248 relations: Abrams' law, Abrasion (mechanical), Accelerant, Accelerated curing, Aggregate base, Air entrainment, Alite, American Concrete Institute, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Roman architecture, Ancient Rome, Anthropic rock, Arch, Architectural engineering, Arthrobacter crystallopoietes, Asphalt, Asphalt concrete, Assyria, ASTM International, Autoclaved aerated concrete, Bacillus pseudofirmus, Baths of Caracalla, Bedouin, Belite, Biorock, Blast furnace, Boat, Bottom ash, Breakwater (structure), Brutalist architecture, Bunding, Calcareous, Calcium aluminate cements, Calcium aluminoferrite, Calcium carbonate, Calcium chloride, Calcium hydroxide, Calcium nitrate, Calcium oxide, Calcium silicate hydrate, Canal du Midi, Capillary action, Carbon dioxide, Carbonatation, Carbonation, Cement, Cement accelerator, Cement chemist notation, Cement kiln, Cement mill, ..., Chemical property, Chemical reaction, Chemistry, Chernobyl, Cistern, Citric acid, Cladosporium, Clinker (cement), Colosseum, Compactor, Composite material, Compression (physics), Compressive strength, Compressive stress, Concrete, Concrete canoe, Concrete leveling, Concrete masonry unit, Concrete mixer, Concrete moisture meter, Concrete plant, Concrete recycling, Concrete sealer, Concrete slump test, Concrete step barrier, Construction, Construction aggregate, Corrosion, Corrosion inhibitor, Creep (deformation), Crushed stone, Crusher, CSA Group, Dam, Defoamer, Diamond grinding of pavement, Dorset, Duff Abrams, Eddystone Lighthouse, Efflorescence, Electric arc furnace, Embodied energy, Energy density, Exothermic process, Expanded polystyrene concrete, Extreme weather, Federal Highway Administration, Fence, Ferrosilicon, Fiber-reinforced concrete, Fireproofing, Flow table test, Fly ash, Foam Index, Fondu fyre, Form liner, Formwork, Fossil fuel power station, Foundation (engineering), Fracture, Gel, Glucose, Grand Coulee Dam, Granite, Granularity, Gravel, Greenhouse gas, Ground granulated blast-furnace slag, Gypsum, Hazama Ando, Heinrich Schliemann, High-performance fiber-reinforced cementitious composites, Himachal Pradesh, History of architecture, Hoover Dam, Hydrate, Hydration reaction, Hydraulic lime, Industrial Canal, Insulating concrete form, International Grooving & Grinding Association, Isle of Portland, Itaipu Dam, John Smeaton, Joseph Aspdin, Joseph Monier, Joule, Kiln, Kuala Lumpur, Landfill, Lift slab construction, Lime (material), Limestone, List of Roman domes, LiTraCon, Lock (water navigation), Louisville, Kentucky, Magnet, Malaysia, Metakaolin, Mineral hydration, Mortar (masonry), Nabataean Kingdom, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Occupational dust exposure, Overpass, Panama Canal, Pantheon, Rome, Parking, Parvati River (Himachal Pradesh), Periodic Videos, Pervious concrete, Petronas Towers, Pigment, Plaster, Plasticizer, Polished concrete, Polymer concrete, Polyol, Pont du Gard, Portland cement, Portland Cement Association, Portland stone, Power station, Pozzolan, Pozzolana, Precast concrete, Prefabrication, Prestressed concrete, Pumice, Pykrete, Pyroclastic rock, Quartzite, Rammed earth, Rastra, Rebar, Reinforced concrete, Reservoir, Retarder (chemistry), Road surface, Roller-compacted concrete, Roman aqueduct, Roman architectural revolution, Roman concrete, Roman Empire, Roman engineering, Rubble, Rusticated concrete block, Samsung C&T Corporation, Sand, Segregation in concrete, Self-consolidating concrete, Shallow foundation, Sidewalk, Silica fume, Silicosis, Slip forming, Slurry, Smeaton's Tower, Sodium gluconate, Sodium nitrate, Sporosarcina pasteurii, Stamped concrete, Steel, Steel plate construction, Steelmaking, Storm drain, Strength of materials, Sucrose, Sugar, Sulfate, Superplasticizer, Surface runoff, Tarpaulin, Tartaric acid, Tension (physics), The Concrete Society, The Landmark (Abu Dhabi), Thermal expansion, Three Gorges Dam, Tiryns, Tobermorite, Translucent concrete, Tricalcium aluminate, Types of concrete, Ultimate tensile strength, United States Geological Survey, Urban heat island, Utility pole, Vault (architecture), Water, Water–cement ratio, Watt, Weathering, Whitetopping, William Aspdin, World of Concrete, Young's modulus. Expand index (198 more) » « Shrink index
Abrams' law (also called Abrams' water-cement ratio law) is a concept in civil engineering.
