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Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, and St George's Channel. [1]

857 relations: A Modest Proposal, Abbey Theatre, Achill Island, Act of Settlement 1701, Acts of Union 1800, Adam Smith, Africa, Alcohol, Algae, Alice Maher, All-Ireland, All-Ireland Senior Football Championship, All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship, Almagest, American whiskey, Americanization, Ancient Rome, Angevin Empire, Anglicanism, Anglicisation, Angling, Anglo-Irish Trade War, Anglo-Irish Treaty, Anglo-Norman, Anjou, Apex predator, Aran Islands, Arecaceae, Armagh, Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, Ashford Castle, Asian people, Association football, Atlantic Bronze Age, Atlantic Ocean, Attacotti, Éamon de Valera, Éile, Éire, Údarás na Gaeltachta, Bacon, Bacon and cabbage, Badger, Baileys Irish Cream, Ballyclare, Ballylumford power station, Bannow, Bantry Bay, Bantry House, Barley, ..., Barn swallow, Basketball, BBC News, BBC Sport, Belfast, Belfast Blitz, Belgae, Bell's theorem, Billy Roche, Biomass, Birch, Blaa, Black 47, Black Death, Black people, Black pudding, 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County Tipperary, County Waterford, County Westmeath, County Wexford, County Wicklow, Craigavon, Cricket, Croaghaun, Croke Park, Cromwellian conquest of Ireland, Crop, Cruthin, Culling, Culture of Europe, Culture of Ireland, Cyanobacteria, Czech Republic, Dance, Daniel O'Connell, Darren Clarke, Dartraighe, Dáibhí Ó Cróinín, Dáil Éireann, Dáirine, Dál Riata, Déisi, Deer of Ireland, Deirgtine, Delbhna, Derry, Derval O'Rourke, Diarmait Mac Murchada, Dingle Peninsula, Direct rule, Discrimination, Dissenter, Dolphin, Donegal Bay, Drisheen, Drogheda, Dromoland Castle, Druid, Dry stone, Dublin, Dublin Castle, Dublin-Belfast corridor, Dundalk, Dungarvan, Earless seal, Early Irish law, Early Irish literature, Early Middle Ages, Earth, Easter Rising, Eastern Europe, Eóganachta, Economies of scale, Ecoregion, Edgeworth box, Edward Carson, Edward VIII abdication crisis, EirGrid, Electrical grid, Electricity, Electron, Elizabeth II, Endemic warfare, England and Wales, English country house, English 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Ireland, High-voltage direct current, Hill of Tara, Historiography of the fall of the Western Roman Empire, History of Anglo-Saxon England, History of the Jews in Ireland, Hockey, Holy Cross Abbey, Home Nations, Horse racing, Horslips, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, Human Development Index, Hurling, Hydrocarbon exploration, IAAF World Championships in Athletics, Iberian Peninsula, Iceland, Illuminated manuscript, Immigration, Immigration to the United States, Independent International Commission on Decommissioning, Independent scientist, Induction coil, Industrial Revolution, Interlace (art), Internal market, InterTradeIreland, Intrusion, Iona, Ireland and World War I, Ireland national rugby union team, Irish Amateur Boxing Association, Irish Citizen Army, Irish Civil War, Irish coffee, Irish cream, Irish Cup, Irish diaspora, Irish elk, Irish Examiner, Irish Famine (1740–41), Irish Football Association, Irish Free State, Irish general election, 1918, Irish Home Rule movement, 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Yeats, Wales, Wars of the Three Kingdoms, Waterford, Waterways Ireland, Wave equation, Wayne McCullough, Weather station, Weaving, Welsh people, West Indies, West Region, Ireland, Western culture, Western European Summer Time, Wexford, Whale, Wheat, Wheel, Whisky, White meat, White people, William III of England, William Orpen, William Pitt the Younger, William Rowan Hamilton, William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, Williamite War in Ireland, Wind farm, Wind power, Wind turbine, Winter of 2009–10 in Europe, Wolves in Ireland, World Heritage Site, World War I, Wreck diving, .ie, 11th meridian west, 1958 FIFA World Cup, 1969 Northern Ireland riots, 1982 FIFA World Cup, 1986 FIFA World Cup, 1990 FIFA World Cup, 1991 Rugby World Cup, 1992 Summer Olympics, 1994 FIFA World Cup, 1998–99 Heineken Cup, 1999 Rugby World Cup, 2000 Summer Olympics, 2002 FIFA World Cup, 2003 European heat wave, 2005–06 Heineken Cup, 2006 Ryder Cup, 2007–08 Heineken Cup, 2008–09 Heineken Cup, 2010 Commonwealth Games, 2010 European Amateur Boxing Championships, 2010–11 Heineken Cup, 2011 Open Championship, 2011–12 Heineken Cup, 51st parallel north, 56th parallel north, 5th meridian west. Expand index (807 more) »

A Modest Proposal

A Modest Proposal for Preventing the Children of Poor People From Being a Burthen to Their Parents or Country, and for Making Them Beneficial to the Publick, commonly referred to as A Modest Proposal, is a Juvenalian satirical essay written and published anonymously by Jonathan Swift in 1729.

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Abbey Theatre

The Abbey Theatre (Amharclann na Mainistreach), also known as the National Theatre of Ireland (Amharclann Náisiúnta na hÉireann), in Dublin, Republic of Ireland, first opened its doors to the public on 27 December 1904.

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Achill Island

Achill Island (Acaill, Oileán Acla) in County Mayo is the largest island off the coast of Ireland, and is situated off the west coast.

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Act of Settlement 1701

The Act of Settlement is an Act of the Parliament of England that was passed in 1701 to settle the succession to the English and Irish crowns and thrones on the Electress Sophia of Hanover (a granddaughter of James VI of Scotland and I of England) and her non-Roman Catholic heirs.

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Acts of Union 1800

The Acts of Union 1800 (sometimes falsely referred to as a single Act of Union 1801) united the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland (previously in personal union) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland with effect from 1 January 1801.

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Adam Smith

Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish moral philosopher, pioneer of political economy, and a key figure in the Scottish Enlightenment.

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Africa

Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent.

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Alcohol

In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a saturated carbon atom.

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Algae

Algae (or; singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of eukaryotes that are not necessarily closely related and are thus polyphyletic.

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Alice Maher

Alice Maher (born 1956) born at Kilmoyler, near Bansha, County Tipperary, Ireland, is a noted artist who uses a wide variety of media including sculpture, photography and installation.

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All-Ireland

All-Ireland is an attributive which emphasises the island of Ireland.

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All-Ireland Senior Football Championship

The All-Ireland Senior Football Championship (SFC), the premier competition in Gaelic football, is an annual series of games usually played in Ireland during the summer and early autumn, and organised by the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA).

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All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship

The All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship, the premier competition in hurling, is an annual series of games played in Ireland during the summer and early autumn, and organised by the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA).

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Almagest

The Almagest is a 2nd-century mathematical and astronomical treatise on the apparent motions of the stars and planetary paths.

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American whiskey

American whiskey is a distilled beverage produced in the United States from a fermented mash of cereal grain.

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Americanization

In countries outside of the United States, americanization or americanisation is the influence American culture has on the culture of other countries, such as their popular culture, media, cuisine, technology, business practices, or political techniques.

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Ancient Rome

Ancient Rome was an Italic civilization that began on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC.

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Angevin Empire

The term Angevin Empire (French: L'Empire Plantagenêt) is a modern term describing the collection of states once ruled by the Angevins of the House of Plantagenet.

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Anglicanism

Anglicanism is a tradition within Christianity comprising the Church of England and churches which are historically tied to it or hold similar beliefs, worship practices and church structures.

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Anglicisation

Anglicisation or anglicization, also Englishing, is the process of converting anything to more "English" norms.

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Angling

Angling is a method of fishing by means of an "angle" (fish hook).

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Anglo-Irish Trade War

The Anglo-Irish Trade War (also called the Economic War) was a retaliatory trade war between the Irish Free State and the United Kingdom from 1932 to 1938.

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Anglo-Irish Treaty

The Anglo-Irish Treaty (An Conradh Angla-Éireannach), commonly known as The Treaty and officially the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was an agreement between the government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Irish representatives that concluded the Irish War of Independence.

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Anglo-Norman

The Anglo-Normans were mainly the descendants of the Normans who ruled England following the Norman conquest by William the Conqueror in 1066.

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Anjou

Anjou (Andegavia) is a former French county (in that it was ruled by a count, from), duchy (1360), and province.

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Apex predator

An apex predator, also known as an alpha predator, super predator, top predator or top-level predator, is a predator residing at the top of a food chain on which no other creatures predate.

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Aran Islands

The Aran Islands (Oileáin Árann—pronunciation) or The Arans (na hÁrainneacha—) are a group of three islands located at the mouth of Galway Bay, on the west coast of Ireland.

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Arecaceae

The Arecaceae are a botanical family of perennial lianas, shrubs and trees commonly known as palm trees.

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Armagh

Armagh is the county town of County Armagh in Northern Ireland, as well as a civil parish.

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Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington

Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington (1 May 1769 – 14 September 1852), was a soldier and statesman, and one of the leading military and political figures of 19th-century Britain.

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Ashford Castle

Ashford Castle is a medieval castle that has been expanded over the centuries and turned into a five star luxury hotel near Cong on the Mayo-Galway border, on the shore of Lough Corrib in Ireland.

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Asian people

Asian people or Asiatic peopleUnited States National Library of Medicine.

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Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.

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Atlantic Bronze Age

The Atlantic Bronze Age is a cultural complex of the Bronze Age period of approximately 1300–700 BC that includes different cultures in Portugal, Andalusia, Galicia, Armorica and the British Isles.

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Atlantic Ocean

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceanic divisions, following the Pacific Ocean.

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Attacotti

The Attacotti (Atticoti, Attacoti, Atecotti, Atticotti, Atecutti, etc. variously spelled) were a people who despoiled Roman Britain between 364 and 368, along with Scotti, Picts, Saxons, Roman military deserters, and the indigenous Britons themselves.

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Éamon de Valera

Éamon de Valera (born George de Valero; 14 October 1882 – 29 August 1975) was one of the dominant political figures in twentieth century Ireland.

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Éile

Éile (Éle, Éli, commonly anglicised as Ely), was a medieval petty kingdom in northern Munster, Ireland.

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Éire

Éire (/e:rə/) is Irish for "Ireland", the name of an island and a sovereign state.

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Údarás na Gaeltachta

Údarás na Gaeltachta (meaning "Gaeltacht Authority"; abbreviated ÚnaG), is a regional state agency which is responsible for the economic, social and cultural development of nominally Irish-speaking (Gaeltacht) regions of Ireland.

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Bacon

Bacon is a meat product prepared from a pig and usually cured.

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Bacon and cabbage

Bacon and cabbage is a dish traditionally associated with Ireland.

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Badger

Badgers are short-legged omnivores in the family Mustelidae which also includes the otters, polecats, weasels and wolverines.

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Baileys Irish Cream

Baileys Irish Cream is an Irish whiskey and cream based liqueur, made by Gilbeys of Ireland.

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Ballyclare

Ballyclare (historically Bellaclare) is a small town in County Antrim, Northern Ireland.

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Ballylumford power station

Ballylumford power station is a natural gas-fired power station in County Antrim, Northern Ireland, UK.

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Bannow

Bannow (Yola: Baannough) is a civil parish lying east of Bannow Bay on the south-west coast of County Wexford, Ireland.

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Bantry Bay

Bantry Bay (Cuan Baoi / Inbhear na mBárc / Bádh Bheanntraighe) is a bay located in County Cork, Ireland.

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Bantry House

Bantry House is a historic house with gardens in Bantry, County Cork, Ireland.

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Barley

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain.

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Barn swallow

The barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) is the most widespread species of swallow in the world.

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Basketball

Basketball is a sport played by two teams of five players on a rectangular court.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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BBC Sport

BBC Sport is a department of the BBC North division providing national sports coverage for BBC Television, radio and online.

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Belfast

Belfast is the capital and largest city of Northern Ireland (United Kingdom).

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Belfast Blitz

The Belfast Blitz was four attacks of high-casualty German air raids on strategic targets in the city of Belfast in Northern Ireland.

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Belgae

The Belgae were a large confederation of tribes living in northern Gaul, between the English Channel and the west bank of the Rhine, from at least the third century BC.

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Bell's theorem

Bell's theorem is a ‘no-go theorem’ that draws an important distinction between quantum mechanics (QM) and the world as described by classical mechanics.

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Billy Roche

Billy Roche (born 11 January 1949) is an Irish playwright and actor.

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Biomass

Biomass is biological material derived from living, or recently living organisms.

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Birch

Birch is a thinleaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, which also includes alders, hazels, and hornbeams, and is closely related to the beech/oak family, Fagaceae.

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Blaa

A blaa is a doughy, white bread bun (roll) speciality; particularly associated with Waterford, Ireland.

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Black 47

Black 47 are a New York City based celtic rock band with Irish Republican sympathies, whose music also shows influence from reggae, hip hop, folk and jazz.

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Black Death

The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people and peaking in Europe in the years 1346–53.

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Black people

Black people is a term used in certain countries, often in socially based systems of racial classification or of ethnicity, to describe persons who are perceived to be dark-skinned compared to other given populations.

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Black pudding

Black pudding (blodpudding, verivorst, mustamakkara, boudin noir, morcilla and morcela) is a type of blood sausage commonly eaten in England, Scotland, France, Slovenia, Italy, Finland, Croatia, Hungary, Poland, Ireland, Sweden, Estonia, Spain, Portugal, Latvia and Lithuania.

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Blarney Castle

Blarney Castle (Irish: Caisleán na Blarnan) is a medieval stronghold in Blarney, near Cork, Ireland, and the River Martin.

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Bloomsday

Bloomsday is a commemoration and celebration of the life of Irish writer James Joyce during which the events of his novel Ulysses (which is set on 16 June 1904) are relived.

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Blue Flag beach

The Blue Flag is a certification by the Foundation for Environmental Education (FEE) that a beach or marina meets its stringent standards.

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Bog

A bog is a mire that accumulates peat, a deposit of dead plant material—often mosses, and in a majority of cases, sphagnum moss.

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Book of Kells

The Book of Kells (Leabhar Cheanannais) (Dublin, Trinity College Library, MS A. I. (58), sometimes known as the Book of Columba) is an illuminated manuscript Gospel book in Latin, containing the four Gospels of the New Testament together with various prefatory texts and tables.

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Bord Gáis Energy

Bord Gáis Energy is a utility that supplies gas and electricity and boiler services to customers in the Republic of Ireland.

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Border Region

The Border Region is a NUTS Level III region of Ireland and is governed by the Border Regional Authority.

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Boreal Kingdom

The Boreal Kingdom or Holarctic Kingdom (Holarctis) is a floristic kingdom identified by botanist Ronald Good (and later by Armen Takhtajan), which includes the temperate to Arctic portions of North America and Eurasia.

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Boxing

Boxing is a martial art and combat sport in which two people throw punches at each other, usually with gloved hands.

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Boxty

Boxty (bacstaí in Irish) is a traditional Irish potato pancake.

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Boyle's law

Boyle's law (sometimes referred to as the Boyle–Mariotte law, or Mariotte's law) is an experimental gas law which describes how the pressure of a gas tends to decrease as the volume of a gas increases.

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Brú na Bóinne

Brú na Bóinne (Palace of the Boyne) is a World Heritage Site in County Meath, Ireland and is the largest and one of the most important complex of Megalithic sites in Europe, dating to the Neolithic period.

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Breakfast roll

The breakfast roll is a bread roll filled with elements of a traditional fry, designed to be eaten on the way to school or work.

