223 relations: Aerial refueling, Aerodynamic center, Aerodynamics, Aerospace engineering, Aerostat, Afterburner, Air traffic control, Air transports of heads of state and government, Air travel, Air warfare of World War II, Airbreathing jet engine, Airbus A300, Airbus A380, Airbus Beluga, Aircraft design process, Aircraft dope, Aircraft engine, Aircraft fabric covering, Aircraft flight control system, Aircraft noise, Aircraft pilot, Aircraft principal axes, Aircraft spotting, Aircrew, Airfoil, Airframe, Airlines for America, Airmail, Airplane, Airport, Airship, Airspeed, American Civil War, Angle of attack, Angle of rotation, Antonov An-124 Ruslan, Antonov An-225 Mriya, Aspect ratio, Atmosphere of Earth, Attack aircraft, Attack helicopter, Autogyro, Aviation, Aviation between the World Wars, Aviation in World War I, Aviation safety, Balloon, Balloon (aeronautics), Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey, Biplane, ..., Blimp, Boeing 747, Boeing Dreamlifter, Bomber, Buoyancy, Business jet, Canard (aeronautics), Cargo, Center of mass, Cessna Citation X, Civil aviation, CNN, Cockpit, Coleopter, Combustion chamber, Commercial aviation, Communications system, Concorde, Contra-rotating propellers, Contrail, Control system, Convair 990 Coronado, Cyclogyro, Delta wing, Dihedral (aeronautics), Drag (physics), Ducted fan, Early flying machines, Electric aircraft, Empennage, Environmental impact of aviation, Euler angles, Ezekiel Airship, Fighter aircraft, Fighter-bomber, Fixed-wing aircraft, Flettner airplane, Flight, Flight altitude record, Flight control surfaces, Flight dynamics, Flight dynamics (fixed-wing aircraft), Flying (magazine), Flying car, Flying wing, Frederick Handley Page, Fuel tank, Fuselage, Gas turbine, General aviation, George Cayley, Glider (aircraft), Glider (sailplane), Global dimming, Ground effect (aerodynamics), Ground effect vehicle, Gulfstream G650, Gyrodyne, Hang gliding, Harrier Jump Jet, Helicopter, Helium, Hindenburg disaster, History of human-powered aircraft, History of science and technology in China, Homebuilt aircraft, Horizontal and vertical, Hot air balloon, Hughes H-4 Hercules, Hybrid Air Vehicles HAV 304/Airlander 10, Hydrogen, Hypersonic speed, Internal combustion engine, JATO, Jet Age, Jet aircraft, Jet engine, Kite, Kite line, Kytoon, Landing, Life (magazine), Lift (force), Lifting body, List of aircraft, List of civil aircraft, List of fighter aircraft, List of individual aircraft, List of large aircraft, Load factor (aeronautics), Lockheed C-5 Galaxy, Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird, Mach number, Machine, Magnus effect, Martin Marietta X-24, Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet, Mikoyan MiG-31, Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25, Military aircraft, Military glider, Missile, Moment (physics), Monocoque, Monoplane, Motorjet, NASA, NASA X-43, National Museum of the United States Air Force, North American X-15, Ornithopter, Paragliding, Personal air vehicle, Pitching moment, Post-war, Powered aircraft, Powered lift, Powered parachute, Pratt & Whitney J58, Private aviation, Propeller (aeronautics), Propfan, Pulsejet, Pusher configuration, Radar, Ramjet, Reciprocating engine, Reconnaissance, Rigid airship, Rocket, Rocket-powered aircraft, Rolls-Royce Thrust Measuring Rig, Rotor kite, Rotorcraft, Sailing, Saunders-Roe SR.53, Scale model, Scramjet, Sky lantern, Smithsonian Institution, Space Shuttle, Spacecraft, Spaceplane, Stabilizer (aeronautics), Steam aircraft, Supersonic speed, Swept wing, Tail-sitter, Tailless aircraft, Takeoff, Tandem wing, The New York Times, Tiltrotor, Tiltwing, Tip jet, Tractor configuration, Trainer aircraft, Tupolev Tu-144, Turbofan, Turbojet, Turboprop, Unmanned aerial vehicle, V/STOL, VTOL, Warbird, Wide-body aircraft, Wind, Wing, Wing configuration, World War I, World War II, Wright brothers, Zeppelin. Expand index (173 more) » « Shrink index
Aerial refueling, also referred to as air refueling, in-flight refueling (IFR), air-to-air refueling (AAR), and tanking, is the process of transferring aviation fuel from one military aircraft (the tanker) to another (the receiver) during flight.