Abrasion is the process of scuffing, scratching, wearing down, marring, or rubbing away.
Accelerants are substances that can bond, mix or disturb another substance and cause an increase in the speed of a natural, or artificial chemical process.
Accelerated curing is any method by which high early age strength is achieved in concrete.
Aggregate base is a construction aggregate typically composed of crushed rock capable of passing through a rock screen.
Air entrainment is the intentional creation of tiny air bubbles in concrete.
Alite is a name for tricalcium silicate, Ca3SiO5, sometimes formulated as 3CaO·SiO2 (C3S in cement chemist notation, CCN).
The American Concrete Institute (ACI, formerly National Association of Cement Users or NACU) is a non-profit technical society and standards developing organization.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ancient Roman architecture adopted the external language of classical Greek architecture for the purposes of the ancient Romans, but differed from Greek buildings, becoming a new architectural style.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Anthropic rock is rock that is made, modified and moved by humans.
An arch is a vertical curved structure that spans an elevated space and may or may not support the weight above it, or in case of a horizontal arch like an arch dam, the hydrostatic pressure against it.
Architectural engineering, also known as building engineering, is the application of engineering principles and technology to building design and construction.
Arthrobacter crystallopoietes is a bacterium species from the genus of Arthrobacter which has been isolated from soil.
Asphalt, also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum.
Asphalt concrete (commonly called asphalt, blacktop, or pavement in North America, and tarmac, bitumen macadam or rolled asphalt in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland) is a composite material commonly used to surface roads, parking lots, airports, as well as the core of embankment dams.
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.
ASTM International is an international standards organization that develops and publishes voluntary consensus technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services.
Autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC), also known as autoclaved cellular concrete (ACC), autoclaved lightweight concrete (ALC), autoclaved concrete, cellular concrete, porous concrete, Aircrete, Hebel Block, and Ytong is a lightweight, precast, foam concrete building material invented in the mid-1920s that simultaneously provides structure, insulation, and fire- and mold-resistance.
Bacillus pseudofirmus is a facultative anaerobe bacterium.
The Baths of Caracalla (Terme di Caracalla) in Rome, Italy, were the city's second largest Roman public baths, or thermae, likely built between AD 212 (or 211) and 216/217, during the reigns of emperors Septimius Severus and Caracalla.
The Bedouin (badawī) are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant.
Belite is an industrial mineral important in Portland cement manufacture.
Biorock, also known as Seacrete or Seament, is a trademark name used by Biorock, Inc.
A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce industrial metals, generally pig iron, but also others such as lead or copper.
A boat is a watercraft of a large range of type and size.
Bottom ash is part of the non-combustible residue of combustion in a furnace or incinerator.
Breakwaters are structures constructed on coasts as part of coastal management or to protect an anchorage from the effects of both weather and longshore drift.
Brutalist architecture flourished from 1951 to 1975, having descended from the modernist architectural movement of the early 20th century.
Bunding, also called a bund wall, is a constructed retaining wall around storage "where potentially polluting substances are handled, processed or stored, for the purposes of containing any unintended escape of material from that area until such time as a remedial action can be taken." Guidance Note on Storage and Transfer of Materials for Scheduled Activities page 7.
Calcareous is an adjective meaning "mostly or partly composed of calcium carbonate", in other words, containing lime or being chalky.
Calcium aluminate cements are cements consisting predominantly of hydraulic calcium aluminates.
Calcium aluminoferrite (Ca2(Al,Fe)2O5) is a dark brown crystalline phase commonly found in cements.
Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.
Calcium chloride is an inorganic compound, a salt with the chemical formula CaCl2.
Calcium hydroxide (traditionally called slaked lime) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2.
Calcium nitrate, also called Norgessalpeter (Norwegian saltpeter), is an inorganic compound with the formula Ca(NO3)2.
Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound.
Calcium silicate hydrate (or C-S-H) is the main product of the hydration of Portland cement and is primarily responsible for the strength in cement based materials.
The Canal du Midi (meaning canal of the two seas) is a long canal in Southern France (le Midi).
Capillary action (sometimes capillarity, capillary motion, capillary effect, or wicking) is the ability of a liquid to flow in narrow spaces without the assistance of, or even in opposition to, external forces like gravity.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbonatation is a chemical reaction in which calcium hydroxide reacts with carbon dioxide and forms insoluble calcium carbonate: The process of forming a carbonate is sometimes referred to as "carbonation", although this term usually refers to the process of dissolving carbon dioxide in water.
Carbonation refers to reactions of carbon dioxide to give carbonates, bicarbonates, and carbonic acid.
A cement is a binder, a substance used for construction that sets, hardens and adheres to other materials, binding them together.
A cement accelerator is an admixture for the use in concrete, mortar, rendering or screeds.
Cement chemist notation (CCN) was developed to simplify the formulas cement chemists use on a daily basis.
Cement kilns are used for the pyroprocessing stage of manufacture of Portland and other types of hydraulic cement, in which calcium carbonate reacts with silica-bearing minerals to form a mixture of calcium silicates.
A cement mill (or finish mill in North American usage) is the equipment used to grind the hard, nodular clinker from the cement kiln into the fine grey powder that is cement.
A chemical property is any of a material's properties that becomes evident during, or after, a chemical reaction; that is, any quality that can be established only by changing a substance's chemical identity.
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
Chernobyl or Chornobyl (Chornobyl′,;; Charnobyl′) is a city in the restricted Chernobyl Exclusion Zone situated in the Ivankiv Raion of northern Kiev Oblast, near Ukraine's border with Belarus.
A cistern (Middle English cisterne, from Latin cisterna, from cista, "box", from Greek κίστη, "basket") is a waterproof receptacle for holding liquids, usually water.
Citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula.
Cladosporium is a genus of fungi including some of the most common indoor and outdoor molds.
Typical clinker nodules Hot clinker In the manufacture of Portland cement, clinker occurs as lumps or nodules, usually to in diameter, produced by sintering (fused together without melting to the point of liquefaction) limestone and aluminosilicate materials such as clay during the cement kiln stage.
The Colosseum or Coliseum, also known as the Flavian Amphitheatre (Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium; Italian: Anfiteatro Flavio or Colosseo), is an oval amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy.
A compactor is a machine or mechanism used to reduce the size of material such as waste material or bio mass through compaction.
A composite material (also called a composition material or shortened to composite, which is the common name) is a material made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components.
In mechanics, compression is the application of balanced inward ("pushing") forces to different points on a material or structure, that is, forces with no net sum or torque directed so as to reduce its size in one or more directions.
Compressive strength or compression strength is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to reduce size, as opposed to tensile strength, which withstands loads tending to elongate.
In long, slender structural elements — such as columns or truss bars — an increase of compressive force F leads to structural failure due to buckling at lower stress than the compressive strength.
Concrete, usually Portland cement concrete, is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens over time—most frequently a lime-based cement binder, such as Portland cement, but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement.
A concrete canoe is a canoe made of concrete, typically created for an engineering competition.
In civil engineering, concrete leveling is a procedure that attempts to correct an uneven concrete surface by altering the foundation that the surface sits upon.
A concrete masonry unit (CMU) is a standard size rectangular block used in building construction.
A concrete mixer (often colloquially called a cement mixer) is a device that homogeneously combines cement, aggregate such as sand or gravel, and water to form concrete.
A concrete moisture meter is a type of moisture meter used by installers of flooring to measure the moisture levels of concrete.
A concrete plant, also known as a batch plant or batching plant or a concrete batching plant, is equipment that combines various ingredients to form concrete.
When structures made of concrete are demolished or renovated, concrete recycling is an increasingly common method of utilizing the rubble.
Concrete sealers are applied to concrete to protect it from surface damage, corrosion, and staining.
The slump test measures the consistency of fresh concrete before it sets.
A concrete step barrier is a safety barrier used on the central reservation of motorways and dual carriageways as an alternative to the standard steel crash barrier.
Construction is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure.
