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A Modest Proposal
A Modest Proposal For preventing the Children of Poor People From being a Burthen to Their Parents or Country, and For making them Beneficial to the Publick, commonly referred to as A Modest Proposal, is a Juvenalian satirical essay written and published anonymously by Jonathan Swift in 1729.
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The Abbey Theatre (Amharclann na Mainistreach), also known as the National Theatre of Ireland (Amharclann Náisiúnta na hÉireann), in Dublin, Republic of Ireland, first opened its doors to the public on 27 December 1904.
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The Abwehr was the German military intelligence service for the Reichswehr and Wehrmacht from 1920 to 1945.
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Achill Island (Acaill, Oileán Acla) in County Mayo is the largest of the Irish isles, and is situated off the west coast of Ireland.
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Act of Settlement 1701
The Act of Settlement is an Act of the Parliament of England that was passed in 1701 to settle the succession to the English and Irish crowns on Protestants only.
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Acts of Union 1800
The Acts of Union 1800 (sometimes erroneously referred to as a single Act of Union 1801) were parallel acts of the Parliament of Great Britain and the Parliament of Ireland which united the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland (previously in personal union) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
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Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.
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In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
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Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
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Alice Maher (born 1956) born at Kilmoyler, near Bansha, County Tipperary, Ireland, is a noted artist who uses a wide variety of media including sculpture, photography and installation.
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"All-Ireland" is an attributive term which emphasises the whole of the island of Ireland.
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All-Ireland Senior Football Championship
The All-Ireland Senior Football Championship (SFC), the premier competition in Gaelic football, is an annual series of games played in Ireland and organised by the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA).
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All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship
The GAA Hurling All-Ireland Senior Championship, known simply as the All-Ireland Championship, is an annual inter-county hurling competition organised by the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA).
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The Almagest is a 2nd-century Greek-language mathematical and astronomical treatise on the apparent motions of the stars and planetary paths, written by Claudius Ptolemy. One of the most influential scientific texts of all time, its geocentric model was accepted for more than 1200 years from its origin in Hellenistic Alexandria, in the medieval Byzantine and Islamic worlds, and in Western Europe through the Middle Ages and early Renaissance until Copernicus.
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American whiskey is a distilled beverage produced in the United States from a fermented mash of cereal grain.
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In countries outside the United States of America, Americanization or Americanisation is the influence American culture and business have on other countries, such as their media, cuisine, business practices, popular culture, technology, or political techniques.
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In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
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The Angevin Empire (L'Empire Plantagenêt) is a collective exonym referring to the possessions of the Angevin kings of England, who also held lands in France, during the 12th and 13th centuries.
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Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
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Anglicisation (or anglicization, see English spelling differences), occasionally anglification, anglifying, englishing, refers to modifications made to foreign words, names and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or understand in English.
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Angling is a method of fishing by means of an "angle" (fish hook).
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Anglo-Irish Trade War
The Anglo-Irish Trade War (also called the Economic War) was a retaliatory trade war between the Irish Free State and the United Kingdom from 1932 to 1938.
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The Anglo-Irish Treaty (An Conradh Angla-Éireannach), commonly known as The Treaty and officially the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was an agreement between the government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and representatives of the Irish Republic that concluded the Irish War of Independence.
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Anglo-Norman, also known as Anglo-Norman French, is a variety of the Norman language that was used in England and, to a lesser extent, elsewhere in the British Isles during the Anglo-Norman period.
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Anjou (Andegavia) is a historical province of France straddling the lower Loire River.
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Aogán Ó Rathaille
Aodhagán Ó RathailleVariant Irish spellings of his name include Aogán and Ua Rathaille or Egan O'Rahilly (c.1670–1726), was an Irish language poet.
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An apex predator, also known as an alpha predator or top predator, is a predator at the top of a food chain, with no natural predators.
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The Aran Islands (Oileáin Árann—pronunciation) or The Arans (na hÁrainneacha—) are a group of three islands located at the mouth of Galway Bay, on the west coast of Ireland, with a total area of about.
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Ardfert Cathedral (Ardeaglais Ard Fhearta) is a ruined former cathedral in Ardfert, County Kerry, in Ireland.
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The Arecaceae are a botanical family of perennial trees, climbers, shrubs, and acaules commonly known as palm trees (owing to historical usage, the family is alternatively called Palmae).
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Armagh is the county town of County Armagh and a city in Northern Ireland, as well as a civil parish.
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Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, (1 May 1769 – 14 September 1852) was an Anglo-Irish soldier and statesman who was one of the leading military and political figures of 19th-century Britain, serving twice as Prime Minister.
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Ashford Castle is a medieval and Victorian castle that has been expanded over the centuries and turned into a five star luxury hotel near Cong on the Mayo-Galway border, on the shore of Lough Corrib in Ireland.
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Asian people or Asiatic peopleUnited States National Library of Medicine.
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Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
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Atlantic Bronze Age
The Atlantic Bronze Age is a cultural complex of the Bronze Age period of approximately 1300–700 BC that includes different cultures in Portugal, Andalusia, Galicia, France, Britain and Ireland.
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The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
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The Attacotti (Atticoti, Attacoti, Atecotti, Atticotti, Atecutti, etc. variously spelled) were a people who despoiled Roman Britain between 364 and 368, along with Scotti, Picts, Saxons, Roman military deserters, and the indigenous Britons themselves.
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Éamon de Valera
Éamon de Valera (first registered as George de Valero; changed some time before 1901 to Edward de Valera; 14 October 1882 – 29 August 1975) was a prominent statesman and political leader in 20th-century Ireland.
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Éile (Éle, Éli, commonly anglicised as Ely), was a medieval petty kingdom in northern Munster, Ireland.
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Éire is Irish for "Ireland", the name of an island and a sovereign state.
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Údarás na Gaeltachta
Údarás na Gaeltachta meaning "Gaeltacht Authority" (abbreviated UnaG) is a regional state agency which is responsible for the economic, social and cultural development of Irish-speaking (Gaeltacht) regions of Ireland.
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Bacon is a type of salt-cured pork.
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Bacon and cabbage
Bacon and cabbage is a dish traditionally associated with Ireland.
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Badgers are short-legged omnivores in the family Mustelidae, which also includes the otters, polecats, weasels, and wolverines.
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Baileys Irish Cream
Baileys Irish Cream is an Irish whiskey- and cream-based liqueur, made by Gilbeys of Ireland.
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Ballyclare is a small town in County Antrim, Northern Ireland.
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Ballylumford power station
Ballylumford power station is a natural-gas-fired power station in County Antrim, Northern Ireland, UK.
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Bannow (Yola: Baannough) is a civil parish lying east of Bannow Bay on the south-west coast of County Wexford, Ireland.
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Bantry Bay (Cuan Baoi / Inbhear na mBárc / Bádh Bheanntraighe) is a bay located in County Cork, Ireland.
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Bantry House is a historic house with gardens in Bantry, County Cork, Ireland.
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Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.
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The barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) is the most widespread species of swallow in the world.
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The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
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BBC News Online
BBC News Online is the website of BBC News, the division of the BBC responsible for newsgathering and production.
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Belfast (is the capital city of Northern Ireland, located on the banks of the River Lagan on the east coast of Ireland.
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The Belfast Blitz consisted of four German air raids on strategic targets in the city of Belfast in Northern Ireland, in April and May 1941 during World War II, causing high casualties.
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Belfast metropolitan area
The Belfast metropolitan area is a grouping of council areas which include commuter towns and overspill from Belfast, Northern Ireland, with a population of 672,522 in 2011, combining the Belfast, Lisburn, Newtownabbey, North Down, Castlereagh and Carrickfergus districts.
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The Belgae were a large Gallic-Germanic confederation of tribes living in northern Gaul, between the English Channel, the west bank of the Rhine, and northern bank of the river Seine, from at least the third century BC.
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Bell's theorem is a "no-go theorem" that draws an important distinction between quantum mechanics and the world as described by classical mechanics.
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Benbulbin, sometimes spelled Ben Bulben or Benbulben (from the Binn Ghulbain), is a large rock formation in County Sligo, Ireland.
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Billy Roche (born 11 January 1949) is an Irish playwright and actor.
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Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter.
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A birch is a thin-leaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, which also includes alders, hazels, and hornbeams.
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A blaa, or Waterford Blaa, is a doughy, white bread bun (roll) speciality; particularly associated with Waterford, Ireland.
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The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
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Black people is a term used in certain countries, often in socially based systems of racial classification or of ethnicity, to describe persons who are perceived to be dark-skinned compared to other populations.
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Black pudding is a type of blood sausage originating in Great Britain and Ireland.
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Blarney Castle (Caisleán na Blarnan) is a medieval stronghold in Blarney, near Cork, Ireland, and the River Martin.
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Bloomberg Businessweek is an American weekly business magazine published by Bloomberg L.P. Businessweek was founded in 1929.
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Bloomsday is a commemoration and celebration of the life of Irish writer James Joyce, observed annually in Dublin and elsewhere on 16 June, the day his novel Ulysses takes place in 1904, the date of his first outing with his wife-to-be, Nora Barnacle, and named after its protagonist Leopold Bloom.
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Blue Flag beach
The Blue Flag is a certification by the Foundation for Environmental Education (FEE) that a beach, marina or sustainable boating tourism operator meets its stringent standards.
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A bog is a wetland that accumulates peat, a deposit of dead plant material—often mosses, and in a majority of cases, sphagnum moss.
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Book of Kells
The Book of Kells (Codex Cenannensis; Leabhar Cheanannais; Dublin, Trinity College Library, MS A. I., sometimes known as the Book of Columba) is an illuminated manuscript Gospel book in Latin, containing the four Gospels of the New Testament together with various prefatory texts and tables.
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Bord Gáis Energy
Bord Gáis Energy is a utility that supplies gas and electricity and boiler services to customers in the Republic of Ireland.
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The Border Region is a NUTS Level III statistical region of the Republic of Ireland.
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The Boreal Kingdom or Holarctic Kingdom (Holarctis) is a floristic kingdom identified by botanist Ronald Good (and later by Armen Takhtajan), which includes the temperate to Arctic portions of North America and Eurasia.
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Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined set of time in a boxing ring.
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Boxty (bacstaí) is a traditional Irish potato pancake.
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Boyle's law (sometimes referred to as the Boyle–Mariotte law, or Mariotte's law) is an experimental gas law that describes how the pressure of a gas tends to increase as the volume of the container decreases.
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Brú na Bóinne
Brú na Bóinne (Palace of the Boyne or Mansion of the Boyne) or Boyne valley tombs, is an area in County Meath, Ireland, located in a bend of the River Boyne.
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The breakfast roll (rollóg bhricfeasta) is a bread roll filled with elements of a traditional fried breakfast, designed to be eaten on the way to school or work, or after a late night drinking.
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Brian Patrick Friel (9 January 1929 – 2 October 2015), born in Omagh, Northern Ireland, was a dramatist, short story writer and founder of the Field Day Theatre Company.
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Brigid of Kildare
Saint Brigid of Kildare or Brigid of Ireland (Naomh Bríd; Brigida; 525) is one of Ireland's patron saints, along with Patrick and Columba.
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The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
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The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
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The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and over six thousand smaller isles.
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British Isles naming dispute
In British English usage, the toponym "British Isles" refers to a European archipelago consisting of Great Britain, Ireland and adjacent islands.
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British Summer Time
During British Summer Time (BST), civil time in the United Kingdom is advanced one hour forward of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) (in effect, changing the time zone from UTC+0 to UTC+1), so that evenings have more daylight and mornings have less.
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British–Irish Intergovernmental Conference
The British–Irish Intergovernmental Conference (BIIGC) was established under an Agreement between the Governments of Ireland and the United Kingdom made on 8 March 1998.
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Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.
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The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
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A brooch is a decorative jewelry item designed to be attached to garments, often to hold them closed.
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The brown algae (singular: alga), comprising the class Phaeophyceae, are a large group of multicellular algae, including many seaweeds located in colder waters within the Northern Hemisphere.
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The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is a bear that is found across much of northern Eurasia and North America.
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Bundoran is a town in County Donegal, Ireland.
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Bunratty Castle is a large 15th-century tower house in County Clare, Ireland.
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"Butler dynasty" refers to the several branches of the Butler family (de Buitléir) that has its origins in the Anglo-Norman family that participated in the Norman invasion of Ireland in the 12th century.
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Cabbage or headed cabbage (comprising several cultivars of Brassica oleracea) is a leafy green, red (purple), or white (pale green) biennial plant grown as an annual vegetable crop for its dense-leaved heads.
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The Caledonian orogeny was a mountain building era recorded in the northern parts of Ireland and Britain, the Scandinavian Mountains, Svalbard, eastern Greenland and parts of north-central Europe.
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Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
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Canadian whisky is a type of whisky produced in Canada.
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Carnoustie (Càrn Ùstaidh) is a town and former police burgh in the council area of Angus, Scotland.
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Carrauntoohil is the highest peak on the island of Ireland.
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Carroll & Graf Publishers
Carroll & Graf Publishers was an American publishing company, based in New York City, New York, known for publishing a wide range of fiction and non-fiction by both new and established authors, as well as issuing reprints of previously hard-to-find works.
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Castle Leslie Estate, home to an Irish branch of Clan Leslie and located on the 4 km², Castle Leslie is both the name of a historic Country House and 1,000-acre Estate adjacent to the village of Glaslough, north-east of Monaghan town in County Monaghan, Ireland.
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Castle Ward is an 18th-century National Trust property located near the village of Strangford, in County Down, Northern Ireland, in the townland of the same name.
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Castletown House, Celbridge, County Kildare, Ireland, is a Palladian country house built in 1722 for William Conolly, the Speaker of the Irish House of Commons.
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The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
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Catholic emancipation or Catholic relief was a process in the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in the late 18th century and early 19th century that involved reducing and removing many of the restrictions on Roman Catholics introduced by the Act of Uniformity, the Test Acts and the penal laws.