The torques or moments acting on an airfoil moving through a fluid can be accounted for by the net lift and net drag applied at some point on the airfoil, and a separate net pitching moment about that point whose magnitude varies with the choice of where the lift is chosen to be applied.
Aerodynamics, from Greek ἀήρ aer (air) + δυναμική (dynamics), is the study of the motion of air, particularly its interaction with a solid object, such as an airplane wing.
Aerospace engineering is the primary field of engineering concerned with the development of aircraft and spacecraft.
An aerostat (From Greek ἀήρ aer (air) + στατός statos (standing) through French) is a lighter than air aircraft that gains its lift through the use of a buoyant gas.
An afterburner (or a reheat) is a component present on some jet engines, mostly those used on military supersonic aircraft.
Air traffic control (ATC) is a service provided by ground-based air traffic controllers who direct aircraft on the ground and through controlled airspace, and can provide advisory services to aircraft in non-controlled airspace.
Air transports for heads of state and government are, in many countries, provided by the air force in specially equipped airliners or business jets.
Air travel is a form of travel in vehicles such as helicopters, hot air balloons, blimps, gliders, hang gliding, parachuting, airplanes, jets, or anything else that can sustain flight.
The air warfare of World War II was a major component in all theaters and, together with anti-aircraft warfare, consumed a large fraction of the industrial output of the major powers.
An airbreathing jet engine (or ducted jet engine) is a jet engine propelled by a jet of hot exhaust gases formed from heated and expanded air that is drawn into the engine via a compressor, typically a centrifugal or axial type.
The Airbus A300 is a wide-body twin-engine jet airliner that was developed and manufactured by Airbus.
The Airbus A380 is a double-deck, wide-body, four-engine jet airliner manufactured by multi-national manufacturer Airbus.
The Airbus A300-600ST (Super Transporter) or Beluga, is a version of the standard A300-600 wide-body airliner modified to carry aircraft parts and oversized cargo.
The aircraft design process is the engineering design process by which aircraft are designed.
Aircraft dope is a plasticised lacquer that is applied to fabric-covered aircraft (both full-size and flying models).
An aircraft engine is the component of the propulsion system for an aircraft that generates mechanical power.
Aircraft fabric covering is a term used for both the material used and the process of covering aircraft open structures.
A conventional fixed-wing aircraft flight control system consists of flight control surfaces, the respective cockpit controls, connecting linkages, and the necessary operating mechanisms to control an aircraft's direction in flight.
Aircraft noise is noise pollution produced by aircraft during the various phases of a flight.
An aircraft pilot or aviator is a person who controls the flight of an aircraft by operating its directional flight controls.
An aircraft in flight is free to rotate in three dimensions: yaw, nose left or right about an axis running up and down; pitch, nose up or down about an axis running from wing to wing; and roll, rotation about an axis running from nose to tail.
Aircraft spotting or plane spotting is a hobby of tracking the movement of aircraft, which is often accomplished by photography.
Aircrew, also called flight crew, are personnel who operate an aircraft while in flight.
An airfoil (American English) or aerofoil (British English) is the shape of a wing, blade (of a propeller, rotor, or turbine), or sail (as seen in cross-section).
The airframe of an aircraft is its mechanical structure.
Airlines for America (A4A), formerly known as Air Transport Association of America (ATA), is an American trade association and lobbying group based in Washington, D.C. that represents the largest airlines.