Construction aggregate, or simply "aggregate", is a broad category of coarse to medium grained particulate material used in construction, including sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag, recycled concrete and geosynthetic aggregates.
Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.
A corrosion inhibitor is a chemical compound that, when added to a liquid or gas, decreases the corrosion rate of a material, typically a metal or an alloy.
In materials science, creep (sometimes called cold flow) is the tendency of a solid material to move slowly or deform permanently under the influence of mechanical stresses.
Crushed stone or angular rock is a form of construction aggregate, typically produced by mining a suitable rock deposit and breaking the removed rock down to the desired size using crushers.
A crusher is a machine designed to reduce large rocks into smaller rocks, gravel, or rock dust.
The CSA Group (formerly the Canadian Standards Association; CSA), is a standards organization which develops standards in 57 areas.
A dam is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of water or underground streams.
A defoamer or an anti-foaming agent is a chemical additive that reduces and hinders the formation of foam in industrial process liquids.
Diamond grinding is a pavement preservation technique that corrects a variety of surface imperfections on both concrete and asphalt pavements.
Dorset (archaically: Dorsetshire) is a county in South West England on the English Channel coast.
Duff A. Abrams (1880, Illinois, – 1965, New York) was an American researcher in the field of composition and properties of concrete.
The Eddystone Lighthouse is on the dangerous Eddystone Rocks, south of Rame Head, England, United Kingdom.
In chemistry, efflorescence (which means "to flower out" in French) is the migration of a salt to the surface of a porous material, where it forms a coating.
An electric arc furnace (EAF) is a furnace that heats charged material by means of an electric arc.
Embodied energy is the sum of all the energy required to produce any goods or services, considered as if that energy was incorporated or 'embodied' in the product itself.
Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume.
In thermodynamics, the term exothermic process (exo-: "outside") describes a process or reaction that releases energy from the system to its surroundings, usually in the form of heat, but also in a form of light (e.g. a spark, flame, or flash), electricity (e.g. a battery), or sound (e.g. explosion heard when burning hydrogen).
Expanded polystyrene (EPS) concrete (also known as EPScrete, EPS concrete or lightweight concrete) is a form of concrete known for its light weight made from cement and EPS (Expanded Polystyrene).
Extreme weather includes unexpected, unusual, unpredictable, severe or unseasonal weather; weather at the extremes of the historical distribution—the range that has been seen in the past.
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a division of the United States Department of Transportation that specializes in highway transportation.
A fence is a structure that encloses an area, typically outdoors, and is usually constructed from posts that are connected by boards, wire, rails or netting.
Ferrosilicon is an alloy of iron and silicon with an average silicon content between 15 and 90 weight percent.
Fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC) is concrete containing fibrous material which increases its structural integrity.
Fireproofing is rendering something (structures, materials, etc.) resistant to fire, or incombustible; or material for use in making anything fire-proof.
The flow table test or flow test is a method to determine consistency of fresh concrete.
Fly ash, also known as "pulverised fuel ash" in the United Kingdom, is a coal combustion product that is composed of the particulates (fine particles of burned fuel) that are driven out of coal-fired boilers together with the flue gases.
Foam Index test is a rapid method to determine the relative levels of Air Entraining Agent (AEA) needed during concrete mixing, with or without mineral additives like combustion fly ash, that control air void volumes within cured concrete.
Fondu Fyre, sometimes called Fondue Fyre, is a concrete developed for specialist application.
Form liners are the liners used in the preparation of designs on concrete walls.
Formwork is temporary or permanent molds into which concrete or similar materials are poured.
A fossil fuel power station is a power station which burns a fossil fuel such as coal, natural gas, or petroleum to produce electricity.
A foundation (or, more commonly, base) is the element of an architectural structure which connects it to the ground, and transfers loads from the structure to the ground.
A fracture is the separation of an object or material into two or more pieces under the action of stress.
A gel is a solid jelly-like material that can have properties ranging from soft and weak to hard and tough.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Grand Coulee Dam is a concrete gravity dam on the Columbia River in the U.S. state of Washington, built to produce hydroelectric power and provide irrigation water.
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.
Granularity (also called graininess), the condition of existing in grains or granules, refers to the extent to which a material or system is composed of distinguishable pieces or grains.