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The Cálraighe were a population-group found mostly in northern Connacht as well as County Westmeath and County Longford.
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The Céide Fields is an archaeological site on the north County Mayo coast in the west of Ireland, about 7 kilometres northwest of Ballycastle.
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The Ciarraige were a population-group recorded in the early historic era in Ireland.
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Celtic Christianity or Insular Christianity refers broadly to certain features of Christianity that were common, or held to be common, across the Celtic-speaking world during the Early Middle Ages.
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The Celtic harp is a triangular harp traditional to Wales, Brittany, Ireland and Scotland.
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Celtic knots, called Icovellavna, (snaidhm Cheilteach, cwlwm Celtaidd) are a variety of knots and stylized graphical representations of knots used for decoration, used extensively in the Celtic style of Insular art.
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The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.
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The Celtic nations are territories in western Europe where Celtic languages or cultural traits have survived.
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The Celtic Sea (An Mhuir Cheilteach; Y Môr Celtaidd; An Mor Keltek; Ar Mor Keltiek; La mer Celtique) is the area of the Atlantic Ocean off the south coast of Ireland bounded to the east by Saint George's Channel; other limits include the Bristol Channel, the English Channel, and the Bay of Biscay, as well as adjacent portions of Wales, Cornwall, Devon, and Brittany.
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"Celtic Tiger" (An Tíogar Ceilteach) is a term referring to the economy of the Republic of Ireland from the mid-1990s to the late-2000s, a period of rapid real economic growth fuelled by foreign direct investment.
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The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
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Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
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Central Statistics Office (Ireland)
The Central Statistics Office (CSO; An Phríomh-Oifig Staidrimh) is the statistical agency responsible for the gathering of "information relating to economic, social and general activities and conditions" in Ireland, in particular the National Census which is held every five years.
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Charles Joseph Kickham (9 May 1828 – 22 August 1882) was an Irish revolutionary, novelist, poet, journalist and one of the most prominent members of the Irish Republican Brotherhood.
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Charles Stewart Parnell
Charles Stewart Parnell (Cathal Stiúbhard Parnell; 27 June 1846 – 6 October 1891) was an Irish nationalist politician and one of the most powerful figures in the British House of Commons in the 1880s.
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In physics, a chiral anomaly is the anomalous nonconservation of a chiral current.
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Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin
Christ Church Cathedral (or, more formally, The Cathedral of the Holy Trinity) is the cathedral of the United Dioceses of Dublin and Glendalough and the cathedral of the Ecclesiastical province of the United Provinces of Dublin and Cashel in the Church of Ireland.
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ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
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Christianization (or Christianisation) is the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire groups at once.
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Christopher Andrew "Christy" Moore (born 7 May 1945) is an Irish folk singer, songwriter and guitarist.
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Chronicle of Ireland
The Chronicle of Ireland is the modern name for a hypothesized collection of ecclesiastical annals recording events in Ireland from 432 to 911 AD.
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Church of Ireland
The Church of Ireland (Eaglais na hÉireann; Ulster-Scots: Kirk o Airlann) is a Christian church in Ireland and an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion.
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The Ciannachta were a population group of early historic Ireland.
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Cider is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of apples.
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The Circumboreal Region in phytogeography is a floristic region within the Holarctic Kingdom in Eurasia and North America, as delineated by such geobotanists as Josias Braun-Blanquet and Armen Takhtajan.
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Civil and political rights
Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.
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Clannad are an Irish family band formed in 1970 in Gweedore, County Donegal.
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Cló Iar-Chonnacht (CIC;, "West Connacht Press") is an Irish language publishing company founded in 1985 by writer Micheál Ó Conghaile, a native speaker of Irish from Inis Treabhair in Connemara.
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Cliffs of Moher
The Cliffs of Moher are sea cliffs located at the southwestern edge of the Burren region in County Clare, Ireland.
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Cliftonville Football & Athletic Club is a Northern Irish semi-professional association football club playing in the NIFL Irish Premiership.
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Climate of Ireland
The climate of Ireland is mild, moist and changeable with abundant rainfall and a lack of temperature extremes.
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The monastery of Clonmacnoise (Cluain Mhic Nóis in Irish, meaning "Meadow of the Sons of Nós", or perhaps, albeit less likely, Cluain Muccu Nóis "Meadow of the Pigs of Nós") is situated in County Offaly, Ireland on the River Shannon south of Athlone.
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Coarse fishing is a term used in the United Kingdom and Ireland for angling for coarse fish.
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When used to refer to any generic alcoholic mixed drink, cocktail may mean any beverage that contains three or more ingredients if at least one of those ingredients contains alcohol.
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Coddle (sometimes Dublin coddle) is an Irish dish which is often made to use up leftovers, and therefore without a specific recipe.
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Codium fragile, known commonly as green sea fingers, dead man's fingers, felty fingers, Intertidal Organisms EZ ID Guides.
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Coillte (meaning "Forests"/"Woods") is a commercial forestry business in Ireland, owned by the state, and based in Newtownmountkennedy.
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Coiscéim ("Footstep") is a prolific Dublin-based Irish-language publisher founded by writer, artist and language activist Pádraig Ó Snodaigh in 1980.
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Colcannon is a traditional Irish dish of mashed potatoes with kale or cabbage — as well as the name of a song about the dish.
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Colpomenia peregrina, sometimes referred to by its vernacular names Oyster Thief and Bladder Weed, is a species of brown seaweed.
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Saint Columba (Colm Cille, 'church dove'; Columbkille; 7 December 521 – 9 June 597) was an Irish abbot and missionary credited with spreading Christianity in what is today Scotland at the start of the Hiberno-Scottish mission.
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Commission for Regulation of Utilities
The Commission for Regulation of Utilities (CRU), formerly known as the Commission for Energy Regulation (CER, An Coimisiún um Rialáil Fuinnimh) is Republic of Ireland's energy and water economic utility regulator.
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Commissioners of Irish Lights
The Commissioners of Irish Lights (Irish: Coimisinéirí Soilse na hÉireann) is the body that serves as the General Lighthouse Authority for the island of Ireland plus its adjacent seas and islands.
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Common Agricultural Policy
The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is the agricultural policy of the European Union.
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Common Travel Area
The Common Travel Area (CTA; Comhlimistéar Taistil) is an open borders area comprising the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Ireland, the Isle of Man, and the Channel Islands.
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Confederate Ireland or the Union of the Irish (Hiberni Unanimes) refers to the period of Irish self-government between 1642 and 1649, during the Eleven Years' War.
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Conflict Archive on the Internet
CAIN (Conflict Archive on the Internet) is a database containing information about Conflict and Politics in Northern Ireland from 1968 to the present.
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The Conmhaicne or Conmaicne were an ancient tribal grouping that were divided into a number of distinct branches that were found scattered around Ireland in the early medieval period.
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ConnachtPage five of An tOrdú Logainmneacha (Contaetha agus Cúigí) 2003 clearly lists the official spellings of the names of the four provinces of the country with Connacht listed for both languages; when used without the term 'The province of' / 'Cúige'.
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The Connachta are a group of medieval Irish dynasties who claimed descent from the legendary High King Conn Cétchathach (Conn of the Hundred Battles).
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Connemara (Conamara) is a cultural region in County Galway, Ireland.
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Conor McPherson (born 6 August 1971) is an Irish playwright and director.
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Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
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Conscription Crisis of 1918
The Conscription Crisis of 1918 stemmed from a move by the British government to impose conscription (military draft) in Ireland in April 1918 during the First World War.
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Constitution of Ireland
The Constitution of Ireland (Bunreacht na hÉireann) is the fundamental law of the Republic of Ireland.
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Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.
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The Corcu Loígde (Corcu Lóegde, Corco Luigde, Corca Laoighdhe, Laidhe), meaning Gens of the Calf Goddess, also called the Síl Lugdach meic Itha, were a kingdom centred in West County Cork who descended from the proto-historical rulers of Munster, the Dáirine, of whom they were the central royal sept.
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Cork (from corcach, meaning "marsh") is a city in south-west Ireland, in the province of Munster, which had a population of 125,622 in 2016.
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The Cork–Limerick–Galway corridor links the Republic of Ireland's cities of Cork, Limerick and Galway.
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Cornwall (Kernow) is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom.
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Corrib gas controversy
The Corrib gas controversy concerns plans by Shell E&P Ireland, Statoil Exploration (Ireland’s) Limited, Vermilion Energy Trust and the Irish government for processing the Corrib gas field through Broadhaven and Sruth Fada Conn Bays in Kilcommon parish, Erris, County Mayo, and objections raised against those plans.
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Corrib gas project
The Corrib gas project (Tionscanamh Ghás Aiceanta na Coiribe) entails the extraction of a natural gas deposit off the northwest coast of Ireland.
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Counties of Ireland
The counties of Ireland (contaetha na hÉireann; Ulster-Scots: coonties o Airlann) are sub-national divisions that have been, and in some cases continue to be, used to geographically demarcate areas of local government.
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Counties of Northern Ireland
The counties of Northern Ireland were the principal local government divisions of Northern Ireland from its creation in 1921 until 1972, when their governmental features were abolished and replaced with twenty-six unitary authorities.
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Countries of the United Kingdom
The United Kingdom (UK) comprises four countries: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales.
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County Antrim (named after the town of Antrim)) is one of six counties that form Northern Ireland. Adjoined to the north-east shore of Lough Neagh, the county covers an area of and has a population of about 618,000. County Antrim has a population density of 203 people per square kilometre or 526 people per square mile. It is also one of the thirty-two traditional counties of Ireland, as well as part of the historic province of Ulster. The Glens of Antrim offer isolated rugged landscapes, the Giant's Causeway is a unique landscape and a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Bushmills produces whiskey, and Portrush is a popular seaside resort and night-life area. The majority of Belfast, the capital city of Northern Ireland, is in County Antrim, with the remainder being in County Down. It is currently one of only two counties of Ireland to have a majority of the population from a Protestant background, according to the 2001 census. The other is County Down to the south.
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County Armagh (named after its county town, Armagh) is one of six counties that form Northern Ireland.
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County Carlow (Contae Cheatharlach) is a county in Ireland, part of the South-East Region and the province of Leinster.
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County Cavan (Contae an Chabháin) is a county in Ireland.
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County Cork (Contae Chorcaí) is a county in Ireland.
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County Donegal (Contae Dhún na nGall) is a county of Ireland in the province of Ulster.
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County Dublin (Contae Bhaile Átha Cliath or Contae Átha Cliath) is a county in Ireland.
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County Galway (Contae na Gaillimhe) is a county in Ireland.
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County Kerry (Contae Chiarraí) is a county in Ireland.
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County Kildare (Contae Chill Dara) is a county in Ireland.
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County Kilkenny (Contae Chill Chainnigh) is a county in Ireland.
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County Laois (Contae Laoise) is a county in Ireland.
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County Leitrim (Contae Liatroma) is a county in the Republic of Ireland.
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County Limerick (Contae Luimnigh) is a county in Ireland.
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County Longford (Contae an Longfoirt) is a county in Ireland.
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County Louth (Contae Lú) is a county in Ireland.
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County Mayo (Contae Mhaigh Eo, meaning "Plain of the yew trees") is a county in Ireland.
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County Meath (Contae na Mí or simply an Mhí) is a county in Ireland.
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County Monaghan (Contae Mhuineacháin) is a county in Ireland.
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County Offaly (Contae Uíbh Fhailí) is a county in Ireland.
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County Sligo (Contae Shligigh) is a county in Ireland.
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County Tipperary (Contae Thiobraid Árann) is a county in Ireland.
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County Waterford (Contae Phort Láirge; the English name comes from Old Norse Vedrafjörður) is a county in Ireland.
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County Westmeath (Contae na hIarmhí or simply An Iarmhí) is a county in Ireland.
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County Wexford (Contae Loch Garman, Yola: Weiseforthe) is a county in Ireland.
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County Wicklow (Contae Chill Mhantáin) is a county in Ireland.
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Craigavon is a planned settlement in northern County Armagh, Northern Ireland.
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Cré na Cille
Cré na Cille (‘The Churchyard’s Soil’) is an Irish language novel by Máirtín Ó Cadhain.
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Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, at the centre of which is a rectangular pitch with a target at each end called the wicket (a set of three wooden stumps upon which two bails sit).
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Croaghaun (Cruachán) is a mountain in County Mayo, Ireland.
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Croke Park (Páirc an Chrócaigh) is a GAA stadium located in Dublin, Ireland.
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Cromwellian conquest of Ireland
The Cromwellian conquest of Ireland or Cromwellian war in Ireland (1649–53) refers to the conquest of Ireland by the forces of the English Parliament, led by Oliver Cromwell, during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.
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A crop is a plant or animal product that can be grown and harvested extensively for profit or subsistence.
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The Cruthin (Old Irish,; Middle Irish: Cruithnig or Cruithni; Modern Irish: Cruithne) were a people of early medieval Ireland.
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In biology, culling is the process of segregating organisms from a group according to desired or undesired characteristics.
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The term cultivarCultivar has two denominations as explained in Formal definition.
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Culture of Europe
The culture of Europe is rooted in the art, architecture, music, literature, and philosophy that originated from the continent of Europe.
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Culture of Ireland
The culture of Ireland includes customs and traditions, language, music, art, literature, folklore, cuisine and sports associated with Ireland and the Irish people.
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Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
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The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
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Dance is a performing art form consisting of purposefully selected sequences of human movement.
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Daniel O'Connell (Dónall Ó Conaill; 6 August 1775 – 15 May 1847), often referred to as The Liberator or The Emancipator, was an Irish political leader in the first half of the 19th century.
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Darren Christopher Clarke, (born 14 August 1968) is a professional golfer from Northern Ireland who currently plays on the European Tour and has previously played on the PGA Tour.
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Dartraighe (older spelling: Dartraige), anglicised as Dartree, Dartry or Dartrey, was a barony in medieval Ireland which stretched north to Clones and south to the Dromore River.
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Dáibhí Ó Bruadair
Dáibhí Ó Bruadair (1625 – January 1698) was one of the most significant Irish language poets of the 17th century.