Airmail (or air mail) is a mail transport service branded and sold on the basis of at least one leg of its journey being by air.
An airplane or aeroplane (informally plane) is a powered, fixed-wing aircraft that is propelled forward by thrust from a jet engine, propeller or rocket engine.
An airport is an aerodrome with extended facilities, mostly for commercial air transport.
An airship or dirigible balloon is a type of aerostat or lighter-than-air aircraft that can navigate through the air under its own power.
Airspeed is the speed of an aircraft relative to the air.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
In fluid dynamics, angle of attack (AOA, or \alpha (Greek letter alpha)) is the angle between a reference line on a body (often the chord line of an airfoil) and the vector representing the relative motion between the body and the fluid through which it is moving.
In mathematics, the angle of rotation is a measurement of the amount, the angle, by which a figure is rotated counterclockwise about a fixed point, often the center of a circle.
The Antonov An-124 Ruslan (Антонов Ан-124 "Руслан") (NATO reporting name: Condor) is a strategic airlift jet aircraft.
The Antonov An-225 Mriya (Антонов Ан-225, lit, NATO reporting name: "Cossack") is a strategic airlift cargo aircraft that was designed by the Antonov Design Bureau in the Ukrainian SSR within the Soviet Union during the 1980s.
The aspect ratio of a geometric shape is the ratio of its sizes in different dimensions.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
An attack aircraft, strike aircraft, or attack bomber, is a tactical military aircraft that has a primary role of carrying out airstrikes with greater precision than bombers, and is prepared to encounter strong low-level air defenses while pressing the attack.
An attack helicopter is an armed helicopter with the primary role of an attack aircraft, with the capability of engaging targets on the ground, such as enemy infantry and armored fighting vehicles.
An autogyro (from Greek αὐτός and γύρος, "self-turning"), also known as a gyroplane or gyrocopter, is a type of rotorcraft that uses an unpowered rotor in free autorotation to develop lift.
Aviation, or air transport, refers to the activities surrounding mechanical flight and the aircraft industry.
Sometimes dubbed the Golden Age of Aviation, the period in the history of aviation between the end of World War I (1918) and the beginning of World War II (1939) was characterised by a progressive change from the slow wood-and-fabric biplanes of World War I to fast, streamlined metal monoplanes, creating a revolution in both commercial and military aviation.
World War I was the first major conflict involving the large-scale use of aircraft.
Aviation safety means the state of an aviation system or organization in which risks associated with aviation activities, related to, or in direct support of the operation of aircraft, are reduced and controlled to an acceptable level.
A balloon is a flexible bag that can be inflated with a gas, such as helium, hydrogen, nitrous oxide, oxygen, air or water.
In aeronautics, a balloon is an unpowered aerostat, which remains aloft or floats due to its buoyancy.
The Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey is an American multi-mission, tiltrotor military aircraft with both vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL), and short takeoff and landing (STOL) capabilities.
A biplane is a fixed-wing aircraft with two main wings stacked one above the other.
A blimp, or non-rigid airship, is an airship (dirigible) or barrage balloon without an internal structural framework or a keel.
The Boeing 747 is an American wide-body commercial jet airliner and cargo aircraft, often referred to by its original nickname, "Jumbo Jet".
The Boeing 747 Dreamlifter, also known as the Boeing 747-400 Large Cargo Freighter (LCF), is a wide-body cargo aircraft.
A bomber is a combat aircraft designed to attack ground and naval targets by dropping air-to-ground weaponry (such as bombs), firing torpedoes and bullets or deploying air-launched cruise missiles.
In physics, buoyancy or upthrust, is an upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object.
A business jet, private jet, or bizjet, or simply B.J., is a jet aircraft designed for transporting small groups of people.
A canard is an aeronautical arrangement wherein a small forewing or foreplane is placed forward of the main wing of a fixed-wing aircraft.
In economics, cargo or freight are goods or produce being conveyed – generally for commercial gain – by water, air or land.
