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List of sovereign states

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This list of sovereign states provides an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty. [1]

289 relations: Abkhazia, Abyei, Aceh, Adjara, Administrative divisions of Mexico, Administrative divisions of the Federated States of Micronesia, Administrative units of Pakistan, African Union, Akrotiri and Dhekelia, Armenia–Pakistan relations, Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Associated state, Australian Antarctic Territory, Autonomous communities of Spain, Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija, Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, Autonomous Region of Bougainville, Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Azad Kashmir, Azores, Åland Islands, Bajo Nuevo Bank, Baker Island, Bandung Conference, Barbuda, BBC News, Belarus, Bhutan, Bonaire, Bouvet Island, Brčko District, Canadian federalism, Cantons of Switzerland, Caribbean Netherlands, China, China and the United Nations, Chinese Civil War, Chinese Taipei, Clipperton Island, Collectivity of Saint Martin, Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth realm, Communist Party of China, Communities, regions and language areas of Belgium, Compact of Free Association, Comprehensive Peace Agreement, Constitution of Iceland, Coral Sea Islands, Countries of the United Kingdom, Customary international law, ..., Cyprus dispute, Dates of establishment of diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China, De facto, Declaration of independence, Democratic Federation of Northern Syria, Denmark, Dependent territory, Diarchy, Diplomatic recognition, Dominion, Dominion of Ceylon, East Jerusalem, Easter Island, Economic Cooperation Organization, Elizabeth II, Emirates of the United Arab Emirates, England, European Union, Ex officio member, Federal subjects of Russia, Federated state, Federation, Foreign relations of Artsakh, Foreign relations of China, Foreign relations of Cyprus, Foreign relations of North Korea, Foreign relations of Northern Cyprus, Foreign relations of Somaliland, Foreign relations of South Korea, Foreign relations of the Cook Islands, Foreign relations of Transnistria, Free area of the Republic of China, Free Zone (region), French Guiana, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Gagauzia, Gallery of coats of arms of sovereign states, Gallery of sovereign state flags, Galmudug, Gaza Strip, Gilgit-Baltistan, Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region, Government in exile, Government of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia, Governorates of Iraq, Guadeloupe, Guangxi, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Holy See, Howland Island, India, Inner Mongolia, Institute for Security Studies, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Court of Justice, International Monetary Fund, International recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, International recognition of Israel, International recognition of the State of Palestine, International Telecommunication Union, Iraqi Kurdistan, Ireland, ISO 3166-1, Israeli disengagement from Gaza, Jakarta, Jan Mayen, Jarvis Island, Jeju Island, Jeune Afrique, Johnston Atoll, Juan Fernández Islands, Karakalpakstan, Kashmir, Kingdom of the Netherlands, Kingman Reef, Korea, Kuomintang, League of Nations, Legal person, List of active rebel groups, List of adjectival and demonymic forms for countries and nations, List of administrative divisions by country, List of autonomous areas by country, List of countries and dependencies and their capitals in native languages, List of countries by national capital, largest and second-largest cities, List of country-name etymologies, List of international rankings, List of micronations, List of shortest-lived sovereign states, List of sovereign states and dependent territories by continent, List of sovereign states by date of formation, List of specialized agencies of the United Nations, List of states with limited recognition, List of territorial disputes, List of zones of Nepal, Lists of sovereign states by year, Macedonia naming dispute, Madeira, Mainland China, Martinique, Mayotte, Member states of the United Nations, Micronation, Midway Atoll, Minnesota Journal of International Law, Monarchy of New Zealand, Montevideo Convention, Moroccan Western Sahara Wall, Mount Athos, Nagorno-Karabakh, Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, Name of Canada, Name of the Czech Republic, Names of Iceland, Names of the Irish state, National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces, Navassa Island, Nevis, New Zealand nationality law, Ningxia, North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region, North Kosovo, Northern Ireland, One-China policy, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Oslo Accords, Oxford University Press, Pakistan, Palestine Liberation Organization, Palestinian National Authority, Palestinian territories, Palmyra Atoll, Papua (province), Peter I Island, Political divisions of the United States, Political status of Taiwan, Political status of the Cook Islands and Niue, Pope, Príncipe, President of France, President of Iceland, Proto-state, Provinces and territories of Canada, Provinces of Argentina, Provinces of Indonesia, Provisional Administration of South Ossetia, Puntland, Queen Maud Land, Réunion, Regions of Ethiopia, Republic of Artsakh, Republic of Crimea, Republic of Dahomey, Rodrigues, Roman Catholic Diocese of Urgell, Ross Dependency, Rotuma, Russia, Saba, Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Saint Barthélemy, Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, Saint Kitts, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Scotland, Serranilla Bank, Sevastopol, Sint Eustatius, Somaliland, South Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region, South Ossetia, Southern Provinces, Sovereign Military Order of Malta, Sovereign state, Sovereignty, Special administrative regions of China, Special Region of Yogyakarta, Spratly Islands, Stateless society, States and federal territories of Malaysia, States and territories of Australia, States and union territories of India, States of Austria, States of Brazil, States of Germany, States of Nigeria, States of South Sudan, States of Sudan, States of Venezuela, Supranational union, Svalbard, Svalbard Treaty, Syrian Civil War, Syrian Interim Government, Taipei, Taipei Times, Taiwan, Taiwan independence movement, Taiwan Province, People's Republic of China, Terra nullius, The Africa Report, Tibet Autonomous Region, Tindouf, Tobago, Transnistria, Transnistria autonomous territorial unit, Treaty of Paris (1856), Turkey, Uncontacted peoples, Unincorporated area, Union State, United Nations, United Nations General Assembly observers, United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo, United Nations Security Council, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244, United Nations System, Universal Postal Union, University of Minnesota Law School, Valparaíso Region, Vojvodina, Wake Island, Wales, Wallis and Futuna, West Bank, West Bank Areas in the Oslo II Accord, West Papua (province), Western Sahara, Withdrawal of Greenland from the European Communities, World, World Bank Group, World Intellectual Property Organization, World Trade Organization, Xinjiang, Yale Journal of International Affairs, Zaire, Zanzibar, 2008 Kosovo declaration of independence. Expand index (239 more) »

Abkhazia

Abkhazia (Аҧсны́; აფხაზეთი; p) is a territory on the eastern coast of the Black Sea, south of the Greater Caucasus mountains, in northwestern Georgia.

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Abyei

The Abyei Area (أبيي) is an area of in Sudan accorded "special administrative status" by the 2004 Protocol on the Resolution of the Abyei Conflict (Abyei Protocol) in the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) that ended the Second Sudanese Civil War.

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Aceh

Aceh; (Acehnese: Acèh; Jawoë:; Dutch: Atjeh or Aceh) is a province of Indonesia.