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Dáibhí Ó Cróinín
Dáibhí Iarla Ó Cróinín (born 29 August 1954) is an Irish historian, and professor of history at the National University of Ireland, Galway (N.U.I. Galway).
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Dáil Éireann (lit. Assembly of Ireland) is the lower house, and principal chamber, of the Oireachtas (Irish legislature), which also includes the President of Ireland and Seanad Éireann (the upper house).
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The Dáirine (Dárine, Dáirfine, Dáirfhine, Dárfine, Dárinne, Dairinne), later known dynastically as the Corcu Loígde, were the proto-historical rulers of Munster before the rise of the Eóganachta in the 7th century AD.
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Dál Riata or Dál Riada (also Dalriada) was a Gaelic overkingdom that included parts of western Scotland and northeastern Ireland, on each side of the North Channel.
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The Déisi were a class of peoples in ancient and medieval Ireland.
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Deer of Ireland
There are four species of deer living wild in Ireland today, namely Red Deer, Fallow Deer, Sika Deer and the recently introduced Reeve's Muntjac which is becoming established.
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The Deirgtine (Deirgthine, Dergtine, Dergthine) or Clanna Dergthened were the proto-historical ancestors of the historical Eóganachta dynasties of Munster.
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The Delbna or Delbhna was a Gaelic Irish tribe in Ireland, claiming kinship with the Dál gCais, through descent from Dealbhna son of Cas.
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Demographics of Africa
The population of Africa has grown rapidly over the past century, and consequently shows a large youth bulge, further reinforced by a low life expectancy of below 50 years in some African countries.
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Derry, officially Londonderry, is the second-largest city in Northern Ireland and the fourth-largest city on the island of Ireland.
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Derval O'Rourke (born 28 May 1981) is an Irish former sprint hurdles athlete.
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Diarmait Mac Murchada
Diarmait Mac Murchada (Modern Irish: Diarmaid Mac Murchadha), anglicised as Dermot MacMurrough, Dermod MacMurrough, Dermot MacMorrogh or Dermot MacMorrow (c. 1110c. 1 May 1171), was a King of Leinster in Ireland.
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The Dingle Peninsula (Corca Dhuibhne; anglicised as Corkaguiny, the name of the corresponding barony) is the northernmost of the major peninsulas in County Kerry.
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Direct rule (Northern Ireland)
Direct rule is the term given to the administration of Northern Ireland directly by the Government of the United Kingdom.
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In human social affairs, discrimination is treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction in favor of or against, a person based on the group, class, or category to which the person is perceived to belong.
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A dissenter (from the Latin dissentire, "to disagree") is one who disagrees in matters of opinion, belief, etc.
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Dolphins are a widely distributed and diverse group of aquatic mammals.
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Donegal Bay (Bá Dhún na nGall in Irish) is an inlet (or bay) in the northwest of Ireland.
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Drift netting is a fishing technique where nets, called drift nets, hang vertically in the water column without being anchored to the bottom.
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Drisheen (drisín) is a type of blood pudding made in Ireland.
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Drogheda is one of the oldest towns in Ireland.
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Dromoland Castle (Drom Ólainn) is a castle, now a 5-star luxury hotel with a golf course, located near Newmarket-on-Fergus in County Clare, Ireland.
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A druid (derwydd; druí; draoidh) was a member of the high-ranking professional class in ancient Celtic cultures.
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Dry stone, sometimes called drystack or, in Scotland, drystane, is a building method by which structures are constructed from stones without any mortar to bind them together.
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Dublin is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.
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Dublin Castle (Caisleán Bhaile Átha Cliath) off Dame Street, Dublin, Ireland, is a major Irish government complex, conference centre, and tourist attraction.
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The Dublin–Belfast corridor (population 3.3 million) is a term used to loosely describe a geographical area that encompasses the cities of Dublin and Belfast and the area between.
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Dungarvan is a coastal town and harbour in County Waterford, on the south coast of Ireland.
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Dunluce Castle is a now-ruined medieval castle in Northern Ireland.
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The earless seals, phocids or true seals are one of the three main groups of mammals within the seal lineage, Pinnipedia.
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Early Irish law
Early Irish law, also called Brehon law, comprised the statutes which governed everyday life in Early Medieval Ireland.
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Early Irish literature
Early Irish literature is the oldest vernacular literature in Western Europe.
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Early Middle Ages
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
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The Easter Rising (Éirí Amach na Cásca), also known as the Easter Rebellion, was an armed insurrection in Ireland during Easter Week, April 1916.
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Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
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The Eóganachta or Eoghanachta were an Irish dynasty centred on Cashel which dominated southern Ireland (namely the Kingdom of Munster) from the 6/7th to the 10th centuries, and following that, in a restricted form, the Kingdom of Desmond, and its offshoot Carbery, to the late 16th century.
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Economies of scale
In microeconomics, economies of scale are the cost advantages that enterprises obtain due to their scale of operation (typically measured by amount of output produced), with cost per unit of output decreasing with increasing scale.
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An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone.
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In economics, an Edgeworth box, named after Francis Ysidro Edgeworth, is a way of representing various distributions of resources.
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Edith Anna Œnone Somerville (2 May 1858 – 8 October 1949) was an Irish novelist who habitually signed herself as "E.
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Edward Henry Carson, Baron Carson, PC, PC (Ire), KC (9 February 1854 – 22 October 1935), from 1900 to 1921 known as Sir Edward Carson, was an Irish unionist politician, barrister and judge.
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Edward VIII abdication crisis
In 1936, a constitutional crisis in the British Empire arose when King-Emperor Edward VIII proposed to marry Wallis Simpson, an American socialite who was divorced from her first husband and was pursuing the divorce of her second.
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Eibhlín Dubh Ní Chonaill
Eibhlín Dubh Ní Chonaill (also known as Eileen O'Connell) was an Irish noblewoman and poet, the composer of Caoineadh Airt Uí Laoghaire.
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EirGrid plc is the state-owned electric power transmission operator in Ireland.
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An electrical grid is an interconnected network for delivering electricity from producers to consumers.
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Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.
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The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
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Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
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Endemic warfare is a state of continual or frequent warfare, such as is found in some tribal societies (but is not limited to tribal societies).
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England and Wales
England and Wales is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom.
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English country house
An English country house is a large house or mansion in the English countryside.
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English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
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The English are a nation and an ethnic group native to England who speak the English language. The English identity is of early medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn ("family of the Angles"). Their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD. England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens. Historically, the English population is descended from several peoples the earlier Celtic Britons (or Brythons) and the Germanic tribes that settled in Britain following the withdrawal of the Romans, including Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians. Collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons, they founded what was to become England (from the Old English Englaland) along with the later Danes, Anglo-Normans and other groups. In the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England was succeeded by the Kingdom of Great Britain. Over the years, English customs and identity have become fairly closely aligned with British customs and identity in general. Today many English people have recent forebears from other parts of the United Kingdom, while some are also descended from more recent immigrants from other European countries and from the Commonwealth. The English people are the source of the English language, the Westminster system, the common law system and numerous major sports such as cricket, football, rugby union, rugby league and tennis. These and other English cultural characteristics have spread worldwide, in part as a result of the former British Empire.
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Ennis (UK Parliament constituency)
Ennis is a former United Kingdom Parliament constituency, in Ireland, returning one MP.
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Environmental Protection Agency (Ireland)
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for protecting and improving the environment as a valuable asset for the people of the Ireland.
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Eithne Pádraigín Ní Bhraonáin (anglicised as Enya Patricia Brennan; born 17 May 1961), known professionally as Enya, is an Irish singer, songwriter and musician.
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Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton (15 February 1874 – 5 January 1922) was a polar explorer who led three British expeditions to the Antarctic, and one of the principal figures of the period known as the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration.
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Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton (6 October 1903 – 25 June 1995) was an Irish physicist and Nobel laureate for his work with John Cockcroft with "atom-smashing" experiments done at Cambridge University in the early 1930s, and so became the first person in history to artificially split the atom.
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The Electricity Supply Board (ESB; Bord Soláthair an Leictreachais) is a state owned (95%) electricity company operating in the Republic of Ireland.
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The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
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European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages
The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe.
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European Economic Community
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
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European pine marten
The European pine marten (Martes martes), known most commonly as the pine marten in Anglophone Europe, and less commonly also known as pineten, baum marten, or sweet marten, is an animal native to Northern Europe belonging to the mustelid family, which also includes mink, otter, badger, wolverine, and weasel.
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European Rugby Champions Cup
The European Rugby Champions Cup (known as the Heineken Champions Cup for sponsorship reasons) is an annual rugby union tournament organised by European Professional Club Rugby (EPCR).
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European Single Market
The European Single Market, Internal Market or Common Market is a single market which seeks to guarantee the free movement of goods, capital, services, and labour – the "four freedoms" – within the European Union (EU).
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The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
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Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg.
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Exonym and endonym
An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.
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Fall of the Western Roman Empire
The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities.
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In mathematics a Fermat number, named after Pierre de Fermat who first studied them, is a positive integer of the form where n is a nonnegative integer.
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Ferriter's Cove is a small bay located at the westernmost point of Dingle Peninsula, in County Kerry, Ireland.
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The study of field systems (collections of fields) in landscape history is concerned with the size, shape and orientation of a number of fields.
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The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA; French for "International Federation of Association Football") is an association which describes itself as an international governing body of association football, futsal, and beach soccer.
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FIFA World Cup
The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.
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In medieval Irish myth, the Fir Bolg (also spelt Firbolg and Fir Bholg) are the fourth group of people to settle in Ireland.
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The First Dáil (An Chéad Dáil) was Dáil Éireann as it convened from 1919–1921.
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First Minister and deputy First Minister
The First Minister and deputy First Minister (Chéad-Aire agus an LeasChéad-Aire Thuaisceart Éireann) are the joint heads of the Northern Ireland Executive and have overall responsibility for the running of the Executive Office.
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Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish.
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The Flemish or Flemings are a Germanic ethnic group native to Flanders, in modern Belgium, who speak Dutch, especially any of its dialects spoken in historical Flanders, known collectively as Flemish Dutch.
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Flight of the Earls
The Flight of the Earls (Irish: Imeacht na nIarlaí) took place on 4 September 1607, when Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone and Red Hugh O'Donnell, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell, and about ninety followers left Ulster in Ireland for mainland Europe.
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Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.
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Food Safety Promotion Board
The Food Safety Promotion Board (An Bord um Chur Chun Cinn Sabháilteachta Bia; Ulster-Scots: Tha Mait Safétie Fordèrin Boord or The Meat Sauftie Forder Buird), trading as safefood, is the body responsible for the promotion of food safety in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.
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Football Association of Ireland
The Football Association of Ireland (FAI; Cumann Peile na hÉireann) is the governing body for association football in the Republic of Ireland.
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The Fortuatha were a Medieval Irish people.
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Foynes is a village and major port in County Limerick in the midwest of Ireland, located at the edge of hilly land on the southern bank of the Shannon Estuary.
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Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman Barbarian kingdom in Western Europe.
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Francis Ysidro Edgeworth
Francis Ysidro Edgeworth FBA (8 February 1845 – 13 February 1926) was an Anglo-Irish philosopher and political economist who made significant contributions to the methods of statistics during the 1880s.
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Fred Daly (golfer)
Frederick J. Daly, MBE (11 October 1911 – 18 November 1990) was a Northern Irish professional golfer, best known for winning The Open Championship in 1947 at the Royal Liverpool Golf Club, Hoylake.
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Gaelic Athletic Association
The Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA; Cumann Lúthchleas Gael, (CLG)) is an Irish international amateur sporting and cultural organisation, focused primarily on promoting indigenous Gaelic games and pastimes, which include the traditional Irish sports of hurling, camogie, Gaelic football, Gaelic handball and rounders.
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Gaelic football (Irish: Peil Ghaelach; short name Peil or Caid), commonly referred to as football or Gaelic, is an Irish team sport.
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Gaelic games are sports played in Ireland under the auspices of the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA).
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Gaelic handball (known in Ireland simply as handball; liathróid láimhe) is a sport played in Ireland where players hit a ball with a hand or fist against a wall in such a way as to make a shot the opposition cannot return, and that may be played with two (singles) or four players (doubles).
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Gaelic Ireland (Éire Ghaidhealach) was the Gaelic political and social order, and associated culture, that existed in Ireland from the prehistoric era until the early 17th century.
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The Gaelic revival (Athbheochan na Gaeilge) was the late-nineteenth-century national revival of interest in the Irish language (also known as Gaelic) and Irish Gaelic culture (including folklore, sports, music, arts, etc.). Irish had diminished as a spoken tongue, remaining the main daily language only in isolated rural areas, with English having become the dominant language in the majority of Ireland.
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Gaelicisation, or Gaelicization, is the act or process of making something Gaelic, or gaining characteristics of the Gaels.
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The Gaels (Na Gaeil, Na Gàidheil, Ny Gaeil) are an ethnolinguistic group native to northwestern Europe.
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A Gaelscoil (plural: Gaelscoileanna) is an Irish-medium school in Ireland: the term refers especially to Irish-medium schools outside the Irish-speaking regions or Gaeltacht.
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Gaeltacht (plural Gaeltachtaí) is an Irish-language word for any primarily Irish-speaking region.
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Gailenga was the name of two related peoples and kingdoms found in medieval Ireland in Brega and Connacht.
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Galvanization or galvanizing is the process of applying a protective zinc coating to steel or iron, to prevent rusting.
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Galway (Gaillimh) is a city in the West of Ireland, in the province of Connacht.
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The Gamanraige were the main branch of the Fir Ol nEchmacht, a people who ruled much of Ireland west of the Shannon in the pre-historic era.
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An Garda Síochána (meaning "the Guardian of the Peace"), more commonly referred to as the Gardaí ("Guardians") or "the Guards", is the police force of the Republic of Ireland.
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Gelidiella calcicola is a rare seaweed species in the Rhodophyta, described for the first time in 1988.