In physics, the center of mass of a distribution of mass in space is the unique point where the weighted relative position of the distributed mass sums to zero, or the point where if a force is applied it moves in the direction of the force without rotating.
The Cessna Citation X is an American long-range medium-sized business jet aircraft.
Civil aviation is one of two major categories of flying, representing all non-military aviation, both private and commercial.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
A cockpit or flight deck is the area, usually near the front of an aircraft or spacecraft, from which a pilot controls the aircraft.
A coleopter is a type of vertical take-off and landing aircraft design that uses a ducted fan as the primary fuselage of the entire aircraft.
A combustion chamber is that part of an internal combustion engine (ICE) in which the fuel/air mix is burned.
Commercial aviation is the part of civil aviation (both general aviation and scheduled airline services) that involves operating aircraft for hire to transport passengers or multiple loads of cargo.
In telecommunication, a communications system is a collection of individual communications networks, transmission systems, relay stations, tributary stations, and data terminal equipment (DTE) usually capable of interconnection and interoperation to form an integrated whole.
The Aérospatiale/BAC Concorde is a British-French turbojet-powered supersonic passenger airliner that was operated from 1976 until 2003.
Aircraft equipped with contra-rotating propellers, also referred to as CRP, coaxial contra-rotating propellers, or high-speed propellers, apply the maximum power of usually a single piston or turboprop engine to drive two coaxial propellers in contra-rotation (rotation about the same axis in opposite directions).
Contrails (short for "condensation trails") are line-shaped clouds produced by aircraft engine exhaust or changes in air pressure, typically at aircraft cruise altitudes several miles above the Earth's surface.
A control system manages, commands, directs, or regulates the behavior of other devices or systems using control loops.
The Convair 990 Coronado is an American narrow-body four-engined jet airliner produced by the Convair division of General Dynamics, a stretched version of their earlier Convair 880 produced in response to a request from American Airlines.
The cyclogyro, or cyclocopter, is an aircraft configuration that uses a horizontal-axis cyclorotor as a rotor wing to provide lift and sometimes also propulsion and control.
The delta wing is a wing shaped in the form of a triangle.
Dihedral angle is the upward angle from horizontal of the wings or tailplane of a fixed-wing aircraft.
In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.
A ducted fan is a propulsion arrangement whereby a mechanical fan, which is a type of propeller, is mounted within a cylindrical shroud or duct.
Early flying machines include all forms of aircraft studied or constructed before the development of the modern aeroplane by 1910.
An electric aircraft is an aircraft powered by electric motors.
The empennage, also known as the tail or tail assembly, is a structure at the rear of an aircraft that provides stability during flight, in a way similar to the feathers on an arrow.
The environmental impact of aviation occurs because aircraft engines emit heat, noise, particulates, and gases which contribute to climate change and global dimming.
The Euler angles are three angles introduced by Leonhard Euler to describe the orientation of a rigid body with respect to a fixed coordinate system.
The Ezekiel Airship was an early experimental aircraft conceived, designed, and built by the Baptist minister Burrell Cannon, an experienced sawmill operator born in 1848 in Coffeeville, Mississippi.
A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat against other aircraft, as opposed to bombers and attack aircraft, whose main mission is to attack ground targets.
A fighter-bomber is a fighter aircraft that has been modified, or used primarily, as a light bomber or attack aircraft.
A fixed-wing aircraft is an aircraft, such as an airplane or aeroplane (note the two different spellings), which is capable of flight using wings that generate lift caused by the vehicle's forward airspeed and the shape of the wings.
A flettner airplane is a type of rotor airplane which uses a Flettner rotor to provide lift.
Flight is the process by which an object moves through an atmosphere (or beyond it, as in the case of spaceflight) without contact with the surface.
This listing of flight altitude records are the records set for the highest aeronautical flights conducted in the atmosphere, set since the age of ballooning.
Aircraft flight control surfaces are aerodynamic devices allowing a pilot to adjust and control the aircraft's flight attitude.