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Brian Friel

Brian Friel (born Bernard Patrick Friel; 9 January 1929 – 2 October 2015) was an Irish dramatist, author and director of the Field Day Theatre Company.

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Brigit of Kildare

Saint Brigit of Kildare or Brigid of Ireland (Naomh Bríd; 525) is one of Ireland's patron saints, along with Patrick and Columba.

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British Army

The British Army is the United Kingdom's principal land warfare force.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom.

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British Isles

The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland and over six thousand smaller isles.

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British Isles naming dispute

In standard English usage, the toponym "the British Isles" refers to a European archipelago consisting of Great Britain, Ireland and adjacent islands.

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British–Irish Intergovernmental Conference

The British–Irish Intergovernmental Conference (BIIGC) was established under an Agreement between the Governments of Ireland and the United Kingdom made on 8 March 1998.

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Brittany

Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the north-west of France.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a time period characterized by the use of bronze, proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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Brooch

A brooch is a decorative jewellery item designed to be attached to garments, often to hold them closed.

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Brown algae

The Phaeophyceae or brown algae (singular: alga), is a large group of mostly marine multicellular algae, including many seaweeds of colder Northern Hemisphere waters.

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Bundoran

Bundoran is a town in County Donegal, Ireland.

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Bunratty Castle

Bunratty Castle is a large 15th-century tower house in County Clare, Ireland.

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Butler dynasty

The Butler dynasty refers to the several branches of the Butler family (de Buitléir) that has its origins in the Cambro-Norman family that participated in the Norman invasion of Ireland in the 12th century.

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Cabbage

Cabbage (Brassica oleracea or variants) is a leafy green or purple biennial plant, grown as an annual vegetable crop for its dense-leaved heads.

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Caledonian orogeny

The Caledonian orogeny was a mountain building era recorded in the northern parts of Ireland and Britain, the Scandinavian Mountains, Svalbard, eastern Greenland and parts of north-central Europe.

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Canadian whisky

Canadian whisky is a type of whisky produced in Canada.

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Carnoustie

Carnoustie is a town and former police burgh in the council area of Angus, Scotland.

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Carrauntoohil

Carrauntoohil is the highest peak on the island of Ireland.

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Carroll & Graf Publishers

Carroll & Graf Publishers, an American publishing company, based in New York City, New York, was an imprint of the Avalon Publishing Group.

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Castle Leslie

Castle Leslie Estate, home to an Irish branch of Clan Leslie and located on the 4 km², Castle Leslie is both the name of a historic Country House and 1,000-acre Estate adjacent to the village of Glaslough, north-east of Monaghan town in County Monaghan, Ireland.

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Castle Ward

Castle Ward is an 18th-century National Trust property located near the village of Strangford, in County Down, Northern Ireland, in the townland of the same name.

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Castletown House

Castletown House, Celbridge, County Kildare, Ireland, is a Palladian country house built in 1722 for William Conolly, the Speaker of the Irish House of Commons.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is, the largest Christian church, with more than 1.25 billion members worldwide.

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Catholic emancipation

Catholic emancipation or Catholic relief was a process in the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in the late 18th century and early 19th century that involved reducing and removing many of the restrictions on Roman Catholics introduced by the Act of Uniformity, the Test Acts and the penal laws.

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Cálraighe

The Cálraighe were a population-group found mostly in northern Connacht as well as County Westmeath and County Longford.

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Céide Fields

The Céide Fields is an archaeological site on the north County Mayo coast in the west of the Republic of Ireland, about 8 kilometres northwest of Ballycastle.

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Cíarraige

The Ciarraige were a population-group recorded in the early historic era in Ireland.

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Celtic Christianity

Celtic Christianity or Insular Christianity refers broadly to certain features of Christianity that were practiced across the Celtic-speaking world during the Early Middle Ages.

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Celtic harp

The Celtic harp is a triangular harp traditional to Brittany, Ireland, Scotland and Wales.

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Celtic knot

Celtic knots are a variety of knots and stylized graphical representations of knots used for decoration, used extensively in the Celtic style of Insular art.

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Celtic languages

The Celtic languages (usually pronounced but sometimes) are descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.

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Celtic nations

The Celtic nations are territories in Northern and Western Europe where Celtic languages or cultural traits have survived.

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Celtic Sea

The Celtic Sea (An Mhuir Cheilteach; Y Môr Celtaidd; An Mor Keltek; Ar Mor Keltiek; La mer Celtique) is the area of the Atlantic Ocean off the south coast of Ireland bounded to the east by Saint George's Channel; other limits include the Bristol Channel, the English Channel, and the Bay of Biscay, as well as adjacent portions of Wales, Cornwall, Devon, and Brittany.

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Celtic Tiger

"Celtic Tiger" (An Tíogar Ceilteach) is a term referring to the economy of the Republic of Ireland from the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s, a period of rapid real economic growth fuelled by foreign direct investment, and a subsequent property bubble which rendered the real economy uncompetitive.

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Celts

The Celts (occasionally, see pronunciation of ''Celtic'') were people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.

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Central Europe

Central Europe (archaically "Middle Europe") is a region lying between the variously defined areas of the Eastern and Western parts of the European continent.

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Central Statistics Office (Ireland)

The Central Statistics Office (CSO) (An Phríomh-Oifig Staidrimh) is the statistical agency responsible for the gathering of "information relating to economic, social and general activities and conditions" in Ireland, in particular the National Census which is held every five years.

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Charles Stewart Parnell

Charles Stewart Parnell (Cathal Stiúbhard Pharnell; 27 June 1846 – 6 October 1891) was an Irish landlord, nationalist political leader, land reform agitator, and the founder and leader of the Irish Parliamentary Party.

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Chiral anomaly

In physics, a chiral anomaly is the anomalous nonconservation of a chiral current.

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Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin

Christ Church Cathedral (or, more formally, The Cathedral of the Holy Trinity) is the cathedral of the United Dioceses of Dublin and Glendalough and the cathedral of the Ecclesiastical province of the United Provinces of Dublin and Cashel in the Church of Ireland.

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Christianity

ChristianityFrom the Ancient Greek word Χριστός, Christos, a translation of the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", together with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Christianization

Christianization (or Christianisation) is the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire groups at once.

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Christy Moore

Christopher Andrew "Christy" Moore (born 7 May 1945) is an Irish folk singer, songwriter and guitarist.

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Chronicle of Ireland

The Chronicle of Ireland is the modern name for a hypothesized collection of ecclesiastical annals recording events in Ireland from 432 to 911 AD.

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Church of Ireland

The Church of Ireland (Eaglais na hÉireann) is a Christian church in Ireland and an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion.

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Ciannachta

The Ciannachta were a population group of early historic Ireland.

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Cider

Cider is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of apples.

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Circumboreal Region

The Circumboreal Region is a floristic region within the Holarctic Kingdom in Eurasia and North America, as delineated by such geobotanists as Josias Braun-Blanquet and Armen Takhtajan.

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Civil and political rights

Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations and private individuals, and which ensure one's ability to participate in the civil and political life of the society and state without discrimination or repression.

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Clannad

Clannad are an Irish band formed in 1970 in Gweedore, County Donegal.

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Cliffs of Moher

The Cliffs of Moher are located at the southwestern edge of the Burren region in County Clare, Ireland.

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Cliftonville F.C.

Cliftonville Football & Athletic Club (the Reds) is a Northern Irish semi-professional association football club playing in the NIFL Premiership.

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Clonmacnoise

The monastery of Clonmacnoise (Cluain Mhic Nóis in Irish, meaning "Meadow of the Sons of Nós", or perhaps, albeit less likely, Cluain Muccu Nóis "Meadow of the Pigs of Nós") is situated in County Offaly, Ireland on the River Shannon south of Athlone.

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Coarse fishing

Coarse fishing is a term used in the United Kingdom and Ireland for angling for coarse fish.

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Cocktail

When used to refer to any generic alcoholic mixed drink, cocktail may mean any beverage that contains three or more ingredients if at least one of them contains alcohol.

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Coddle

Coddle (sometimes Dublin coddle) is an Irish dish which is often made to use up leftovers, and therefore without a specific recipe.

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Codium fragile

Codium fragile, known commonly as green sea fingers, dead man's fingers, felty fingers, Intertidal Organisms EZ ID Guides.

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Coillte

Coillte (meaning "Forests"/"Woods") is a state-sponsored company in Ireland, based in Newtownmountkennedy.

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Colcannon

Colcannon is a traditional Irish dish mainly consisting of mashed potatoes with kale or cabbage.

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Colpomenia peregrina

Colpomenia peregrina, sometimes referred to by its vernacular names Oyster Thief and Bladder Weed, is a brown seaweed not native to the British Isles, but recorded in Ireland since 1934.

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Columba

Saint Columba (Colm Cille, 'church dove'; 7 December 521 – 9 June 597) was an Irish abbot and missionary credited with spreading Christianity in what is today Scotland at the start of the Hiberno-Scottish mission.

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Commission for Energy Regulation

The Commission for Energy Regulation-An Coimisiún um Rialáil Fuinnimh (CER) is Ireland's independent energy regulator.

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Commissioners of Irish Lights

The Commissioners of Irish Lights (CIL) (Irish: Coimisinéirí Soilse na hÉireann) is the body that serves as the General Lighthouse Authority for the island of Ireland plus its adjacent seas and islands.

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Common Agricultural Policy

The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is the agricultural policy of the European Union.

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Common Travel Area

The Common Travel Area (CTA) is a travel zone that comprises Ireland, the United Kingdom, the Isle of Man, Jersey and Guernsey.

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Confederate Ireland

Confederate Ireland refers to the period of Irish self-government between 1642 and 1649, during the Eleven Years' War.

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Conflict Archive on the Internet

CAIN (Conflict Archive on the Internet) is a database containing information about Conflict and Politics in Northern Ireland from 1968 to the present.

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Conmhaícne

The Conmhaicne or Conmaicne were an ancient tribal grouping that were divided into a number of distinct branches that were found scattered around Ireland in the early medieval period.

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Connacht

Connacht or Connaught (Connacht or Cúige Chonnacht) is one of the Provinces of Ireland situated in the west of the country.

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Connachta

The Connachta are a group of medieval Irish dynasties who claimed descent from the legendary High King Conn Cétchathach (Conn of the Hundred Battles).

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Connemara

Connemara (Conamara) is a district in the west of Ireland, the boundaries of which are not well defined.

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Conor McPherson

Conor McPherson (born 6 August 1971) is an Irish playwright and director.

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Conscription

Conscription, or drafting, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.

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Conscription Crisis of 1918

The Conscription Crisis of 1918 stemmed from a move by the British government to impose conscription (military draft) in Ireland in April 1918 during the First World War.

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Constitution of Ireland

The Constitution of Ireland (Bunreacht na hÉireann) is the fundamental law of Ireland.

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Continental Europe

Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent (particularly by Britons, Azores and Madeira Portuguese, Balearic and Canary Spaniards, Icelanders and other European island nations, and peninsular Scandinavians), is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding the islands of Europe.

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Corcu Loígde

The Corcu Loígde (Corcu Lóegde, Corco Luigde, Corca Laoighdhe, Laidhe), meaning Gens of the Calf Goddess, also called the Síl Lugdach meic Itha, were a kingdom centred in West County Cork who descended from the proto-historical rulers of Munster, the Dáirine, of whom they were the principal royal sept.

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Cork (city)

Cork (from corcach, meaning "marsh") is a city in Ireland.

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Cork–Limerick–Galway corridor

The Cork–Limerick–Galway corridor links the Republic of Ireland's second, third and fourth largest urban centres.

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Cornwall

Cornwall (or; Kernow) is a ceremonial county and unitary authority area of England within the United Kingdom.

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Corrib gas controversy

The Corrib gas controversy concerns plans by Shell E&P Ireland, Statoil Exploration (Ireland) Limited, Vermilion Energy Trust and the Irish government for processing the Corrib gas field through Broadhaven and Sruth Fada Conn Bays in Kilcommon parish, Erris, County Mayo, and objections raised against those plans.

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Corrib gas project

The Corrib gas project (Tionscanamh Ghás Aiceanta na Coiribe) entails the extraction of a natural gas deposit off the northwest coast of Ireland.

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Counties of Ireland

The counties of Ireland (contaetha na hÉireann; Ulster-Scots: coonties o Airlann) are sub-national divisions that have been, and in some cases continue to be, used to geographically demarcate areas of local government.

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Counties of Northern Ireland

The counties of Northern Ireland were the principal local government divisions of Northern Ireland from its creation in 1921 until 1972, when their governmental features were abolished and replaced with twenty-six unitary authorities.

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Countries of the United Kingdom

The United Kingdom (UK) comprises four countries: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

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County Antrim

County Antrim (named after the town of Antrim) is one of six counties that form Northern Ireland, situated in the north-east of the island of Ireland.

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County Carlow

County Carlow (Contae Cheatharlach) is a county in Ireland.

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County Cavan

County Cavan (Contae an Chabháin) is a county in Ireland.

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County Cork

County Cork (Contae Chorcaí) is the largest and southernmost county in Ireland.

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County Donegal

County Donegal (pronounced or; Contae Dhún na nGall) is a county in Ireland.

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County Down

County Down (named after its county town, Downpatrick) is one of six counties that form Northern Ireland, situated in the northeast of the island of Ireland.

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County Dublin

County Dublin (Contae Bhaile Átha Cliath or Contae Átha Cliath) is a county in Ireland.

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County Galway

County Galway (Contae na Gaillimhe) is a county in the West of Ireland in the province of Connacht.

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County Kerry

County Kerry (Contae Chiarraí) is a county in Ireland.

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County Kildare

County Kildare (Contae Chill Dara) is a county in Ireland.

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County Kilkenny

County Kilkenny (Contae Chill Chainnigh) is a county in Ireland.

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County Laois

County Laois (Contae Laoise) is a county in Ireland.

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County Leitrim

County Leitrim (pronounced, Contae Liatroma) is a county in Ireland.

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County Limerick

County Limerick (Contae Luimnigh) is a county in Ireland.

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County Longford

County Longford (Contae an Longfoirt) is a county in Ireland.

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County Louth

County Louth (Contae Lú) is a county in Ireland.

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County Mayo

County Mayo (Contae Mhaigh Eo, meaning "Plain of the yew trees") is a county in Ireland.

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County Meath

County Meath (Contae na Mí or simply an Mhí) is a county in Ireland.

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County Monaghan

County Monaghan (Contae Mhuineacháin) is a county in Ireland.

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County Offaly

County Offaly (Contae Uíbh Fhailí) is a county in Ireland.

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County Tipperary

County Tipperary (Contae Thiobraid Árann) is a county in Ireland.

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County Waterford

County Waterford (Contae Phort Láirge; the English name comes from Old Norse Vedrafjörður) is a county in Ireland.

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County Westmeath

County Westmeath (Contae na hIarmhí or simply An Iarmhí) is a county in Ireland.

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County Wexford

County Wexford (Contae Loch Garman) is a county in Ireland.

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County Wicklow

County Wicklow (Contae Chill Mhantáin) is a county in Ireland.

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Craigavon

Craigavon is a settlement in north County Armagh, Northern Ireland.

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Cricket

Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players each on a field at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard-long pitch.

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Croaghaun

Croaghaun (Cruachán) is a mountain in County Mayo, Ireland.

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Croke Park

Croke Park (Páirc an Chrócaigh) is a GAA stadium located in Dublin, Ireland.

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Cromwellian conquest of Ireland

The Cromwellian conquest of Ireland or Cromwellian war in Ireland (1649–53) refers to the conquest of Ireland by the forces of the English Parliament, led by Oliver Cromwell, during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.