Gravel is a loose aggregation of rock fragments.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
Ground-granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS or GGBFS) is obtained by quenching molten iron slag (a by-product of iron and steel-making) from a blast furnace in water or steam, to produce a glassy, granular product that is then dried and ground into a fine powder.
Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.
, is one of the 10 biggest construction companies in Japan.
Heinrich Schliemann (6 January 1822 – 26 December 1890) was a German businessman and a pioneer in the field of archaeology.
High-performance fiber-reinforced cementitious composites (HPFRCCs) are a group of fiber-reinforced cement-based composites which possess the unique ability to flex and self-strengthen before fracturing.
Himachal Pradesh (literally "snow-laden province") is a Indian state located in North India.
The history of architecture traces the changes in architecture through various traditions, regions, overarching stylistic trends, and dates.
Hoover Dam is a concrete arch-gravity dam in the Black Canyon of the Colorado River, on the border between the U.S. states of Nevada and Arizona.
In chemistry, a hydrate is a substance that contains water or its constituent elements.
In chemistry, a hydration reaction is a chemical reaction in which a substance combines with water.
Hydraulic lime (HL) is a general term for varieties of lime (calcium oxide), or slaked lime (calcium hydroxide), used to make lime mortar which set through hydration.
The Industrial Canal is a 5.5 mile (9 km) waterway in New Orleans, Louisiana, United States.
Insulating concrete form or insulated concrete form (ICF) is a system of formwork for reinforced concrete usually made with a rigid thermal insulation that stays in place as a permanent interior and exterior substrate for walls, floors, and roofs.
The International Grooving & Grinding Association (IGGA) is a non-profit trade association founded in 1972 that represents the industry that performs grooving and grinding of both concrete and asphalt surfaces in addition to Concrete Pavement Restoration (CPR) and Concrete Pavement Preservation (CPP) methods.
The Isle of Portland is a limestone tied island, long by wide, in the English Channel.
The Itaipu Dam (Barragem de Itaipu, Represa de Itaipú) is a hydroelectric dam on the Paraná River located on the border between Brazil and Paraguay.
John Smeaton (8 June 1724 – 28 October 1792) was a British civil engineer responsible for the design of bridges, canals, harbours and lighthouses.
Joseph Aspdin (December 1778 – 20 March 1855) was an English cement manufacturer who obtained the patent for Portland cement on 21 October 1824.
Joseph Monier (8 November 1823, Saint-Quentin-la-Poterie, France – 13 March 1906, Paris) was a French gardener and one of the principal inventors of reinforced concrete.
The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.
A kiln (or, originally pronounced "kill", with the "n" silent) is a thermally insulated chamber, a type of oven, that produces temperatures sufficient to complete some process, such as hardening, drying, or chemical changes.
Kuala Lumpur, officially the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur (Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur), or commonly known as KL, is the national capital of Malaysia as well as its largest city in the country.
A landfill site (also known as a tip, dump, rubbish dump, garbage dump or dumping ground and historically as a midden) is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial.
Lift slab construction (also called the Youtz-Slick Method) is a method of constructing concrete buildings by casting the floor or roof slab on top of the previous slab and then raising (jacking) the slab up with hydraulic jacks.
Lime is a calcium-containing inorganic mineral in which oxides, and hydroxides predominate.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
This is a list of Roman domes.
LiTraCon is a trademark for a translucent concrete building material.
A lock is a device used for raising and lowering boats, ships and other watercraft between stretches of water of different levels on river and canal waterways.
Louisville is the largest city in the Commonwealth of Kentucky and the 29th most-populous city in the United States.
A magnet is a material or object that produces a magnetic field.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Metakaolin is the anhydrous calcined form of the clay mineral kaolinite.
Mineral hydration is an inorganic chemical reaction where water is added to the crystal structure of a mineral, usually creating a new mineral, usually called a hydrate.
Mortar is a workable paste used to bind building blocks such as stones, bricks, and concrete masonry units together, fill and seal the irregular gaps between them, and sometimes add decorative colors or patterns in masonry walls.
The Nabataean Kingdom (المملكة النبطية), also named Nabatea, was a political state of the Arab Nabataeans during classical antiquity.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.
Occupational dust exposure can occur in various settings, including agriculture, forestry, and mining.
An overpass (called a flyover in the United Kingdom and some other Commonwealth countries) is a bridge, road, railway or similar structure that crosses over another road or railway.
