known as Vedism, Brahmanism, Vedic Brahmanism, and ancient Hinduism) was the religion of the Indo-Aryans of northern India during the Vedic period.
Historicism is the idea of attributing meaningful significance to space and time, such as historical period, geographical place, and local culture.
The history of Iran, commonly also known as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia, the Bosphorus, and Egypt in the west to the borders of Ancient India and the Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.
The Inca state was known as the Kingdom of Cusco before 1438.
Hu Shih (17 December 1891 – 24 February 1962) was a Chinese philosopher, essayist and diplomat.
The human body is the entire structure of a human being.
Human nature is a bundle of fundamental characteristics—including ways of thinking, feeling, and acting—which humans tend to have naturally.
Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.
"Humanistic" (human-realm) Buddhism is a modern philosophy practiced by new religious movements originating from Chinese Buddhism.
Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture.
The Hundred Schools of Thought were philosophies and schools that flourished from the 6th century to 221 BC, during the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period of ancient China.
Ibn Khaldun (أبو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون الحضرمي.,; 27 May 1332 – 17 March 1406) was a fourteenth-century Arab historiographer and historian.
Taqī ad-Dīn Ahmad ibn Taymiyyah (Arabic: تقي الدين أحمد ابن تيمية, January 22, 1263 - September 26, 1328), known as Ibn Taymiyyah for short, was a controversial medieval Sunni Muslim theologian, jurisconsult, logician, and reformer.
In philosophy, idealism is the group of metaphysical philosophies that assert that reality, or reality as humans can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial.
Illuminationist or ishraqi philosophy is a type of Islamic philosophy introduced by Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi in the twelfth century CE.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
Impermanence, also called Anicca or Anitya, is one of the essential doctrines and a part of three marks of existence in Buddhism.
Inca education during the time of the Inca Empire was divided into two principal spheres: education for the upper classes and education for the general population.
Indian philosophy refers to ancient philosophical traditions of the Indian subcontinent.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Infinitism is the view that knowledge may be justified by an infinite chain of reasons.
Inside Higher Ed is a media company and online publication that provides news, opinion, resources, events and jobs focused on college and university topics.
The International Directory of Philosophy is an online database containing information on university philosophy departments, research centers, professional societies, journals, and philosophy publishers in approximately 130 countries.
International relations (IR) or international affairs (IA) — commonly also referred to as international studies (IS) or global studies (GS) — is the study of interconnectedness of politics, economics and law on a global level.
The iPod is a line of portable media players and multi-purpose pocket computers designed and marketed by Apple Inc. The first version was released on October 23, 2001, about months after the Macintosh version of iTunes was released.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iranian philosophy (Persian:فلسفه ایرانی) or Persian philosophy can be traced back as far as to Old Iranian philosophical traditions and thoughts which originated in ancient Indo-Iranian roots and were considerably influenced by Zarathustra's teachings.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
Islamic culture is a term primarily used in secular academia to describe the cultural practices common to historically Islamic people -- i.e., the culture of the Islamicate.
The Islamic Golden Age is the era in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world was ruled by various caliphates, and science, economic development and cultural works flourished.
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
Japanese philosophy has historically been a fusion of both indigenous Shinto and continental religions, such as Buddhism and Confucianism.
Jean Baudrillard (27 July 1929 – 6 March 2007) was a French sociologist, philosopher, cultural theorist, political commentator, and photographer.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.
Jennifer Saul is a philosopher working in philosophy of language and philosophy of feminism.
Jewish existentialism is a category of work by Jewish authors dealing with existentialist themes and concepts (e.g. debate about the existence of God and the meaning of human existence), and intended to answer theological questions that are important in Judaism.
Jewish philosophy includes all philosophy carried out by Jews, or in relation to the religion of Judaism.
John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, Georgist, and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.
The Joseon dynasty (also transcribed as Chosŏn or Chosun, 조선; officially the Kingdom of Great Joseon, 대조선국) was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Judeo-Christian is a term that groups Judaism and Christianity, either in reference to Christianity's derivation from Judaism, both religions common use of the Torah, or due to perceived parallels or commonalities shared values between those two religions, which has contained as part of Western culture.
Judgement (or judgment) is the evaluation of evidence to make a decision.
Jurisprudence or legal theory is the theoretical study of law, principally by philosophers but, from the twentieth century, also by social scientists.
Justice is the legal or philosophical theory by which fairness is administered.
ʿIlm al-Kalām (عِلْم الكَلام, literally "science of discourse"),Winter, Tim J. "Introduction." Introduction.
The Kama Sutra (कामसूत्र) is an ancient Indian Hindu text written by Vātsyāyana.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
Karma (karma,; italic) means action, work or deed; it also refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect where intent and actions of an individual (cause) influence the future of that individual (effect).