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Adjara

Adjara (აჭარა), officially known as the Autonomous Republic of Adjara (Georgian: აჭარის ავტონომიური რესპუბლიკა), is a historical, geographic and political-administrative region of Georgia.

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Administrative divisions of Mexico

The United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic composed of 31 states and the capital, Mexico City, an autonomous entity on par with the states.

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Administrative divisions of the Federated States of Micronesia

The Federated States of Micronesia is a federation divided into four states, which are further divided into various cities and municipalities.

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Administrative units of Pakistan

The administrative units of Pakistan (انتظامی اکائیاں) consist of five provinces (Balochistan, Gilgit-Baltistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab and Sindh), one autonomous territory (Azad Jammu and Kashmir) and one federal territory (Islamabad Capital Territory).

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African Union

The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of all 55 countries on the African continent, extending slightly into Asia via the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt.

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Akrotiri and Dhekelia

The Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia (SBA; Περιοχές Κυρίαρχων Βάσεων Ακρωτηρίου και Δεκέλιας, Periochés Kyríarchon Váseon Akrotiríou kai Dekélias; Egemen Üs Bölgeleri Ağrotur ve Dikelya), is a British Overseas Territory on the island of Cyprus.

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Armenia–Pakistan relations

Armenia–Pakistan relations refers to international and bilateral relations between Armenia and Pakistan.

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Ashmore and Cartier Islands

The Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands is an uninhabited external territory of Australia consisting of four low-lying tropical islands in two separate reefs, and the 12 nautical mile territorial sea generated by the islands.

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Associated state

An associated state is the minor partner in a formal, free relationship between a political territory with a degree of statehood and a (usually larger) nation, for which no other specific term, such as protectorate, is adopted.

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Australian Antarctic Territory

The Australian Antarctic Territory (AAT) is a part of Antarctica administered by the Australian Antarctic Division, an agency of the federal Department of the Environment and Energy.

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Autonomous communities of Spain

In Spain, an autonomous community (comunidad autónoma, autonomia erkidegoa, comunitat autònoma, comunidade autónoma, comunautat autonòma) is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain.

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Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija

Kosovo and Metohija (Косово и Метохија / Kosovo i Metohija (КиМ / KiM), Kosova dhe Dukagjini), officially the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija (Аутономна Покрајина Косово и Метохиja / Autonomna Pokrajina Kosovo i Metohija, Krahina Autonome e Kosovës dhe Metohisë), known as short Kosovo (Косово, Kosova) or simply Kosmet (from '''Kos'''ovo and '''Met'''ohija; Serbian Cyrillic: Космет), refers to the region of Kosovo as defined in the Constitution of Serbia.

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Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao

The Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (Awtonomong Rehiyon sa Muslim Mindanao, الحكم الذاتي الاقليمي لمسلمي مندناو Al-ḥukm adh-dhātiyy al-'aqlīmiyy limuslimiyy mindanāu; abbreviated ARMM) is an autonomous region of the Philippines, located in the Mindanao island group of the Philippines, that consists of five predominantly Muslim provinces: Basilan (except Isabela City), Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu and Tawi-Tawi.

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Autonomous Region of Bougainville

The Autonomous Region of Bougainville, previously known as the North Solomons Province, is an autonomous region in Papua New Guinea.

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Autonomous Republic of Crimea

The Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Автономна Республіка Крим, Avtonomna Respublika Krym; Автономная Республика Крым, Avtonomnaya Respublika Krym; Qırım Muhtar Cumhuriyeti, Къырым Мухтар Джумхуриети, Ҡырым Мухтар Җумхуриети) was an autonomous republic of Ukraine, encompassing most of Crimea, that was annexed by the Russian Federation in 2014.

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Azad Kashmir

Azad Jammu and Kashmir (آزاد جموں و کشمیر Āzād Jammū̃ o Kaśmīr, translation: Free Jammu and Kashmir), abbreviated as AJK and commonly known as Azad Kashmir, is a nominally self-governing polity administered by Pakistan.

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Azores

The Azores (or; Açores), officially the Autonomous Region of the Azores (Região Autónoma dos Açores), is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal.

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Åland Islands

The Åland Islands or Åland (Åland,; Ahvenanmaa) is an archipelago province at the entrance to the Gulf of Bothnia in the Baltic Sea belonging to Finland.

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Bajo Nuevo Bank

Bajo Nuevo Bank, also known as the Petrel Islands (Bajo Nuevo, Islas Petrel), is a small, uninhabited reef with some small grass-covered islets, located in the western Caribbean Sea at, with a lighthouse on Low Cay at.

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Baker Island

Baker Island is an uninhabited atoll located just north of the equator in the central Pacific Ocean about southwest of Honolulu.

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Bandung Conference

The first large-scale Asian–African or Afro–Asian Conference—also known as the Bandung Conference (Konferensi Asia-Afrika)—was a meeting of Asian and African states, most of which were newly independent, which took place on April 18–24, 1955 in Bandung, Indonesia.

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Barbuda

Barbuda is a small island located in the eastern Caribbean forming part of the sovereign Commonwealth nation of Antigua and Barbuda.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Belarus

Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.

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Bhutan

Bhutan, officially the Kingdom of Bhutan (Druk Gyal Khap), is a landlocked country in South Asia.

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Bonaire

Bonaire (pronounced or; Bonaire,; Papiamento: Boneiru) is an island in the Leeward Antilles in the Caribbean Sea.

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Bouvet Island

Bouvet Island is an uninhabited subantarctic high island and dependency of Norway located in the South Atlantic Ocean at, thus putting it north of and outside the Antarctic Treaty System.

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Brčko District

Brčko District (Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian: Брчко Дистрикт/Brčko Distrikt) is a self-governing administrative unit in north-eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina.

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Canadian federalism

Canadian federalism involves the current nature and historical development of federal systems in Canada.

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Cantons of Switzerland

The 26 cantons of Switzerland (Kanton, canton, cantone, chantun) are the member states of the Swiss Confederation.

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Caribbean Netherlands

The Caribbean Netherlands (Caribisch Nederland) are the three special municipalities of the Netherlands that are located in the Caribbean Sea.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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China and the United Nations

China was one of the charter members of the United Nations and is one of five permanent members of its Security Council.

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Chinese Civil War

The Chinese Civil War was a war fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC).

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Chinese Taipei

"Chinese Taipei" is the name for Taiwan designated in the Nagoya Resolution whereby the Republic of China (ROC) and the People's Republic of China (PRC) recognize each other when it comes to the activities of the International Olympic Committee.