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Crop

A crop is any cultivated plant, fungus, or alga that is harvested for food, clothing, livestock fodder, biofuel, medicine, or other uses.

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Cruthin

The Cruthin (Old Irish,; Middle Irish Cruithnig or Cruithni; Modern Cruithne) were a people of early Ireland, who occupied parts of the present day Counties of Antrim, Londonderry --> Laois, Galway, Londonderry and Down in the early medieval period.

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Culling

In biology, culling is the process of segregating organisms from a group according to desired or undesired characteristics.

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Culture of Europe

The culture of Europe is rooted in the art, architecture, music, literature, and philosophy that originated from the European cultural region.

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Culture of Ireland

The culture of Ireland includes customs and traditions, language, music, art, literature, folklore, cuisine and sports associated with Ireland and the Irish people.

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Cyanobacteria

Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, is a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis.

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Czech Republic

The Czech Republic (Česká republika) is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.

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Dance

Dance is a performance art form consisting of purposefully selected sequences of human movement.

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Daniel O'Connell

Daniel O'Connell (Dónall Ó Conaill; 6 August 1775 – 15 May 1847), often referred to as The Liberator or The Emancipator, was an Irish political leader in the first half of the 19th century.

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Darren Clarke

Darren Christopher Clarke, OBE (born 14 August 1968) is a professional golfer from Northern Ireland who currently plays on the European Tour and has previously played on the PGA Tour.

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Dartraighe

Dartraighe (older spelling: Dartraige), anglicized as Dartree, Dartry or Dartrey, was a barony in medieval Ireland which stretched north to Clones and south to the Dromore river.

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Dáibhí Ó Cróinín

Dáibhí Iarla Ó Cróinín (born 29 August 1954) is an Irish historian, and professor of history at the National University of Ireland, Galway (N.U.I. Galway).

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Dáil Éireann

Dáil Éireann (lit. Assembly of Ireland) is the lower house, and principal chamber, of the Oireachtas (Irish legislature), which also includes the President of Ireland and Seanad Éireann (the upper house).

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Dáirine

The Dáirine (Dárine, Dáirfine, Dáirfhine, Dárfine, Dárinne, Dairinne), later known dynastically as the Corcu Loígde, were the proto-historical rulers of Munster before the rise of the Eóganachta in the 7th century AD.

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Dál Riata

Dál Riata (also Dalriada or Dalriata) was a Gaelic overkingdom that included parts of western Scotland and northeastern Ulster in Ireland, across the North Channel.

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Déisi

The Déisi were a class of peoples in ancient and medieval Ireland.

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Deer of Ireland

There are four species of deer living wild in Ireland today, namely Red Deer, Fallow Deer, Sika Deer and the recently introduced Reeve's Muntjac which is becoming established.

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Deirgtine

The Deirgtine (Deirgthine, Dergtine, Dergthine) or Clanna Dergthened were the proto-historical ancestors of the historical Eóganachta dynasties of Munster.

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Delbhna

The Delbna or Delbhna was a tribe in Ireland.

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Derry

Derry, officially Londonderry, is the second-largest city in Northern Ireland and the fourth-largest city on the island of Ireland.

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Derval O'Rourke

Derval O'Rourke (born 28 May 1981) is an Irish former sprint hurdles athlete.

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Diarmait Mac Murchada

Diarmait Mac Murchada (Modern Irish: Diarmaid Mac Murchadha), anglicised as Dermot MacMurrough or Dermod MacMurrough (c. 1110c. 1 May 1171), was a King of Leinster in Ireland.

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Dingle Peninsula

The Dingle Peninsula (Corca Dhuibhne – anglicised as Corkaguiny, the name of the corresponding barony) is the northernmost of the major peninsulas in County Kerry.

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Direct rule

Direct rule was the term given, during the late 20th and early 21st centuries, to the administration of Northern Ireland directly from Westminster, seat of United Kingdom government.

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Discrimination

Discrimination is treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction in favor of or against, a person or thing based on the group, class, or category to which that person or thing is perceived to belong to rather than on individual merit.

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Dissenter

A dissenter (from the Latin dissentire, “to disagree”), is one who disagrees in matters of opinion, belief, etc.

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Dolphin

Dolphins are a widely distributed and diverse group of fully aquatic marine mammals.

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Donegal Bay

Donegal Bay (Bá Dhún na nGall in Irish) is an inlet (or bay) in the northwest of Ireland.

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Drisheen

Drisheen (drisín) is a type of black pudding made in Ireland.

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Drogheda

Drogheda is an industrial and port town in County Louth on the east coast of Ireland, north of Dublin.

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Dromoland Castle

Dromoland Castle (Drom Ólainn) is a castle, now a 5-star luxury hotel with golf course, located near Newmarket-on-Fergus in County Clare, Ireland.

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Druid

A druid (druí; derwydd) was a member of the educated, professional class among the Celtic peoples of Gaul, Britain, Ireland, and possibly elsewhere during the Iron Age.

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Dry stone

Dry stone is a building method by which structures are constructed from stones without any mortar to bind them together.

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Dublin

Dublin is the capital and largest city of Ireland.

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Dublin Castle

Dublin Castle (Caisleán Bhaile Átha Cliath) off Dame Street, Dublin, Ireland, was until 1922 the seat of the United Kingdom government's administration in Ireland, and is now a major Irish government complex.

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Dublin-Belfast corridor

The Dublin-Belfast corridor (population 3.3 million) is a term used to loosely describe a geographical area that encompasses the cities of Dublin and Belfast and the area between.

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Dundalk

Dundalk is the county town of County Louth, Ireland.

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Dungarvan

Dungarvan is a coastal town and harbour in County Waterford, on the south coast of Ireland.

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Earless seal

The earless seals or true seals are one of the three main groups of mammals within the seal superfamily, Pinnipedia.

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Early Irish law

Early Irish law, also called Brehon law, comprised the statutes which governed everyday life in Early Medieval Ireland.

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Early Irish literature

Early Irish literature is the oldest vernacular literature in Western Europe.

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Early Middle Ages

The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from the 5th century to the 10th century.

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Earth

Earth (also the world, in Greek: Gaia, or in Latin: Terra), is the third planet from the Sun, the densest planet in the Solar System, the largest of the Solar System's four terrestrial planets, and the only astronomical object known to accommodate life.

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Easter Rising

The Easter Rising (Éirí Amach na Cásca), also known as the Easter Rebellion, was an armed insurrection in Ireland during Easter Week, 1916.

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Eastern Europe

Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.

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Eóganachta

The Eóganachta or Eoghanachta were an Irish dynasty centred on Cashel which dominated southern Ireland from the 6/7th to the 10th centuries, and following that, in a restricted form, the Kingdom of Desmond, and its offshoot Carbery, to the late 16th century.

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Economies of scale

In microeconomics, economies of scale are the cost advantages that enterprises obtain due to size, output, or scale of operation, with cost per unit of output generally decreasing with increasing scale as fixed costs are spread out over more units of output.

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Ecoregion

An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone.

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Edgeworth box

In economics, an Edgeworth box, named after Francis Ysidro Edgeworth, is a way of representing various distributions of resources.

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Edward Carson

Edward Henry Carson, Baron Carson, PC, PC (Ire), KC (9 February 1854 – 22 October 1935), from 1900 to 1921 known as Sir Edward Carson, was an Irish unionist politician, barrister and judge.

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Edward VIII abdication crisis

In 1936, a constitutional crisis in the British Empire was caused by King-Emperor Edward VIII's proposal to marry Wallis Simpson, an American socialite who was divorced from her first husband and was pursuing a divorce of her second.

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EirGrid

EirGrid plc is the state-owned electric power transmission operator in Ireland.

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Electrical grid

An electrical grid is an interconnected network for delivering electricity from suppliers to consumers.

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Electricity

Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and flow of electric charge.

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Electron

The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, with a negative elementary electric charge.

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Elizabeth II

Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is the queen of 16 of the 53 member states in the Commonwealth of Nations.

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Endemic warfare

Endemic warfare is the state of continual, low-threshold warfare in a tribal warrior society.

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England and Wales

England and Wales, is a jurisdiction covering two of the four countries of the United Kingdom, which form the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom of England and follow a single legal system, known as English law.

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English country house

An English country house is a large house or mansion in the English countryside.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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English people

The English are a nation and ethnic group native to England, who speak the English language.

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Ennis (UK Parliament constituency)

Ennis is a former United Kingdom Parliament constituency, in Ireland, returning one MP.

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Enya

Enya (born Eithne Ní Bhraonáin;, anglicised as Enya Brennan; 17 May 1961) is an Irish singer, instrumentalist, and songwriter.

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Ernest Shackleton

Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton, CVO, OBE, FRGS (15 February 1874 – 5 January 1922) was a polar explorer who led three British expeditions to the Antarctic, and one of the principal figures of the period known as the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration.

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Ernest Walton

Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton (6 October 1903 – 25 June 1995) was an Irish physicist and Nobel laureate for his work with John Cockcroft with "atom-smashing" experiments done at Cambridge University in the early 1930s, and so became the first person in history to artificially split the atom, thus ushering the nuclear age.

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ESB Group

The Electricity Supply Board (Bord Soláthair an Leictreachais; sometimes called ESB Ireland to differentiate it from US utilities), known for short as the ESB, is a state owned (95%) electricity company in Ireland.

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Ethnic groups of Africa

The ethnic groups of Africa number in the thousands, each generally having its own language (or dialect of a language) and culture.

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Euro

The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the eurozone, which consists of 19 of the 28 member states of the European Union: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Spain.

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Europe

Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.

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European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages

The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe.

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European Economic Community

The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration between its member states.

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European pine marten

The European pine marten (Martes martes), known most commonly as the pine marten in Anglophone Europe, and less commonly also known as pineten, baum marten, or sweet marten, is an animal native to Northern Europe belonging to the mustelid family, which also includes mink, otter, badger, wolverine and weasel.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a politico-economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Eurostat

Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg.

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Exonym and endonym

An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, group of people, or language/dialect: a common name used only outside the place, group or linguistic community in question, usually for historical reasons.

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Fall of the Western Roman Empire

The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the period of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into numerous successor polities.

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Fermat number

In mathematics, a Fermat number, named after Pierre de Fermat who first studied them, is a positive integer of the form where n is a nonnegative integer.

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Field system

The study of field systems (collections of fields) in landscape history is concerned with the size, shape and orientation of a number of fields.

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FIFA

The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA; English: International Federation of Association Football) is the governing body of association football, futsal and beach football.

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FIFA World Cup

The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.

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Fir Bolg

In medieval Irish Christian pseudo-history, the Fir Bolg (also spelt Firbolg and Fir Bholg) are one of the ethnic groups that inhabited ancient Ireland.

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First Dáil

The First Dáil (An Chéad Dáil) was Dáil Éireann as it convened from 1919–1921.

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First Minister and deputy First Minister

The First Minister and deputy First Minister are the joint heads of the Northern Ireland Executive and have overall responsibility for the running of the Office of the First Minister and deputy First Minister (OFMDFM).

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Fishing

Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish.

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Flemish people

Flemings (Vlamingen) are a Germanic ethnic group, who speak Dutch.

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Flight of the Earls

The Flight of the Earls (Imeacht na nIarlaí / Teitheadh na nIarlaí) took place on 14 September 1607, when Hugh Ó Neill of Tír Eóghain (Tyrone), Rory Ó Donnell of Tír Chonaill (Tyrconnell) and about ninety followers left Ireland for mainland Europe.

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Folk metal

Folk metal is a fusion genre of heavy metal music and traditional folk music that developed in Europe during the 1990s.

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Folk music

Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.

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Folk music of Ireland

The folk music of Ireland (also known as Irish traditional music, Irish trad, Irish folk music, and other variants) is the generic term for music that has been created in various genres in Ireland.

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Food Safety Promotion Board

The Food Safety Promotion Board (An Bord um Chur Chun Cinn Sabháilteachta Bia; Ulster-Scots: Tha Mait Safétie Fordèrin Boord or The Meat Sauftie Forder Buird), trading as safefood, is the body responsible for the promotion of food safety in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.

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Football Association of Ireland

The Football Association of Ireland (FAI; Cumann Peile na hÉireann) is the governing body for the sport of association football in the Republic of Ireland.

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Fortuatha

Fortuatha Medieval Irish people.

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Foynes

Foynes is a village and major port in County Limerick in the midwest of Ireland, located at the edge of hilly land on the southern bank of the Shannon Estuary.

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Francia

Francia or Frankia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), Frankish Kingdom, Frankish Empire, Frankish Realm or occasionally Frankland, was the territory inhabited and ruled by the Franks, a confederation of Germanic tribes, during Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages.

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Francis Ysidro Edgeworth

Francis Ysidro Edgeworth FBA (8 February 1845 – 13 February 1926) was an Anglo-Irish philosopher and political economist who made significant contributions to the methods of statistics during the 1880s.

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Fred Daly (golfer)

Frederick J. Daly, MBE (11 October 1911 – 18 November 1990) was a Northern Irish professional golfer, best known for winning The Open Championship in 1947 at the Royal Liverpool Golf Club, Hoylake.

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Gaelic Athletic Association

The Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) (Cumann Lúthchleas Gael, (CLG)) is an Irish and international amateur sporting and cultural organisation, focused primarily on promoting Gaelic games, which include the traditional Irish sports of hurling, camogie, Gaelic football, handball and rounders.

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Gaelic football

Gaelic football (Irish: Peil Ghaelach; short name Peil or Caid), commonly referred to as football or Gaelic, is an Irish team sport.

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Gaelic games

Gaelic Games are sports played in Ireland under the auspices of the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA).

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Gaelic handball

Gaelic handball (known in Ireland simply as handball; liathróid láimhe) is a sport played in Ireland where players hit a ball with a hand or fist against a wall in such a way as to make a shot the opposition cannot return, and that may be played with two (singles) or four players (doubles).

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Gaelic Ireland

Gaelic Ireland was the Gaelic political and social order that existed in Ireland from the prehistoric era until the early 17th century.

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Gaelic revival

The Gaelic revival (Athbheochan na Gaeilge) was the late-nineteenth-century national revival of interest in the Irish language (known as Gaelic) and Irish Gaelic culture (including folklore, sports, music, arts, etc.). Irish had diminished as a spoken tongue, remaining the main daily language only in isolated rural areas, with English as the dominant language of the majority of Ireland.

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Gaelicisation

Gaelicisation or Gaelicization is the act or process of making something Gaelic, or gaining characteristics of the Gaels.

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Gaels

The Gaels (Na Gaeil; Na Gàidheil), also known as Goidels, are an ethnolinguistic group indigenous to northwestern Europe.

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Gaelscoil

A Gaelscoil (plural: Gaelscoileanna) is an Irish-medium school (particularly primary school) in Ireland: the term refers especially to Irish-medium schools outside the Irish-speaking regions.

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Gaeltacht

Gaeltacht or Gaedhealtacht (or; plural Gaeltachtaí or Gaedhealtachtaí) is an Irish-language word used to denote any primarily Irish-speaking region.

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Gailenga

Gailenga was the name of two related peoples and kingdoms found in medieval Ireland in Brega and Connacht.

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Galvanization

Galvanization, or galvanisation, is the process of applying a protective zinc coating to steel or iron, to prevent rusting.

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Galway

Galway (Gaillimh) is a city in the West of Ireland in the province of Connacht.

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Gamanraige

The Gamanraige were the main branch of the Fir Ol nEchmacht, a people who ruled much of Ireland west of the Shannon in the pre-historic era.

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Garda Síochána

An Garda Síochána (meaning "the Guardian of the Peace"), more commonly referred to as the Gardaí or "the guards".