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Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.
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The Geography (Γεωγραφικὴ Ὑφήγησις, Geōgraphikḕ Hyphḗgēsis, "Geographical Guidance"), also known by its Latin names as the Geographia and the Cosmographia, is a gazetteer, an atlas, and a treatise on cartography, compiling the geographical knowledge of the 2nd-century Roman Empire.
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A geologic or geomorphic province is a spatial entity with common geologic or geomorphic attributes.
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George Bernard Shaw
George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856 – 2 November 1950), known at his insistence simply as Bernard Shaw, was an Irish playwright, critic, polemicist, and political activist.
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George Frideric Handel
George Frideric (or Frederick) Handel (born italic; 23 February 1685 (O.S.) – 14 April 1759) was a German, later British, Baroque composer who spent the bulk of his career in London, becoming well-known for his operas, oratorios, anthems, and organ concertos.
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George III of the United Kingdom
George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820.
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George IV of the United Kingdom
George IV (George Augustus Frederick; 12 August 1762 – 26 June 1830) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover following the death of his father, King George III, on 29 January 1820, until his own death ten years later.
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George Johnstone Stoney
George Johnstone Stoney FRS (15 February 1826 – 5 July 1911) was an Irish physicist.
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Georgian architecture is the name given in most English-speaking countries to the set of architectural styles current between 1714 and 1830.
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Gerrymandering is a practice intended to establish a political advantage for a particular party or group by manipulating district boundaries.
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The Giant's Causeway is an area of about 40,000 interlocking basalt columns, the result of an ancient volcanic fissure eruption.
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Gillian O'Sullivan (born 21 August 1976 in Killarney) is an Irish race walker.
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Giovanni Battista Rinuccini
Giovanni Battista Rinuccini (15 September 1592 – 28 December 1653) was an Italian Roman Catholic archbishop in the mid-seventeenth century.
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Glenbeg Lough is a freshwater lake in the southwest of Ireland.
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Glendalough is a glacial valley in County Wicklow, Ireland, renowned for an Early Medieval monastic settlement founded in the 6th century by St Kevin.
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Glenveagh Castle (Caisleán Ghleann Bheatha) is a large castellated Mansion house built in County Donegal, Ireland in about 1870.
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Gofraidh Fionn Ó Dálaigh
Gofraidh Fionn Ó Dálaigh (died 1387), of Duhallow, Country Cork, was an Irish poet and Chief Ollam of Ireland.
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Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
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A gold medal is a medal awarded for highest achievement in a non-military field.
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The golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is one of the best-known birds of prey in the Northern Hemisphere.
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Golf is a club-and-ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible.
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Good Friday Agreement
The Good Friday Agreement (GFA) or Belfast Agreement (Comhaontú Aoine an Chéasta or Comhaontú Bhéal Feirste; Ulster-Scots: Guid Friday Greeance or Bilfawst Greeance) was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process of the 1990s.
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Gormanston, County Meath
Gormanston is a village in County Meath, Ireland.
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Gothic Revival architecture
Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic or neo-Gothic) is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England.
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Government of Ireland
The Government of Ireland (Rialtas na hÉireann) is the cabinet that exercises executive authority in the Republic of Ireland.
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Government of Ireland Act 1914
The Government of Ireland Act 1914 (4 & 5 Geo. 5 c. 90), also known as the Home Rule Act, and before enactment as the Third Home Rule Bill, was an Act passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom intended to provide home rule (self-government within the United Kingdom) for Ireland.
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Government of Ireland Act 1920
The Government of Ireland Act 1920 (10 & 11 Geo. 5 c. 67) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
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Government of the United Kingdom
The Government of the United Kingdom, formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
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Gowran is a town located on the eastern side of County Kilkenny, Ireland.
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Graeme McDowell (born 30 July 1979) is a professional golfer from Northern Ireland who plays on both the PGA Tour and European Tour.
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Grand Slam (rugby union)
In rugby union, a Grand Slam (Irish: Caithréim Mhór. Welsh: Y Gamp Lawn. French: Grand Chelem) occurs when one team in the Six Nations Championship (or its Five Nations predecessor) manages to beat all the others during one year's competition.
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The great auk (Pinguinus impennis) is a species of flightless alcid that became extinct in the mid-19th century.
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Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
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Great Charter of Ireland
Magna Carta Hiberniae 1216 (or the Great Charter of Ireland) is an issue of the English Magna Carta (or Great Charter of Liberties) in Ireland.
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Great Famine (Ireland)
The Great Famine (an Gorta Mór) or the Great Hunger was a period of mass starvation, disease, and emigration in Ireland between 1845 and 1849.
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Greater Dublin Area
The Greater Dublin Area (GDA; Irish: Mórcheantar Bhaile Átha Cliath), or simply Greater Dublin, is the city of Dublin and its hinterland, with varying definitions as to its extent.
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The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman; spelled Graeco-Roman in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth), when used as an adjective, as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans. It is also better known as the Classical Civilisation. In exact terms the area refers to the "Mediterranean world", the extensive tracts of land centered on the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, the "swimming-pool and spa" of the Greeks and Romans, i.e. one wherein the cultural perceptions, ideas and sensitivities of these peoples were dominant. This process was aided by the universal adoption of Greek as the language of intellectual culture and commerce in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, and of Latin as the tongue for public management and forensic advocacy, especially in the Western Mediterranean. Though the Greek and the Latin never became the native idioms of the rural peasants who composed the great majority of the empire's population, they were the languages of the urbanites and cosmopolitan elites, and the lingua franca, even if only as corrupt or multifarious dialects to those who lived within the large territories and populations outside the Macedonian settlements and the Roman colonies. All Roman citizens of note and accomplishment regardless of their ethnic extractions, spoke and wrote in Greek and/or Latin, such as the Roman jurist and Imperial chancellor Ulpian who was of Phoenician origin, the mathematician and geographer Claudius Ptolemy who was of Greco-Egyptian origin and the famous post-Constantinian thinkers John Chrysostom and Augustine who were of Syrian and Berber origins, respectively, and the historian Josephus Flavius who was of Jewish origin and spoke and wrote in Greek.
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The green algae (singular: green alga) are a large, informal grouping of algae consisting of the Chlorophyta and Charophyta/Streptophyta, which are now placed in separate divisions, as well as the more basal Mesostigmatophyceae, Chlorokybophyceae and Spirotaenia.
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Greenwich Mean Time
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is the mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London.
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Gregorian chant is the central tradition of Western plainchant, a form of monophonic, unaccompanied sacred song of the Roman Catholic Church.
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Greyhound racing is an organized, competitive sport in which greyhound dogs are raced around a track.
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Guinness is an Irish dry stout that originated in the brewery of Arthur Guinness (1725–1803) at St. James's Gate brewery in the capital city of Dublin, Ireland.
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Guinness Storehouse is a tourist attraction at St. James's Gate Brewery in Dublin, Ireland.
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Gulliver's Travels, or Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World.
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In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.
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The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Western and Central European culture of Early Iron Age Europe from the 8th to 6th centuries BC, developing out of the Urnfield culture of the 12th century BC (Late Bronze Age) and followed in much of its area by the La Tène culture.
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Hamiltonian mechanics is a theory developed as a reformulation of classical mechanics and predicts the same outcomes as non-Hamiltonian classical mechanics.
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Heating oil is a low viscosity, liquid petroleum product used as a fuel oil for furnaces or boilers in buildings.
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A hedgehog is any of the spiny mammals of the subfamily Erinaceinae, in the eulipotyphlan family Erinaceidae.
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Henry II of England
Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also partially controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany.
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Henry VIII of England
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death.
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Hibernia is the Classical Latin name for the island of Ireland.
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Hiberno‐English (from Latin Hibernia: "Ireland") or Irish English is the set of English dialects natively written and spoken within the island of Ireland (including both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland).
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The Hiberno-Scottish mission was a series of missions and expeditions initiated by various Irish clerics and cleric-scholars who, for the most part, are not known to have acted in concert.
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High King of Ireland
The High Kings of Ireland (Ard-Rí na hÉireann) were sometimes historical and sometimes legendary figures who had, or who are claimed to have had, lordship over the whole of Ireland.
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High-voltage direct current
A high-voltage, direct current (HVDC) electric power transmission system (also called a power superhighway or an electrical superhighway) uses direct current for the bulk transmission of electrical power, in contrast with the more common alternating current (AC) systems.
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Hill of Tara
The Hill of Tara (Teamhair or Teamhair na Rí), located near the River Boyne, is an archaeological complex that runs between Navan and Dunshaughlin in County Meath, Ireland.
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History of Anglo-Saxon England
Anglo-Saxon England was early medieval England, existing from the 5th to the 11th century from the end of Roman Britain until the Norman conquest in 1066.
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History of the Jews in Ireland
The history of the Jews in Ireland extends back nearly a thousand years.
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Hockey is a sport in which two teams play against each other by trying to maneuver a ball or a puck into the opponent's goal using a hockey stick.
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Holy Cross Abbey
The Holy Cross Abbey (Mainistir na Croise Naofa) in Tipperary is a restored Cistercian monastery in Holycross near Thurles, County Tipperary, Ireland, situated on the River Suir.
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The home nations, refers collectively to England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland (countries of the United Kingdom), and in certain sports (e.g. rugby football) contexts, to England, Scotland, Wales and the whole island of Ireland.
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Horse racing is an equestrian performance sport, typically involving two or more horses ridden by jockeys (or sometimes driven without riders) over a set distance for competition.
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Horslips are an Irish Celtic rock band that compose, arrange and perform songs frequently inspired by traditional Irish airs, jigs and reels.
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House of Commons of the United Kingdom
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
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House of Tudor
The House of Tudor was an English royal house of Welsh origin, descended in the male line from the Tudors of Penmynydd.
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Human Development Index
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
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Hurling (iománaíocht, iomáint) is an outdoor team game of ancient Gaelic and Irish origin.
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Hydrocarbon exploration (or oil and gas exploration) is the search by petroleum geologists and geophysicists for hydrocarbon deposits beneath the Earth's surface, such as oil and natural gas.
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IAAF World Championships in Athletics
The IAAF World Championships, commonly referred to as the World Championships in Athletics, is a biennial athletics event organized by the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF).
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An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript in which the text is supplemented with such decoration as initials, borders (marginalia) and miniature illustrations.
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Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.
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Immigration to the United States
Immigration to the United States is the international movement of individuals who are not natives or do not possess citizenship in order to settle, reside, study, or work in the country.
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An indentured servant or indentured laborer is an employee (indenturee) within a system of unfree labor who is bound by a signed or forced contract (indenture) to work for a particular employer for a fixed time.
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Independent International Commission on Decommissioning
The Independent International Commission on Decommissioning (IICD) was established to oversee the decommissioning of paramilitary weapons in Northern Ireland, as part of the peace process.
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An independent scientist (historically also known as gentleman scientist) is a financially independent scientist who pursues scientific study without direct affiliation to a public institution such as a university or government-run research and development body.
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An induction coil or "spark coil" (archaically known as an inductorium or Ruhmkorff coil after Heinrich Ruhmkorff) is a type of electrical transformer used to produce high-voltage pulses from a low-voltage direct current (DC) supply.
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The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
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In the visual arts, interlace is a decorative element found in medieval art.
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The Trade and Business Development Body (An Comhlacht Forbartha Trádála agus Gnó; Ulster-Scots: Tha Mercat an Dalin Fordèrin Convenerie), trading as InterTradeIreland, (Irish: IdirThrádáilÉireann; Ulster-Scots: NifferinMercatAirlann) is one of the six all-Ireland bodies set up following the Belfast Agreement reporting to the North/South Ministerial Council.
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Intrusive rock (also called plutonic rock) is formed when magma crystallizes and solidifies underground to form intrusions, for example plutons, batholiths, dikes, sills, laccoliths, and volcanic necks.
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Iona (Ì Chaluim Chille) is a small island in the Inner Hebrides off the Ross of Mull on the western coast of Scotland.
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Ireland and World War I
During World War I (1914–1918), Ireland was part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, which entered the war in August 1914 as one of the Entente Powers, along with France, and the Russian Empire.
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Ireland national rugby union team
The Ireland national rugby union team represents the island of Ireland in rugby union.
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Irish Athletic Boxing Association
The Irish Athletic Boxing Association Ltd. (IABA) is the national governing body for amateur boxing in Ireland.
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Irish Citizen Army
The Irish Citizen Army, or ICA, was a small paramilitary group of trained trade union volunteers from the Irish Transport and General Workers' Union (ITGWU) established in Dublin for the defence of workers' demonstrations from the police.
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Irish Civil War
The Irish Civil War (Cogadh Cathartha na hÉireann; 28 June 1922 – 24 May 1923) was a conflict that followed the Irish War of Independence and accompanied the establishment of the Irish Free State, an entity independent from the United Kingdom but within the British Empire.
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Irish coffee (caife Gaelach) is a cocktail consisting of hot coffee, Irish whiskey, and sugar (some recipes specify that brown sugar should be used, specifying brown sugar, and that fresh cream should be floated on top.), stirred, and topped with thick cream.
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Irish cream is a cream liqueur based on Irish whiskey, cream, and other ingredients such as coffee, which can be served on its own, as an alcoholic substitute for milk/cream and sugar in a hot coffee (sometimes with whipped cream added on top), or used in mixed drinks or as part of a shot or a whole shot.
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The Irish Football Association Challenge Cup (also known as the Tennent's Irish Cup for sponsorship purposes) is the primary football knock-out cup competition in Northern Ireland.
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The Irish diaspora (Diaspóra na nGael) refers to Irish people and their descendants who live outside Ireland.
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The Irish elk (Megaloceros giganteus) also called the giant deer or Irish giant deer, is an extinct species of deer in the genus Megaloceros and is one of the largest deer that ever lived.
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The Irish Examiner, formerly The Cork Examiner and then The Examiner, is an Irish national daily newspaper which primarily circulates in the Munster region surrounding its base in Cork, though it is available throughout the country.