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Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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Clipperton Island

Clipperton Island (Île de Clipperton or Île de la Passion; Isla de la Pasión) is an uninhabited coral atoll in the eastern Pacific Ocean off the coast of Central America.

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Collectivity of Saint Martin

Saint Martin (Saint-Martin), officially the Collectivity of Saint Martin (Collectivité de Saint-Martin) is an overseas collectivity of France in the West Indies in the Caribbean.

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Commonwealth of Nations

The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.

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Commonwealth realm

A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state that is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations and shares the same person, currently Queen Elizabeth II, as its head of state and reigning constitutional monarch, but retains a Crown legally distinct from the other realms.

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Communist Party of China

The Communist Party of China (CPC), also referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China.

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Communities, regions and language areas of Belgium

Belgium is a federal state comprising three communities, three regions, and four language areas.

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Compact of Free Association

The Compact of Free Association (COFA) is an international agreement establishing and governing the relationships of free association between the United States and the three Pacific Island nations of the Federated States of Micronesia, the Marshall Islands, and Palau.

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Comprehensive Peace Agreement

The Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA, اتفاقية السلام الشامل, Ittifāqiyyah al-salām al-šāmil), also known as the Naivasha Agreement, was an accord signed on January 9, 2005, by the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) and the Government of Sudan.

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Constitution of Iceland

The Constitution of Iceland (Icelandic: Stjórnarskrá lýðveldisins Íslands "Constitution of the republic of Iceland") is the supreme law of Iceland.

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Coral Sea Islands

The Coral Sea Islands Territory is an external territory of Australia which comprises a group of small and mostly uninhabited tropical islands and reefs in the Coral Sea, northeast of Queensland, Australia.

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Countries of the United Kingdom

The United Kingdom (UK) comprises four countries: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales.

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Customary international law

Customary international law is an aspect of international law involving the principle of custom.

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Cyprus dispute

The Cyprus dispute, also known as the Cyprus conflict, Cyprus issue or Cyprus problem, is the ongoing issue of Turkish military invasion and occupation of the northern third of the island since 1974.

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Dates of establishment of diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China

* Since its founding in 1949, the People's Republic of China (PRC) has had a diplomatic tug-of-war with its rival in Taiwan, the Republic of China (ROC).

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De facto

In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.

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Declaration of independence

A declaration of independence or declaration of statehood is an assertion by a defined territory that it is independent and constitutes a state.

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Democratic Federation of Northern Syria

The Democratic Federation of Northern Syria (DFNS), commonly known as Rojava, is a de facto autonomous region in northern Syria.

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Denmark

Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.

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Dependent territory

A dependent territory, dependent area or dependency is a territory that does not possess full political independence or sovereignty as a sovereign state yet remains politically outside the controlling state's integral area.

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Diarchy

A diarchy (from Greek δι-, di-, "double", and -αρχία, -arkhía, "ruled").

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Diplomatic recognition

Diplomatic recognition in international law is a unilateral political act with domestic and international legal consequences, whereby a state acknowledges an act or status of another state or government in control of a state (may be also a recognized state).

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Dominion

Dominions were semi-independent polities under the British Crown, constituting the British Empire, beginning with Canadian Confederation in 1867.

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Dominion of Ceylon

Between 1948 and 1972, CeylonThe Sri Lanka Independence Act 1947 uses the name "Ceylon" for the new dominion; nowhere does that Act use the term "Dominion of Ceylon", which although sometimes used was not the official name.

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East Jerusalem

East Jerusalem or Eastern Jerusalem is the sector of Jerusalem that was occupied by Jordan in 1948 and had remained out of the Israeli-held West Jerusalem at the end of the 1948–49 Arab–Israeli War and has been occupied by Israel since the 1967 Arab-Israeli War.

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Easter Island

Easter Island (Rapa Nui, Isla de Pascua) is a Chilean island in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, at the southeasternmost point of the Polynesian Triangle in Oceania.

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Economic Cooperation Organization

The Economic Cooperation Organization or ECO is a Eurasian political and economic intergovernmental organization which was founded in 1985 in Tehran by the leaders of Iran, Pakistan and Turkey.

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Elizabeth II

Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.

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Emirates of the United Arab Emirates

The United Arab Emirates consists of seven emirates (إمارات ʾimārāt; singular: إمارة ʾimārah), all of which were historically known as the Trucial States collectively.

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England

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Ex officio member

An ex officio member is a member of a body (a board, committee, council, etc.) who is part of it by virtue of holding another office.

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Federal subjects of Russia

The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (субъекты Российской Федерации subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects of the federation (субъекты федерации subyekty federatsii), are the constituent entities of Russia, its top-level political divisions according to the Constitution of Russia.

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Federated state

A federated state (which may also be referred to by various terms such as a state, a province, a canton, a land) is a territorial and constitutional community forming part of a federation.

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Federation

A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central (federal) government.

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Foreign relations of Artsakh

The Republic of Artsakh is a republic with limited recognition in the South Caucasus region.

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Foreign relations of China

The foreign relations of the People's Republic of China (PRC), commonly known to most states as China, guides the way in which China interacts with foreign nations and expresses its political, economic and cultural strengths, weaknesses and values.

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Foreign relations of Cyprus

Cyprus is a member of the United Nations along with most of its agencies as well as the Commonwealth of Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund and Council of Europe.

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Foreign relations of North Korea

The foreign relations of North Korea – officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) – have been shaped by its conflict with capitalist countries like South Korea and its historical ties with world communism.

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Foreign relations of Northern Cyprus

Northern Cyprus is recognised only by Turkey, a country which facilitates many of its contacts with the international community.

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Foreign relations of Somaliland

Foreign relations of the Republic of Somaliland are the responsibility of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

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Foreign relations of South Korea

The foreign relations of South Korea (officially the Republic of Korea) are South Korean relations with other governments.

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Foreign relations of the Cook Islands

The Cook Islands maintains diplomatic relations with various countries and is a member of multilateral organisations.

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Foreign relations of Transnistria

The Transnistrian republic is recognized by three states with limited recognition, and is a member of one international organization, the Community for Democracy and Human Rights, that was established by these four states.

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Free area of the Republic of China

The Free area of the Republic of China is a term used by the government of the Republic of China (ROC) to refer to the territories under its actual control.

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Free Zone (region)

The Free Zone or Liberated Territories is a term used by the Polisario Front to describe the part of Western Sahara that lies to the east of the Moroccan Berm (the Moroccan border wall) and west and north of the borders with Algeria and Mauritania, respectively.

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French Guiana

French Guiana (pronounced or, Guyane), officially called Guiana (Guyane), is an overseas department and region of France, on the north Atlantic coast of South America in the Guyanas.