Flight dynamics is the study of the performance, stability, and control of vehicles flying through the air or in outer space.
Flight dynamics is the science of air vehicle orientation and control in three dimensions.
Flying, sometimes styled FLYING, is an aviation magazine published since 1927 and originally called ''Popular Aviation'' prior to 1942, as well as Aeronautics for a brief period.
A flying car is a type of personal air vehicle or roadable aircraft that provides door-to-door transportation by both ground and air.
A flying wing is a tailless fixed-wing aircraft that has no definite fuselage.
Sir Frederick Handley Page, CBE, FRAeS (15 November 1885 – 21 April 1962) was an English industrialist who was a pioneer in the aircraft industry and became known as the father of the heavy bomber.
A fuel tank (or petrol tank) is a safe container for flammable fluids.
The fuselage (from the French fuselé "spindle-shaped") is an aircraft's main body section.
A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a type of continuous combustion, internal combustion engine.
General aviation (GA) is all civil aviation operations other than scheduled air services and non-scheduled air transport operations for remuneration or hire.
Sir George Cayley, 6th Baronet (27 December 1773 – 15 December 1857) was an English engineer, inventor, and aviator.
A glider is a heavier-than-air aircraft that is supported in flight by the dynamic reaction of the air against its lifting surfaces, and whose free flight does not depend on an engine.
A glider or sailplane is a type of glider aircraft used in the leisure activity and sport of gliding.
Global dimming is the gradual reduction in the amount of global direct irradiance at the Earth's surface that was observed for several decades after the start of systematic measurements in the 1950s.
In fixed-wing aircraft, ground effect is the increased lift (force) and decreased aerodynamic drag that an aircraft's wings generate when they are close to a fixed surface.
A ground-effect vehicle (GEV) is a vehicle that is designed to attain sustained flight over a level surface (usually over the sea) by making use of ground effect, the aerodynamic interaction between the wings and the surface.
The Gulfstream G650 is a twin-engine business jet airplane produced by Gulfstream Aerospace.
A gyrodyne is a type of VTOL aircraft with a helicopter rotor-like system that is driven by its engine for takeoff and landing and also includes one or more conventional propellers to provide forward thrust during cruising flight.
Hang gliding is an air sport or recreational activity in which a pilot flies a light, non-motorised foot-launched heavier-than-air aircraft called a hang glider.
The Harrier, informally referred to as the Harrier Jump Jet, is a family of jet-powered attack aircraft capable of vertical/short takeoff and landing operations (V/STOL).
A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by rotors.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
The Hindenburg disaster occurred on May 6, 1937, in Manchester Township, New Jersey, United States.
The history of human-powered aircraft (HPA) started in the early twentieth century.
Ancient Chinese scientists and engineers made significant scientific innovations, findings and technological advances across various scientific disciplines including the natural sciences, engineering, medicine, military technology, mathematics, geology and astronomy.
Homebuilt aircraft, also known as amateur-built aircraft or kit planes, are constructed by persons for whom this is not a professional activity.
The usage of the inter-related terms horizontal and vertical as well as their symmetries and asymmetries vary with context (e.g. two vs. three dimensions or calculations using a flat earth approximation vs. spherical earth).
A hot air balloon is a lighter-than-air aircraft consisting of a bag, called an envelope, which contains heated air.
The Hughes H-4 Hercules (also known as the Spruce Goose; registration NX37602) is a prototype strategic airlift flying boat designed and built by the Hughes Aircraft Company.
The Hybrid Air Vehicles HAV 304/Airlander 10 is a hybrid airship designed and built by British manufacturer Hybrid Air Vehicles (HAV).
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
In aerodynamics, a hypersonic speed is one that is highly supersonic.
An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.
JATO (acronym for jet-assisted take-off), is a type of assisted take-off for helping overloaded aircraft into the air by providing additional thrust in the form of small rockets.
The Jet Age is a period in the history of aviation defined by the advent of aircraft powered by turbine engines, and by the social change this brought about.