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Irish Famine (1740–41)
The Irish Famine of 1740–1741 (Bliain an Áir, meaning the Year of Slaughter) in the Kingdom of Ireland, was estimated to have killed between 20% and 38% of the 1740 population of 2.4 million people, the (older) upper estimate a proportionately greater loss than during the worst years of the Great Famine of 1845–1852.
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Irish Football Association
The Irish Football Association (IFA) is the governing body for association football in Northern Ireland.
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Irish Free State
The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann; 6 December 192229 December 1937) was a state established in 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 1921.
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Irish general election, 1918
The Irish general election of 1918 was that part of the 1918 general election which took place in Ireland.
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Irish Home Rule movement
The Irish Home Rule movement was a movement that campaigned for self-government for Ireland within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
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The Irish Independent is Ireland's largest-selling daily newspaper, published by Independent News & Media (INM).
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The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
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Irish literature comprises writings in the Irish, Latin, and English (including Ulster Scots) languages on the island of Ireland.
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Irish nationalism is an ideology which asserts that the Irish people are a nation.
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Ireland has been neutral in international relations since the 1930s.
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Irish neutrality during World War II
The policy of Irish neutrality during World War II was adopted by the Oireachtas at the instigation of the Taoiseach Éamon de Valera upon the outbreak of World War II in Europe.
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The Irish people (Muintir na hÉireann or Na hÉireannaigh) are a nation and ethnic group native to the island of Ireland, who share a common Irish ancestry, identity and culture.
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Irish population analysis
The population of the Island of Ireland in 2016 was approximately 4.75 million in the Republic of Ireland with another 1.85 million in Northern Ireland.
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An Irish pub is an establishment licensed to serve alcoholic drinks for consumption on the premises.
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Irish Rebellion of 1798
The Irish Rebellion of 1798 (Éirí Amach 1798), also known as the United Irishmen Rebellion (Éirí Amach na nÉireannach Aontaithe), was an uprising against British rule in Ireland lasting from May to September 1798.
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Irish rebellion of 1803
The Irish rebellion of 1803 was an unsuccessful attempt by a group of Irish republicans and Irish nationalists to secure Ireland's independence from the United Kingdom.
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The Irish Republic (Poblacht na hÉireann or Saorstát Éireann) was a revolutionary state that declared its independence from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in January 1919.
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Irish Republican Army
The Irish Republican Army (IRA) is any of several paramilitary movements in Ireland in the 20th and 21st centuries dedicated to Irish republicanism, the belief that all of Ireland should be an independent republic.
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Irish Republican Army (1922–1969)
The original Irish Republican Army (IRA) fought a guerrilla war against British rule in Ireland in the Irish War of Independence between 1919 and 1921.
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Irish Rugby Football Union
The Irish Rugby Football Union (IRFU) (Cumann Rugbaí na hÉireann) is the body managing rugby union in the island of Ireland (both Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland).
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The Irish Sea (Muir Éireann / An Mhuir Mheann, Y Keayn Yernagh, Erse Sea, Muir Èireann, Ulster-Scots: Airish Sea, Môr Iwerddon) separates the islands of Ireland and Great Britain; linked to the Celtic Sea in the south by St George's Channel, and to the Inner Seas off the West Coast of Scotland in the north by the Straits of Moyle.
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Irish states since 1171
Irish states have existed under a number of different names for nearly a thousand years.
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Irish stew (stobhach / Stobhach Gaelach) is any variety of meat-and-root vegetables stew native to Ireland.
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Irish traditional music
Irish traditional music (also known as Irish trad, Irish folk music, and other variants) is a genre of folk music that developed in Ireland.
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Irish Travellers (an lucht siúil, meaning 'the walking people') are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group who maintain a set of traditions.
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The Irish Volunteers (Óglaigh na hÉireann), sometimes called the Irish Volunteer Force or Irish Volunteer Army, was a military organisation established in 1913 by Irish nationalists.
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Irish War of Independence
The Irish War of Independence (Cogadh na Saoirse) or Anglo-Irish War was a guerrilla war fought from 1919 to 1921 between the Irish Republican Army (IRA, the army of the Irish Republic) and the British security forces in Ireland.
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Irish whiskey (Fuisce or uisce beatha) is whiskey made on the island of Ireland.
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The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
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Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
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Islam in the Republic of Ireland
The documented history of Islam in Ireland dates to the 1950s.
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An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water.
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Isle of Man
The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin), also known simply as Mann (Mannin), is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland.
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Italy national football team
The Italy national football team (Nazionale di calcio dell'Italia) represents Italy in association football and is controlled by the Italian Football Federation (FIGC), the governing body for football in Italy.
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The Iverni (Ἰούερνοι, Iouernoi) were a people of early Ireland first mentioned in Ptolemy's 2nd century Geography as living in the extreme south-west of the island.
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Jack Butler Yeats
John Butler Yeats (29 August 1871 – 28 March 1957) was an Irish artist and Olympic medalist.
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Jacobitism (Seumasachas, Seacaibíteachas, Séamusachas) was a political movement in Great Britain and Ireland that aimed to restore the Roman Catholic Stuart King James II of England and Ireland (as James VII in Scotland) and his heirs to the thrones of England, Scotland, France and Ireland.
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James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish novelist, short story writer, and poet.
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Jocelyn Bell Burnell
Dame Susan Jocelyn Bell Burnell (born 15 July 1943) is an astrophysicist from Northern Ireland who was credited with "one of the most significant scientific achievements of the 20th Century".
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John B. Cosgrave
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John Butler Yeats
John Butler Yeats (16 March 1839 – 3 February 1922) was an Irish artist and the father of William Butler Yeats, Lily Yeats, Elizabeth Corbett "Lolly" Yeats and Jack B. Yeats.
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Sir John Douglas Cockcroft, (27 May 1897 – 18 September 1967) was a British physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1951 for splitting the atomic nucleus with Ernest Walton, and was instrumental in the development of nuclear power.
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John Forbes Nash Jr.
John Forbes Nash Jr. (June 13, 1928 – May 23, 2015) was an American mathematician who made fundamental contributions to game theory, differential geometry, and the study of partial differential equations.
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John Lighton Synge
John Lighton Synge (23 March 1897 – 30 March 1995) was an Irish mathematician and physicist, whose seven decade career included significant periods in Ireland, Canada, and the USA.
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John McGahern (12 November 1934 – 30 March 2006) is regarded as one of the most important Irish writers of the latter half of the twentieth century.
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John Edward Redmond (1 September 1856 – 6 March 1918) was an Irish nationalist politician, barrister, and MP in the British House of Commons.
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John Scotus Eriugena
John Scotus Eriugena or Johannes Scotus Erigena (c. 815 – c. 877) was an Irish theologian, neoplatonist philosopher, and poet.
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John Stewart Bell
John Stewart Bell FRS (28 June 1928 – 1 October 1990) was a Northern Irish physicist, and the originator of Bell's theorem, an important theorem in quantum physics regarding hidden variable theories.
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John T. Koch
John T. Koch is an American academic, historian and linguist who specializes in Celtic studies, especially prehistory and the early Middle Ages.
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John Tyndall FRS (2 August 1820 – 4 December 1893) was a prominent 19th-century physicist.
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John, King of England
John (24 December 1166 – 19 October 1216), also known as John Lackland (Norman French: Johan sanz Terre), was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216.
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Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667 – 19 October 1745) was an Anglo-Irish satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for the Whigs, then for the Tories), poet and cleric who became Dean of St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin.
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Sir Joseph Larmor FRS FRSE DCL LLD (11 July 1857 – 19 May 1942) was an Irish physicist and mathematician who made innovations in the understanding of electricity, dynamics, thermodynamics, and the electron theory of matter.
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The Kildare Hotel and Golf Club (abbreviated The K Club) is a golf and leisure complex in the Republic of Ireland, located at Straffan, County Kildare, west of Dublin.
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Kale or leaf cabbage are certain cultivars of cabbage (Brassica oleracea) grown for their edible leaves.
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Karst is a topography formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite, and gypsum.
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Dame Kathleen Lonsdale, DBE, FRS (née Yardley; 28 January 1903 – 1 April 1971) was an Irish crystallographer who proved, in 1929, that the benzene ring is flat by using X-ray diffraction methods to elucidate the structure of hexamethylbenzene.
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Katie Taylor (born 2 July 1986) is an Irish professional boxer and former footballer.
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The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
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Kevin Abosch (born 1969) is an Irish conceptual artist known for his works in photography, sculpture, installation and film.
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Killarney National Park
Killarney National Park (Páirc Náisiúnta Chill Airne), near the town of Killarney, County Kerry, was the first national park in Ireland, created when Muckross Estate was donated to the Irish Free State in 1932.
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Kingdom of Breifne
The Kingdom of Breifne or Bréifne (anglicized Breffni, Breffny, Brefnie, Brenny) was a confederation of túaithe in medieval Ireland headed by a ruirí drawn from the Uí Briúin Bréifne.
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Kingdom of England
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
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Kingdom of Great Britain
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
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Kingdom of Ireland
The Kingdom of Ireland (Classical Irish: Ríoghacht Éireann; Modern Irish: Ríocht Éireann) was a nominal state ruled by the King or Queen of England and later the King or Queen of Great Britain that existed in Ireland from 1542 until 1800.
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Kingdom of Meath
Meath (Old Irish: Mide; spelt Mí in Modern Irish) was a kingdom in Ireland for over 1000 years.
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Kinsale Head gas field
The Kinsale Head gas field is an offshore natural gas field off the southern coast of Ireland discovered in 1973 near Old Head of Kinsale, in the Celtic Sea and met Ireland's gas need until 1996.
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Lager is a type of beer conditioned at low temperatures.
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Lahinch or Lehinch is a small town on Liscannor Bay, on the northwest coast of County Clare, Ireland.
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The Laigin, modern spelling Laighin, were a population group of early Ireland.
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Lakes of Killarney
The Lakes of Killarney are a scenic attraction located in Killarney National Park near Killarney, County Kerry, in Ireland.
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The Land War (Cogadh na Talún) in Irish history was a period of agrarian agitation in rural Ireland in the 1870s, 1880s, and 1890s.
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The Lansdowne Road Stadium (Bóthar Lansdúin) was a stadium in Dublin owned by the Irish Rugby Football Union (IRFU) that was primarily for used rugby union and association football matches.
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Last glacial period
The last glacial period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period years ago.
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Late Middle Ages
The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD.
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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
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Latinisation of names
Latinisation or Latinization is the practice of rendering a non-Latin name (or word) in a Latin style.
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Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
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Laudabiliter was a Papal Bull issued in 1155 by Pope Adrian IV, the only Englishman to have served in that office.
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Lebor Gabála Érenn
Lebor Gabála Érenn (The Book of the Taking of Ireland) is a collection of poems and prose narratives that purports to be a history of Ireland and the Irish from the creation of the world to the Middle Ages.
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Legislation (or "statutory law") is law which has been promulgated (or "enacted") by a legislature or other governing body or the process of making it.
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Leinster (— Laighin / Cúige Laighean — /) is one of the Provinces of Ireland situated in the east of Ireland.
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Leinster Rugby (Rugbaí Laighean) is one of the four professional provincial rugby teams from the island of Ireland and the most successful Irish team both domestically and in European competition.
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Lemonade can be any one of a variety of sweetened beverages found throughout the world, but which are all characterized by a lemon flavor.
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Limerick (Luimneach) is a city in County Limerick, Ireland.
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Linen is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant.
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Lisburn (or; meaning "fort of the stream", probably) is a city in Northern Ireland.
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Lisdoonvarna is a spa town of 739 people (2011 census) in County Clare in Ireland.
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List of All-Ireland Senior Football Championship finals
The All-Ireland Senior Football Championship, the premier competition in Gaelic football, is an annual series of games played in Ireland during the summer and early autumn, and organised by the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA).
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List of divided islands
This is a list of islands whose land is divided by one or more international borders.
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List of English monarchs
This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England begins with Alfred the Great, King of Wessex, one of the petty kingdoms to rule a portion of modern England.
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List of European islands by area
This is a list of islands in Europe ordered by area.
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List of European islands by population
This is a list of islands in Europe ordered by population.
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List of Ireland-related topics
This page aims to list articles related to the island of Ireland.
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List of Irish cheeses
This is a list of cheeses and producers from Ireland.
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List of Irish classical composers
This is a list of composers from Ireland working in the classical (art music) tradition.
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List of Irish people
This is a list of notable Irish people who were born on the island of Ireland, in either the Republic of Ireland or Northern Ireland, and have lived there for most of their lives.
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List of islands of Ireland
This is a list of islands of Ireland.
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List of kings of Leinster
The following is a provisional list of the Kings of Leinster who ruled the Irish kingdom of Leinster (or Laigin) up to 1632 with the death of Domhnall Spainneach Mac Murrough Caomhanach, the last legitimately inaugurated head of the MacMurrough Kavanagh royal line.
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List of mammals of Ireland
This is a list of the 60 mammal species recorded in Ireland.
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List of satirists and satires
Below is an incomplete list of writers, cartoonists and others known for their involvement in satire – humorous social criticism.
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Lists of countries by GDP per capita
There are two articles listing countries according to their per capita GDP.
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Literary modernism, or modernist literature, has its origins in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, mainly in Europe and North America, and is characterized by a very self-conscious break with traditional ways of writing, in both poetry and prose fiction.
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Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
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Local extinction or extirpation is the condition of a species (or other taxon) that ceases to exist in the chosen geographic area of study, though it still exists elsewhere.
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Local Government Act 2001
The Local Government Act, 2001 (No. 37 of 2001) was enacted by the Oireachtas of Ireland on 21 July 2001.
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Local government in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland is divided into 11 districts for local government purposes.
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London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
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Longford is the county town of County Longford in Ireland.
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Lordship of Ireland
The Lordship of Ireland (Tiarnas na hÉireann), sometimes referred to retroactively as Norman Ireland, was a period of feudal rule in Ireland between 1177 and 1542 under the King of England, styled as Lord of Ireland.