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Gelidiella calcicola

Gelidiella calcicola is a rare seaweed species in the Rhodophyta, described for the first time in 1988.

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Geography

Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, lit. "earth description") is a field study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.

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Geography (Ptolemy)

The Geography (Γεωγραφικὴ Ὑφήγησις, Geōgraphikḕ Hyphḗgēsis, "Geographical Guidance"), also known by its Latin names as the Geographia and the Cosmographia, is a gazeteer, an atlas, and a treatise on cartography, compiling the geographical knowledge of the 2nd-century Roman Empire.

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Geologic province

A geologic or geomorphic province is a spatial entity with common geologic or geomorphic attributes.

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George Bernard Shaw

George Bernard Shaw (26 July 18562 November 1950) was a Nobel-Prize-winning Irish playwright, critic and passionate socialist whose influence on Western theater, culture and politics stretched from the 1880s to his death in 1950, at 94 one of the world's most famous men.

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George Frideric Handel

George Frideric (or Frederick) Handel (born Georg Friedrich Händel,; 23 February 1685 (O.S.) – 14 April 1759) was a German-born British Baroque composer who spent the bulk of his career in London, becoming well known for his operas, oratorios, anthems, and organ concertos.

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George III of the United Kingdom

George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death.

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George IV of the United Kingdom

George IV (George Augustus Frederick; 12 August 1762 – 26 June 1830) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of Hanover following the death of his father, George III, on 29 January 1820, until his own death ten years later.

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George Johnstone Stoney

George Johnstone Stoney FRS (15 February 1826 – 5 July 1911) was an Anglo-Irish physicist.

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Georgian architecture

Georgian architecture is the name given in most English-speaking countries to the set of architectural styles current between 1720 and 1830.

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Gerrymandering

In the process of setting electoral districts, gerrymandering is a practice that attempts to establish a political advantage for a particular party or group by manipulating district boundaries to create partisan advantaged districts.

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Giant's Causeway

The Giant's Causeway is an area of about 40,000 interlocking basalt columns, the result of an ancient volcanic eruption.

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Gillian O'Sullivan

Gillian O'Sullivan (born 21 August 1976 in Killarney) is an Irish race walker.

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Giovanni Battista Rinuccini

Giovanni Battista Rinuccini (15 September 1592 – 28 December 1653) was an Italian Roman Catholic archbishop in the mid-seventeenth century.

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Glendalough

Glendalough is a glacial valley in County Wicklow, Ireland, renowned for an Early Medieval monastic settlement founded in the 6th century by St Kevin.

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Glenveagh Castle

Glenveagh Castle (Caisleán Ghleann Bheatha) is a large castellated Mansion house built in the Scottish Baronial style within Glenveagh National Park, near both Churchill and Gweedore in County Donegal, Ireland.

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Gold

Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79.

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Gold medal

A gold medal is the highest medal awarded for highest achievement in a non-military field.

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Golden eagle

The golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is one of the best-known birds of prey in the Northern Hemisphere.

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Golf

Golf is a club and ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible.

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Good Friday Agreement

The Good Friday Agreement (GFA) or Belfast Agreement (Comhaontú Bhéal Feirste or Comhaontú Aoine an Chéasta; Ulster-Scots: Bilfawst Greeance or Guid Friday Greeance) was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process of the 1990s.

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Gormanston, County Meath

Gormanston (') is a village in County Meath, Ireland.

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Gothic Revival architecture

Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic, Neo-Gothic or Jigsaw Gothic, and when used for school, college, and university buildings as Collegiate Gothic) is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England.

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Government of Ireland

The Government of Ireland (Rialtas na hÉireann) is the cabinet that exercises executive authority in Ireland.

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Government of Ireland Act 1914

The Government of Ireland Act 1914 (4 & 5 Geo. 5 c. 90), also known as the Home Rule Act, and before enactment as the Third Home Rule Bill, was an Act passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom intended to provide home rule (self-government within the United Kingdom) for Ireland.

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Government of Ireland Act 1920

The Government of Ireland Act 1920 (10 & 11 Geo. 5 c. 67) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Government of the United Kingdom

Her Majesty's Government (HMG), commonly referred to as the British government, Welsh: Llywodraeth Ei Mawrhydi, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

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Gowran

Gowran is a town located on the eastern side of County Kilkenny, Ireland.

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Graeme McDowell

Graeme McDowell (born 30 July 1979) is a professional golfer from Northern Ireland who plays on both the PGA Tour and European Tour.

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Grand Slam (rugby union)

In rugby union, a Grand Slam (Irish: Caithréim Mhór. Welsh: Y Gamp Lawn. French: Le Grand Chelem) occurs when one team in the Six Nations Championship (or its Five Nations predecessor) manages to beat all the others during one year's competition.

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Great auk

The great auk (Pinguinus impennis) was a flightless bird of the alcid family that became extinct in the mid-19th century.

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Great Britain

Great Britain, also known as Britain, is an island in the North Atlantic off the north-west coast of continental Europe.

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Great Charter of Ireland

The Great Charter of Ireland (also known as the Magna Carta Hiberniae or Magna Charta Hiberniae) was an issue of the English Magna Carta (or Great Charter of Liberties) in Ireland.

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Great Famine (Ireland)

The Great Famine (an Gorta Mór) or the Great Hunger was a period of mass starvation, disease, and emigration in Ireland between 1845 and 1852.

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Greater Dublin Area

The Greater Dublin Area (GDA) (Irish: Mórcheantar Bhaile Átha Cliath), or simply Greater Dublin, is the city of Dublin and various counties in the hinterland of the city in Ireland.

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Greco-Roman world

The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman (or; spelled Graeco-Roman in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth), when used as an adjective, as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans.

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Green algae

The green algae (singular: green alga) are a large, informal grouping of algae consisting of the Chlorophyte and Charophyte algae, which are now placed in separate Divisions.

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Greenland

Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat; Grønland) is an autonomous country within the Kingdom of Denmark, located between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

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Greenwich Mean Time

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is the mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London.

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Gregorian chant

Gregorian chant is the central tradition of Western plainchant, a form of monophonic, unaccompanied sacred song of the western Roman Catholic Church.

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Greyhound racing

Greyhound racing is an organized, competitive industry in which greyhound dogs are raced around a track.

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Guinness

Guinness is an Irish dry stout that originated in the brewery of Arthur Guinness (1725–1803) at St. James's Gate, Dublin.

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Guinness Storehouse

Guinness Storehouse is a Guinness-themed tourist attraction at St. James's Gate Brewery in Dublin, Ireland.

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Gulliver's Travels

Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World.

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Habitat

A habitat is an ecological or environmental area that is inhabited by human, a particular species of animal, plant, or other type of organism.

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Hallstatt culture

The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Central European culture from the 8th to 6th centuries BC (European Early Iron Age), developing out of the Urnfield culture of the 12th century BC (Late Bronze Age) and followed in much of Central Europe by the La Tène culture.

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Hamiltonian mechanics

Hamiltonian mechanics is a theory developed as a reformulation of classical mechanics and predicts the same outcomes as non-Hamiltonian classical mechanics.

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Heating oil

Heating oil, or oil heat, is a low viscosity, liquid petroleum product used as a fuel for furnaces or boilers in buildings.

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Hedgehog

A hedgehog is any of the spiny mammals of the subfamily Erinaceinae, in the order Erinaceomorpha.

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Heineken Cup

The Heineken Cup (known as the H Cup in France due to restrictions on alcohol sponsorship) was one of two annual rugby union competitions organised annually by European Rugby Cup from 1995 to 2014.

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Henry II of England

Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England (1154–89) and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany.

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Henry VIII of England

Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death.

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Hibernia

Hibernia is the Classical Latin name for the island of Ireland.

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Hiberno-English

Hiberno‐English or Irish English is the set of English dialects natively written and spoken within the Republic of Ireland as well as Northern Ireland.

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Hiberno-Normans

The Hiberno-Normans are those Normans who settled in Ireland after the Norman conquest of Ireland in 1169 and who remained a distinct community until their eclipse in the early 17th century following the Tudor conquest of Ireland.

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Hiberno-Scottish mission

The Hiberno-Scottish mission was a mission initiated by Gaelic monks from Ireland and the western coast of modern-day Scotland, which spread Christianity and established monasteries in Great Britain and continental Europe during the Middle Ages.

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High King of Ireland

The High Kings of Ireland (Ard Rí na hÉireann) were sometimes historical and sometimes legendary figures who had, or who are claimed to have had, lordship over the whole of Ireland.

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High-voltage direct current

A high-voltage, direct current (HVDC) electric power transmission system (also called a power super highway or a electrical super highway) uses direct current for the bulk transmission of electrical power, in contrast with the more common alternating current (AC) systems.

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Hill of Tara

The Hill of Tara (Teamhair or Teamhair na Rí), located near the River Boyne, is an archaeological complex that runs between Navan and Dunshaughlin in County Meath, Ireland.

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Historiography of the fall of the Western Roman Empire

The causes and mechanisms of the decline of the Roman Empire are a historical theme that was introduced by historian Edward Gibbon in his 1776 book The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.

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History of Anglo-Saxon England

In the history of Great Britain, Anglo-Saxon England refers to the historical land roughly corresponding to present-day England, as it existed from the 5th to the 11th century, but not including Devon and Cornwall until the 9th century.

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History of the Jews in Ireland

The history of the Jews in Ireland extends back nearly a thousand years.

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Hockey

Hockey is a family of sports in which two teams play against each other by trying to maneuver a ball or a puck into the opponent's goal using a hockey stick.

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Holy Cross Abbey

The Holy Cross Abbey (Mainistir na Croise Naofa) in Tipperary is a restored Cistercian monastery in Holycross near Thurles, County Tipperary, Ireland, situated on the River Suir.

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Home Nations

The Home Nations refers collectively to England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland (countries of the United Kingdom), and in certain sports contexts, to England, Scotland, Wales and the whole island of Ireland.

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Horse racing

Horse racing is an equestrian sport, involving two or more jockeys riding horses over a set distance for competition.

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Horslips

Horslips are an Irish Celtic rock band that compose, arrange and perform songs frequently inspired by traditional Irish airs, jigs and reels.

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House of Commons of the United Kingdom

The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland which, like the House of Lords (the upper house), meets in the Palace of Westminster.

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Human Development Index

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.

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Hurling

Hurling (Iománaíocht/Iomáint) is an outdoor team game of ancient Gaelic and Irish origin, administered by the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA).

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Hydrocarbon exploration

Hydrocarbon exploration (or oil and gas exploration) is the search by petroleum geologists and geophysicists for hydrocarbon deposits beneath the Earth's surface, such as oil and natural gas.

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IAAF World Championships in Athletics

The World Championships in Athletics is an event organized by the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF).

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Iberian Peninsula

The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe and is divided among four states: Spain, Portugal, Andorra, and France; as well as Gibraltar, an overseas territory of the United Kingdom.

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Iceland

Iceland is a Nordic island country between the North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean.

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Illuminated manuscript

An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript in which the text is supplemented with such decoration as initials, borders (marginalia) and miniature illustrations.

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Immigration

Immigration is the movement of people into a destination country to which they are not native or do not possess its citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take-up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.

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Immigration to the United States

Immigration to the United States is a complex demographic phenomenon that has been a major source of population growth and cultural change throughout much of the history of the United States.

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Independent International Commission on Decommissioning

The Independent International Commission on Decommissioning (IICD) was established to oversee the decommissioning of paramilitary weapons in Northern Ireland, as part of the peace process.

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Independent scientist

An independent scientist (historically also known as gentleman scientist) is a financially independent scientist who pursues scientific study without direct affiliation to a public institution such as a university or government-run research and development body.

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Induction coil

An induction coil or "spark coil" (archaically known as an inductorium or Ruhmkorff coil after Heinrich Ruhmkorff) is a type of electrical transformer used to produce high-voltage pulses from a low-voltage direct current (DC) supply.

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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Interlace (art)

In the visual arts, interlace is a decorative element found in medieval art.

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Internal market

The European Union's (EU) internal market, also known as the EU Single Market, is a single market that seeks to guarantee the free movement of goods, capital, services, and people – the "four freedoms" – between the EU's 28 member states.

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InterTradeIreland

The Trade and Business Development Body (An Comhlacht Forbartha Trádála agus Gnó; Ulster-Scots: Tha Mercat an Dalin Fordèrin Convenerie), trading as InterTradeIreland, (Irish: IdirThrádáilÉireann; Ulster-Scots: NifferinMercatAirlann) is one of the six all-Ireland bodies set up following the Belfast Agreement reporting to the North/South Ministerial Council.

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Intrusion

An intrusion is an igneous rock body that forms from crystallized magma under Earth's surface.

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Iona

Iona (Ì Chaluim Chille) is a small island in the Inner Hebrides off the Ross of Mull on the western coast of Scotland.

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Ireland and World War I

During World War I (or the Great War) (1914–1918), Ireland was part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, which entered the war in August 1914 as one of the Entente Powers, along with France and the Russian Empire.

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Ireland national rugby union team

The Ireland national rugby union team represents the island of Ireland (both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland) in rugby union.

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Irish Amateur Boxing Association

The Irish Amateur Boxing Association Ltd. (IABA) is the national governing body for amateur boxing in Ireland.

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Irish Citizen Army

The Irish Citizen Army, or ICA, was a small group of trained trade union volunteers from the Irish Transport and General Workers' Union (ITGWU) established in Dublin for the defence of worker's demonstrations from the police.

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Irish Civil War

The Irish Civil War (Cogadh Cathartha na hÉireann; 28 June 1922 – 24 May 1923) followed the Irish War of Independence and accompanied the establishment of the Irish Free State, an entity independent from the United Kingdom but within the British Empire.

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Irish coffee

Irish coffee (caife Gaelach) is a cocktail consisting of hot coffee, Irish whiskey, and sugar (some recipes specify that brown sugar should be used, specifying brown sugar, and that fresh cream should be floated on top.), stirred, and topped with thick cream.

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Irish cream

Irish cream is a cream liqueur based on Irish whiskey, cream, and other ingredients such as coffee, which can be served on its own, as an alcoholic substitute for milk/cream and sugar in a hot coffee (sometimes with whipped cream added on top), or used in mixed drinks or as part of a shot or a whole shot.

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Irish Cup

This article is about the tournament in Northern Ireland.

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Irish diaspora

The Irish diaspora (Diaspóra na nGael) refers to Irish people and their descendants who live outside Ireland.

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Irish elk

The Irish elk (Megaloceros giganteus) (1998).

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Irish Examiner

The Irish Examiner, formerly The Cork Examiner and then The Examiner, is an Irish national daily newspaper which primarily circulates in the Munster region surrounding its base in Cork, though it is available throughout the country.

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Irish Famine (1740–41)

The Irish Famine of 1740–1741 (Bliain an Áir, meaning the Year of Slaughter) in the Kingdom of Ireland, was estimated to have killed at least 38% of the 1740 population of 2.4 million people, a proportionately greater loss than during the worst years of the Great Famine of 1845–1852.

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Irish Football Association

The Irish Football Association (IFA) is the organising body for association football in Northern Ireland.

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Irish Free State

The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann; 6 December 192229 December 1937) was the state established in 1922 as a Dominion of the British Commonwealth of Nations under the Anglo-Irish Treaty signed by British and Irish representatives exactly twelve months beforehand.

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Irish general election, 1918

The Irish general election of 1918 was that part of the 1918 United Kingdom general election which took place in Ireland.

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Irish Home Rule movement

The Irish Home Rule movement was a political movement which sought to achieve home rule for Ireland and reduce the political control of the British state over the island.

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Irish Independent

The Irish Independent is the flagship publication of Independent News & Media (INM) and Ireland's largest-selling daily newspaper.