Kathleen Marie Higgins (born 1954) is an American Professor of Philosophy at the University of Texas at Austin where she has been teaching for over twenty years.
The Khmer Empire (Khmer: ចក្រភពខ្មែរ: Chakrphup Khmer or អាណាចក្រខ្មែរ: Anachak Khmer), officially the Angkor Empire (Khmer: អាណាចក្រអង្គរ: Anachak Angkor), the predecessor state to modern Cambodia ("Kampuchea" or "Srok Khmer" to the Khmer people), was a powerful Hindu-Buddhist empire in Southeast Asia.
Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.
Korean philosophy focused on a totality of world view.
Krishna Chandra Bhattacharya, also known as K.C. Bhattacharya, (12 May 1875 – 11 December 1949) was a philosopher at the University of Calcutta known for his method of "constructive interpretation" through which relations and problematics of ancient Indian philosophical systems are drawn out and developed so that they can be studied like problems of modern philosophy.
Kwame Akroma-Ampim Kusi Anthony Appiah (born May 8, 1954) is a British-born Ghanaian-American philosopher, cultural theorist, and novelist whose interests include political and moral theory, the philosophy of language and mind, and African intellectual history.
The is the name given to the Japanese philosophical movement centered at Kyoto University that assimilated western philosophy and religious ideas and used them to reformulate religious and moral insights unique to the East Asian cultural tradition.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Lawrence Mark Sanger (born) is an American Internet project developer, co-founder of Wikipedia, and the founder of Citizendium.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
Lectures on the Philosophy of History, also translated as Lectures on the Philosophy of World History (LPH;, VPW), is a major work by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770–1831), originally given as lectures at the University of Berlin in 1822, 1828, and 1830.
Fajia or Legalism is one of Sima Tan's six classical schools of thought in Chinese philosophy.
Count Lyov (also Lev) Nikolayevich Tolstoy (also Лев) Николаевич ТолстойIn Tolstoy's day, his name was written Левъ Николаевичъ Толстой.
Li is a classical Chinese word which is commonly used in Chinese philosophy, particularly within Confucianism.
The linguistic turn was a major development in Western philosophy during the early 20th century, the most important characteristic of which is the focusing of philosophy and the other humanities primarily on the relationship between philosophy and language.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
This is a list of important publications in philosophy, organized by field.
This is a list of academic journals pertaining to the field of philosophy.
This is a list of some of the major unsolved problems in philosophy.
The following entries cover events related to the study of philosophy which occurred in the listed year.
The alphabetical list of philosophers is so large it had to be broken up into several pages.
Literary theory in a strict sense is the systematic study of the nature of literature and of the methods for analyzing literature.
Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.
Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.
Logical consequence (also entailment) is a fundamental concept in logic, which describes the relationship between statements that hold true when one statement logically follows from one or more statements.
Logical positivism and logical empiricism, which together formed neopositivism, was a movement in Western philosophy whose central thesis was verificationism, a theory of knowledge which asserted that only statements verifiable through empirical observation are cognitively meaningful.
Logos (lógos; from λέγω) is a term in Western philosophy, psychology, rhetoric, and religion derived from a Greek word variously meaning "ground", "plea", "opinion", "expectation", "word", "speech", "account", "reason", "proportion", and "discourse",Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott,: logos, 1889.
Louis A. Székely (born September 12, 1967), better known by his stage name Louis C.K., is an American stand-up comedian, writer, actor, and filmmaker.
Luciano Floridi (born 16 November 1964) is currently Professor of Philosophy and Ethics of Information and Director of the Digital Ethics Lab, at the University of Oxford, Oxford Internet Institute, Professorial Fellow of Exeter College, Oxford,, Senior Member of the Faculty of Philosophy, Research Associate and Fellow in Information Policy at the Department of Computer Science, University of Oxford, and Distinguished Research Fellow of the Oxford Uehiro Centre for Practical Ethics.
Mysore Hiriyanna (1871–1950) was one of the foremost writers on Indian philosophy who lived in the last century.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule.
Mahāyāna (Sanskrit for "Great Vehicle") is one of two (or three, if Vajrayana is counted separately) main existing branches of Buddhism and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice.
Moses ben Maimon (Mōšeh bēn-Maymūn; موسى بن ميمون Mūsā bin Maymūn), commonly known as Maimonides (Μαϊμωνίδης Maïmōnídēs; Moses Maimonides), and also referred to by the acronym Rambam (for Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimun, "Our Rabbi Moses son of Maimon"), was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.
Manichaeism (in Modern Persian آیین مانی Āyin-e Māni) was a major religious movement that was founded by the Iranian prophet Mani (in مانی, Syriac: ܡܐܢܝ, Latin: Manichaeus or Manes from Μάνης; 216–276) in the Sasanian Empire.