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Loughshinny is a small village in North County Dublin, Ireland.
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Louis le Brocquy
Louis le Brocquy (10 November 1916 – 25 April 2012) was an Irish painter born in Dublin.
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Lurgan is a town in County Armagh, Northern Ireland.
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Maasai are a Nilotic ethnic group inhabiting central and southern Kenya and northern Tanzania.
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MacGillycuddy's Reeks is a mountain range in County Kerry, Ireland.
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Magna Carta Libertatum (Medieval Latin for "the Great Charter of the Liberties"), commonly called Magna Carta (also Magna Charta; "Great Charter"), is a charter agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215.
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Bulmers Irish Cider, branded as Magners Irish Cider outside the Republic of Ireland, is a brand of cider produced in County Tipperary in Ireland by the C&C Group.
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The Mairtine (Martini, Marthene, Muirtine, Maidirdine, Mhairtine) were an important people of late prehistoric Munster, Ireland who by early historical times appear to have completely vanished from the Irish political landscape.
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Malin Head (Cionn Mhálanna) is located on the Inishowen Peninsula, County Donegal, Republic of Ireland and is the most northerly point of the island of Ireland.
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Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
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Manchester University Press
Manchester University Press is the university press of the University of Manchester, England and a publisher of academic books and journals.
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James Martin Pacelli McGuinness (Séamus Máirtín Pacelli Mag Aonghusa; 23 May 1950 – 21 March 2017) was an Irish republican and Sinn Féin politician who was the deputy First Minister of Northern Ireland from May 2007 to January 2017.
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Mary II of England
Mary II (30 April 1662 – 28 December 1694) was Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland, co-reigning with her husband and first cousin, King William III and II, from 1689 until her death; popular histories usually refer to their joint reign as that of William and Mary.
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Mashed potato (British English) or mashed potatoes (American English and Canadian English), colloquially known as mash, is a dish prepared by mashing boiled potatoes.
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Máire Mhac an tSaoi
Máire Mhac an tSaoi (born 4 April 1922) is an Irish language scholar, poet, writer and academic of modern literature in Irish.
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Máirtín Ó Cadhain
Máirtín Ó Cadhain (1906 – 18 October 1970) was one of the most prominent Irish language writers of the twentieth century.
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Máirtín Ó Direáin
Máirtín Ó Direáin (29 November 1910 – 19 March 1988), was an Irish poet who is widely held to one of the foremost Irish language poets of the twentieth century.
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The Múscraighe (older spelling: Músgraige) were an important Érainn people of Munster, descending from Cairpre Músc, son of Conaire Cóem, a High King of Ireland.
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In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic.
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Messiah (HWV 56) is an English-language oratorio composed in 1741 by George Frideric Handel, with a scriptural text compiled by Charles Jennens from the King James Bible, and from the version of the Psalms included with the Book of Common Prayer.
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Met Éireann (meaning "Met of Ireland") is the national meteorological service in Ireland, part of the Department of Housing, Planning, Community and Local Government.
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Metalworking is the process of working with metals to create individual parts, assemblies, or large-scale structures.
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Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means "change in form".
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Metropolitan Cork is an unofficial term which refers to the city of Cork, Ireland, its suburbs, rural hinterland that surround it and many towns and villages in that hinterland.
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Michael Carruth (born 9 July 1967) is a southpaw Irish Olympic boxer from Dublin.
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Mid-East Region, Ireland
The Mid-East Region (coded IE022) is a NUTS Level III statistical region of Ireland.
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Mid-West Region, Ireland
The Mid-West Region (coded IE051) is a NUTS Level III statistical region of Ireland.
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In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
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Middle Irish (sometimes called Middle Gaelic, An Mheán-Ghaeilge) is the Goidelic language which was spoken in Ireland, most of Scotland and the Isle of Man from circa 900-1200 AD; it is therefore a contemporary of late Old English and early Middle English.
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Midlands Region, Ireland
The Midlands Region (coded IE012) is a NUTS Level III statistical region of Ireland.
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In the Lebor Gabála Érenn, a medieval Irish Christian pseudo-history, the Milesians are the final race to settle in Ireland.
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Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
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Monarchy of Ireland
A monarchical system of government existed in Ireland from ancient times until, for what became the Republic of Ireland, the mid-twentieth century.
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A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone (hermits).
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Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
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Motorsport or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive sporting events which primarily involve the use of motorised vehicles, whether for racing or non-racing competition.
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Mount Erebus is the second-highest volcano in Antarctica (after Mount Sidley) and the southernmost active volcano on Earth.
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Mount Stewart is a 19th-century house and garden in County Down, Northern Ireland, owned by the National Trust.
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The mountain hare (Lepus timidus), also known as blue hare, tundra hare, variable hare, white hare, snow hare, alpine hare, and Irish hare, is a Palearctic hare that is largely adapted to polar and mountainous habitats.
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Municipal Corporations (Ireland) Act 1840
The Municipal Corporations Act (Ireland) 1840 (3 & 4 Vict. c. 108), An Act for the Regulation of Municipal Corporations in Ireland, was passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom on 10 August 1840.
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Munster (an Mhumhain / Cúige Mumhan,.
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Munster Rugby (Rugbaí Mumhan) is one of the four professional provincial rugby teams from the island of Ireland.
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Music of Ireland
Irish music is music that has been created in various genres on the island of Ireland.
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Mussel is the common name used for members of several families of bivalve molluscs, from saltwater and freshwater habitats.
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Names of the Irish state
There have been various names for the state that is today officially known as Ireland.
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National Geographic Society
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
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National monuments of Ireland
A National Monument in the Republic of Ireland is a structure or site, the preservation of which has been deemed to be of national importance and therefore worthy of state protection.
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National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty
The National Trust, formally the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, is a conservation organisation in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, and the largest membership organisation in the United Kingdom.
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The National Volunteers was the name taken by the majority of the Irish Volunteers that sided with Irish Parliamentary Party leader John Redmond after the movement split over the question of the Volunteers' role in World War I.
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Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
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Navan (trans. "the Cave") is the county town of County Meath in Ireland.
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Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century.
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The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
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Newgrange (Sí an Bhrú or Brú na Bóinne) is a prehistoric monument in County Meath, Ireland, located west of Drogheda on the north side of the River Boyne.
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Father Nicholas Joseph Callan (22 December 1799 – 10 January 1864) was an Irish priest and scientist from Darver, County Louth, Ireland.
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Nigerians or Nigerian people are citizens of Nigeria or people with ancestry from Nigeria.
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Nine Years' War (Ireland)
The Nine Years' War or Tyrone's Rebellion took place in Ireland from 1593 to 1603.
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The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
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Nobel Prize in Literature
The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").
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Nobel Prize in Physics
The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.
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Norman invasion of Ireland
The Norman invasion of Ireland took place in stages during the late 12th century, at a time when Gaelic Ireland was made up of several kingdoms, with a High King claiming lordship over all.
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The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
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Normans in Ireland
The Normans in Ireland, or Hiberno-Normans, were a group of Normans who invaded the various realms of Gaelic Ireland.
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North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland)
The North Channel (known in Irish and Scottish Gaelic as Sruth na Maoile, in Scots as the Sheuch and alternatively in English as the Straits of Moyle or Sea of Moyle) is the strait between north-eastern Northern Ireland and south-western Scotland.
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North Sea oil
North Sea oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons, comprising liquid petroleum and natural gas, produced from petroleum reservoirs beneath the North Sea.
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North/South Inter-Parliamentary Association
The North/South Inter-Parliamentary Association is an inter-parliamentary forum created between the national parliament of the Republic of Ireland (the Oireachtas) and the Northern Ireland Assembly.
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North/South Ministerial Council
The North/South Ministerial Council (NSMC) (An Chomhairle Aireachta Thuaidh-Theas, Ulster-Scots: North South Meinisterlie Council) is a body established under the Good Friday Agreement to co-ordinate activity and exercise certain governmental powers across the whole island of Ireland.
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Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.
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Northern Ireland Assembly
The Northern Ireland Assembly (Tionól Thuaisceart Éireann, Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlan Assemblie) is the devolved legislature of Northern Ireland.
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Northern Ireland Electricity
Northern Ireland Electricity Networks Limited (NIE Networks) is the electricity asset owner of the transmission and distribution infrastructure in Northern Ireland.
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Northern Ireland Executive
The Northern Ireland Executive is the devolved government of Northern Ireland, an administrative branch of the legislature Northern Ireland Assembly.
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Northern Ireland national football team
The Northern Ireland national football team represents Northern Ireland in international association football.
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Northern Ireland Office
The Northern Ireland Office (NIO; Oifig Thuaisceart Éireann, Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann Oaffis) is a UK government department responsible for Northern Ireland affairs.
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Northwestern Europe, or Northwest Europe, is a loosely defined region of Europe, overlapping northern and western Europe.
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Number theory, or in older usage arithmetic, is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers.
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NUTS 2 statistical regions of the Republic of Ireland
In the NUTS (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) codes of Ireland (IE), there are three level 2 statistical regions.
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An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.
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Oath of Allegiance (Ireland)
The Irish Oath of Allegiance was a controversial provision in the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921, which Irish TDs (members of the Lower House of the Irish Parliament) and Senators were required to swear before taking their seats in Dáil Éireann (Chamber of Deputies) and Seanad Éireann (Irish Senate) before the 'Constitution (Removal of Oath) Act, 1933' was passed on 3 May 1933.
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An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.
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The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
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Ogham (Modern Irish or; ogam) is an Early Medieval alphabet used to write the early Irish language (in the "orthodox" inscriptions, 1st to 6th centuries AD), and later the Old Irish language (scholastic ogham, 6th to 9th centuries).
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Old Irish (Goídelc; Sean-Ghaeilge; Seann Ghàidhlig; Shenn Yernish; sometimes called Old Gaelic) is the name given to the oldest form of the Goidelic languages for which extensive written texts are extant.
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Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.
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Oliver Goldsmith (10 November 1728 – 4 April 1774) was an Irish novelist, playwright and poet, who is best known for his novel The Vicar of Wakefield (1766), his pastoral poem The Deserted Village (1770), and his plays The Good-Natur'd Man (1768) and She Stoops to Conquer (1771, first performed in 1773).
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The Open University (OU) is a public distance learning and research university, and one of the biggest universities in the UK for undergraduate education.
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Operation Banner was the operational name for the British Armed Forces' operation in Northern Ireland from August 1969 to July 2007, as part of the Troubles.
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Ordnance Survey Ireland
Ordnance Survey Ireland (OSI; Suirbhéireacht Ordanáis Éireann) is the national mapping agency of Ireland.
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Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (16 October 185430 November 1900) was an Irish poet and playwright.
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An ox (plural oxen), also known as a bullock in Australia and India, is a bovine trained as a draft animal or riding animal.
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Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
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Oyster is the common name for a number of different families of salt-water bivalve molluscs that live in marine or brackish habitats.
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Patrick Gerard "Paddy" Barnes, (born 9 April 1987) is an Irish professional boxer who has represented both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland at a professional level.
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Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
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Palladian architecture is a European style of architecture derived from and inspired by the designs of the Venetian architect Andrea Palladio (1508–1580).
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Palladius (bishop of Ireland)
Palladius (fl. A.D. 408–431; died A.D. 457/461) was the first Bishop of the Christians of Ireland, preceding Saint Patrick; the two were perhaps conflated in many later Irish traditions.
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A panorama (formed from Greek πᾶν "all" + ὅραμα "sight") is any wide-angle view or representation of a physical space, whether in painting, drawing, photography, film, seismic images or a three-dimensional model.
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A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Roman Catholic Church.
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A paramilitary is a semi-militarized force whose organizational structure, tactics, training, subculture, and (often) function are similar to those of a professional military, but which is not included as part of a state's formal armed forces.
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Parliament of England
The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England, existing from the early 13th century until 1707, when it became the Parliament of Great Britain after the political union of England and Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain.
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Parliament of Ireland
The Parliament of Ireland was the legislature of the Lordship of Ireland, and later the Kingdom of Ireland, from 1297 until 1800.
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Parliament of the United Kingdom
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
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Partition of Ireland
The partition of Ireland (críochdheighilt na hÉireann) was the division of the island of Ireland into two distinct jurisdictions, Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland.
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The Partraige were a people of early historic Ireland.
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A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism, Eastern Orthodoxy, or particular branches of Islam, is regarded as the heavenly advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family or person.
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Patron saints of places
The idea of assigning a patron saint to a certain locality harks back to the ancient tutelary deities.
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Pádraig Peter Harrington (born 31 August 1971) is an Irish professional golfer who plays on the European Tour and the PGA Tour.
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Peat, also called turf, is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation or organic matter that is unique to natural areas called peatlands, bogs, mires, moors, or muskegs.
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Penal Laws (Ireland)
In the island of Ireland, Penal Laws (Na Péindlíthe) were a series of laws imposed in an attempt to force Irish Roman Catholics and Protestant dissenters (such as local Presbyterians) to accept the reformed denomination as defined by the English state established Anglican Church and practised by members of the Irish state established Church of Ireland.
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Peter's Pence (or Denarii Sancti Petri and "Alms of St Peter") are donations or payments made directly to the Holy See of the Catholic Church.
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The PGA Championship (often referred to as the U.S. PGA Championship or U.S. PGA outside the United States) is an annual golf tournament conducted by the Professional Golfers' Association of America.
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Physical force Irish republicanism
Physical force Irish republicanism (PFIR) is the recurring appearance of a non-parliamentary violent insurrection in Ireland between 1798 and the present.
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A physicist is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe.
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Physics World is the membership magazine of the Institute of Physics, one of the largest physical societies in the world.
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Phytogeography (from Greek φυτό, phyto.
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A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus,, of the family Pinaceae.
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The Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, Pinopsida.
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In geography, a plain is a flat, sweeping landmass that generally does not change much in elevation.