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Irish language

Irish (Gaeilge), sometimes referred to as Gaelic or Irish Gaelic, is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family, originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.

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Irish literature

Irish literature comprises writings in the Irish, Latin, and English (including Ulster Scots) languages on the island of Ireland.

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Irish nationalism

Irish nationalism asserts that the Irish people are a nation.

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Irish neutrality

The Republic of Ireland has been neutral in international relations since the 1930s.

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Irish neutrality during World War II

The policy of Irish neutrality during World War II was adopted by the Irish parliament at the instigation of the Taoiseach Éamon de Valera upon the outbreak of World War II in Europe.

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Irish people

The Irish people (Muintir na hÉireann or Na hÉireannaigh) are a nation and ethnic group who originate from the island of Ireland and its associated islands.

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Irish population analysis

The population of the island of Ireland in 2012 was approximately 6.4 million comprising 4.58 million in the Republic of Ireland with another 1.8 million in Northern Ireland.

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Irish pub

An Irish pub is an establishment licensed to serve alcoholic drinks for consumption on the premises.

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Irish Rebellion of 1798

The Irish Rebellion of 1798 (Éirí Amach 1798), also known as the United Irishmen Rebellion (Éirí Amach na nÉireannach Aontaithe), was an uprising against British rule in Ireland lasting from May to September 1798.

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Irish Rebellion of 1803

The Irish Rebellion of 1803 was an unsuccessful attempt by a group of Irish nationalists to secure Ireland's independence from the United Kingdom.

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Irish Republic

The Irish Republic (Poblacht na hÉireann or Saorstát Éireann) was a revolutionary state that declared its independence from Great Britain in January 1919.

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Irish Republican Army

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) is any of several armed movements in Ireland in the 20th and 21st centuries dedicated to Irish republicanism, the belief that all of Ireland should be an independent republic.

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Irish Republican Army (1922–69)

The original Irish Republican Army (IRA) fought a guerrilla war against British rule in Ireland in the Irish War of Independence 1919–1921.

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Irish Rugby Football Union

The Irish Rugby Football Union (IRFU) (Cumann Rugbaí na hÉireann) is the body managing rugby union in the island of Ireland (both Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland).

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Irish Sea

The Irish Sea (Muir Éireann, Y Keayn Yernagh, Erse Sea, Muir Èireann, Ulster-Scots: Airish Sea, Môr Iwerddon) separates the islands of Ireland and Great Britain.

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Irish states since 1171

Irish states have existed under a number of different names for nearly a thousand years.

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Irish stew

Irish stew (stobhach / Stobhach Gaelach) is any variety of meat-and-root vegetables stew native to Ireland.

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Irish Volunteers

The Irish Volunteers (Óglaigh na hÉireann) was a military organisation established in 1913 by Irish nationalists.

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Irish War of Independence

The Irish War of Independence (Cogadh na Saoirse) or Anglo-Irish War was a guerrilla war fought from 1919 to 1921 between the Irish Republican Army (the army of the Irish Republic) and the British security forces in Ireland.

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Irish whiskey

Irish whiskey (Fuisce or uisce beatha) is whiskey made on the island of Ireland.

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IrishCentral

IrishCentral.com is the sister website to the Irish-American publications Irish Voice newspaper and Irish America magazine.

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Iron Age

The Iron Age is the period generally occurring after the Bronze Age, marked by the prevalent use of iron.

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Irreligion

Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence of religion, an indifference towards religion, a rejection of religion, or hostility towards religion.

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Islam in Ireland

The documented history of Islam in Ireland dates to the 1950s.

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Island

An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water.

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Isle of Man

The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin), otherwise known simply as Mann (Mannin), is a self-governing British Crown dependency located in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland.

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Italy national football team

The Italian national football team (Nazionale di calcio dell'Italia) represents Italy in association football and is controlled by the Italian Football Federation (FIGC), the governing body for football in Italy.

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Iverni

The Iverni (Ἰούερνοι, Iouernoi) were a people of early:Ireland first mentioned in Ptolemy's 2nd century Geography as living in the extreme south-west of the island.

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Jack Butler Yeats

John "Jack" Butler Yeats (29 August 1871 – 28 March 1957) was an Irish artist and Olympic medalist.

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Jacobitism

Jacobitism (Seacaibíteachas, Seumasachas) was a political movement in Great Britain and Ireland that aimed to restore the Roman Catholic Stuart King James II of England and his heirs to the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland.

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James Joseph Magennis

James Joseph Magennis VC (spelling originally McGinnes) (27 October 1919 – 12 February 1986) was a Belfast-born recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

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James Joyce

James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish novelist and poet, considered to be one of the most influential writers in the modernist avant-garde of the early 20th century.

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Johannes Scotus Eriugena

Johannes Scotus Eriugena (c. 815 – c. 877) was an Irish theologian, neoplatonist philosopher, and poet.

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John B. Cosgrave

Dr.

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John Butler Yeats

John Butler Yeats (16 March 1839 – 3 February 1922) was an Irish artist and the father of William Butler Yeats, Lily Yeats, Elizabeth Corbett "Lolly" Yeats and Jack B. Yeats.

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John Cockcroft

Sir John Douglas Cockcroft, OM, KCB, CBE, FRS (27 May 1897 – 18 September 1967) was a British physicist.

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John Forbes Nash, Jr.

John Forbes Nash, Jr. (June 13, 1928 – May 23, 2015) was an American mathematician with fundamental contributions in game theory, differential geometry, and partial differential equations.

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John Lighton Synge

John Lighton Synge (23 March 1897 – 30 March 1995) was an Irish mathematician and physicist.

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John McGahern

John McGahern (12 November 1934 – 30 March 2006) is regarded as one of the most important Irish writers of the latter half of the twentieth century.

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John Redmond

John Edward Redmond (1 September 1856 – 6 March 1918) was an Irish nationalist politician, barrister, MP in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and leader of the Irish Parliamentary Party from 1900 to 1918.

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John Stewart Bell

John Stewart Bell FRS (28 June 1928 – 1 October 1990) was a Northern Irish physicist, and the originator of Bell's theorem, an important theorem in quantum physics regarding hidden variable theories.

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John T. Koch

Professor John T. Koch is an American academic, historian and linguist who specializes in Celtic studies, especially prehistory and the early Middle Ages.

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John Tyndall

John Tyndall FRS (2 August 1820 – 4 December 1893) was a prominent 19th century physicist.

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John, King of England

John (24 December 1166 – 19 October 1216), also known as John Lackland (Norman French: Johan sanz Terre), was King of England from 6 April 1199 until his death in 1216.

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Jonathan Swift

Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667 – 19 October 1745) was an Anglo-Irish.

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Joseph Larmor

Sir Joseph Larmor FRS (11 July 1857 – 19 May 1942) was a British physicist and mathematician who made innovations in the understanding of electricity, dynamics, thermodynamics, and the electron theory of matter.

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K Club

The Kildare Hotel and Golf Club (abbreviated The K Club) is a golf and leisure complex located at Straffan, County Kildare, Ireland.

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Kale

Kale or boerenkool is a vegetable of the plant species Brassica oleracea with green or purple leaves, in which the central leaves do not form a head.

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Karst

Karst topography is a landscape formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite, and gypsum.

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Katie Taylor

Katie Taylor (born 2 July 1986) is an Irish athlete who specialises in boxing.

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Kelvin

The kelvin is a unit of measure for temperature based upon an absolute scale.

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Kevin Abosch

Kevin Abosch (born 1969) is an Irish visual artist and portrait photographer whose subjects include Johnny Depp, Malala Yousafzai, Bob Geldof, Vanessa Redgrave, Steven Spielberg, Dustin Hoffman, Dennis Hopper, Yoko Ono and Aung San Suu Kyi.

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Kilkenny

Kilkenny.

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Killarney National Park

Killarney National Park (Páirc Náisiúnta Chill Airne) is located beside the town of Killarney, County Kerry, Ireland.

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Kingdom of Breifne

The Kingdom of Breifne or Bréifne (anglicized Breffny, Brefnie, Brenny) was the traditional territory for an early Irish tribal group known as the Uí Briúin Bréifne.

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Kingdom of England

The Kingdom of England was a state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century, when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.

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Kingdom of Great Britain

The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially Great Britain,"After the political union of England and Scotland in 1707, the nation's official name became 'Great Britain'", The American Pageant, Volume 1, Cengage Learning (2012)"From 1707 until 1801 Great Britain was the official designation of the kingdoms of England and Scotland".

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Kingdom of Ireland

The Kingdom of Ireland (Classical Irish: Ríoghacht Éireann; Modern Irish: Ríocht Éireann) was a state in Ireland from the proclamation of King Henry VIII of England as King of Ireland by the Crown of Ireland Act 1542 until the Acts of Union 1800.

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Kingdom of Meath

Meath (Old Irish: Mide; spelt Mí in Modern Irish) was a medieval kingdom in Ireland for over 1,000 years.

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Kinsale Head gas field

The Kinsale Head gas field is an offshore natural gas field off the southern coast of Ireland discovered in 1973 near Old Head of Kinsale, in the Celtic Sea and met Ireland's gas need until 1996.

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Lager

Lager (storeroom or warehouse) is a type of beer that is conditioned at low temperatures, normally in cold storage at the brewery, before being delivered to the consumer.

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Lahinch

Lahinch or Lehinch is a small town on Liscannor Bay, on the northwest coast of County Clare, Ireland.

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Laigin

The Laigin, modern spelling Laighin (Lain), were a population group of early Ireland who gave their name to the province of Leinster (Irish Cúige Laighean, province, literally fifth, of the Laigin; The English word "Leinster" derives from Irish Laigin and Old Norse staðr, place, territory).

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Lakes of Killarney

The Lakes of Killarney are a scenic attraction located near Killarney, County Kerry, in Ireland.

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Land War

The Land War (Cogadh na Talún) in Irish history was a period of agrarian agitation in rural Ireland in the 1870s, 1880s and 1890s.

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Lansdowne Road

The Lansdowne Road Stadium (Bóthar Lansdúin) was a stadium in Dublin owned by the Irish Rugby Football Union (IRFU) that was primarily for used rugby union and association football matches.

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Last glacial period

The last glacial period, popularly known as the Ice Age was the most recent glacial period within the Quaternary glaciation occurring during the last one hundred thousand years of the Pleistocene, from approximately 110,000 to 12,000 years ago.

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Late Middle Ages

The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history generally comprising the 14th and 15th centuries (c. 1301–1500).

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Latinisation of names

Latinisation is the practice of rendering a non-Latin name (or word) in a Latin style.

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Latvia

Latvia (Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe, one of the three Baltic states.

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Laudabiliter

Laudabiliter was a Papal Bull issued in 1155 by Pope Adrian IV who was the only English man to serve in that office.

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Lebor Gabála Érenn

Lebor Gabála Érenn (The Book of the Taking of Ireland) is a collection of poems and prose narratives that purports to be a history of Ireland and the Irish from the creation of the world to the Middle Ages.

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Legislation

Legislation (or "KIYU") is law which has been promulgated (or "enacted") by a legislature or other governing body or the process of making it.

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Leinster

Leinster (— Laighin / Cúige Laighean —) is one of the Provinces of Ireland situated in the east of Ireland.

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Leinster Rugby

Leinster Rugby (Rugbaí Laighean) is one of the four professional provincial rugby teams from the island of Ireland.

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Lemonade

Lemonade is a lemon-flavored drink sweetened with sugar among other sweeteners.

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Limerick

Limerick (or; Luimneach) is a city in county Limerick, Ireland.

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Linen

Linen is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant, Linum usitatissimum.

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Lisdoonvarna

Lisdoonvarna is a spa town of 822 people (2002 census) in County Clare in Ireland.

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List of All-Ireland Senior Football Championship finals

The All-Ireland Senior Football Championship, the premier competition in Gaelic football, is an annual series of games played in Ireland during the summer and early autumn, and organised by the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA).

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List of divided islands

This is a list of islands whose land is divided by one or more international borders.

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List of English monarchs

The monarchy of the Kingdom of England began with Alfred the Great and ended with Queen Anne, who became Queen of Great Britain when England merged with Scotland to form a union in 1707.

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List of European islands by area

This is a list of islands in Europe ordered by area.

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List of European islands by population

This is a list of islands in Europe ordered by population.

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List of Ireland-related topics

This page aims to list articles related to the island of Ireland.

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List of Irish cheeses

This is a list of cheeses and producers from Ireland.

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List of Irish composers

This is a list of composers from Ireland working in the classical (art music) tradition.

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List of islands by area

This list of islands by area includes all islands in the world greater than 2,500 km2 and several other islands over 500 km2, sorted in descending order by area.

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List of islands of Ireland

This is a list of islands of Ireland.

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List of islands of the British Isles

This page is a list of the larger islands that form the British Isles, listing area and population data.

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List of kings of Leinster

The following is a provisional list of the kings of Leinster who ruled the Irish kingdom of Leinster (or Laigin) up to 1632 with the death of Domhnall Spainneach Mac Murrough Caomhanach, the last legitimately inaugurated head of the MacMurrough Kavanagh royal line.

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List of mammals of Ireland

This is a list of the mammal species recorded in Ireland.

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Literary modernism

Literary modernism, or modernist literature, has its origins in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, mainly in Europe and North America.

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Lithuania

Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in Northern Europe.

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Local extinction

Local extinction, or extirpation, is the condition of a species (or other taxon) that ceases to exist in the chosen geographic area of study, though it still exists elsewhere.

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Local Government Act 2001

The Local Government Act, 2001 (No. 37 of 2001) was enacted by the Oireachtas of the Republic of Ireland on 21 July 2001.

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London

London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Longford

Longford is the county town of County Longford in Ireland.

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Lordship of Ireland

The Lordship of Ireland (Tiarnas na hÉireann.) was a period of feudal rule in Ireland between 1177 and 1542 under the King of England, styled as Lord of Ireland.

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Loughshinny

Loughshinny is a small village in Fingal, County Dublin, Ireland.

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Louis le Brocquy

Louis le Brocquy (10 November 1916 – 25 April 2012) was an Irish painter born in Dublin.

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Maasai people

The Maasai are a Nilotic ethnic group of semi-nomadic people inhabiting southern Kenya and northern Tanzania.

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Macgillycuddy's Reeks

MacGillycuddy's Reeks is a mountain range in County Kerry, Republic of Ireland.

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Magna Carta

Magna Carta (Latin for "the Great Charter"), also called Magna Carta Libertatum (Latin for "the Great Charter of the Liberties"), is a charter agreed by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215.

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Magners

Bulmers Irish Cider, branded as Magners Irish Cider outside the Republic of Ireland, is a brand of cider produced in County Tipperary in Ireland by the C&C Group.

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Mairtine

The Mairtine (Martini, Marthene, Muirtine, Maidirdine, Mhairtine) were an important people of late prehistoric Munster, Ireland, who by early historical times appear to have completely vanished from the Irish political landscape.

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Malin Head

Malin Head (Cionn Mhálanna), is located on the Inishowen Peninsula, County Donegal, Ireland and is the most northerly point of the island of Ireland.

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Mammal

Mammals (class Mammalia from Latin mamma "breast") are any members of a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles and birds by the possession of hair, three middle ear bones, mammary glands, and a neocortex (a region of the brain).

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Manchester University Press

Manchester University Press is the university press of the University of Manchester, England and a publisher of academic books and journals.

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Manx language

No description.

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Mary II of England

Mary II (30 April 1662 – 28 December 1694) was joint Sovereign of England, Scotland, and Ireland with her husband (who was also her first cousin), William III and II, from 1689 until her death.

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Mashed potato

Mashed potato is a dish prepared by mashing boiled potatoes.