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
Martin Luther King Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American Baptist minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader in the civil rights movement from 1954 until his death in 1968.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all things, including mental aspects and consciousness, are results of material interactions.
Mathematical logic is a subfield of mathematics exploring the applications of formal logic to mathematics.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
Mazdak (مزدک, Middle Persian:, also Mazdak the Younger; died c. 524 or 528) was a Zoroastrian mobad (priest), Iranian reformer, prophet and religious activist who gained influence during the reign of the Sasanian emperor Kavadh I. He claimed to be a prophet of Ahura Mazda and instituted communal possessions and social welfare programs.
Mimansa (purv mi mansa) is a Sanskrit word that means "reflection" or "critical investigation".
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Medieval philosophy is the philosophy in the era now known as medieval or the Middle Ages, the period roughly extending from the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century A.D. to the Renaissance in the 16th century.
A medieval university is a corporation organized during the Middle Ages for the purposes of higher learning.
The was an intellectual society in Meiji period Japan that published social-criticism journal.
Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.
Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.
In Abrahamic religions, Messianism is the belief and doctrine that is centered on the advent of the messiah, who acts as the chosen savior and leader of humanity by God.
A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies.
Meta-ethics is the branch of ethics that seeks to understand the nature of ethical properties, statements, attitudes, and judgments.
Metaphilosophy (sometimes called philosophy of philosophy) is "the investigation of the nature of philosophy".
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
Michael J. Sandel (born March 5, 1953) is an American political philosopher.
Michel Weber is a Belgian philosopher, born in Brussels in 1963.
Military strategy is a set of ideas implemented by military organizations to pursue desired strategic goals.
The mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, language and memory.
Mind–body dualism, or mind–body duality, is a view in the philosophy of mind that mental phenomena are, in some respects, non-physical,Hart, W.D. (1996) "Dualism", in A Companion to the Philosophy of Mind, ed.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
Misogyny is the hatred of, contempt for, or prejudice against women or girls.
Modal logic is a type of formal logic primarily developed in the 1960s that extends classical propositional and predicate logic to include operators expressing modality.
Modern philosophy is philosophy developed in the modern era and associated with modernity.
In propositional logic, modus ponens (MP; also modus ponendo ponens (Latin for "mode that affirms by affirming") or implication elimination) is a rule of inference.
Moksha (मोक्ष), also called vimoksha, vimukti and mukti, is a term in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism which refers to various forms of emancipation, liberation, and release. In its soteriological and eschatological senses, it refers to freedom from saṃsāra, the cycle of death and rebirth. In its epistemological and psychological senses, moksha refers to freedom from ignorance: self-realization and self-knowledge. In Hindu traditions, moksha is a central concept and the utmost aim to be attained through three paths during human life; these three paths are dharma (virtuous, proper, moral life), artha (material prosperity, income security, means of life), and kama (pleasure, sensuality, emotional fulfillment). Together, these four concepts are called Puruṣārtha in Hinduism. In some schools of Indian religions, moksha is considered equivalent to and used interchangeably with other terms such as vimoksha, vimukti, kaivalya, apavarga, mukti, nihsreyasa and nirvana. However, terms such as moksha and nirvana differ and mean different states between various schools of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.See.
Monism attributes oneness or singleness (Greek: μόνος) to a concept e.g., existence.
Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world.
Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
Moses Mendelssohn (6 September 1729 – 4 January 1786) was a German Jewish philosopher to whose ideas the Haskalah, the 'Jewish enlightenment' of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, is indebted.
Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time.
Music theory is the study of the practices and possibilities of music.
Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 12th to the 16th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests made limited inroads into modern Afghanistan and Pakistan as early as the time of the Rajput kingdoms in the 8th century.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Nāgārjuna (c. 150 – c. 250 CE) is widely considered one of the most important Mahayana philosophers.
Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States.
Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science.
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.
Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe.
The Navya-Nyāya or Neo-Logical darśana (view, system, or school) of Indian logic and Indian philosophy was founded in the 13th century CE by the philosopher Gangeśa Upādhyāya of Mithila and continued by Raghunatha Siromani.
Négritude is a framework of critique and literary theory, developed mainly by francophone intellectuals, writers, and politicians of the African diaspora during the 1930s.
Neo-Confucianism (often shortened to lixue 理學) is a moral, ethical, and metaphysical Chinese philosophy influenced by Confucianism, and originated with Han Yu and Li Ao (772–841) in the Tang Dynasty, and became prominent during the Song and Ming dynasties.
Neo-Vedanta, also called Hindu modernism, neo-Hinduism, Global Hinduism and Hindu Universalism, are terms to characterize interpretations of Hinduism that developed in the 19th century.