A jet aircraft (or simply jet) is an aircraft (nearly always a fixed-wing aircraft) propelled by jet engines (jet propulsion).
A jet engine is a type of reaction engine discharging a fast-moving jet that generates thrust by jet propulsion.
A kite is a tethered heavier-than-air craft with wing surfaces that react against the air to create lift and drag.
In kiting, a line is the string made of cotton, nylon, silk or wire, which connects the kite to the person operating it or an anchor.
A kytoon or kite balloon is a tethered aircraft which obtains some of its lift dynamically as a heavier-than-air kite and the rest aerostatically as a lighter-than-air balloon.
Landing is the last part of a flight, where a flying animal, aircraft, or spacecraft returns to the ground.
Life was an American magazine that ran regularly from 1883 to 1972 and again from 1978 to 2000.
A fluid flowing past the surface of a body exerts a force on it.
A lifting body is a fixed-wing aircraft or spacecraft configuration in which the body itself produces lift.
This list of aircraft is sorted alphabetically, beginning with the name of the manufacturer (or, in certain cases, designer).
List of civil aircraft is a list of articles on civilian aircraft with descriptions, which excludes aircraft operated by military organizations in civil markings, warbirds, warbirds used for racing, replica warbirds and research aircraft.
This is a list of military aircraft that are primarily designed for air-to-air combat and thus does not include aircraft intended for other roles where they have some secondary air-to-air capability, such as with many ground attack aircraft.
This is a list of individual aircraft which are notable in their own right.
This is a list of large aircraft.
In aeronautics, the load factor is defined as the ratio of the lift of an aircraft to its weightHurt, page 37 and represents a global measure of the stress ("load") to which the structure of the aircraft is subjected: where: Since the load factor is the ratio of two forces, it is dimensionless.
The Lockheed C-5 Galaxy is a large military transport aircraft originally designed and built by Lockheed, and now maintained and upgraded by its successor, Lockheed Martin.
The Lockheed SR-71 "Blackbird" is a long-range, Mach 3+ strategic reconnaissance aircraft that was operated by the United States Air Force.
In fluid dynamics, the Mach number (M or Ma) is a dimensionless quantity representing the ratio of flow velocity past a boundary to the local speed of sound.
A machine uses power to apply forces and control movement to perform an intended action.
The Magnus effect is an observable phenomenon that is commonly associated with a spinning object that drags air faster around one side, creating a difference in pressure that moves it in the direction of the lower-pressure side.
The Martin Marietta X-24 was an American experimental aircraft developed from a joint United States Air Force-NASA program named PILOT (1963–1975).
The Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet was a German rocket-powered interceptor aircraft.
The Mikoyan MiG-31 (Микоян МиГ-31; NATO reporting name: Foxhound) is a supersonic interceptor aircraft developed for use by the Soviet Air Forces.
The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25 (Микоян и Гуревич МиГ-25; NATO reporting name: Foxbat) is a supersonic interceptor and reconnaissance aircraft that was among the fastest military aircraft to enter service.
A military aircraft is any fixed-wing or rotary-wing aircraft that is operated by a legal or insurrectionary armed service of any type.
Military gliders (an offshoot of common gliders) have been used by the military of various countries for carrying troops (glider infantry) and heavy equipment to a combat zone, mainly during the Second World War.
In modern language, a missile is a guided self-propelled system, as opposed to an unguided self-propelled munition, referred to as a rocket (although these too can also be guided).
In physics, a moment is an expression involving the product of a distance and a physical quantity, and in this way it accounts for how the physical quantity is located or arranged.
Monocoque, also structural skin, is a structural system where loads are supported through an object's external skin, similar to an egg shell.
A monoplane is a fixed-wing aircraft with a single main wing plane, in contrast to a biplane or other multiplane, each of which has multiple planes.
A motorjet is a rudimentary type of jet engine which is sometimes referred to as thermojet, a term now commonly used to describe a particular and completely unrelated pulsejet design.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The X-43 was an experimental unmanned hypersonic aircraft with multiple planned scale variations meant to test various aspects of hypersonic flight.