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Plantations of Ireland
Plantations in 16th- and 17th-century Ireland involved the confiscation of land by the English crown and the colonisation of this land with settlers from the island of Great Britain.
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Plurality voting is an electoral system in which each voter is allowed to vote for only one candidate, and the candidate who polls the most among their counterparts (a plurality) is elected.
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Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
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The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
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Pope Adrian IV
Pope Adrian IV (Adrianus IV; born Nicholas Breakspear; 1 September 1159), also known as Hadrian IV, was Pope from 4 December 1154 to his death in 1159.
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Pope Alexander III
Pope Alexander III (c. 1100/1105 – 30 August 1181), born Roland of Siena, was Pope from 7 September 1159 to his death in 1181.
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Pope Celestine I
Pope Celestine I (Caelestinus I; d. 1 August 432) was Pope from 10 September 422 to his death in 432.
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Porter is a dark style of beer developed in London from well-hopped beers made from brown malt.
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Post-2008 Irish economic downturn
The post-2008 Irish economic downturn in the Republic of Ireland, coincided with a series of banking scandals, followed the 1990s and 2000s Celtic Tiger period of rapid real economic growth fuelled by foreign direct investment, a subsequent property bubble which rendered the real economy uncompetitive, and an expansion in bank lending in the early 2000s.
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The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.
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The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.
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Poynings' Law or the Statute of Drogheda (10 Hen.7 c.4 or 10 Hen.7 c.9; later titled "An Act that no Parliament be holden in this Land until the Acts be certified into England") was a 1494 Act of the Parliament of Ireland which provided that the parliament could not meet until its proposed legislation had been approved both by Ireland's Lord Deputy and Privy Council and by England's monarch and Privy Council.
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The Premier League is the top level of the English football league system.
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Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism which traces its origins to Britain, particularly Scotland, and Ireland.
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President of Ireland
The President of Ireland (Uachtarán na hÉireann) is the head of state of the Republic of Ireland and the Supreme Commander of the Irish Defence Forces.
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Primacy of Ireland
The Primacy of Ireland was historically disputed between the Archbishop of Armagh and the Archbishop of Dublin until finally settled by Pope Innocent VI.
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A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that cannot be formed by multiplying two smaller natural numbers.
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The PRO14 (known as the Guinness PRO14 for sponsorship reasons) is an annual rugby union competition involving professional sides from Ireland, Italy, Scotland, South Africa and Wales.
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Prohibition in the United States
Prohibition in the United States was a nationwide constitutional ban on the production, importation, transportation, and sale of alcoholic beverages from 1920 to 1933.
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The Protestant Ascendancy, known simply as the Ascendancy, was the political, economic and social domination of Ireland between the 17th century and the early 20th century by a minority of landowners, Protestant clergy and members of the professions, all members of the Church of Ireland or the Church of England.
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Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
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The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the reconstructed ancestor language of all the known Celtic languages.
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Provinces of Ireland
Since the early 17th-century there have been four Provinces of Ireland: Connacht, Leinster, Munster and Ulster.
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Provisional Irish Republican Army
The Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA or Provisional IRA) was an Irish republican revolutionary organisation that sought to end British rule in Northern Ireland, facilitate the reunification of Ireland and bring about an independent socialist republic encompassing all of Ireland.
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Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
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In mathematics, the quaternions are a number system that extends the complex numbers.
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Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.
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Raidió Teilifís Éireann
Raidió Teilifís Éireann (Radio-Television of Ireland; abbreviated as RTÉ) is a semi-state company and the national public service broadcaster of Ireland.
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The red algae, or Rhodophyta, are one of the oldest groups of eukaryotic algae.
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The red deer (Cervus elaphus) is one of the largest deer species.
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The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the largest of the true foxes and one of the most widely distributed members of the order Carnivora, being present across the entire Northern Hemisphere from the Arctic Circle to North Africa, North America and Eurasia.
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Religion in Ireland
Religion in Ireland may refer to.
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Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.
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Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
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Republic of Ireland
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
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Republic of Ireland national football team
The Republic of Ireland national football team (Foireann peile náisiúnta Phoblacht na hÉireann) represents Ireland in association football.
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Republic of Ireland–United Kingdom border
The Republic of Ireland–United Kingdom border, also known as the Irish border, runs for Ordnance Survey of Northern Ireland, 1999MFPP Working Paper No.
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Richard Brinsley Sheridan
Richard Brinsley Butler Sheridan (30 October 17517 July 1816) was an Irish satirist, a playwright and poet, and long-term owner of the London Theatre Royal, Drury Lane.
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Richard Cantillon (1680s –) was an Irish-French economist and author of Essai sur la Nature du Commerce en Général (Essay on the Nature of Trade in General), a book considered by William Stanley Jevons to be the "cradle of political economy".
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Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke
Richard FitzGilbert de Clare, The family name ‘de Clare’ was also rendered ‘of Clare’ in contemporary sources.
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The River Shannon (Abha na Sionainne, an tSionainn, an tSionna) is the longest river in Ireland at.
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Rivers of Ireland
Shown here are all the major rivers and tributaries of Ireland with their lengths (in kilometres and miles).
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Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor.
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Robert Emmet (4 March 1778 – 20 September 1803) was an Irish nationalist and Republican, orator and rebel leader.
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Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet, (5 February 17882 July 1850) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (1834–35 and 1841–46) and twice as Home Secretary (1822–27 and 1828–30).
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Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, and developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and later, particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States.
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Rock of Cashel
The Rock of Cashel (Carraig Phádraig), also known as Cashel of the Kings and St.
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Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829
The Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829, passed by Parliament in 1829, was the culmination of the process of Catholic Emancipation throughout the UK.
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Rory McIlroy, (born 4 May 1989) is a professional golfer from Northern Ireland who is a member of both the European and PGA Tours.
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Rough Guides Ltd is a British travel guidebook and reference publisher, since November 2017 owned by APA Publications.
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A royal charter is a formal document issued by a monarch as letters patent, granting a right or power to an individual or a body corporate.
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Rugby football refers to the team sports rugby league and rugby union.
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Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.
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Rugby World Cup
The Rugby World Cup is a men's rugby union tournament contested every four years between the top international teams.
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In general, a rural area or countryside is a geographic area that is located outside towns and cities.
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The Ryder Cup is a biennial men's golf competition between teams from Europe and the United States.
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Saint Patrick (Patricius; Pádraig; Padrig) was a fifth-century Romano-British Christian missionary and bishop in Ireland.
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Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae.
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Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish avant-garde novelist, playwright, theatre director, poet, and literary translator who lived in Paris for most of his adult life.
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Sargassum is a genus of brown (class Phaeophyceae) macroalgae (seaweed) in the order Fucales.
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Satellite imagery (or spaceborne photography) are images of Earth or other planets collected by imaging satellites operated by governments and businesses around the world.
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Schmitzia hiscockiana is a small, rare, red seaweed or marine alga of the phylum Rhodophyta or red algae.
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Scotch whisky (often simply called Scotch) is malt whisky or grain whisky made in Scotland.
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Scotia is a Latin placename derived from Scoti, a Latin name for the Gaels.
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Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
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Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland.
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The Highlands (the Hielands; A’ Ghàidhealtachd, "the place of the Gaels") are a historic region of Scotland.
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The Scottish people (Scots: Scots Fowk, Scottish Gaelic: Albannaich), or Scots, are a nation and ethnic group native to Scotland. Historically, they emerged from an amalgamation of two Celtic-speaking peoples, the Picts and Gaels, who founded the Kingdom of Scotland (or Alba) in the 9th century. Later, the neighbouring Celtic-speaking Cumbrians, as well as Germanic-speaking Anglo-Saxons and Norse, were incorporated into the Scottish nation. In modern usage, "Scottish people" or "Scots" is used to refer to anyone whose linguistic, cultural, family ancestral or genetic origins are from Scotland. The Latin word Scoti originally referred to the Gaels, but came to describe all inhabitants of Scotland. Considered archaic or pejorative, the term Scotch has also been used for Scottish people, primarily outside Scotland. John Kenneth Galbraith in his book The Scotch (Toronto: MacMillan, 1964) documents the descendants of 19th-century Scottish pioneers who settled in Southwestern Ontario and affectionately referred to themselves as 'Scotch'. He states the book was meant to give a true picture of life in the community in the early decades of the 20th century. People of Scottish descent live in many countries other than Scotland. Emigration, influenced by factors such as the Highland and Lowland Clearances, Scottish participation in the British Empire, and latterly industrial decline and unemployment, have resulted in Scottish people being found throughout the world. Scottish emigrants took with them their Scottish languages and culture. Large populations of Scottish people settled the new-world lands of North and South America, Australia and New Zealand. Canada has the highest level of Scottish descendants per capita in the world and the second-largest population of Scottish descendants, after the United States. Scotland has seen migration and settlement of many peoples at different periods in its history. The Gaels, the Picts and the Britons have their respective origin myths, like most medieval European peoples. Germanic peoples, such as the Anglo-Saxons, arrived beginning in the 7th century, while the Norse settled parts of Scotland from the 8th century onwards. In the High Middle Ages, from the reign of David I of Scotland, there was some emigration from France, England and the Low Countries to Scotland. Some famous Scottish family names, including those bearing the names which became Bruce, Balliol, Murray and Stewart came to Scotland at this time. Today Scotland is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens.
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Scottish Premier League
The Scottish Premier League (SPL) was the top level league competition for professional football clubs in Scotland.
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Scuba diving is a mode of underwater diving where the diver uses a self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (scuba) which is completely independent of surface supply, to breathe underwater.
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Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.
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Sea turtles (superfamily Chelonioidea), sometimes called marine turtles, are reptiles of the order Testudines.
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Seamus Justin Heaney (13 April 1939 – 30 August 2013) was an Irish poet, playwright and translator.
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Sean Scully (born 30 June 1945) is an Irish-born American-based painter and printmaker who has twice been named a Turner Prize nominee.
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Seanad Éireann (Senate of Ireland) is the government upper house of the Oireachtas (the Irish legislature), which also comprises the President of Ireland and Dáil Éireann (the lower house).
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Seán Ó Riada
Seán Ó Riada (born John Reidy) (1 August 1931 – 3 October 1971), was an Irish composer and arranger of Irish traditional music.
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Seán O'Casey (Seán Ó Cathasaigh; born John Casey; 30 March 1880 – 18 September 1964) was an Irish dramatist and memoirist.
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Sebastian Barry (born 5 July 1955) is an Irish playwright, novelist and poet.
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The Second Dáil was Dáil Éireann as it convened from 16 August 1921 until 8 June 1922.
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Secretary of State for Northern Ireland
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, informally known as the Northern Ireland Secretary, is the principal secretary of state in Her Majesty's Government with responsibilities for Northern Ireland.
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Sectarianism is a form of bigotry, discrimination, or hatred arising from attaching relations of inferiority and superiority to differences between subdivisions within a group.
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Sedulius Scotus or Scottus (fl. 840–860) was an Irish teacher, Latin grammarian and scriptural commentator who lived in the 9th century.
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Sharks are a group of elasmobranch fish characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton, five to seven gill slits on the sides of the head, and pectoral fins that are not fused to the head.
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Shelta (Irish: Seiltis) is a language spoken by Irish Travellers, particularly in Ireland and the United Kingdom.
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Show jumping, also known as "stadium jumping", "open jumping", or simply "jumping", is a part of a group of English riding equestrian events that also includes dressage, eventing, hunters, and equitation.
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A silver medal in sports and other similar areas involving competition is a medal made of, or plated with, silver awarded to the second-place finisher, or runner-up, of contests or competitions such as the Olympic Games, Commonwealth Games, etc.
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Silvermines, historically known as Bellagowan, is a village in County Tipperary in Ireland.
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Magda Davitt (born Sinéad Marie Bernadette O'Connor, 8 December 1966) is an Irish singer-songwriter who rose to fame in the late 1980s with her debut album The Lion and the Cobra.
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Sinn Féin (isbn) is a left-wing Irish republican political party active in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.
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Six Nations Championship
The Six Nations Championship (recently known as the NatWest 6 Nations for sponsorship reasons) is an annual international rugby union competition between the teams of England, France, Ireland, Italy, Scotland and Wales.
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Skellig Michael (Sceilig Mhichíl) (or the Great Skellig (Sceilig Mhór) is a twin-pinnacled crag situated west of the Iveragh Peninsula in County Kerry, Ireland. The larger of the two Skellig Islands, the island is known for its steep landscape, the Gaelic monastery founded between the 6th and 8th century, and its variety of inhabiting species, including gannets, puffins, a colony of razorbills and a resident population of approximately fifty grey seals.Lavelle (1976), pp. 31–32 The rock contains the remains of a tower house, a megalithic stone row and a cross inscribed slabO'Shea (1981), p. 28 known as the "Wailing Woman". The island, along with some of the Blasket Islands, forms the most westerly part of the Republic of Ireland.S.M. (1913), p. 164 It consists of approximately 44 acres of rock, with its highest point, the Spit, is 714 feet above sea level. The monastery is situated at 550–600 feet, while "Christ's Saddle" is 422 feet and the flagstaff area is 120 feet above sea level.O'Shea (1981), p. 3 The island's slopes are ascended by a flight of stone steps. The name "Skellig" is derived from a Gaelic word for a splinter of stone (sceilig). Its twin island, "Little Skellig" (Sceilig Bheag) is larger but practically inaccessible, and is closed to the public. The island is dedicated to the archangel Michael, who is said to have appeared there to help Saint Patrick banish serpents into the sea.Lavelle (1976), pp. 11–12 The remains of the monastery, which today consists of a small enclosure of beehive huts and oratories, and most of the island, became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1996. Because of the often difficult crossing from the mainland, and the exposed nature of the small landing spot, the island is only accessible to the public during the summer months.
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A sobriquet or soubriquet is a nickname, sometimes assumed, but often given by another.
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Society of United Irishmen
The Society of United Irishmen was founded as a liberal political organisation in 18th-century Ireland that initially sought Parliamentary reform.
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The Soghain were a people of ancient Ireland.