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Múscraige

The Múscraighe (older spelling: Músgraige) were an important Érainn people of Munster, descending from Cairpre Músc, son of Conaire Cóem, a High King of Ireland.

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Mesolithic

In archaeology, mesolithic (Greek: mesos "middle", lithos "stone") is the culture between paleolithic and neolithic.

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Messiah (Handel)

Messiah (HWV 56) is an English-language oratorio composed in 1741 by George Frideric Handel, with a scriptural text compiled by Charles Jennens from the King James Bible, and from the version of the Psalms included with the Book of Common Prayer.

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Metalworking

Metalworking is the process of working with metals to create individual parts, assemblies, or large-scale structures.

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Metamorphic rock

Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means "change in form".

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Metropolitan Cork

Metropolitan Cork is an unofficial term which refers to the city of Cork, Ireland, its suburbs, rural hinterland that surround it and many towns and villages in that hinterland.

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Michael Carruth

Michael Carruth (born 9 July 1967) is a southpaw Irish Olympic boxer from Dublin.

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Mid-East Region, Ireland

The Mid-East Region is a NUTS Level III region of Ireland.

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Mid-West Region, Ireland

The Mid-West Region is a NUTS Level III region of the Republic of Ireland.

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Middle Ages

In European history, the Middle Ages or Medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Middle Irish

Middle Irish (sometimes called Middle Gaelic) is the Goidelic language which was spoken in Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man from the 10th to 12th centuries; it is therefore a contemporary of late Old English and early Middle English.

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Midlands Region, Ireland

The Midlands Region is a NUTS Level III region of Ireland.

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Milesians (Irish)

In the Lebor Gabála Érenn, a medieval Christian pseudo-history of Ireland, the Milesians are the Gaels who came from Iberia and settled in Ireland.

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Mitochondrial DNA

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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Monarchy of Ireland

A monarchical system of government has existed in Ireland during three periods of its history, finally ending in 1801.

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Monastery

A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, whether monks or nuns, and whether living in communities or alone (hermits).

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Moscow

Moscow (or; a) is the capital and the largest city of Russia with 12.2 million residents within the city limits and 16.8 million within the urban area.

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Motorsport

Motorsport or motorsports is the group of competitive events which primarily involve the use of motorized vehicles, whether for racing or non-racing competition.

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Mount Erebus

Mount Erebus is the second highest volcano in Antarctica (after Mount Sidley) and the southernmost active volcano on earth.

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Mount Stewart

Mount Stewart is an 18th-century house and garden in County Down, Northern Ireland, owned by the National Trust.

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Mountain hare

The mountain hare (Lepus timidus), also known as blue hare, tundra hare, variable hare, white hare, snow hare, alpine hare and Irish hare, is a hare that is largely adapted to polar and mountainous habitats.

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Municipal Corporations (Ireland) Act 1840

The Municipal Corporations Act (Ireland) 1840 (3 & 4 Vict. c. 108), An Act for the Regulation of Municipal Corporations in Ireland, was passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom on 10 August 1840.

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Munster

Munster (an Mhumhain / Cúige Mumhan,.

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Munster Rugby

Munster Rugby (Rugbaí Mumhan) is one of the four professional provincial rugby teams from the island of Ireland.

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Music of Ireland

Irish Music is music that has been created in various genres on the island of Ireland.

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Mussel

Mussel is the common name used for members of several families of clams or bivalve molluscs, from saltwater and freshwater habitats.

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National Monument (Ireland)

A National Monument in the Republic of Ireland is a structure or site which has been deemed to be of national importance and therefore worthy of state protection.

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National Volunteers

The National Volunteers was the name taken by the majority of the Irish Volunteers that sided with Irish Parliamentary Party leader John Redmond after the movement split over the question of the Volunteers' role in World War I.

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Natural gas

Natural gas is a fossil fuel formed when layers of decomposing plant and animal matter are exposed to intense heat and pressure over thousands of years.

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Navan

Navan navan for life is the county town of County Meath in Ireland.

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Neoclassical architecture

Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century.

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Neolithic

The Neolithic Age, Era, or Period, from νέος (néos, "new") and λίθος (líthos, "stone"), or New Stone Age, was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world from First Farmers: The Origins of Agricultural Societies by Peter Bellwood, 2004 and ending between 4,500 and 2,000 BC.

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Newgrange

Newgrange (Sí an Bhrú) is a prehistoric monument in County Meath, Ireland, located about one kilometre north of the River Boyne.

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Nicholas Callan

Father Nicholas Joseph Callan (1799–1864) was an Irish priest and scientist from Darver, County Louth, Ireland.

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Nigerians

Nigerians or Nigerian people are citizens and/or people with ancestry from Nigeria.

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Nine Years' War (Ireland)

The Nine Years' War (Cogadh na Naoi mBliana or Cogadh Naoi mBlian) or Tyrone's Rebellion took place in Ireland from 1594 to 1603.

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Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Norwegian: Nobelprisen) is a set of annual international awards bestowed in a number of categories by Swedish and Norwegian committees in recognition of academic, cultural and/or scientific advances.

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Nobel Prize in Literature

Since 1901, the Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) has been awarded annually to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning).

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Nobel Prize in Physics

The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.

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Norman invasion of Ireland

The Norman (or Anglo-Norman) invasion of Ireland took place in stages during the late 12th century.

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Normans

The Normans (Normands; Nortmanni) were the people who in the 10th and 11th centuries gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.

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North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland)

The North Channel (known in Irish and Scottish Gaelic as Sruth na Maoile, and alternatively in English as the Straits of Moyle or Sea of Moyle) is the strait between north-eastern Ireland and south-western Scotland.

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North Sea oil

North Sea oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons, comprising liquid petroleum and natural gas, produced from petroleum reservoirs beneath the North Sea.

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North/South Inter-Parliamentary Association

The North/South Inter-Parliamentary Association is an inter-parliamentary forum created between the national parliament of the Republic of Ireland (the Oireachtas) and the Northern Ireland Assembly.

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North/South Ministerial Council

The North/South Ministerial Council (NSMC) (An Chomhairle Aireachta Thuaidh-Theas, Ulster-Scots: North South Meinisterlie Council) is a body established under the Good Friday Agreement to co-ordinate activity and exercise certain governmental powers across the whole island of Ireland.

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Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann.; or Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in the northeast of the island of Ireland.

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Northern Ireland Assembly

The Northern Ireland Assembly (Tionól Thuaisceart Éireann, Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlan Assemblie) is the devolved legislature of Northern Ireland.

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Northern Ireland Electricity

Northern Ireland Electricity Limited (NIE) is the electricity asset owner of the transmission and distribution infrastructure in Northern Ireland.

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Northern Ireland Executive

The Northern Ireland Executive is the administrative branch of the Northern Ireland Assembly, the devolved legislature for Northern Ireland.

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Northern Ireland national football team

The Northern Ireland national football team represents Northern Ireland in international association football.

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Northern Ireland Office

The Northern Ireland Office (NIO; Oifig Thuaisceart Éireann, Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann Oaffis) is a British government department responsible for Northern Irish affairs. The NIO is led by the Secretary of State for Northern Ireland and is based at Stormont House in Belfast and 1 Horse Guards Road in London.

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Northwestern Europe

Northwestern, or northwest Europe is the loosely defined northwestern region of Europe.

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Number theory

Number theory (or arithmeticEspecially in older sources; see two following notes.) is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers.

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NUTS 2 statistical regions of the Republic of Ireland

Within the European Union, regions are arranged for statistical and revenue disbursing purposes using the NUTS structure.

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Oak

An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.

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Oceanic climate

An oceanic climate (also known as marine, west coast and maritime) is the climate typical of the west coasts at the middle latitudes of most continents, and generally features warm (but not hot) summers and cool (but not cold) winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range.

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Ogham

Ogham (Modern Irish or; ogam) is an Early Medieval alphabet used primarily to write the early Irish language (in the so-called "orthodox" inscriptions, 4th to 6th centuries), and later the Old Irish language (so-called scholastic ogham, 6th to 9th centuries).

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Old Irish

Old Irish (Goídelc) (sometimes called Old Gaelic) is the name given to the oldest form of the Goidelic languages for which extensive written texts are extant.

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Old Norse

Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements during about the 9th to 13th centuries.

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Open University

The Open University (OU) is a public distance learning and research university, and one of the biggest universities in the UK for undergraduate education.

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Operation Banner

Operation Banner was the operational name for the British Armed Forces' operation in Northern Ireland from August 1969 to July 2007.

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Ordnance Survey Ireland

Ordnance Survey Ireland (OSI; Suirbhéireacht Ordanáis Éireann) is the national mapping agency of Ireland.

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Oscar Wilde

Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (16 October 185430 November 1900) was an Irish author, playwright and poet.

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Outline of the Republic of Ireland

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Ireland: Ireland (Irish language: Éire) is a sovereign island nation located in Northern Europe.

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Overseas Chinese

Overseas Chinese are people of Chinese birth or descent who live outside the People's Republic of China and Republic of China (Taiwan).

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Ox

An ox (plural oxen), also known as a bullock in Australia and India, is a bovine trained as a draft animal.

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Oyster

The word oyster is used as a common name for a number of different families of saltwater clams, bivalve molluscs that live in marine or brackish habitats.

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Paddy Barnes

Patrick Gerard Barnes MBE (born 9 April 1987) is an Irish amateur boxer from Belfast.

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Paganism

Paganism is a term that developed among the Christian community of southern Europe during late antiquity to describe religions other than their own or Judaism.

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Palladian architecture

Palladian architecture is a European style of architecture derived from and inspired by the designs of the Venetian architect Andrea Palladio (1508–1580).

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Palladius (bishop of Ireland)

Palladius (fl. 408–431; died probably ca 457/461) was the first Bishop of the Christians of Ireland, preceding Saint Patrick; the two were perhaps conflated in many later Irish traditions.

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Panorama

A panorama (formed from Greek πᾶν "all" + ὅραμα "sight"), is any wide-angle view or representation of a physical space, whether in painting, drawing, photography, film, seismic images or a three-dimensional model.

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Papal bull

A papal bull is a particular type of letters patent or charter issued by a Pope of the Catholic Church.

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Paramilitary

A paramilitary is a semi-militarized force whose organizational structure, training, subculture, and (often) function are similar to those of a professional military, and which is not included as part of a state's formal armed forces.

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Parliament of England

The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England.

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Parliament of Ireland

The Parliament of Ireland was a legislature that existed in Dublin from 1297 until 1800.

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Parliament of the United Kingdom

The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the UK Parliament or the British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom, British Crown dependencies and British overseas territories.

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Partition of Ireland

The partition of Ireland (críochdheighilt na hÉireann) was the division of the island of Ireland into two distinct territories, Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland.

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Partraige

The Partraige were a people of early historic Ireland.

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Patron saint

A patron saint or a patron hallow is a saint who in Roman Catholicism is regarded as the tutelary spirit or heavenly advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family or person.

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Patron saints of places

This is a list of patron saints of places by nation, region, and town/city.

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Pádraig Harrington

Pádraig P. Harrington (born 31 August 1971) is an Irish professional golfer who plays on the European Tour and the PGA Tour.

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Peat

Peat (turf) is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation or organic matter that is unique to natural areas called peatlands or mires.

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Penal Laws (Ireland)

In Ireland, Penal Laws (Na Péindlíthe) are a series of laws imposed in an attempt to force Irish Roman Catholics and Protestant dissenters (such as Presbyterians) to accept the reformed denomination as defined by the English state established Anglican Church and practised by members of the Irish state established Church of Ireland.

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Peter's Pence

Peter's Pence is payment made voluntarily to the Roman Catholic Church.

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PGA Championship

The PGA Championship (sometimes, especially outside of the United States, referred to as the U.S. PGA Championship or U.S. PGA) is an annual golf tournament conducted by the Professional Golfers Association of America.

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Physical force Irish republicanism

Physical force Irish republicanism is the recurring appearance of a non-parliamentary violent insurrection in Ireland between 1798 and the present.

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Physicist

A physicist is a scientist who specializes in physics research.

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Physics World

Physics World is the membership magazine of the Institute of Physics, one of the largest physical societies in the world.

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Phytogeography

Phytogeography (from Greek φυτό, phyto.

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Pine

Pines are conifer trees in the genus Pinus, in the family Pinaceae.

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Pinophyta

The conifers, division Pinophyta, also known as division Coniferophyta or Coniferae, are one of 12 extant division-level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae (Viridiplantae) and 10 within the extant land plants.

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Plain

In geography, a plain is a flat area.

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Plantations of Ireland

Plantations in 16th and 17th century Ireland were the confiscation of land by the English crown and the colonisation of this land with settlers from England (particularly the Border Counties) and the Scottish Lowlands.

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Plurality voting system

The plurality voting system is a single-winner voting system often used to elect executive officers, or members of a legislative assembly based on single-member constituencies.

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Poland

Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country in Central Europe, bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine and Belarus to the east; and the Baltic Sea, Kaliningrad Oblast (a Russian exclave) and Lithuania to the north.

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Poles

The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka) are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland.

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Pope Adrian IV

Pope Adrian IV (Adrianus IV; – 1 September 1159), born Nicholas Breakspear, was pope from 4 December 1154 to his death in 1159.

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Pope Alexander III

Pope Alexander III (c. 1100/1105 – 30 August 1181), born Roland of Siena, was Pope from 7 September 1159 to his death in 1181.

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Pope Celestine I

Pope Celestine I (Caelestinus I; died 26 July 432) was Pope from 10 September 422 to his death in 432.

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Porter (beer)

Porter is a dark style of beer developed in London from well-hopped beers made from brown malt.

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Post-2008 Irish economic downturn

The post-2008 Irish economic downturn, coincided with a series of banking scandals, followed the 1990s and 2000s Celtic Tiger period of rapid real economic growth fuelled by foreign direct investment, a subsequent property bubble which rendered the real economy uncompetitive, and an expansion in bank lending in the early 2000s.

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Potato

The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum L. The word "potato" may refer either to the plant itself or to the edible tuber.

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Pound sterling

The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known simply as the pound, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.

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Poynings' Law

Poynings' Law or the Statute of Drogheda (10 Hen.7 c.4 or 10 Hen.7 c.9; later titled "An Act that no Parliament be holden in this Land until the Acts be certified into England") was a 1494 Act of the Parliament of Ireland which provided that the parliament could not meet until its proposed legislation had been approved both by Ireland's Lord Deputy and Privy Council and by England's monarch and Privy Council.

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Prehistoric Ireland

The prehistory of Ireland has been pieced together from archaeological and genetic evidence; it begins with the first evidence of humans, Mesolithic hunter-gatherers, settling in Ireland after 8000 BC and finishes with the start of the historical record, around 400 AD.

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Premier League

The Premier League is an English professional league for men's association football clubs.

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Presbyterianism

Presbyterianism is a part of the Reformed tradition within Protestantism which traces its origins to the British Isles.

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Primacy of Ireland

The Primacy of Ireland was historically disputed between the Archbishop of Armagh and the Archbishop of Dublin until finally settled by Pope Innocent VI.

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Prime number

A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that has no positive divisors other than 1 and itself.

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Pro12

The Pro12 (known as the Guinness Pro12 for sponsorship reasons) (formerly known as the Celtic League, Magners League and RaboDirect Pro12) is an annual rugby union competition involving twelve professional sides from Ireland, Italy, Scotland and Wales.

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Prohibition in the United States

Prohibition in the United States was a nationwide constitutional ban on the sale, production, importation, and transportation of alcoholic beverages that remained in place from 1920 to 1933.