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French Southern and Antarctic Lands

The French Southern and Antarctic Lands (Terres australes et antarctiques françaises, TAAF) is an overseas territory (Territoire d'outre-mer or TOM) of France.

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Gagauzia

Gagauzia (Gagauziya or Gagauz Yeri; Găgăuzia; Гагаузия, Gagaúzija), formally known as the Autonomous Territorial Unit of Gagauzia (Gagauz Yeri) (Avtonom Territorial Bölümlüü Gagauz Yeri; Unitatea Teritorială Autonomă Găgăuzia; Автономное территориальное образование Гагаузия, Avtonomnoje territoriaľnoje obrazovanije Gagauzija), is an autonomous region of Moldova.

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Gallery of coats of arms of sovereign states

This gallery of sovereign state coats of arms shows the coat of arms, an emblem serving a similar purpose or both (such as greater and lesser coat of arms, national emblem or seal) of each of the countries in the list of countries.

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Gallery of sovereign state flags

This gallery of sovereign state flags shows the flags of sovereign states that appear on the list of sovereign states.

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Galmudug

Galmudug, officially Galmudug State, is an autonomous region in central Somalia.

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Gaza Strip

The Gaza Strip (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p.761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory under the control of the Palestinian National Authority and Hamas, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza...". قطاع غزة), or simply Gaza, is a self-governing Palestinian territory on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, that borders Egypt on the southwest for and Israel on the east and north along a border.

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Gilgit-Baltistan

Gilgit-Baltistan, formerly known as the Northern Areas, is the northernmost administrative territory in Pakistan.

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Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region

The Kuhistani Badakhshan Autonomous Region (Вилояти Мухтори Кӯҳистони Бадахшон, Viloyati Muxtori Köhistoni Badaxshon; also known as Gorno-Badakhshan (after translit) is an autonomous region in eastern Tajikistan. Located in the Pamir Mountains, it makes up 45% of the land area of the country but only 3% of its population.Population of the Republic of Tajikistan as of 1 January 2008, State Statistical Committee, Dushanbe, 2008.

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Government in exile

A government in exile is a political group which claims to be a country or semi-sovereign state's legitimate government, but is unable to exercise legal power and instead resides in another state or foreign country.

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Government of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia

The Government of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia (tr) is an administration recognized by Georgia as the legal and only government of Abkhazia.

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Governorates of Iraq

Iraq consists of 19 governorates (muḥāfażah in Arabic), also known as "provinces".

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Guadeloupe

Guadeloupe (Antillean Creole: Gwadloup) is an insular region of France located in the Leeward Islands, part of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean.

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Guangxi

Guangxi (pronounced; Zhuang: Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, is a Chinese autonomous region in South Central China, bordering Vietnam.

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Heard Island and McDonald Islands

The Territory of Heard Island and McDonald IslandsCIA World Factbook. Accessed 4 January 2009.

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Holy See

The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.

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Howland Island

Howland Island is an uninhabited coral island located just north of the equator in the central Pacific Ocean, about southwest of Honolulu.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Inner Mongolia

Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region or Nei Mongol Autonomous Region (Ѳвѳр Монголын Ѳѳртѳѳ Засах Орон in Mongolian Cyrillic), is one of the autonomous regions of China, located in the north of the country.

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Institute for Security Studies

The Institute for Security Studies, also known as ISS or ISS Africa (to distinguish itself from other similarly named institutes in other parts of the world), described itself as follows: "an African organisation which aims to enhance human security on the continent.

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International Atomic Energy Agency

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.

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International Court of Justice

The International Court of Justice (abbreviated ICJ; commonly referred to as the World Court) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN).

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International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.

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International recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia

Abkhazia and South Ossetia are partially recognised republics in the Caucasus, claiming independence from Georgia.

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International recognition of Israel

The international recognition of Israel refers to the diplomatic recognition of the State of Israel, which was established by the Israeli Declaration of Independence on 14 May 1948.

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International recognition of the State of Palestine

The international recognition of the State of Palestine has been the objective of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) since the Palestinian Declaration of Independence proclaimed the establishment of the State of Palestine on 15 November 1988 in Algiers, Algeria at an extraordinary session in exile of the Palestinian National Council.

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International Telecommunication Union

The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; Union Internationale des Télécommunications (UIT)), originally the International Telegraph Union (Union Télégraphique Internationale), is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies.

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Iraqi Kurdistan

Iraqi Kurdistan, officially called the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (Herêmî Kurdistan) by the Iraqi constitution, is an autonomous region located in northern Iraq.

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Ireland

Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.

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ISO 3166-1

ISO 3166-1 is part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and defines codes for the names of countries, dependent territories, and special areas of geographical interest.

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Israeli disengagement from Gaza

The Israeli disengagement from Gaza (תוכנית ההתנתקות,; in the Disengagement Plan Implementation Law), also known as "Gaza expulsion" and "Hitnatkut", was the withdrawal of the Israeli army from inside the Gaza Strip, and the dismantling of all Israeli settlements in the Gaza Strip in 2005.

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Jakarta

Jakarta, officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta (Daerah Khusus Ibu Kota Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia.

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Jan Mayen

Jan Mayen is a Norwegian volcanic island situated in the Arctic Ocean.

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Jarvis Island

Jarvis Island (formerly known as Bunker Island, or Bunker's Shoal) is an uninhabited coral island located in the South Pacific Ocean at, about halfway between Hawaii and the Cook Islands.

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Jeju Island

Jeju Island (Hangul: 제주도, Jejudo; previously Cheju-do) is the largest island off the coast of the Korean Peninsula, and the main island of Jeju Province of South Korea.

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Jeune Afrique

Jeune Afrique is a French-language pan-African weekly news magazine, founded in 1960 in Tunis and subsequently published in Paris.

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Johnston Atoll

Johnston Atoll, also known as Kalama Atoll to Native Hawaiians, is an unincorporated territory of the United States currently administered by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service.

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Juan Fernández Islands

The Juan Fernández Islands (Archipiélago Juan Fernández) are a sparsely inhabited island group reliant on tourism and fishing in the South Pacific Ocean.

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Karakalpakstan

Karakalpakstan (Qaraqalpaqstan / Қарақалпақстан), officially the Republic of Karakalpakstan (Qaraqalpaqstan Respublikası / Қарақалпақстан Республикасы) is an autonomous republic within Uzbekistan.

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Kashmir

Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.

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Kingdom of the Netherlands

The Kingdom of the Netherlands (Koninkrijk der Nederlanden), commonly known as the Netherlands, is a sovereign state and constitutional monarchy with the large majority of its territory in Western Europe and with several small island territories in the Caribbean Sea, in the West Indies islands (Leeward Islands and Lesser Antilles).