The Panama Canal (Canal de Panamá) is an artificial waterway in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean.
The Pantheon (or; Pantheum,Although the spelling Pantheon is standard in English, only Pantheum is found in classical Latin; see, for example, Pliny, Natural History: "Agrippae Pantheum decoravit Diogenes Atheniensis". See also Oxford Latin Dictionary, s.v. "Pantheum"; Oxford English Dictionary, s.v.: "post-classical Latin pantheon a temple consecrated to all the gods (6th cent.; compare classical Latin pantheum". from Greek Πάνθειον Pantheion, " of all the gods") is a former Roman temple, now a church, in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD). It was completed by the emperor Hadrian and probably dedicated about 126 AD. Its date of construction is uncertain, because Hadrian chose not to inscribe the new temple but rather to retain the inscription of Agrippa's older temple, which had burned down. The building is circular with a portico of large granite Corinthian columns (eight in the first rank and two groups of four behind) under a pediment. A rectangular vestibule links the porch to the rotunda, which is under a coffered concrete dome, with a central opening (oculus) to the sky. Almost two thousand years after it was built, the Pantheon's dome is still the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome. The height to the oculus and the diameter of the interior circle are the same,. It is one of the best-preserved of all Ancient Roman buildings, in large part because it has been in continuous use throughout its history, and since the 7th century, the Pantheon has been used as a church dedicated to "St. Mary and the Martyrs" (Sancta Maria ad Martyres) but informally known as "Santa Maria Rotonda". The square in front of the Pantheon is called Piazza della Rotonda. The Pantheon is a state property, managed by Italy's Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism through the Polo Museale del Lazio; in 2013 it was visited by over 6 million people. The Pantheon's large circular domed cella, with a conventional temple portico front, was unique in Roman architecture. Nevertheless, it became a standard exemplar when classical styles were revived, and has been copied many times by later architects.
Parking is the act of stopping and disengaging a vehicle and leaving it unoccupied.
Parvati River is a river in the Parvati Valley in Himachal Pradesh, northern India that flows into the Beas River at Bhuntar, some 10 km south of Kullu.
The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.
Pervious concrete (also called porous concrete, permeable concrete, no fines concrete and porous pavement) is a special type of concrete with a high porosity used for concrete flatwork applications that allows water from precipitation and other sources to pass directly through, thereby reducing the runoff from a site and allowing groundwater recharge.
The Petronas Towers, also known as the Petronas Twin Towers (Malay: Menara Petronas, or Menara Berkembar Petronas), are twin skyscrapers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.
Plaster is a building material used for the protective and/or decorative coating of walls and ceilings and for moulding and casting decorative elements.
Plasticizers (UK: plasticisers) or dispersants are additives that increase the plasticity or decrease the viscosity of a material.
Polished concrete is concrete that has been processed through a series of mechanically ground "polishing/grinding" steps similar to the production of terrazzo.
Polymer concretes are a type of concrete that use polymers to replace lime-type cements as a binder.
A polyol is an organic compound containing multiple hydroxyl groups.
The Pont du Gard is an ancient Roman aqueduct that crosses the Gardon River near the town of Vers-Pont-du-Gard in southern France.
Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general use around the world as a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar, stucco, and non-specialty grout.
Portland Cement Association is a non-profit organization that promotes the use of concrete.
Portland stone is a limestone from the Tithonian stage of the Jurassic period quarried on the Isle of Portland, Dorset.
A power station, also referred to as a power plant or powerhouse and sometimes generating station or generating plant, is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power.
Pozzolans are a broad class of siliceous or siliceous and aluminous materials which, in themselves, possess little or no cementitious value but which will, in finely divided form and in the presence of water, react chemically with calcium hydroxide at ordinary temperature to form compounds possessing cementitious properties.
Pozzolana, also known as pozzolanic ash (pulvis puteolanus in Latin), is a natural siliceous or siliceous and aluminous material which reacts with calcium hydroxide in the presence of water at room temperature (cf. pozzolanic reaction).
Precast concrete is a construction product produced by casting concrete in a reusable mold or "form" which is then cured in a controlled environment, transported to the construction site and lifted into place ("tilt up").
Prefabrication is the practice of assembling components of a structure in a factory or other manufacturing site, and transporting complete assemblies or sub-assemblies to the construction site where the structure is to be located.