Neoplatonism is a term used to designate a strand of Platonic philosophy that began with Plotinus in the third century AD against the background of Hellenistic philosophy and religion.
New Confucianism is an intellectual movement of Confucianism that began in the early 20th century in Republican China, and further developed in post-Mao era contemporary China.
Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527) was an Italian diplomat, politician, historian, philosopher, humanist, and writer of the Renaissance period.
Nigel Warburton (born 1962) is a British philosopher.
Nihilism is the philosophical viewpoint that suggests the denial or lack of belief towards the reputedly meaningful aspects of life.
Non-classical logics (and sometimes alternative logics) are formal systems that differ in a significant way from standard logical systems such as propositional and predicate logic.
Normative ethics is the study of ethical action.
In metaphysics, the noumenon (from Greek: νούμενον) is a posited object or event that exists independently of human sense and/or perception.
A number is a mathematical object used to count, measure and also label.
(Sanskrit: न्याय, ny-āyá), literally means "rules", "method" or "judgment".
An object is a technical term in modern philosophy often used in contrast to the term subject.
Ōmeteōtl ("Two Gods") is a name sometimes used to refer to the pair of Aztec deities Ometecuhtli and Omecihuatl, also known as Tonacatecuhtli and Tonacacihuatl.
On Bullshit (2005), by philosopher Harry G. Frankfurt, is an essay that presents a theory of bullshit that defines the concept and analyzes the applications of bullshit in the contexts of communication.
Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.
The Open Court Publishing Company is a publisher with offices in Chicago and La Salle, Illinois.
Orenda is an Iroquois name for a spiritual power inherent in people and their environment.
Ornithology is a branch of zoology that concerns the study of birds.
An academic discipline or field of study is a branch of knowledge that is taught and researched as part of higher education.
Pan-Africanism is a worldwide intellectual movement that aims to encourage and strengthen bonds of solidarity between all people of African descent.
Pantheism is the belief that reality is identical with divinity, or that all-things compose an all-encompassing, immanent god.
In metaphysics, particulars are defined as concrete, spatiotemporal entities as opposed to abstract entities, such as properties or numbers.
The Peripatetic school was a school of philosophy in Ancient Greece.
In philosophy, the matter of personal identity deals with such questions as, "What makes it true that a person at one time is the same thing as a person at another time?" or "What kinds of things are we persons?" Generally, personal identity is the unique numerical identity of a person in the course of time.
Peter Andreas Thiel (born October 11, 1967) is an American entrepreneur, venture capitalist, philanthropist, political activist, and author.
Phenomenology (from Greek phainómenon "that which appears" and lógos "study") is the philosophical study of the structures of experience and consciousness.
A phenomenon (Greek: φαινόμενον, phainómenon, from the verb phainein, to show, shine, appear, to be manifest or manifest itself, plural phenomena) is any thing which manifests itself.
A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science.
Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Latin for Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), often referred to as simply the Principia, is a work in three books by Isaac Newton, in Latin, first published 5 July 1687.
Philosophical logic refers to those areas of philosophy in which recognized methods of logic have traditionally been used to solve or advance the discussion of philosophical problems.
Philosophical method (or philosophical methodology) is the study of how to do philosophy.
A prominent question in metaphilosophy is that of whether philosophical progress occurs, and more so, whether such progress in philosophy is even possible.
Realism (in philosophy) about a given object is the view that this object exists in reality independently of our conceptual scheme.
Philosophical skepticism (UK spelling: scepticism; from Greek σκέψις skepsis, "inquiry") is a philosophical school of thought that questions the possibility of certainty in knowledge.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Philosophy education is the practice of teaching and learning philosophy along with the associated scholarly research.
Philosophy for Children, sometimes abbreviated to P4C, is a movement that aims to teach reasoning and argumentative skills to children.
The philosophy of biology is a subfield of philosophy of science, which deals with epistemological, metaphysical, and ethical issues in the biological and biomedical sciences.
Philosophy of education can refer either to the application of philosophy to the problem of education, examining definitions, goals and chains of meaning used in education by teachers, administrators or policymakers.
The philosophy of film is a branch of aesthetics within the discipline of philosophy that seeks to understand the most basic questions regarding film.
Philosophy of history is the philosophical study of history and the past.
Philosophy of language explores the relationship between language and reality.
Philosophy of law is a branch of philosophy and jurisprudence that seeks to answer basic questions about law and legal systems, such as "What is law?", "What are the criteria for legal validity?", "What is the relationship between law and morality?", and many other similar questions.
The philosophy of mathematics is the branch of philosophy that studies the assumptions, foundations, and implications of mathematics, and purports to provide a viewpoint of the nature and methodology of mathematics, and to understand the place of mathematics in people's lives.
Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind.
Philosophy of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science.
Philosophy of sport is an area of philosophy that seeks to conceptually analyze issues of sport as human activity.
The philosophy of war is the area of philosophy devoted to examining issues such as the causes of war, the relationship between war and human nature, and the ethics of war.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Pierre Hadot (February 21, 1922 – April 24, 2010) was a French philosopher and historian of philosophy specializing in ancient philosophy, particularly Neoplatonism.
Plastic arts are art forms which involve physical manipulation of a plastic medium by moulding or modeling such as sculpture or ceramics.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
The Academy (Ancient Greek: Ἀκαδημία) was founded by Plato (428/427 BC – 348/347 BC) in ca.
Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of laws by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.
Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.
Popular culture (also called pop culture) is generally recognized as a set of the practices, beliefs, and objects that are dominant or ubiquitous in a society at a given point in time.
Postcolonialism or postcolonial studies is the academic study of the cultural legacy of colonialism and imperialism, focusing on the human consequences of the control and exploitation of colonised people and their lands.
Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around 1870.
Pramana (Sanskrit: प्रमाण) literally means "proof" and "means of knowledge".
A number of early Greek philosophers active before and during the time of Socrates are collectively known as the Pre-Socratics.
A premise or premiss is a statement that an argument claims will induce or justify a conclusion.
The problem of evil refers to the question of how to reconcile the existence of evil with an omnibenevolent, omniscient, and omnipotent God (see theism).
The problem of religious language considers whether it is possible to talk about God meaningfully if the traditional conceptions of God as being incorporeal, infinite, and timeless, are accepted.
Problem solving consists of using generic or ad hoc methods, in an orderly manner, to find solutions to problems.
Professor (commonly abbreviated as Prof.) is an academic rank at universities and other post-secondary education and research institutions in most countries.
Progress Publishers was a Moscow-based Soviet publisher founded in 1931.
In philosophy, mathematics, and logic, a property is a characteristic of an object; a red object is said to have the property of redness.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
Public Administration is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service.
Pyrrhonism was a school of skepticism founded by Pyrrho in the fourth century BC.
Pythagoras of Samos was an Ionian Greek philosopher and the eponymous founder of the Pythagoreanism movement.
Raghunatha Shiromani (রঘুনাথ শিরোমণি, IAST: Raghunātha Śiromaṇi) (c. 1477–1547) was an Indian philosopher and logician.
Rangaku (Kyūjitai: 學/Shinjitai: 蘭学, literally "Dutch learning", and by extension "Western learning") is a body of knowledge developed by Japan through its contacts with the Dutch enclave of Dejima, which allowed Japan to keep abreast of Western technology and medicine in the period when the country was closed to foreigners, 1641–1853, because of the Tokugawa shogunate's policy of national isolation (sakoku).
In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".
Reality is all of physical existence, as opposed to that which is merely imaginary.
Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.
Reform Judaism (also known as Liberal Judaism or Progressive Judaism) is a major Jewish denomination that emphasizes the evolving nature of the faith, the superiority of its ethical aspects to the ceremonial ones, and a belief in a continuous revelation not centered on the theophany at Mount Sinai.
Regis University, formerly known as Regis College, is a private, co-educational Roman Catholic, Jesuit university in Denver, Colorado.
The regress argument (also known as the diallelus (Latin) or diallelon, from Greek di allelon "through or by means of one another") is a problem in epistemology and, in general, a problem in any situation where a statement has to be justified.
Various aspects of the relationship between religion and science have been addressed by philosophers, theologians, scientists, and others.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
Religious epistemology as a broad label covers any approach to epistemological questions from a religious perspective, or attempts to understand the epistemological issues that come from religious belief.
A religious experience (sometimes known as a spiritual experience, sacred experience, or mystical experience) is a subjective experience which is interpreted within a religious framework.
Religious pluralism is an attitude or policy regarding the diversity of religious belief systems co-existing in society.
Ren is the Confucian virtue denoting the good feeling a virtuous human experiences when being altruistic.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.
Richard Phillips Feynman (May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988) was an American theoretical physicist, known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics, and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as in particle physics for which he proposed the parton model.
Richard Malcolm Weaver, Jr (March 3, 1910 – April 1, 1963) was an American scholar who taught English at the University of Chicago.
Richard Theodore Tarnas (born February 21, 1950) is a cultural historian known for his books The Passion of the Western Mind: Understanding the Ideas That Have Shaped Our World View and Cosmos and Psyche: Intimations of a New World View.
Ricky Dene Gervais (born 25 June 1961) is an English stand-up comedian, actor, writer, producer, director, and singer.