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Kingman Reef

Kingman Reef is a largely submerged, uninhabited triangular shaped reef, east-west and north-south, located in the North Pacific Ocean, roughly halfway between the Hawaiian Islands and American Samoa at.

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Korea

Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.

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Kuomintang

The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.

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League of Nations

The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.

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Legal person

A legal person (in legal contexts often simply person, less ambiguously legal entity) is any human or non-human entity, in other words, any human being, firm, or government agency that is recognized as having privileges and obligations, such as having the ability to enter into contracts, to sue, and to be sued.

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List of active rebel groups

This is a list of active rebel factions around the world whose domains may be subnational, transnational or international.

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List of adjectival and demonymic forms for countries and nations

The following is a list of adjectival and demonymic forms of countries and nations in English and their demonymic equivalents.

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List of administrative divisions by country

The table below indicates the types and, where known, numbers of administrative divisions used by countries and their major dependent territories.

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List of autonomous areas by country

This list of autonomous areas arranged by country gives an overview of autonomous areas of the world.

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List of countries and dependencies and their capitals in native languages

The following chart lists countries and dependencies along with their capital cities, in English as well as any additional official language(s).

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List of countries by national capital, largest and second-largest cities

This is a list of the largest and second-largest cities by population in each country.

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List of country-name etymologies

This list covers English language country names with their etymologies.

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List of international rankings

This is a list of international rankings.

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List of micronations

Micronations, sometimes also referred to as model countries and new country projects, are small, self-proclaimed entities that claim to be independent sovereign states but which are not acknowledged as such by any recognised sovereign state, or by any supranational organization.

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List of shortest-lived sovereign states

This is a list of shortest-lived sovereign states.

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List of sovereign states and dependent territories by continent

This is a list of sovereign states and dependent territories of the world by continent, displayed with their respective national flags and capitals, including the following entities.

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List of sovereign states by date of formation

Below is a list of sovereign states with the dates of their formation (date of their independence or of their constitution), sorted by continent.

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List of specialized agencies of the United Nations

Specialized agencies are autonomous organizations working with the United Nations and each other through the coordinating machinery of the United Nations Economic and Social Council at the intergovernmental level, and through the Chief Executives Board for coordination (CEB) at the inter-secretariat level.

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List of states with limited recognition

A number of polities have declared independence and sought diplomatic recognition from the international community as de jure sovereign states, but have not been universally recognised as such.

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List of territorial disputes

This is a list of territorial disputes over lands around the world, both past and in modern times.

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List of zones of Nepal

Until the establishment of seven new provinces in 2015, Nepal was divided into 14 administrative zones (Nepali: अञ्चल; anchal) and 77 districts (Nepali: जिल्ला; jillā).

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Lists of sovereign states by year

No description.

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Macedonia naming dispute

The Macedonia naming dispute is a political dispute over the use of the name "Macedonia" between the southeastern European countries of Greece and the Republic of Macedonia, formerly a region within Yugoslavia.

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Madeira

Madeira is a Portuguese archipelago situated in the north Atlantic Ocean, southwest of Portugal.

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Mainland China

Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC).

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Martinique

Martinique is an insular region of France located in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean Sea, with a land area of and a population of 385,551 inhabitants as of January 2013.

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Mayotte

Mayotte (Mayotte,; Shimaore: Maore,; Mahori) is an insular department and region of France officially named the Department of Mayotte (French: Département de Mayotte).

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Member states of the United Nations

The United Nations member states are the sovereign states that are members of the United Nations (UN) and have equal representation in the UN General Assembly.

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Micronation

A micronation, sometimes referred to as a model country or new country project, is an entity that claims to be an independent nation or state but is not recognized by world governments or major international organizations.

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Midway Atoll

Midway Atoll (also called Midway Island and Midway Islands; Hawaiian: Pihemanu Kauihelani) is a atoll in the North Pacific Ocean at.

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Minnesota Journal of International Law

The Minnesota Journal of International Law is a biannual law review published by students at the University of Minnesota Law School.

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Monarchy of New Zealand

The monarchy of New Zealand is the constitutional system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign and head of state of New Zealand.

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Montevideo Convention

The Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States is a treaty signed at Montevideo, Uruguay, on December 26, 1933, during the Seventh International Conference of American States.

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Moroccan Western Sahara Wall

The Moroccan Western Sahara Wall is an approximately long structure, mostly a sand wall (or "berm"), running through Western Sahara and the southwestern portion of Morocco.

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Mount Athos

Mount Athos (Άθως, Áthos) is a mountain and peninsula in northeastern Greece and an important centre of Eastern Orthodox monasticism.

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Nagorno-Karabakh

Nagorno-Karabakh, meaning "Mountainous Karabakh," also known as Artsakh, is a landlocked region in the South Caucasus, within the mountainous range of Karabakh, lying between Lower Karabakh and Zangezur, and covering the southeastern range of the Lesser Caucasus mountains.

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Nagorno-Karabakh conflict

The Nagorno-Karabakh conflict is a territorial and ethnic conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan over the disputed region of Nagorno-Karabakh and seven surrounding districts, which are de facto controlled by the self-declared Republic of Artsakh, but are internationally recognized as de jure part of Azerbaijan.

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Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic

The Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic (Naxçıvan Muxtar Respublikası) is a landlocked exclave of the Republic of Azerbaijan.

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Name of Canada

The name of Canada has been in use since the founding of the French colony of Canada in the 16th century.

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Name of the Czech Republic

The Czech Republic's official formal and short names at the United Nations are Česká republika and Česko in Czech, and the Czech Republic and Czechia in English.

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Names of Iceland

There are numerous different names for Iceland, which have over the years appeared in poetry or literature.

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Names of the Irish state

There have been various names for the state that is today officially known as Ireland.

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National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces

The National Coalition for Syrian Revolution and Opposition Forces (الائتلاف الوطني لقوى الثورة والمعارضة السورية), commonly named the Syrian National Coalition (الائتلاف الوطني السوري), is a coalition of opposition groups in the Syrian Civil War that was founded in Doha, Qatar, in November 2012.

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Navassa Island

Navassa Island (l'île de la Navasse; also La Navasse, La Navase) is a small, uninhabited island in the Caribbean Sea.

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Nevis

Nevis is a small island in the Caribbean Sea that forms part of the inner arc of the Leeward Islands chain of the West Indies.

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New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

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New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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New Zealand nationality law

New Zealand nationality law determines who is and who is not a New Zealand citizen.

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Ningxia

Ningxia (pronounced), officially the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China located in the northwest part of the country.

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North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region

The North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region (Región Autónoma de la Costa Caribe Norte), sometimes shortened to RACN, or RACCN (for North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region), or RAAN (for its former name of Región Autónoma del Atlántico Norte), is one of two autonomous regions in Nicaragua.