The National Museum of the United States Air Force (formerly the United States Air Force Museum) is the official museum of the United States Air Force located at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, northeast of Dayton, Ohio.
The North American X-15 was a hypersonic rocket-powered aircraft operated by the United States Air Force and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as part of the X-plane series of experimental aircraft.
An ornithopter (from Greek ornithos "bird" and pteron "wing") is an aircraft that flies by flapping its wings.
Paragliding is the recreational and competitive adventure sport of flying paragliders: lightweight, free-flying, foot-launched glider aircraft with no rigid primary structure.
A personal air vehicle or PAV, also personal aerial vehicle, is an emergent aviation market that would provide on-demand aviation services.
In aerodynamics, the pitching moment on an airfoil is the moment (or torque) produced by the aerodynamic force on the airfoil if that aerodynamic force is considered to be applied, not at the center of pressure, but at the aerodynamic center of the airfoil.
A post-war period or postwar period is the interval immediately following the end of a war.
A powered aircraft is an aircraft that uses onboard propulsion with mechanical power generated by an aircraft engine of some kind.
Powered lift or powered-lift refers to a type of aircraft that can take off and land vertically and functions differently from a rotorcraft in horizontal flight.
A powered parachute, often abbreviated PPC, and also called a motorised parachute or paraplane, is a type of aircraft that consists of a parachute with a motor and wheels.
The Pratt & Whitney J58 (company designation JT11D-20) was a jet engine that powered the Lockheed A-12, and subsequently the YF-12 and the SR-71 aircraft.
Private aviation is the part of civil aviation that does not include flying for hire.
An aircraft propeller, or airscrew,Beaumont, R.A.; Aeronautical Engineering, Odhams, 1942, Chapter 13, "Airscrews".
A propfan or open rotor engine is a type of aircraft engine related in concept to both the turboprop and turbofan, but distinct from both.
A pulsejet engine (or pulse jet) is a type of jet engine in which combustion occurs in pulses.
In a vehicle with a pusher configuration (as opposed to a tractor configuration), the propeller(s) are mounted behind their respective engine(s).
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
A ramjet, sometimes referred to as a flying stovepipe or an athodyd (an abbreviation of aero thermodynamic duct), is a form of airbreathing jet engine that uses the engine's forward motion to compress incoming air without an axial compressor or a centrifugal compressor.
A reciprocating engine, also often known as a piston engine, is typically a heat engine (although there are also pneumatic and hydraulic reciprocating engines) that uses one or more reciprocating pistons to convert pressure into a rotating motion.
In military operations, reconnaissance or scouting is the exploration outside an area occupied by friendly forces to gain information about natural features and other activities in the area.
A rigid airship is a type of airship (or dirigible) in which the envelope is supported by an internal framework rather than by being kept in shape by the pressure of the lifting gas within the envelope, as in blimps (also called pressure airships) and semi-rigid airships.
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
A rocket-powered aircraft or rocket plane is an aircraft that uses a rocket engine for propulsion, sometimes in addition to airbreathing jet engines.
The Rolls-Royce Thrust Measuring Rig (TMR), was a pioneering vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) aircraft developed by Rolls-Royce in the 1950s.
A rotor kite or gyrokite is an unpowered, rotary-wing aircraft.
A rotorcraft or rotary-wing aircraft is a heavier-than-air flying machine that uses lift generated by wings, called rotary wings or rotor blades, that revolve around a mast.
Sailing employs the wind—acting on sails, wingsails or kites—to propel a craft on the surface of the water (sailing ship, sailboat, windsurfer, or kitesurfer), on ice (iceboat) or on land (land yacht) over a chosen course, which is often part of a larger plan of navigation.
The Saunders-Roe SR.53 was a British prototype interceptor aircraft of mixed jet and rocket propulsion developed for the Royal Air Force (RAF) by Saunders-Roe in the early 1950s.