Prestressed concrete is a form of concrete used in construction which is "pre-stressed" by being placed under compression prior to supporting any loads beyond its own dead weight.
Pumice, called pumicite in its powdered or dust form, is a volcanic rock that consists of highly vesicular rough textured volcanic glass, which may or may not contain crystals.
Pykrete is a frozen composite material, originally made of approximately 14 percent sawdust or some other form of wood pulp (such as paper) and 86 percent ice by weight (6 to 1 by weight).
Pyroclastic rocks or pyroclastics (derived from the πῦρ, meaning fire; and κλαστός, meaning broken) are clastic rocks composed solely or primarily of volcanic materials.
Quartzite (from Quarzit) is a hard, non-foliated metamorphic rock which was originally pure quartz sandstone.
Rammed earth, also known as taipa in Portuguese, tapial or tapia in Spanish, pisé (de terre) in French, and hangtu, is a technique for constructing foundations, floors, and walls using natural raw materials such as earth, chalk, lime, or gravel.
Rastra is a tradename for a particular insulating concrete form (ICF) used to make walls for buildings.
Rebar (short for reinforcing bar), collectively known as reinforcing steel and reinforcement steel, is a steel bar or mesh of steel wires used as a tension device in reinforced concrete and reinforced masonry structures to strengthen and hold the concrete in compression.
Reinforced concrete (RC) (also called reinforced cement concrete or RCC) is a composite material in which concrete's relatively low tensile strength and ductility are counteracted by the inclusion of reinforcement having higher tensile strength or ductility.
A reservoir (from French réservoir – a "tank") is a storage space for fluids.
A retarder is a chemical agent that slows down a chemical reaction.
A road surface or pavement is the durable surface material laid down on an area intended to sustain vehicular or foot traffic, such as a road or walkway.
Roller-compacted concrete (RCC) or rolled concrete (rollcrete) is a special blend of concrete that has essentially the same ingredients as conventional concrete but in different ratios, and increasingly with partial substitution of fly ash for Portland cement.
The Romans constructed aqueducts throughout their Empire, to bring water from outside sources into cities and towns.
The Roman architectural revolution, also known as the Concrete revolution, was the widespread use in Roman architecture of the previously little-used architectural forms of the arch, vault, and dome.
Roman concrete, also called opus caementicium, was a material used in construction during the late Roman Republic until the fading of the Roman Empire.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Romans are famous for their advanced engineering accomplishments, although some of their own inventions were improvements on older ideas, concepts and inventions.
Rubble is broken stone, of irregular size, shape and texture; undressed especially as a filling-in.
Rusticated concrete block is the handmade product of in-field advancements in cement making.
Samsung C&T Corporation (Construction & Trading Corporation) (formerly Samsung Corporation) (Korean: 삼성물산), was founded in 1938 as a parent company of Samsung Group to engage in overseas sales operations.
Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.
Segregation in concrete is a case of particle segregation in concrete applications, in which particulate solids tend to segregate by virtue of differences in the size, density, shape and other properties of particles of which they are composed.
Self-consolidating concrete or self-compacting concrete (commonly abbreviated to SCC) is a concrete mix which has a low yield stress, high deformability, good segregation resistance (prevents separation of particles in the mix), and moderate viscosity (necessary to ensure uniform suspension of solid particles during transportation, placement (without external compaction), and thereafter until the concrete sets).
A shallow foundation is a type of building foundation that transfers building loads to the earth very near to the surface, rather than to a subsurface layer or a range of depths as does a deep foundation.
A sidewalk (American English) or pavement (British English), also known as a footpath or footway, is a path along the side of a road.
Silica fume, also known as microsilica, (CAS number 69012-64-2, EINECS number 273-761-1) is an amorphous (non-crystalline) polymorph of silicon dioxide, silica.
Silicosis (also known as miner's phthisis, grinder's asthma, potter's rot and other occupation-related names, or by the invented name pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis) is a form of occupational lung disease caused by inhalation of crystalline silica dust, and is marked by inflammation and scarring in the form of nodular lesions in the upper lobes of the lungs.
Slip forming, continuous poured, continuously formed, or slipform construction is a construction method in which concrete is poured into a continuously moving form.
A slurry is a thin sloppy mud or cement or, in extended use, any fluid mixture of a pulverized solid with a liquid (usually water), often used as a convenient way of handling solids in bulk.