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North Kosovo

North Kosovo (Северно Косово/Severno Kosovo; Kosova Veriore), also known as the Ibarski Kolašin (Serbian Cyrillic: Ибарски Колашин; Koloshini i Ibrit), is a region in the northern part of Kosovo, composed of four municipalities with ethnic Kosovo Serbs majority: North Mitrovica, Leposavić, Zvečan and Zubin Potok.

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Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.

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One-China policy

"One China policy" is a policy saying that there is only one country of China, despite the fact that there are two governments, China (officially the People's Republic of China) and Taiwan (officially the Republic of China), with the official name of China.

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Organisation of Islamic Cooperation

The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; منظمة التعاون الإسلامي; Organisation de la coopération islamique) is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states, with a collective population of over 1.3 billion as of 2009 with 47 countries being Muslim Majority countries.

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Oslo Accords

The Oslo Accords are a set of agreements between the Government of Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO): the Oslo I Accord, signed in Washington, D.C., in 1993; (DOP), 13 September 1993.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Pakistan

Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.

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Palestine Liberation Organization

The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO; منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية) is an organization founded in 1964 with the purpose of the "liberation of Palestine" through armed struggle, with much of its violence aimed at Israeli civilians.

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Palestinian National Authority

The Palestinian National Authority (PA or PNA; السلطة الوطنية الفلسطينية) is the interim self-government body established in 1994 following the Gaza–Jericho Agreement to govern the Gaza Strip and Areas A and B of the West Bank, as a consequence of the 1993 Oslo Accords.

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Palestinian territories

Palestinian territories and occupied Palestinian territories (OPT or oPt) are terms often used to describe the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) and the Gaza Strip, which are occupied or otherwise under the control of Israel.

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Palmyra Atoll

Palmyra Atoll is one of the Northern Line Islands (southeast of Kingman Reef and north of Kiribati Line Islands), located almost due south of the Hawaiian Islands, roughly one-third of the way between Hawaii and American Samoa.

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Papua (province)

Papua is the largest and easternmost province of Indonesia, comprising most of Western New Guinea.

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Peter I Island

Peter I Island (остров Петра I, Peter I Øy) is an uninhabited volcanic island in the Bellingshausen Sea, from Antarctica.

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Political divisions of the United States

United States, political divisions Political divisions (also referred to as administrative divisions) of the United States are the various recognized governing entities that together form the United States.

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Political status of Taiwan

The controversy regarding the political status of Taiwan, sometimes referred to as the Taiwan Issue or Taiwan Strait Issue, or from a Taiwanese perspective as the Mainland Issue, is a result of the Chinese Civil War and the subsequent split of China into the two present-day self-governing entities of the People's Republic of China (PRC; commonly known as China) and the Republic of China (ROC; commonly known as Taiwan).

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Political status of the Cook Islands and Niue

The political status of the Cook Islands and Niue is formally defined as being states in free association within the Realm of New Zealand, which is made up of the Cook Islands, Niue, New Zealand, and two of its territories: Tokelau and the Ross Dependency.

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Pope

The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.

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Príncipe

Príncipe is the smaller, northern major island of the country of São Tomé and Príncipe lying off the west coast of Africa in the Gulf of Guinea.

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President of France

The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française) is the executive head of state of France in the French Fifth Republic.

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President of Iceland

The President of Iceland (Forseti Íslands) is Iceland's elected head of state.

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Proto-state

A proto-state, also known as a quasi-state, is a political entity that does not represent a fully institutionalized or autonomous sovereign state.

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Provinces and territories of Canada

The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution.

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Provinces of Argentina

Argentina is subdivided into twenty-three provinces (provincias, singular provincia) and one autonomous city (ciudad autónoma), Buenos Aires, which is the federal capital of the nation (Capital Federal) as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system.

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Provinces of Indonesia

The Provinces of Indonesia are the 34 largest subdivisions of the country and the highest tier of the local government (Daerah Tingkat I – level I region).

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Provisional Administration of South Ossetia

The Provisional Administration of South Ossetia (სამხრეთ ოსეთის დროებითი ადმინისტრაცია, Samkhret' Oset'is droebit'i administrats'ia) is an administrative body that Georgia regards as the legal government of South Ossetia.

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Puntland

Puntland (Puntlaand, أرض البنط), officially the Puntland State of Somalia (Dowladda Puntland ee Soomaaliya, بونتلاند دولة الصومال), is a region in northeastern Somalia.

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Queen Maud Land

Queen Maud Land (Dronning Maud Land) is a c. 2.7 million-square-kilometre (1 million sq mi) region of Antarctica claimed as a dependent territory by Norway.

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Réunion

Réunion (La Réunion,; previously Île Bourbon) is an island and region of France in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar and southwest of Mauritius.

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Regions of Ethiopia

Ethiopia is a federal state subdivided into ethno-linguistically based regional states (plural: kililoch; singular: kilil) and chartered cities (plural: astedader akababiwach; singular: astedader akabibi).

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Republic of Artsakh

The Republic of Artsakh (Արցախի Հանրապետություն Arts'akhi Hanrapetut'yun), or simply Artsakh, commonly known by its former name of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic between 1991 and 2017, is a state with limited recognition in the South Caucasus internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan.

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Republic of Crimea

The Republic of Crimea (or; Республика Крым, Respublika Krym, Республіка Крим, Respublika Krym, Къырым Джумхуриети, Qirim Cumhuriyeti) is a federal subject of Russia that is located on the Crimean Peninsula.

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Republic of Dahomey

The Republic of Dahomey (République du Dahomey) was established on December 11, 1958, as a self-governing colony within the French Community.

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Rodrigues

Rodrigues (Île Rodrigues) is a autonomous outer island of the Republic of Mauritius in the Indian Ocean, about east of Mauritius.

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Roman Catholic Diocese of Urgell

The Diocese of Urgell is a Roman Catholic diocese in Spain and Andorra in the historical County of Urgell, Catholic-Hierarchy.org.

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Ross Dependency

The Ross Dependency is a region of Antarctica defined by a sector originating at the South Pole, passing along longitudes 160° east to 150° west, and terminating at latitude 60° south.

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Rotuma

Rotuma is a Fijian dependency, consisting of Rotuma Island and nearby islets.

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Russia

Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Saba

Saba is a Caribbean island which is the smallest special municipality (officially “public body”) of the Netherlands.

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Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic

The Sahrawi Republic, officially the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR; also romanized with Saharawi; República Árabe Saharaui Democrática; الجمهورية العربية الصحراوية الديمقراطية), is a partially recognized state that controls a thin strip of area in the Western Sahara region and claims sovereignty over the entire territory of Western Sahara, a former Spanish colony and later province.