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Protestant Ascendancy

The Protestant Ascendancy, usually known simply as the Ascendancy, was the political, economic and social domination of Ireland by a minority of landowners, Protestant clergy and members of the professions, all members of the Established Church (the Church of Ireland and Church of England) between the 17th century and the early 20th century.

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Protestantism

Protestantism is a form of Christian faith and practice which originated with the Protestant Reformation, a movement against what its followers considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church.

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Provinces of Ireland

Ireland has historically been divided into four provinces: Connacht, Leinster, Munster and Ulster.

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Provisional Irish Republican Army

The Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA or PIRA) was an Irish republican paramilitary organisation that sought to remove Northern Ireland from the United Kingdom and bring about an independent republic encompassing all of Ireland.

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Ptolemy

Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos,; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Egyptian writer of Alexandria, known as a mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.

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Quaternion

In mathematics, the quaternions are a number system that extends the complex numbers.

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Raidió Teilifís Éireann

Raidió Teilifís Éireann (Radio Television of Ireland; abbreviated as RTÉ) is a semi-state company and the national public service broadcaster of Ireland.

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Red algae

The red algae, or Rhodophyta (or; from Ancient Greek: ῥόδον rhodon, "rose" and φυτόν phyton, "plant"), are one of the oldest groups of eukaryotic algae, and also one of the largest, with about 5,000–6,000 species of mostly multicellular, marine algae, including many notable seaweeds.

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Red deer

The red deer (Cervus elaphus) is one of the largest deer species.

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Red fox

The red fox, Vulpes vulpes, is the largest of the true foxes and the most abundant wild member of the Carnivora, being present across the entire Northern Hemisphere from the Arctic Circle to North Africa, North America and Eurasia.

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Religion in Ireland

The island of Ireland is divided into two jurisdictions: Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.

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Renewable energy

Renewable energy is generally defined as energy that comes from resources which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.

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Republic of Ireland

Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying about five-sixths of the island of Ireland.

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Republic of Ireland national football team

The Republic of Ireland national football team represents Ireland in association football.

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Richard Cantillon

Richard Cantillon (1680s –) was an Irish-French economist and author of Essai sur la Nature du Commerce en Général (Essay on the Nature of Trade in General), a book considered by William Stanley Jevons to be the "cradle of political economy".

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Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke

Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke (of the first creation), Lord of Leinster, Justiciar of Ireland (1130 – 20 April 1176) was an English lord notable for his leading role in the Norman invasion of Ireland.

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River Shannon

The River Shannon (Abha na Sionainne / an tSionainn / an tSionna) is the longest river in Ireland at.

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Rivers of Ireland

Shown here are all the major rivers and tributaries of Ireland with their lengths (in kilometres and miles).

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Robert Boyle

Robert Boyle FRS was an Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist and inventor born in Lismore, County Waterford, Ireland.

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Robert Emmet

Robert Emmet (4 March 1778 – 20 September 1803) was an Irish nationalist and Republican, orator and rebel leader.

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Robert Peel

Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet (5 February 17882 July 1850) was a British Conservative statesman, who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 10 December 1834 to 8 April 1835, and again from 30 August 1841 to 29 June 1846.

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Rock music

Rock music is a genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the 1950s, and developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and later, particularly in the United Kingdom and the United States.

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Rock of Cashel

The Rock of Cashel (Carraig Phádraig), also known as Cashel of the Kings and St.

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Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829

The Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829, passed by Parliament in 1829, was the culmination of the process of Catholic Emancipation throughout Britain.

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Rory McIlroy

Rory McIlroy, (born 4 May 1989) is a Northern Irish professional golfer from Holywood in County Down who is a member of both the European and PGA Tours.

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Rough Guides

Rough Guides Ltd is a travel guidebook and reference publisher, owned by Penguin Random House.

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Royal charter

A royal charter is a formal document issued by a monarch as letters patent, granting a right or power to an individual or a body corporate.

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Rugby union

Rugby union, or simply rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.

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Rugby World Cup

The Rugby World Cup is a men's rugby union tournament contested every four years between the top international teams.

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Rural area

In general, a rural area or countryside' is a geographic area that is located outside cities and the centers of towns.

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Ryder Cup

The Ryder Cup is a biennial men's golf competition between teams from Europe and the United States.

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Saint Patrick

Saint Patrick (Patricius; Πατρίκιος; *Qatrikias; Modern Pádraig; Padrig) was a 5th-century Romano-British Christian missionary and bishop in Ireland.

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Saint Patrick's Day

Saint Patrick's Day, or the Feast of Saint Patrick (Lá Fhéile Pádraig, "the Day of the Festival of Patrick"), is a cultural and religious celebration held on 17 March, the traditional death date of Saint Patrick (AD 385–461), the foremost patron saint of Ireland.

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Salmon

Salmon is the common name for several species of fish in the family Salmonidae.

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Samuel Beckett

Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish avant-garde novelist, playwright, theatre director, and poet, who lived in Paris for most of his adult life and wrote in both English and French.

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Sargassum

Sargassum is a genus of brown (class Phaeophyceae) macroalgae (seaweed) in the order Fucales.

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Satellite imagery

Satellite imagery consists of images of Earth or other planets collected by satellites.

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Satire

Satire is a genre of literature, and sometimes graphic and performing arts, in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, corporations, government or society itself, into improvement.

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Schmitzia hiscockiana

Schmitzia hiscockiana Maggs & Guiry is a small, rare, red seaweed or marine alga of the phylum Rhodophyta or red algae.

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Scotch whisky

Scotch whisky, often simply called Scotch, is malt whisky or grain whisky made in Scotland.

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Scotia

Scotia was originally a Roman name for Ireland, inhabited by the people they called Scoti or Scotii.

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Scotland

Scotland (Scots:; Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.

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Scottish Gaelic

Scottish Gaelic, sometimes also referred to as Gaelic (Gàidhlig), is a Celtic language native to Scotland.

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Scottish Highlands

The Scottish Highlands, known locally simply as the Highlands (A' Ghàidhealtachd, "the place of the Gaels"; the Hielands) are a historic region of Scotland.

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Scottish people

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Scottish Premier League

The Scottish Premier League (SPL) was the top level league competition for professional football clubs in Scotland.

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Scuba diving

Scuba diving is a mode of underwater diving in which a diver uses a self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (scuba) to breathe underwater.

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Sea level

Sea level is generally used to refer to mean sea level (MSL), an average level for the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.

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Sea turtle

Sea turtles (superfamily Chelonioidea), sometimes called marine turtles, are reptiles of the order Testudines.

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Seamus Heaney

Seamus Justin Heaney, MRIA (13 April 1939 – 30 August 2013) was an Irish poet, playwright, translator and lecturer, and the recipient of the 1995 Nobel Prize in Literature.

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Sean Scully

Sean Scully (born 30 June 1945) is an Irish-born American-based painter and printmaker who has twice been named a Turner Prize nominee.

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Seanad Éireann

Seanad Éireann (Senate of Ireland) is the upper house of the Oireachtas (the Irish legislature), which also comprises the President of Ireland and Dáil Éireann (the lower house).

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Seán Ó Riada

Seán Ó Riada (1 August 1931 – 3 October 1971), was a composer and perhaps the single most influential figure in the revival of Irish traditional music during the 1960s.

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Seán O'Casey

Seán O'Casey (Seán Ó Cathasaigh,; born John Casey, 30 March 1880 – 18 September 1964) was an Irish dramatist and memoirist.

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Sebastian Barry

Sebastian Barry (born 5 July 1955) is an Irish playwright, novelist and poet.

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Second Dáil

The Second Dáil was Dáil Éireann as it convened from 16 August 1921 until 8 June 1922.

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Secretary of State for Northern Ireland

Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, informally known as the Northern Ireland Secretary, is the principal secretary of state in Her Majesty's Government with responsibilities for Northern Ireland.

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Sectarianism

Sectarianism is a form of bigotry, discrimination, or hatred arising from attaching importance to perceived differences between subdivisions within a group, such as between different denominations of a religion, nationalism, class, regional or factions of a political movement.

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Sedulius Scottus

Sedulius Scotus or Scottus (fl. 840-860) was an Irish teacher, Latin grammarian and scriptural commentator, who lived in the 9th century.

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Setanta Sports Cup

The Setanta Sports Cup, commonly known as just the Setanta Cup, is a club football competition featuring teams from both football associations on the island of Ireland.

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Shark

Sharks are a group of fish characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton, five to seven gill slits on the sides of the head, and pectoral fins that are not fused to the head.

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Shaw's Road

Shaw's Road or Bóthar Seoighe, also known as both Pobal Feirste (Farset Community) and The Irish Houses is a small Gaeltacht (Irish-speaking area) in Belfast, County Antrim, Northern Ireland.

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Show jumping

Show Jumping, also known as "stadium jumping", "open jumping", or simply "jumping", is a part of a group of English riding equestrian events that also includes dressage, eventing, hunters, and equitation.

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Silver medal

A silver medal in sports and other similar areas involving competition is a medal made of, or plated with, silver awarded to the second-place finisher, or runner-up, of contests or competitions such as the Olympic Games, Commonwealth Games, etc.

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Silvermines

Silvermines, historically known as Bellagowan, is a village in County Tipperary in Ireland.

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Sinéad O'Connor

Sinéad Marie Bernadette O’Connor (born 8 December 1966) is an Irish singer-songwriter who rose to fame in the late 1980s with her debut album The Lion and the Cobra.

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Sinn Féin

Sinn Féin is an Irish republican political party active in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.

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Six Nations Championship

The Six Nations Championship is an annual international rugby union competition involving six European sides: England, France, Ireland, Italy, Scotland and Wales.

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Skellig Michael

Skellig Michael (Sceilig Mhichíl), or Great Skellig (Sceilig Mhór) is the larger of the two Skellig Islands located 11.6 km west of the Iveragh Peninsula in County Kerry, Ireland.

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Sobriquet

A sobriquet is a nickname, sometimes assumed, but often given by another.

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Society of United Irishmen

The Society of United Irishmen was founded as a liberal political organisation in eighteenth century Ireland that initially sought Parliamentary reform.

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Soghain

The Soghain were a people of ancient Ireland.

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Sonia O'Sullivan

Sonia O'Sullivan (born 28 November 1969, in Cobh, County Cork) is an Irish former athlete.

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South America

South America is a continent located in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.

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South Magnetic Pole

The South Magnetic Pole is the wandering point on the Earth's Southern Hemisphere where the geomagnetic field lines are directed vertically upwards.

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South-East Region, Ireland

The South-East Region is a NUTS Level III region of Ireland.

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South-West Region, Ireland

The South-West Region is a NUTS Level III region of Ireland.

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Southern Uplands

The Southern Uplands are the southernmost and least populous of mainland Scotland's three major geographic areas (the others being the Central Lowlands and the Highlands).

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Spartina anglica

Spartina anglica (Common Cord-grass) is a species of cordgrass that originated in southern England in about 1870.

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Special EU Programmes Body

The Special EU Programmes Body (SEUPB) (Comhlacht na gClár Speisialta AE; Ulster-Scots: Tha By-Ordnar CE Dargs Convenerie) is a cross-border body in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland which co-ordinates projects funded by the European Union and implemented in Northern Ireland and adjacent regions: the Border region of the Republic of Ireland, and Western Scotland.

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St George's Channel

St George's Channel (Sianel San Siôr, Muir Bhreatan) is a sea channel connecting the Irish Sea to the north and the Celtic Sea to the southwest.

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St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin

Saint Patrick's Cathedral in Dublin, also known as The National Cathedral and Collegiate Church of Saint Patrick, Dublin, or in the Irish language as Ard-Eaglais Naomh Pádraig, founded in 1191, is the largest church in Ireland and one of Dublin's two Church of Ireland cathedrals.

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St Patrick's College, Maynooth

St Patrick's College, Maynooth (Coláiste Naoimh Phádraig, Maigh Nuad), is the "National Seminary for Ireland" (a Roman Catholic college), and a Pontifical University, located in the village of Maynooth, 24 km from Dublin, Ireland.

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Statute of Westminster 1931

The Statute of Westminster, 1931 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and separate versions of it are now domestic law within Australia and Canada; it has been repealed in New Zealand and implicitly by subsequent laws in former Commonwealth realms.

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Statutes of Kilkenny

The Statutes of Kilkenny were a series of thirty-five acts passed at Kilkenny in 1366, aiming to curb the decline of the Hiberno-Norman Lordship of Ireland.

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String instrument

String instruments, stringed instruments, or chordophones are musical instruments that produce sound from vibrating strings.

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Subtropics

The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropic circle of latitude (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and the 38th parallel in each hemisphere.

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Sunningdale Agreement

The Sunningdale Agreement was an attempt to establish a power-sharing Northern Ireland Executive and a cross-border Council of Ireland.

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Supreme Court of the United Kingdom

The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom is the supreme court in all matters under English and Welsh law, Northern Ireland law and Scottish civil law.

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Sweeney's Men

Sweeney's Men was an Irish traditional band.

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Synod of Kells

The Synod of Kells took place in AD 1152, under the presidency of Cardinal Paparoni, and continued the process begun at the Synod of Rathbreasail of reforming the Irish church.

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Taibhdhearc na Gaillimhe

Taibhdhearc na Gaillimhe (meaning "Galway Theatre"), also called An Taiḃḋearc, is the national Irish language theatre of Ireland.

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Taoiseach

The Taoiseach is the head of government or prime minister of Ireland.

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Tariff

A tariff is a tax on imports or exports (an international trade tariff).

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Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest

Mixed forests are a temperate and humid biome.

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Temperate climate

In geography, temperate or tepid latitudes of Earth lie between the tropics and the polar regions.

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Tennis

Tennis is a racquet sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles).

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Test Act

The Test Acts were a series of English penal laws that served as a religious test for public office and imposed various civil disabilities on Roman Catholics and Nonconformists.

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The Burren

The Burren is a karst landscape in County Clare, Ireland.

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The Chieftains

The Chieftains are a traditional Irish band formed in Dublin in November 1962, by Paddy Moloney, Sean Potts and Michael Tubridy.

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The Clancy Brothers

The Clancy Brothers were an influential Irish folk group, which initially developed as a part of the American folk music revival.

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The Corrs

The Corrs are an Irish band that combine rock with traditional Celtic Irish folk themes within their music.

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The Cranberries

The Cranberries are an Irish rock band who formed in Limerick in 1989.

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The Dubliners

The Dubliners are an Irish folk band founded in Dublin in 1962.

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The Emergency (Ireland)

The Emergency (Ré na Práinne / An Éigeandáil) was the state of emergency which existed in the state of Ireland during the Second World War.

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The Independent

The Independent is a British national morning newspaper published in London by Independent Print Limited, owned by Alexander Lebedev since 2010.

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The Irish Times

The Irish Times is an Irish daily broadsheet newspaper launched on 29 March 1859.

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The North/South Language Body

The North/South Language Body (An Foras Teanga Thuaidh/Theas; Ulster-Scots: Tha Noarth/Sooth Boord o Leid or The Langage Curn) is an implementation body, provided for by the Belfast Agreement, that exists to implement policies agreed by Ministers in the North/South Ministerial Council (NSMC) in Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland with regard to the Irish and Ulster-Scots (or "Ullans") languages on a cross border all Island basis.

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The Open Championship

The Open Championship, or simply The Open (often referred to as the British Open), is the oldest of the four major championships in professional golf.

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The Pale

The Pale (An Pháil in Irish) or the English Pale (An Pháil Shasanach or An Ghalltacht), was the part of Ireland that was directly under the control of the English government in the late Middle Ages.

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The Pogues

The Pogues are a Celtic punk band from London, formed in 1982 and fronted by Shane MacGowan.

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The Saw Doctors

The Saw Doctors are an Irish rock band.