Smeaton's Tower is a memorial to celebrated civil engineer John Smeaton, designer of the third and most notable Eddystone Lighthouse.
Sodium gluconate is a compound with formula NaC6H11O7.
Sodium nitrate is the chemical compound with the formula NaNO3.
Sporosarcina pasteurii formerly known as Bacillus pasteurii from older taxonomies, is a bacterium with the ability to precipitate calcite and solidify sand given a calcium source and urea, through the process of microbiologically induced calcite precipitation or biological cementation.
Stamped concrete is concrete that is patterned and/or textured or embossed to resemble brick, slate, flagstone, stone, tile, wood, and various other patterns and textures.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
Steel plate construction is a rapid method of constructing heavy reinforced concrete items.
Steelmaking is the process for producing steel from iron ore and scrap.
A storm drain, storm sewer (U.S. and Canada), surface water drain/sewer (United Kingdom), or stormwater drain (Australia and New Zealand) is designed to drain excess rain and ground water from impervious surfaces such as paved streets, car parks, parking lots, footpaths, sidewalks, and roofs.
Strength of materials, also called mechanics of materials, is a subject which deals with the behavior of solid objects subject to stresses and strains.
Sucrose is common table sugar.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
Superplasticizers, also known as high range water reducers, are chemical admixtures used where well-dispersed particle suspension is required.
Surface runoff (also known as overland flow) is the flow of water that occurs when excess stormwater, meltwater, or other sources flows over the Earth's surface.
A tarpaulin, or tarp, is a large sheet of strong, flexible, water-resistant or waterproof material, often cloth such as canvas or polyester coated with polyurethane, or made of plastics such as polyethylene.
Tartaric acid is a white crystalline organic acid that occurs naturally in many fruits, most notably in grapes, but also in bananas, tamarinds and citrus.
In physics, tension may be described as the pulling force transmitted axially by the means of a string, cable, chain, or similar one-dimensional continuous object, or by each end of a rod, truss member, or similar three-dimensional object; tension might also be described as the action-reaction pair of forces acting at each end of said elements.
The Concrete Society is a UK based non-profit company that was founded in 1966 in response to the increasing need for a single organisation embracing all those interested in concrete.
The Landmark is a postmodern supertall skyscraper in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, and volume in response to a change in temperature.
The Three Gorges Dam is a hydroelectric gravity dam that spans the Yangtze River by the town of Sandouping, in Yiling District, Yichang, Hubei province, China.
Tiryns or (Ancient Greek: Τίρυνς; Modern Greek: Τίρυνθα) is a Mycenaean archaeological site in Argolis in the Peloponnese, some kilometres north of Nafplio.
Tobermorite is a calcium silicate hydrate mineral with chemical formula: Ca5Si6O16(OH)2·4H2O or Ca5Si6(O,OH)18·5H2O.
Translucent concrete (also: light-transmitting concrete) is a concrete based building material with light-transmissive properties due to embedded light optical elements — usually optical fibers.
Tricalcium aluminate Ca3Al2O6, often formulated as 3CaO·Al2O3 to highlight the proportions of the oxides from which it is made, is the most basic of the calcium aluminates.
Concrete is produced in a variety of compositions, finishes and performance characteristics to meet a wide range of needs.
Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), often shortened to tensile strength (TS), ultimate strength, or Ftu within equations, is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate, as opposed to compressive strength, which withstands loads tending to reduce size.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
An urban heat island (UHI) is an urban area or metropolitan area that is significantly warmer than its surrounding rural areas due to human activities.
A utility pole is a column or post used to support overhead power lines and various other public utilities, such as electrical cable, fiber optic cable, and related equipment such as transformers and street lights.
Vault (French voûte, from Italian volta) is an architectural term for an arched form used to provide a space with a ceiling or roof.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
The water–cement ratio is the ratio of the weight of water to the weight of cement used in a concrete mix.
The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.
Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil, and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, water, and biological organisms.
Whitetopping is the covering of an existing asphalt pavement with a layer of Portland cement concrete.
William Aspdin (23 September 1815 – 11 April 1864) was an English cement manufacturer, and a pioneer of the Portland cement industry.
The World of Concrete is an annual trade show for the commercial construction industry.
Young's modulus, also known as the elastic modulus, is a measure of the stiffness of a solid material.
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