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Saint Barthélemy

Saint Barthélemy, officially the Territorial collectivity of Saint-Barthélemy (Collectivité territoriale de Saint-Barthélemy), called Ouanalao by the indigenous people, is an overseas collectivity of France in the West Indies.

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Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha

Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha is a British Overseas Territory located in the South Atlantic and consisting of the island of Saint Helena, Ascension Island and the archipelago of Tristan da Cunha.

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Saint Kitts

Saint Kitts, also known more formally as Saint Christopher Island, is an island in the West Indies.

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Saint Pierre and Miquelon

Saint Pierre and Miquelon, officially the Overseas Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon (Collectivité d'Outre-mer de Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon), is a self-governing territorial overseas collectivity of France, situated in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean near the Newfoundland and Labrador province of Canada.

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Scotland

Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.

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Serranilla Bank

Serranilla Bank (Isla Serranilla, Banco Serranilla and Placer de la Serranilla) is a partially submerged reef, with small uninhabited islets, in the western Caribbean Sea.

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Sevastopol

Sevastopol (Севастополь; Севасто́поль; Акъяр, Aqyar), traditionally Sebastopol, is the largest city on the Crimean Peninsula and a major Black Sea port.

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Sint Eustatius

Sint Eustatius, also known affectionately to the locals as Statia,Tuchman, Barbara W. The First Salute: A View of the American Revolution New York: Ballantine Books, 1988.

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Somaliland

Somaliland (Somaliland; صوماليلاند, rtl), officially the Republic of Somaliland (Jamhuuriyadda Somaliland, جمهورية صوماليلاند Jumhūrīyat Ṣūmālīlānd), is a self-declared state internationally recognised as an autonomous region of Somalia.

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South Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region

South Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region (Región Autónoma de la Costa Caribe Sur), sometimes shortened to RACS, RACCS, or RAAS (for its former name of Región Autónoma del Atlántico Sur), is one of two autonomous regions in Nicaragua.

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South Ossetia

South Ossetia or Tskhinvali Region, is a disputed territory in the South Caucasus, in the northern part of the internationally recognised Georgian territory.

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Southern Provinces

The Southern Provinces or Moroccan Sahara are the terms used by the Moroccan government for Western Sahara.

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Sovereign Military Order of Malta

The Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta (Supremus Ordo Militaris Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani Rhodius et Melitensis), also known as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM) or the Order of Malta, is a Catholic lay religious order traditionally of military, chivalrous and noble nature.

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Sovereign state

A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.

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Sovereignty

Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.

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Special administrative regions of China

The special administrative regions (SAR) are one type of provincial-level administrative divisions of China directly under Central People's Government, which enjoys the highest degree of autonomy, and no or less interference by either Central Government or the Communist Party of China.

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Special Region of Yogyakarta

The Special Administrative Region of Yogyakarta (occasionally pronounced or; Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY), or simply Yogyakarta) is a region of Republic of Indonesia in the middle of Java.

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Spratly Islands

The Spratly Islands (南沙群岛 (Nánshā Qúndǎo), Kepulauan Spratly, Kapuluan ng Kalayaan, Quần đảo Trường Sa) are a disputed group of islands, islets and cays and more than 100 reefs, sometimes grouped in submerged old atolls, in the South China Sea.

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Stateless society

A stateless society is a society that is not governed by a state, or, especially in common American English, has no government.

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States and federal territories of Malaysia

The states and federal territories of Malaysia are the principal administrative divisions of Malaysia.

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States and territories of Australia

Australia (officially known as the Commonwealth of Australia) is a federation of six states, together with ten federal territories.

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States and union territories of India

India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities.

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States of Austria

Austria is a federal republic made up of nine states, known in German as Länder.

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States of Brazil

The Federative Republic of Brazil is a union of 27 Federative Units (Unidades Federativas, UF): 26 states (estados) and one federal district (distrito federal), where the federal capital, Brasília, is located.

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States of Germany

Germany is a federal republic consisting of sixteen states (Land, plural Länder; informally and very commonly Bundesland, plural Bundesländer).

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States of Nigeria

A Nigerian State is a federated political entity, which shares sovereignty with the Federal Government of Nigeria, There are 36 States in Nigeria, which are bound together by a federal agreement.

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States of South Sudan

The States of South Sudan were created out of the three historic former provinces (and contemporary regions) of Bahr el Ghazal (northwest), Equatoria (southern), and Greater Upper Nile (northeast).

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States of Sudan

Below is a list of the 18 states of Sudan, organized by their original provinces during the period of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.

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States of Venezuela

Venezuela is a federation made up of twenty-three states (estados), a Capital District (Distrito Capital) and the Federal Dependencies (Dependencias Federales), which consist of a large number of islands and islets on the Caribbean Sea.

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Supranational union

A supranational union is a type of multinational political union where negotiated power is delegated to an authority by governments of member states.

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Svalbard

Svalbard (prior to 1925 known by its Dutch name Spitsbergen, still the name of its largest island) is a Norwegian archipelago in the Arctic Ocean.

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Svalbard Treaty

The Svalbard Treaty (originally the Spitsbergen Treaty) recognises the sovereignty of Norway over the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard, at the time called Spitsbergen.

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Syrian Civil War

The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations.

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Syrian Interim Government

The Syrian Interim Government is an alternative government of the Syrian Opposition, which has been formed by the opposition umbrella group, the National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces.

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Taipei

Taipei, officially known as Taipei City, is the capital and a special municipality of Taiwan (officially known as the Republic of China, "ROC").

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Taipei Times

The Taipei Times is the only printed daily English-language newspaper in Taiwan and the third to be established in the nation.

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Taiwan

Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.

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Taiwan independence movement

The Taiwan independence movement is a political movement to pursue formal independence of Taiwan, Goals for independence have arisen from international law in relation to the 1952 Treaty of San Francisco.

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Taiwan Province, People's Republic of China

The People's Republic of China (PRC) claims the island of Taiwan to be part its territory under its Constitution as the Taiwan Province.

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Terra nullius

Terra nullius (plural terrae nullius) is a Latin expression meaning "nobody's land", and is a principle sometimes used in international law to describe territory that may be acquired by a state's occupation of it.

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The Africa Report

The Africa Report is an English-language monthly magazine that focuses on African politics and economics.

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Tibet Autonomous Region

The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) or Xizang Autonomous Region, called Tibet or Xizang for short, is a province-level autonomous region of the People's Republic of China (PRC).