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The Troubles

The Troubles (Na Trioblóidí) is the common name for the ethno-nationalist conflict in Northern Ireland that spilled over at various times into parts of the Republic of Ireland, England and mainland Europe.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is an American daily newspaper.

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The Wolfe Tones

The Wolfe Tones, an Irish rebel music band, incorporate elements of Irish traditional music in their songs.

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TheJournal.ie

TheJournal.ie is an internet news publication in Ireland.

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Thin Lizzy

Thin Lizzy are an Irish rock band formed in Dublin in 1969.

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Tigernán Ua Ruairc

Tighearnán Mór Ua Ruairc (older spelling: Tigernán Mór Ua Ruairc), anglicised as Tiernán O'Rourke (fl. 1124–1172) ruled the Kingdom of Bréifne as the 19th king in its Ua Ruairc (later O'Rourke) dynasty (964–1605 CE).

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Tithe

A tithe (from Old English: teogoþa "tenth") is a one-tenth part of something, paid as a contribution to a religious organization or compulsory tax to government.

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Top-level domain

A top-level domain (TLD) is one of the domains at the highest level in the hierarchical Domain Name System of the Internet.

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Torc

A torc, also spelled torq or torque, is a large rigid or at least stiff neck ring in metal, made either as a single piece or from strands twisted together.

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Transformer

A transformer is an electrical device that transfers electrical energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction.

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Treaty of Windsor (1175)

The Treaty of Windsor (1175) was a territorial agreement made during the time of the Norman invasion of Ireland.

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Trinity College, Dublin

Trinity College (Coláiste na Tríonóide), known in full as the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin, is a research university and the sole constituent college of the University of Dublin in Ireland.

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Triple Crown (rugby union)

In rugby union, the Triple Crown is an honour contested annually by the so-called "Home Nations" - i.e. England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales who compete within the larger Six Nations Championship.

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Trout

Trout is the common name for a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the genera Oncorhynchus, Salmo and Salvelinus, all of the subfamily Salmoninae of the family Salmonidae.

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Tudor conquest of Ireland

The Tudor conquest (or reconquest) of Ireland took place under the Tudor dynasty, which held the Kingdom of England during the 16th century.

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Tudor dynasty

The Tudor dynasty or House of Tudor was a royal house of Welsh and English origin, descended in the male line from the Tudors of Penmynydd.

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Turlough Hill

Turlough Hill, also known as Tomaneena, is a high mountain in County Wicklow in Ireland and site of Ireland's only pumped-storage hydroelectricity plant.

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Twynholm

Twynholm is a village in Scotland.

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Tynagh

Tynagh is a village and parish in south-east County Galway in Ireland.

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Tyndall effect

The Tyndall effect, also known as Tyndall scattering, is light scattering by particles in a colloid or particles in a fine suspension.

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U.S. Open (golf)

The United States Open Championship, commonly known as the U.S. Open, is the annual open golf tournament of the United States.

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Uaithni

The Uaithni were a people of early Ireland, who in early medieval times lived in north-eastern County Limerick and the adjoining part of County Tipperary, and had traditions that they once lived west of the River Shannon.

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Uí Liatháin

The Uí Liatháin were an early kingdom of Munster in southern Ireland.

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Uí Maine

Uí Maine, often Anglicised as Hy Many, was one of the oldest and largest kingdoms located in Connacht, Ireland.

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UEFA Euro 1988

The 1988 UEFA European Football Championship final tournament was held in West Germany between 10 and 25 June 1988.

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UEFA Euro 2012

The 2012 UEFA European Championship, commonly referred to as UEFA Euro 2012 or simply Euro 2012, was the 14th European Championship for men's national football teams organised by UEFA.

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UEFA European Championship

The UEFA European Championship, or simply, The Euros, is the primary association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA), determining the continental champion of Europe.

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Ulaid

The Ulaid (Old Irish) or Ulaidh (modern Irish) were a people and dynastic group of early Ireland who gave their name to the province of Ulster.

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Ulex

Ulex (gorse, furze or whin) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Fabaceae.

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Ulex europaeus

Ulex europaeus (gorse, common gorse, furze or whin) is a species of flowering plant in the family Fabaceae, native to portions of Europe from the northern United Kingdom south to Galicia in Spain and Portugal, and from the western Republic of Ireland east to Galicja in Poland and Ukraine.

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Ulster

Ulster (Ulaidh or Cúige Uladh, Ulster Scots: Ulstèr or Ulster) is a province in the north of the island of Ireland.

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Ulster loyalism

Ulster loyalism is a political ideology found primarily among working class Ulster Protestants in Northern Ireland.

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Ulster Rugby

Ulster Rugby (Rugbaí Ulaidh) is one of the four professional provincial rugby teams from the island of Ireland.

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Ulster Scots dialects

Ulster Scots or Ulster-Scots (Ulstèr-Scotch) generally refers to the dialects of Scots spoken in parts of Ulster in Ireland.

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Ulster Unionist Party

The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) is one of the two main unionist political parties in Northern Ireland.

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Ulster Volunteers

The Ulster Volunteers were a unionist militia founded in 1912 to block self-government (or Home Rule) for Ireland, which was then part of the United Kingdom.

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Ulysses (novel)

Ulysses is a modernist novel by Irish writer James Joyce.

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United Ireland

A united Ireland is a movement for a sovereign state covering all of the thirty-two traditional counties of Ireland.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established on 1 January 1801 under the terms of the Acts of Union 1800, by which the nominally separate kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland were united.

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United Nations Environment Programme

The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is an agency that coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices.

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United Nations System-wide Earthwatch

United Nations System-wide Earthwatch is an initiative set up by the United Nations to bring together environmental observations by UN agencies within a consistent framework.

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University College Cork

University College Cork – National University of Ireland, Cork (UCC) (Irish: Coláiste na hOllscoile Corcaigh) is a constituent university of the National University of Ireland.

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University College Dublin

University College Dublin (also known as UCD) (An Coláiste Ollscoile, Baile Átha Cliath (COBÁC)), formally known as University College Dublin – National University of Ireland, Dublin (An Coláiste Ollscoile, Baile Átha Cliath - Ollscoil na hÉireann, Baile Átha Cliath) is Ireland's largest university, with over 1,480 faculty and 32,000 students.

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Van Morrison

Sir George Ivan Morrison, OBE (born 31 August 1945) is a Northern Irish singer, songwriter and musician.

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Vernacular literature

Vernacular literature is literature written in the vernacular—the speech of the "common people".

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Victoria Cross

The Victoria Cross (VC) is the highest military decoration awarded for valour "in the face of the enemy" to members of the armed forces of various Commonwealth countries, and previous British Empire territories.

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Vikings

Vikings (Norwegian and Vikinger; Swedish and Vikingar; Víkingar), from Old Norse víkingr, were Germanic Norse seafarers, speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Scandinavian homelands across wide areas of northern and central Europe, as well as European Russia, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.

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Viviparous lizard

The viviparous lizard or common lizard, Zootoca vivipara (formerly Lacerta vivipara), is a Eurasian lizard.

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W. B. Yeats

William Butler Yeats (13 June 186528 January 1939) was an Irish poet and one of the foremost figures of 20th century literature.

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Wales

Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain, bordered by England to its east, the Irish Sea to its north and west, and the Bristol Channel to its south.

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Wars of the Three Kingdoms

The Wars of the Three Kingdoms formed an intertwined series of conflicts that took place in England, Ireland and Scotland between 1639 and 1651.

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Waterford

WaterfordDiscover Waterford, by Eamon McEneaney (2001).

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Waterways Ireland

Waterways Ireland (Uiscebhealaí Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Watterweys Airlann) is one of the six all-Ireland North/South implementation bodies established under the Belfast Agreement in 1999.

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Wave equation

The wave equation is an important second-order linear partial differential equation for the description of waves – as they occur in physics – such as sound waves, light waves and water waves.

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Wayne McCullough

Wayne Pocket Rocket McCullough (born Wayne William McCullough, 7 July 1970) is a retired professional boxer from Belfast, Northern Ireland.

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Weather station

A weather station is a facility, either on land or sea, with instruments and equipment for measuring atmospheric conditions to provide information for weather forecasts and to study the weather and climate.

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Weaving

Weaving is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth.

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Welsh people

The Welsh people (Cymry) are a nation and ethnic group native to, or otherwise associated with, Wales and the Welsh language.

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West Indies

The West Indies is a region of the Caribbean Basin and North Atlantic Ocean that includes the many islands and island nations of the Antilles and the Lucayan Archipelago.

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West Region, Ireland

The West Region is a NUTS Level III region of Ireland.

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Western culture

Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Western lifestyle, or European civilization, is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems, and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe, having both indigenous and foreign origin.

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Western European Summer Time

Western European Summer Time (WEST) is a summer daylight saving time scheme, 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.

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Wexford

Wexford (from Veisafjǫrðr, Yola: Weisèforthè, Irish: Loch Garman) is the county town of County Wexford, Ireland.

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Whale

Whale is the common name for a widely distributed and diverse group of fully aquatic marine mammals.

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Wheat

Wheat (Triticum spp.) is a cereal grain, originally from the Levant region of the Near East but now cultivated worldwide.

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Wheel

A wheel is a circular component that is intended to rotate on an axle bearing.

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Whisky

Whisky or whiskey is a type of distilled alcoholic beverage made from fermented grain mash.

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White meat

White meat or light meat refers to the lighter-colored meat of poultry as contrasted with dark meat.

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White people

White people is a racial classification specifier, depending on context used for people of Caucasian ancestry.

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William III of England

William III (Willem III; 4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702) was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland, and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672, and King of England, Ireland, and Scotland from 1689 until his death.

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William Orpen

Major Sir William Newenham Montague Orpen, (27 November 1878 – 29 September 1931) was an Irish artist who worked mainly in London.

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William Pitt the Younger

William Pitt the Younger (28 May 1759 – 23 January 1806) was a British politician of the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

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William Rowan Hamilton

Sir William Rowan Hamilton (midnight, 3–4 August 1805 – 2 September 1865) was an Irish physicist, astronomer, and mathematician, who made important contributions to classical mechanics, optics, and algebra.

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William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin

William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin (26 June 1824 – 17 December 1907) was a British mathematical physicist and engineer who was born in Belfast in 1824.

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Williamite War in Ireland

The Williamite War in Ireland (1688–1691)—Cogadh an Dá Rí, meaning "war of the two kings"—was a conflict between Jacobites (supporters of the English Catholic King James II) and Williamites (supporters of the Dutch Protestant Prince William of Orange) over who would be King of England, Scotland and Ireland.

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Wind farm

A windfarm or wind park is a group of wind turbines in the same location used to produce electricity.

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Wind power

Wind power is extracted from air flow using wind turbines or sails to produce mechanical or electrical power.

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Wind turbine

A wind turbine is a device that converts kinetic energy from the wind into electrical power.

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Winter of 2009–10 in Europe

The winter of 2009–2010 in Europe was unusually cold.

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Wolves in Ireland

Wolves were once an integral part of the Irish countryside and culture.

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World Heritage Site

A World Heritage Site is a place (such as a building, city, complex, desert, forest, island, lake, monument, or mountain) that is listed by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as being of special cultural or physical significance.

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World War I

World War I (WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war centered in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918.

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Wreck diving

Wreck diving is a type of recreational diving where shipwrecks are explored.

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.ie

.ie is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) which corresponds with the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code for Ireland.

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11th meridian west

The meridian 11° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, Africa, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

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1958 FIFA World Cup

The 1958 FIFA World Cup, the sixth staging of the World Cup, was hosted by Sweden from 8 to 29 June.

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1969 Northern Ireland riots

During 12–17 August 1969, Northern Ireland was rocked by intense political and sectarian rioting.

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1982 FIFA World Cup

The 1982 FIFA World Cup, the 12th FIFA World Cup, was held in Spain from 13 June to 11 July 1982.

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1986 FIFA World Cup

The 1986 FIFA World Cup, the 13th FIFA World Cup, was held in Mexico from 31 May to 29 June 1986.

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1990 FIFA World Cup

The 1990 FIFA World Cup was the 14th FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international football world championship tournament.

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1991 Rugby World Cup

The 1991 Rugby World Cup was the second edition of the Rugby World Cup, and was jointly hosted by England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland and France; at that time, the five European countries that participated in the Five Nations Championship making it the first Rugby World Cup to be staged in the northern hemisphere, with England as the host of the championship game.

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1992 Summer Olympics

The 1992 Summer Olympic Games (Spanish: Juegos Olímpicos de Verano de 1992; Catalan: Jocs Olímpics d'estiu de 1992), officially known as the Games of the XXV Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event celebrated in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain in 1992, and which 10 years before, 1982 FIFA World Cup were celebrated in Spain for 13 June to 11 July 1982.

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1994 FIFA World Cup

The 1994 FIFA World Cup was the 15th FIFA World Cup, held in nine cities across the United States from 17 June to 17 July 1994.

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1998–99 Heineken Cup

The 1998–99 Heineken Cup was the fourth edition of the Heineken Cup.

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1999 Rugby World Cup

The 1999 Rugby World Cup was the fourth Rugby World Cup and was won by Australia.

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2000 Summer Olympics

The 2000 Summer Olympic Games (Les Jeux olympiques d'été de 2000), officially known as the Games of the XXVII Olympiad and commonly known as Sydney 2000 or the Millennium Olympic Games/Games of the New Millennium, were an international multi-sport event which was celebrated between 15 September and 1 October 2000 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

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2002 FIFA World Cup

The 2002 FIFA World Cup was the 17th staging of the FIFA World Cup which took place from 31 May to 30 June 2002 in South Korea and Japan.

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2003 European heat wave

The 2003 European heat wave led to the hottest summer on record in Europe since at least 1540.

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2005–06 Heineken Cup

The 2005–06 Heineken Cup was the eleventh edition of the European Heineken Cup rugby union club tournament.

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2006 Ryder Cup

The 36th Ryder Cup Matches were held 22–24 September 2006 in Ireland at the Palmer Course of the K Club in Straffan, County Kildare, west of Dublin.

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2007–08 Heineken Cup

The 2007–08 Heineken Cup was the 13th edition of the Heineken Cup, the annual rugby union European club competition for clubs from the top six nations in European rugby.

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2008–09 Heineken Cup

The 2008–09 Heineken Cup was the fourteenth edition of the Heineken Cup, the annual rugby union European club competition for clubs from the top six nations in European rugby.

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2010 Commonwealth Games

The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010.

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2010 European Amateur Boxing Championships

The Men's 2010 European Amateur Boxing Championships were held in Moscow, Russia from June 4 to June 13, 2010.

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2010–11 Heineken Cup

The 2010–11 Heineken Cup was the 16th season of the Heineken Cup, the annual rugby union European club competition for clubs from the top six nations in European rugby.

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2011 Open Championship

The 2011 Open Championship was the 140th Open Championship, held 14–17 July at Royal St George's Golf Club in Sandwich, Kent, England.

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2011–12 Heineken Cup

The 2011–12 Heineken Cup was the 17th season of the Heineken Cup, the annual rugby union European club competition for clubs from the top six nations in European rugby.

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51st parallel north

The 51st parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 51 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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56th parallel north

The 56th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 56 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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5th meridian west

The meridian 5° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

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Redirects here:

Airlan, Airlann, Auld Sod, Erin's Isle, HÉireann, IRELAND, Ierne (placename), Ireland (Island), Ireland (island), Ireland (region), Ireland Ulster, Ireland and Ulster, Irelander, Irelanders, Irland, Irlanda, Irlandia, Island Ireland, Island ireland, Island of Ireland, Mikra Britannia, Population of Ireland, Scotia major, Symbol of Ireland, The island of Ireland, West Coast of Ireland.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ireland

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