A scale model is most generally a physical representation of an object, which maintains accurate relationships between all important aspects of the model, although absolute values of the original properties need not be preserved.
A scramjet ("supersonic combustion ramjet") is a variant of a ramjet airbreathing jet engine in which combustion takes place in supersonic airflow.
A sky lantern, also known as Kongming lantern or Chinese lantern, is a small hot air balloon made of paper, with an opening at the bottom where a small fire is suspended.
The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.
The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as part of the Space Shuttle program.
A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.
A spaceplane is an aerospace vehicle that operates as an aircraft in Earth's atmosphere, as well as a spacecraft when it is in space.
An aircraft stabilizer is an aerodynamic surface, typically including one or more movable control surfaces, that provides longitudinal (pitch) and/or directional (yaw) stability and control.
A steam aircraft is an aircraft propelled by a steam engine.
Supersonic travel is a rate of travel of an object that exceeds the speed of sound (Mach 1).
A swept wing is a wing that angles either backward or occasionally forward from its root rather than in a straight sideways direction.
A tail-sitter or tailsitter is a type of VTOL aircraft that takes off and lands on its tail, then tilts horizontally for forward flight.
A tailless aircraft has no tail assembly and no other horizontal surface besides its main wing.
Takeoff is the phase of flight in which an aerospace vehicle or an animal goes from the ground to flying in the air.
QAC Quickie Q2 A tandem wing aircraft has two main wings, with one located forward and the other to the rear.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
A tiltrotor is an aircraft which generates lift and propulsion by way of one or more powered rotors (sometimes called proprotors) mounted on rotating engine pods or nacelles usually at the ends of a fixed wing or an engine mounted in the fuselage with drive shafts transferring power to rotor assemblies mounted on the wingtips.
A tiltwing aircraft features a wing that is horizontal for conventional forward flight and rotates up for vertical takeoff and landing.
A tip jet refers to the jet nozzles at the tip of some helicopter rotor blades, to spin the rotor, much like a Catherine wheel firework.
An aircraft constructed with a tractor configuration has the engine mounted with the airscrew in front of it so that the aircraft is "pulled" through the air, as opposed to the pusher configuration, in which the airscrew is behind and propels the aircraft forward.
A trainer is a class of aircraft designed specifically to facilitate flight training of pilots and aircrews.
The Tupolev Tu-144 (Tyполев Ту-144; NATO reporting name: Charger) is a retired jet airliner and commercial supersonic transport aircraft (SST).
The turbofan or fanjet is a type of airbreathing jet engine that is widely used in aircraft propulsion.
The turbojet is an airbreathing jet engine, typically used in aircraft.
A turboprop engine is a turbine engine that drives an aircraft propeller.
An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), commonly known as a drone, is an aircraft without a human pilot aboard.
A vertical and/or short take-off and landing (V/STOL) aircraft is an airplane able to take-off or land vertically or on short runways.
A vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) aircraft is one that can hover, take off, and land vertically.
A warbird is any vintage military aircraft now operated by civilian organizations and individuals or, in some instances, by historic arms of military forces, such as the Battle of Britain Memorial Flight, the RAAF Museum Historic Flight and the South African Air Force Museum Historic Flight.
A wide-body aircraft is a jet airliner with a fuselage wide enough to accommodate two passenger aisles, also known as twin-aisle aircraft, with seven or more seats abreast.
Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale.
A wing is a type of fin that produces lift, while moving through air or some other fluid.
The wing configuration of a fixed-wing aircraft (including both gliders and powered aeroplanes or airplanes) is its arrangement of lifting and related surfaces.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Wright brothers, Orville (August 19, 1871 – January 30, 1948) and Wilbur (April 16, 1867 – May 30, 1912), were two American aviators, engineers, inventors, and aviation pioneers who are generally credited with inventing, building, and flying the world's first successful airplane.
A Zeppelin is a type of rigid airship named after the German Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin who pioneered rigid airship development at the beginning of the 20th century.
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