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Tindouf

Tindouf (Berber: Tinduf, تندوف) is the main town, and a commune in Tindouf Province, Algeria, close to the Mauritanian, Western Saharan and Moroccan borders.The commune has population of around 160,000 but the census and population estimates do not count the Sahrawi refugees making the population as of the 2008 census 45,966, up from 25,266 in 1998, and an annual population growth rate of 6.3%.

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Tobago

Tobago is an autonomous island within the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago.

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Transnistria

Transnistria, the self-proclaimed Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR; Приднестровская Молдавская Республика, ПМР; Republica Moldovenească Nistreană, RMN; Република Молдовеняскэ Нистрянэ; Придністровська Молдавська Республіка), and also called Transdniester, Trans-Dniestr, Transdniestria, or Pridnestrovie, is a non-recognized state which controls part of the geographical region Transnistria (the area between the Dniester river and Ukraine) and also the city of Bender and its surrounding localities on the west bank.

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Transnistria autonomous territorial unit

Transnistria autonomous territorial unit, officially The Administrative-Territorial Units of the Left Bank of the Dniester (Unitățile Administrativ-Teritoriale din stînga Nistrului (Transnistria); Административно-территориальные единицы левобережья Днестра (Приднестровья); Автономне територіальне утворення з особливим правовим статусом Придністров'я) is a formal administrative unit of Moldova established by the Government of Moldova to delineate the territory controlled by the unrecognized Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.

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Treaty of Paris (1856)

The Treaty of Paris of 1856 settled the Crimean War between the Russian Empire and an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, the British Empire, the Second French Empire and the Kingdom of Sardinia.

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Turkey

Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Uncontacted peoples

Uncontacted people, also referred to as isolated people or lost tribes, are communities who live, or have lived, either by choice (people living in voluntary isolation) or by circumstance, without significant contact with modern civilization.

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Unincorporated area

In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land that is not governed by a local municipal corporation; similarly an unincorporated community is a settlement that is not governed by its own local municipal corporation, but rather is administered as part of larger administrative divisions, such as a township, parish, borough, county, city, canton, state, province or country.

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Union State

The Union State (p; Саюзная дзяржава), also referred to as the Union State of Russia and Belarus (p; Саюзная дзяржава Расіі і Беларусі), is a supranational union consisting of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United Nations General Assembly observers

In addition to its UNnum member states, the United Nations General Assembly may grant observer status to an international organization, entity or non-member state, which entitles the entity to participate in the work of the United Nations General Assembly, though with limitations.

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United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo

The United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) is the officially mandated mission of the United Nations in Kosovo.

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United Nations Security Council

The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.

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United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244

United Nations Security Council resolution 1244, adopted on 10 June 1999, after recalling resolutions 1160 (1998), 1199 (1998), 1203 (1998) and 1239 (1999), authorised an international civil and military presence in Kosovo (which was part of called "Federal Republic of Yugoslavia"): "Serbia - date of admission 1 November 2000, The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was admitted as a Member of the United Nations by General Assembly resolution A/RES/55/12 of 1 November 2000.

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United Nations System

The United Nations System consists of the United Nations, and the six principal organs of the United Nations: the General Assembly, Security Council, Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), Trusteeship Council, International Court of Justice (ICJ), and the UN Secretariat, specialized agencies, and affiliated organizations.

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Universal Postal Union

The Universal Postal Union (UPU, Union postale universelle), established by the Treaty of Bern of 1874, is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that coordinates postal policies among member nations, in addition to the worldwide postal system.

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University of Minnesota Law School

The University of Minnesota Law School is the law school of the University of Minnesota, located in Minneapolis, Minnesota.

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Valparaíso Region

The Valparaíso Region is one of Chile's 15 first order administrative divisions.

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Vojvodina

Vojvodina (Serbian and Croatian: Vojvodina; Војводина; Pannonian Rusyn: Войводина; Vajdaság; Slovak and Czech: Vojvodina; Voivodina), officially the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (Аутономна Покрајина Војводина / Autonomna Pokrajina Vojvodina; see Names in other languages), is an autonomous province of Serbia, located in the northern part of the country, in the Pannonian Plain.

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Wake Island

Wake Island (also known as Wake Atoll) is a coral atoll in the western Pacific Ocean in the northeastern area of the Micronesia subregion, east of Guam, west of Honolulu and southeast of Tokyo.

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Wales

Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.

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Wallis and Futuna

Wallis and Futuna, officially the Territory of the Wallis and Futuna Islands (Wallis-et-Futuna or Territoire des îles Wallis-et-Futuna, Fakauvea and Fakafutuna: Uvea mo Futuna), is a French island collectivity in the South Pacific between Tuvalu to the northwest, Fiji to the southwest, Tonga to the southeast, Samoa to the east, and Tokelau to the northeast.

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West Bank

The West Bank (الضفة الغربية; הגדה המערבית, HaGadah HaMa'aravit) is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of Western Asia, the bulk of it now under Israeli control, or else under joint Israeli-Palestinian Authority control.

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West Bank Areas in the Oslo II Accord

The Oslo II Accord divided the West Bank into three administrative divisions: Areas A, B and C. The distinct areas were given different statuses, according to their governance pending a final status accord: Area A is exclusively administered by the Palestinian Authority; Area B is administered by both the Palestinian Authority and Israel; and Area C, which contains the Israeli settlements, is administered by Israel.

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West Papua (province)

West Papua (Papua Barat) is a province of Indonesia.

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Western Sahara

Western Sahara (الصحراء الغربية, Taneẓroft Tutrimt, Spanish and French: Sahara Occidental) is a disputed territory in the Maghreb region of North Africa, partially controlled by the self-proclaimed Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic and partially Moroccan-occupied, bordered by Morocco proper to the north, Algeria to the northeast, Mauritania to the east and south, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west.

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Withdrawal of Greenland from the European Communities

The withdrawal of Greenland from the European Communities took place in 1985.

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World

The world is the planet Earth and all life upon it, including human civilization.

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World Bank Group

The World Bank Group (WBG) (Groupe de la Banque mondiale) is a family of five international organizations that make leveraged loans to developing countries.

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World Intellectual Property Organization

The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is one of the 15 specialized agencies of the United Nations (UN).

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World Trade Organization

The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.

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Xinjiang

Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.

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Yale Journal of International Affairs

The Yale Journal of International Affairs is an international affairs policy journal based out of Yale University (New Haven, CT).

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Zaire

Zaire, officially the Republic of Zaire (République du Zaïre), was the name for the Democratic Republic of the Congo that existed between 1971 and 1997 in Central Africa.

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Zanzibar

Zanzibar is a semi-autonomous region of Tanzania.

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2008 Kosovo declaration of independence

The 2008 Kosovo declaration of independence was adopted on 17 February 2008 by the Assembly of Kosovo.

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2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

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2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sovereign_states

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