Robert C. Solomon (September 14, 1942 – January 2, 2007) was an American professor of philosophy at the University of Texas at Austin, where he taught for more than 30 years.
Roger Bacon (Rogerus or Rogerius Baconus, Baconis, also Rogerus), also known by the scholastic accolade Doctor, was an English philosopher and Franciscan friar who placed considerable emphasis on the study of nature through empiricism.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
In logic, a rule of inference, inference rule or transformation rule is a logical form consisting of a function which takes premises, analyzes their syntax, and returns a conclusion (or conclusions).
Saṃsāra is a Sanskrit word that means "wandering" or "world", with the connotation of cyclic, circuitous change.
Samkhya or Sankhya (सांख्य, IAST) is one of the six āstika schools of Hindu philosophy.
Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic and religious author who is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher.
Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics ("scholastics", or "schoolmen") of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700, and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending dogma in an increasingly pluralistic context.
Schools of Islamic theology are various Islamic schools and branches in different schools of thought regarding aqidah (creed).
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
Scott Soames (born August 11, 1946) is a professor of philosophy at the University of Southern California.
Sebayt (Egyptian sbꜣyt, Coptic ⲥⲃⲱ "instruction, teaching") is the ancient Egyptian term for a genre of pharaonic literature.
Seinfeld is an American television sitcom that ran for nine seasons on NBC, from 1989 to 1998.
Seneca the Younger AD65), fully Lucius Annaeus Seneca and also known simply as Seneca, was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and—in one work—satirist of the Silver Age of Latin literature.
A sense is a physiological capacity of organisms that provides data for perception.
Sexism is prejudice or discrimination based on a person's sex or gender.
Sexual harassment is bullying or coercion of a sexual nature, or the unwelcome or inappropriate promise of rewards in exchange for sexual favors.
Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.
or kami-no-michi (among other names) is the traditional religion of Japan that focuses on ritual practices to be carried out diligently to establish a connection between present-day Japan and its ancient past.
Buddhism entered Han China via the Silk Road, beginning in the 1st or 2nd century CE.
Simone Lucie Ernestine Marie Bertrand de Beauvoir (or;; 9 January 1908 – 14 April 1986) was a French writer, intellectual, existentialist philosopher, political activist, feminist and social theorist.
Simulacra and Simulation (Simulacres et Simulation) is a 1981 philosophical treatise by Jean Baudrillard, in which he seeks to examine the relationships among reality, symbols, and society, in particular the significations and symbolism of culture and media that are involved in constructing an understanding of shared existence.
Siouan or Siouan–Catawban is a language family of North America that is located primarily in the Great Plains, Ohio and Mississippi valleys and southeastern North America with a few outlier languages in the east.
Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.
Social theories are analytical frameworks, or paradigms, that are used to study and interpret social phenomena.
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.
Socrates (Sōkrátēs,; – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.
The Socratic method, also can be known as maieutics, method of elenchus, elenctic method, or Socratic debate, is a form of cooperative argumentative dialogue between individuals, based on asking and answering questions to stimulate critical thinking and to draw out ideas and underlying presumptions.
Socratic questioning (or Socratic maieutics) was named after Socrates, who was a philosopher in c. 470 BCE–c.
Sophia (wisdom) is a central idea in Hellenistic philosophy and religion, Platonism, Gnosticism, and Christian theology.
Soteriology (σωτηρία "salvation" from σωτήρ "savior, preserver" and λόγος "study" or "word") is the study of religious doctrines of salvation.
In many religious, philosophical, and mythological traditions, there is a belief in the incorporeal essence of a living being called the soul. Soul or psyche (Greek: "psychē", of "psychein", "to breathe") are the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, thinking, etc.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Sri Aurobindo (born Aurobindo Ghose; 15 August 1872 – 5 December 1950) was an Indian philosopher, yogi, guru, poet, and nationalist.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Srivijaya (also written Sri Vijaya, Indonesian/Malay: Sriwijaya, Javanese: ꦯꦿꦶꦮꦶꦗꦪ, Sundanese:, ศรีวิชัย, Sanskrit: श्रीविजय, Śrīvijaya, Khmer: ស្រីវិជ័យ "Srey Vichey", known by the Chinese as Shih-li-fo-shih and San-fo-ch'i t) was a dominant thalassocratic Malay city-state based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.
Star Wars is an American epic space opera media franchise, centered on a film series created by George Lucas.
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
describes the Empire of Japan's ideological use of the native folk traditions of Shinto.
was a political syncretism of Japanese right-wing political ideologies, developed over a period of time from the Meiji Restoration.
Stephen Gerald Breyer (born August 15, 1938) is an American lawyer, professor, and jurist who serves as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
Stephen Glenn Martin (born August 14, 1945) is an American actor, comedian, writer, producer, and musician.
Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early 3rd century BC.
Sufi philosophy includes the schools of thought unique to Sufism, a mystical branch within Islam, also termed as Tasawwuf or Faqr according to its adherents.
Sun Tzu (also rendered as Sun Zi; 孫子) was a Chinese general, military strategist, writer, and philosopher who lived in the Eastern Zhou period of ancient China.
Susanne Katherina Langer (née Knauth; December 20, 1895 – July 17, 1985) was an American philosopher, writer, and educator and was well known for her theories on the influences of art on the mind.
Swami Vivekananda (12 January 1863 – 4 July 1902), born Narendranath Datta, was an Indian Hindu monk, a chief disciple of the 19th-century Indian mystic Ramakrishna.
The Talmudic Academies in Babylonia, also known as the Geonic Academies, were the center for Jewish scholarship and the development of Halakha from roughly 589 to 1038 CE (Hebrew dates: 4349 AM to 4798 AM) in what is called "Babylonia" in Jewish sources, at the time otherwise known as Asōristān (under the Sasanian Empire) or Iraq (under the Muslim caliphate until the 11th century).
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
Tantra (Sanskrit: तन्त्र, literally "loom, weave, system") denotes the esoteric traditions of Hinduism and Buddhism that co-developed most likely about the middle of 1st millennium CE.
Tao or Dao (from) is a Chinese word signifying 'way', 'path', 'route', 'road' or sometimes more loosely 'doctrine', 'principle' or 'holistic science' Dr Zai, J..
Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').
In sociology, taste is an individual's personal and cultural patterns of choice and preference.
Terrence Frederick Malick (born November 30, 1943) is an American film director, screenwriter, and producer.
Thales of Miletus (Θαλῆς (ὁ Μιλήσιος), Thalēs; 624 – c. 546 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer from Miletus in Asia Minor (present-day Milet in Turkey).
According to its website, the Berggruen Institute "offers the Berggruen Prize, a $1 million award that recognizes thinkers whose ideas have helped us find direction, wisdom, and improved self-understanding in a world being rapidly transformed by profound social, technological, political, cultural, and economic change.".
The Matrix is a 1999 science fiction action film written and directed by The Wachowskis (credited as The Wachowski Brothers) and starring Keanu Reeves, Laurence Fishburne, Carrie-Anne Moss, Hugo Weaving, and Joe Pantoliano.
The Matrix is a science fiction action media franchise created by The Wachowskis, about heroes who fight a desperate war against machine overlords that have enslaved humanity in an extremely sophisticated virtual reality system.
The Simpsons is an American animated sitcom created by Matt Groening for the Fox Broadcasting Company.
The phrase unanswered questions or undeclared questions (Sanskrit avyākṛta, Pali: avyākata - "unfathomable, unexpounded"), in Buddhism, refers to a set of common philosophical questions that Buddha refused to answer, according to Buddhist texts.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
Theory of justification is a part of epistemology that attempts to understand the justification of propositions and beliefs.
Theravāda (Pali, literally "school of the elder monks") is a branch of Buddhism that uses the Buddha's teaching preserved in the Pāli Canon as its doctrinal core.
Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.
Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.
Thomism is the philosophical school that arose as a legacy of the work and thought of Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274), philosopher, theologian, and Doctor of the Church.
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.
Tibetan Buddhism is the form of Buddhist doctrine and institutions named after the lands of Tibet, but also found in the regions surrounding the Himalayas and much of Central Asia.
Time is the indefinite continued progress of existence and events that occur in apparently irreversible succession from the past through the present to the future.
Tlamatini (plural tlamatinime) is a Nahuatl language word meaning "someone who knows something", generally translated as "wise man".
Transcendent theosophy or al-hikmat al-muta’li (حكمت متعالي), the doctrine and philosophy developed by Persian philosopher Mulla Sadra, is one of two main disciplines of Islamic philosophy that is currently live and active.
Transcendental idealism is a doctrine founded by German philosopher Immanuel Kant in the 18th century.
Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard.
Ubuntu is a Nguni Bantu term meaning "humanity".
Ujamaa ('familyhood' in Swahili) was the concept that formed the basis of Julius Nyerere's social and economic development policies in Tanzania after it gained independence from Britain in 1961.
The United States Department of Education (ED or DoED), also referred to as the ED for (the) Education Department, is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government.
In metaphysics, a universal is what particular things have in common, namely characteristics or qualities.
A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.
The University of Sheffield (informally Sheffield University) is a public research university in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England.
The Upanishads (उपनिषद्), a part of the Vedas, are ancient Sanskrit texts that contain some of the central philosophical concepts and ideas of Hinduism, some of which are shared with religious traditions like Buddhism and Jainism.
Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.
A utopia is an imagined community or society that possesses highly desirable or nearly perfect qualities for its citizens.
Vaisheshika or (वैशेषिक) is one of the six orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy (Vedic systems) from ancient India.
In ethics, value denotes the degree of importance of some thing or action, with the aim of determining what actions are best to do or what way is best to live (normative ethics), or to describe the significance of different actions.
Value theory is a range of approaches to understanding how, why, and to what degree persons value things; whether the object or subject of valuing is a person, idea, object, or anything else.
Vasubandhu (Sanskrit) (fl. 4th to 5th century CE) was a very influential Buddhist monk and scholar from Gandhara.
Vedanta (Sanskrit: वेदान्त, IAST) or Uttara Mīmāṃsā is one of the six orthodox (''āstika'') schools of Hindu philosophy.
The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.
Vietnamese philosophy includes both traditional Confucian philosophy, Vietnamese local religious traditions, and later philosophy introducing French, Marxist, Catholic and other influences.
In the Lakota way of life, Wakan Tanka (Standard Lakota Orthography: Wakȟáŋ Tȟáŋka) is the term for "the sacred" or "the divine".
Wang Yangming (26 October 1472 – 9 January 1529), courtesy name Bo'an, was a Chinese idealist Neo-Confucian philosopher, official, educationist, calligraphist and general during the Ming dynasty.
The Western canon is the body of Western literature, European classical music, philosophy, and works of art that represents the high culture of Europe and North America: "a certain Western intellectual tradition that goes from, say, Socrates to Wittgenstein in philosophy, and from Homer to James Joyce in literature".
Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
The Western Zhou (西周; c. 1046 – 771 BC) was the first half of the Zhou dynasty of ancient China.
William James "Will" Durant (November 5, 1885 – November 7, 1981) was an American writer, historian, and philosopher.
William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist, and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States.
William L. Reese (1921 - September 22, 2017) was a faculty member in the Department of Philosophy, State University of New York at Albany.
Wisdom literature is a genre of literature common in the ancient Near East.
The world is the planet Earth and all life upon it, including human civilization.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
A wrong (from Old English wrang – crooked) is an act that is illegal or immoral.
Xiong Shili (1885 – May 23, 1968) was a modern Chinese philosopher whose major work A New Treatise on Consciousness-only (新唯識論, Xin Weishi Lun) is a Confucian critique of the Buddhist "consciousness-only" theory popularized in China by the Tang-dynasty pilgrim Xuanzang.
Yanantin is one of the best known and most defining characteristics of indigenous South American Andean thought and exemplifies Andean adherence to a philosophical model based in what is often referred to as a "dualism of complementary terms" or, simply, a “complementary dualism".
Yashovijaya (1624–1688), a seventeenth-century Jain philosopher-monk, was a notable Indian philosopher and logician.
In Chinese philosophy, yin and yang (and; 陽 yīnyáng, lit. "dark-bright", "negative-positive") describes how seemingly opposite or contrary forces may actually be complementary, interconnected, and interdependent in the natural world, and how they may give rise to each other as they interrelate to one another.
Yoga philosophy is one of the six major orthodox schools of Hinduism.
Zen (p; translit) is a school of Mahayana Buddhism that originated in China during the Tang dynasty as Chan Buddhism.
Zera Yacob (ዘርአ:ያዕቆብ zar'ā yāʿiqōb "Seed of Jacob," modern zer'a yā'iqōb; also spelled Zärˀä Yaˁqob, Zar'a Ya'aqob, or Zar'a Ya'eqob; 1599–1692) was a seventeenth-century Ethiopian philosopher.
The Zhuangzi (Mandarin:; historically romanized Chuang-tzu) is an ancient Chinese text from the late Warring States period (476221) which contains stories and anecdotes that exemplify the carefree nature of the ideal Daoist sage.
Zoroaster (from Greek Ζωροάστρης Zōroastrēs), also known as Zarathustra (𐬰𐬀𐬭𐬀𐬚𐬎𐬱𐬙𐬭𐬀 Zaraθuštra), Zarathushtra Spitama or Ashu Zarathushtra, was an ancient Iranian-speaking prophet whose teachings and innovations on the religious traditions of ancient Iranian-speaking peoples developed into the religion of Zoroastrianism.
Zurvanism is an extinct branch of Zoroastrianism in which the divinity Zurvan is a First Principle (primordial creator deity) who engendered equal-but-opposite twins, Ahura Mazda and Angra Mainyu.
In the 19th century the philosophies of the Enlightenment began to have a dramatic effect, the landmark works of philosophers such as Immanuel Kant and Jean-Jacques Rousseau influencing new generations of thinkers.
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