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Sonia O'Sullivan (born 28 November 1969) is an Irish former track and field athlete.
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South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
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South Magnetic Pole
The South Magnetic Pole is the wandering point on the Earth's Southern Hemisphere where the geomagnetic field lines are directed vertically upwards.
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South-East Region, Ireland
The South-East Region (coded IE024) is a NUTS Level III statistical region of Ireland.
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South-West Region, Ireland
The South-West Region (coded IE025) is a NUTS Level III statistical region of Ireland.
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The Southern Uplands are the southernmost and least populous of mainland Scotland's three major geographic areas (the others being the Central Lowlands and the Highlands).
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A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
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Spartina anglica (Common Cord-grass) is a species of cordgrass that originated in southern England in about 1870 and is endemic as a native to Britain.
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Special EU Programmes Body
The Special EU Programmes Body (SEUPB) (Comhlacht na gClár Speisialta AE; Ulster-Scots: Tha By-Ordnar CE Dargs Convenerie) is a cross-border body in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland which co-ordinates projects funded by the European Union and implemented in Northern Ireland and adjacent regions: the Border region of the Republic of Ireland, and Western Scotland.
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St George's Channel
St George's Channel (Sianel San Siôr, Muir Bhreatan) is a sea channel connecting the Irish Sea to the north and the Celtic Sea to the southwest.
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St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin
Saint Patrick's Cathedral (Ard-Eaglais Naomh Pádraig) in Dublin, Ireland, founded in 1191, is the National Cathedral of the Church of Ireland.
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St Patrick's College, Maynooth
St Patrick's College, Maynooth (Coláiste Naoimh Phádraig, Maigh Nuad), is the "National Seminary for Ireland" (a Roman Catholic college), and a Pontifical University, located in the village of Maynooth, from Dublin, Ireland.
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Statute of Westminster 1931
The Statute of Westminster 1931 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and modified versions of it are now domestic law within Australia and Canada; it has been repealed in New Zealand and implicitly in former Dominions that are no longer Commonwealth realms.
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Statutes of Kilkenny
The Statutes of Kilkenny were a series of thirty-five acts passed at Kilkenny in 1366, aiming to curb the decline of the Hiberno-Norman Lordship of Ireland.
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String instruments, stringed instruments, or chordophones are musical instruments that produce sound from vibrating strings when the performer plays or sounds the strings in some manner.
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The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and temperate zones (normally referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator.
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The Sunningdale Agreement was an attempt to establish a power-sharing Northern Ireland Executive and a cross-border Council of Ireland.
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Supreme Court of the United Kingdom
The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom is the supreme court in all matters under English and Welsh law, Northern Irish law and Scottish civil law.
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Sweeney's Men was an Irish traditional band.
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Synod of Kells
The Synod of Kells took place in AD 1152, under the presidency of Cardinal Paparoni, and continued the process begun at the Synod of Ráth Breasail of reforming the Irish church.
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Taibhdhearc na Gaillimhe
Taibhdhearc na Gaillimhe (meaning "Galway Theatre"), also called An Taiḃḋearc, is the national Irish language theatre of Ireland.
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The Taoiseach (pl. Taoisigh) is the prime minister, chief executive and head of government of Ireland.
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A tariff is a tax on imports or exports between sovereign states.
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Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest
Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest is a temperate climate terrestrial biome, with broadleaf tree ecoregions, and with conifer and broadleaf tree mixed coniferous forest ecoregions.
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In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
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Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles).
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The Test Acts were a series of English penal laws that served as a religious test for public office and imposed various civil disabilities on Roman Catholics and nonconformists.
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The Burren is a region of environmental interest primarily located in northwestern County Clare, Ireland, dominated by glaciated karst (or sometimes glaciokarst Burren National Park - Geology - "The Burren is one of the finest examples of a Glacio-Karst landscape in the world. At least two glacial advances are known in the Burren area.") landscape.
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The Chieftains are a traditional Irish band formed in Dublin in 1963, by Paddy Moloney, Sean Potts and Michael Tubridy.
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The Christian Science Monitor
The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is a nonprofit news organization that publishes daily articles in electronic format as well as a weekly print edition.
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The Clancy Brothers
The Clancy Brothers were an influential Irish folk group, which initially developed as a part of the American folk music revival.
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The Corrs are an Irish band that combine pop rock with traditional Irish themes within their music.
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The Cranberries are an Irish rock band formed in Limerick in 1989 by lead singer Niall Quinn, guitarist Noel Hogan, bassist Mike Hogan, and drummer Fergal Lawler.
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The Dubliners were an Irish folk band founded in Dublin in 1962 as The Ronnie Drew Ballad Group after its founding member; they subsequently renamed themselves The Dubliners.
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The Emergency (Ireland)
The Emergency (Ré na Práinne / An Éigeandáil) was the state of emergency which existed in the state of Ireland during the Second World War.
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The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
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The Independent is a British online newspaper.
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The Irish Times
The Irish Times is an Irish daily broadsheet newspaper launched on 29 March 1859.
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The New York Times
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
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The North/South Language Body
The North/South Language Body (An Foras Teanga Thuaidh/Theas; Ulster-Scots: Tha Noarth/Sooth Boord o Leid or The Language Curn) is an implementation body, provided for by the Belfast Agreement, that exists to implement policies agreed by Ministers in the North/South Ministerial Council (NSMC) in Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland with regard to the Irish and Ulster-Scots (or "Ullans") languages on a cross border all Island basis.
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The Open Championship
The Open Championship, often referred to as The Open or the British Open, is the oldest of the four major championships in professional golf.
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The Pale (An Pháil in Irish) or the English Pale (An Pháil Shasanach or An Ghalltacht) was the part of Ireland that was directly under the control of the English government in the late Middle Ages.
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The Pogues were an Irish-British Celtic punk band formed in 1982 and fronted by Shane MacGowan.
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The Saw Doctors
The Saw Doctors are an Irish rock band.
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The Troubles (Na Trioblóidí) was an ethno-nationalist conflict in Northern Ireland during the late 20th century.
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The Washington Post
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
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The Wolfe Tones
The Wolfe Tones are an Irish rebel music band that incorporates elements of Irish traditional music in their songs.
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TheJournal.ie is an internet publication in Ireland.
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Thin Lizzy are a hard rock band formed in Dublin, Ireland in 1969.
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The Third Dáil, was both the Provisional Parliament or the Constituent Assembly of Southern Ireland from 9 August to 6 December 1922; and the lower house (Dáil Éireann) of the Oireachtas of the Irish Free State from 6 December 1922 until 9 August 1923.
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Tigernán Ua Ruairc
Tighearnán Mór Ua Ruairc (older spelling: Tigernán Mór Ua Ruairc), anglicised as Tiernán O'Rourke (fl. 1124–1172) ruled the Kingdom of Bréifne as the 19th king in its Ua Ruairc (later O'Rourke) dynasty (964–1605 CE).
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Time in Ireland
Ireland uses Irish Standard Time (IST, UTC+01:00; Am Caighdeánach Éireannach) in the summer months and Greenwich Mean Time (UTC+0; Meán-Am Greenwich) in the winter period.
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The Barony of Tyrawley is situated in the north east portion of County Mayo.
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A tithe (from Old English: teogoþa "tenth") is a one-tenth part of something, paid as a contribution to a religious organization or compulsory tax to government.
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A torc, also spelled torq or torque, is a large rigid or stiff neck ring in metal, made either as a single piece or from strands twisted together.
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A transformer is a static electrical device that transfers electrical energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction.
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Treaty of Windsor (1175)
The Treaty of Windsor (1175) was a territorial agreement made during the time of the Norman invasion of Ireland.
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Trinity College Dublin
Trinity College (Coláiste na Tríonóide), officially the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin, is the sole constituent college of the University of Dublin, a research university located in Dublin, Ireland.
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Triple Crown (rugby union)
In rugby union, the Triple Crown is an honour contested annually by the "Home Nations" – i.e. England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales who compete within the larger Six Nations Championship.
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Trout is the common name for a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the genera Oncorhynchus, Salmo and Salvelinus, all of the subfamily Salmoninae of the family Salmonidae.
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Tudor conquest of Ireland
The Tudor conquest (or reconquest) of Ireland took place under the Tudor dynasty, which held the Kingdom of England during the 16th century.
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Turlough Hill, also known as Tomaneena, is a mountain in County Wicklow in Ireland and site of Ireland's only pumped-storage hydroelectricity plant.
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Twynholm is a village in Scotland.
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Tynagh is a village and parish in south-east County Galway in Ireland.
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The Tyndall effect, also known as Willis–Tyndall scattering, is light scattering by particles in a colloids or in a very fine suspension.
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U.S. Open (golf)
The United States Open Championship, commonly known as the U.S. Open, is the annual open national championship of golf in the United States.
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The Uaithni were a people of early Ireland, who in early medieval times lived in north-eastern County Limerick and the adjoining part of County Tipperary, and had traditions that they once lived west of the River Shannon.
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The Uí Liatháin were an early kingdom of Munster in southern Ireland.
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Uí Maine, often Anglicised as Hy Many, was one of the oldest and largest kingdoms located in Connacht, Ireland.
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UEFA Euro 1988
The 1988 UEFA European Football Championship final tournament was held in West Germany between 10 and 25 June 1988.
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UEFA Euro 2012
The 2012 UEFA European Championship, commonly referred to as UEFA Euro 2012 or simply Euro 2012, was the 14th European Championship for men's national football teams organised by UEFA.
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UEFA Euro 2016
The 2016 UEFA European Championship, commonly referred to as UEFA Euro 2016 or simply Euro 2016, was the 15th UEFA European Championship, the quadrennial international men's football championship of Europe organised by UEFA.
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UEFA European Championship
The UEFA European Championship (known informally as the Euros) is the primary association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA), determining the continental champion of Europe.
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Ulaid (Old Irish) or Ulaidh (modern Irish)) was a Gaelic over-kingdom in north-eastern Ireland during the Middle Ages, made up of a confederation of dynastic groups. Alternative names include Ulidia, which is the Latin form of Ulaid, as well as in Chóicid, which in Irish means "the Fifth". The king of Ulaid was called the rí Ulad or rí in Chóicid. Ulaid also refers to a people of early Ireland, and it is from them that the province derives its name. Some of the dynasties within the over-kingdom claimed descent from the Ulaid, whilst others are cited as being of Cruithin descent. In historical documents, the term Ulaid was used to refer to the population-group, of which the Dál Fiatach was the ruling dynasty. As such the title Rí Ulad held two meanings: over-king of Ulaid; and king of the Ulaid, as in the Dál Fiatach. The Ulaid feature prominently in the Ulster Cycle of Irish mythology. According to legend, the ancient territory of Ulaid spanned the whole of the modern province of Ulster, excluding County Cavan, but including County Louth. Its southern border was said to stretch from the River Drowes in the west to the River Boyne in the east. At the onset of the historic period of Irish history in the 6th century, the territory of Ulaid was largely confined to east of the River Bann, as it is said to have lost land to the Airgíalla and the Northern Uí Néill. Ulaid ceased to exist after its conquest in the late 12th century by the Anglo-Norman knight John de Courcy, and was replaced with the Earldom of Ulster. An individual from Ulaid was known in Irish as an Ultach, the nominative plural being Ultaigh. This name lives on in the surname McAnulty or McNulty, from Mac an Ultaigh ("son of the Ulsterman").
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Ulex (commonly known as gorse, furze or whin) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Fabaceae.
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Ulex europaeus (gorse, common gorse, furze or whin) is a species of flowering plant in the family Fabaceae, native to portions of Europe from the northern United Kingdom south to Portugal, and from the western Republic of Ireland east to Galicja in Poland and Ukraine.
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Ulster (Ulaidh or Cúige Uladh, Ulster Scots: Ulstèr or Ulster) is a province in the north of the island of Ireland.
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Ulster loyalism is a political ideology found primarily among working class Ulster Protestants in Northern Ireland, whose status as a part of the United Kingdom has remained controversial.
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Ulster Rugby (Rugbaí Uladh) is one of the four professional provincial rugby teams from the island of Ireland.
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Ulster Scots dialects
Ulster Scots or Ulster-Scots (Ulstèr-Scotch), also known as Ullans, is the Scots language as spoken in parts of Ulster in Ireland.
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Ulster Unionist Party
The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) is a unionist political party in Northern Ireland.
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The Ulster Volunteers was a unionist militia founded in 1912 to block domestic self-government (or Home Rule) for Ireland, which was then part of the United Kingdom.
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Ulysses is a modernist novel by Irish writer James Joyce.
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United Ireland (also referred to as Irish reunification) is the proposition that the whole of Ireland should be a single sovereign state.
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The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
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United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
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United Nations Development Programme
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.
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The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
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University College Cork
University College Cork – National University of Ireland, Cork (UCC) (Irish: Coláiste na hOllscoile Corcaigh) is a constituent university of the National University of Ireland, and located in Cork.
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University College Dublin
University College, Dublin (commonly referred to as UCD; An Coláiste Ollscoile, Baile Átha Cliath) is a research university in Dublin, Ireland.
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Sir George Ivan Morrison (born 31 August 1945) is a Northern Irish singer-songwriter, instrumentalist and record producer.
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Vernacular literature is literature written in the vernacular—the speech of the "common people".
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The Victoria Cross (VC) is the highest award of the British honours system.
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Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
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Violet Florence Martin
Violet Florence Martin (11 June 1862 – 21 December 1915) was an Irish author who co-wrote a series of novels with cousin Edith Somerville under the pen name of Martin Ross in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
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The viviparous lizard or common lizard, Zootoca vivipara (formerly Lacerta vivipara), is a Eurasian lizard.
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W. B. Yeats
William Butler Yeats (13 June 186528 January 1939) was an Irish poet and one of the foremost figures of 20th-century literature.
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Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
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Wars of the Three Kingdoms
The Wars of the Three Kingdoms, sometimes known as the British Civil Wars, formed an intertwined series of conflicts that took place in the kingdoms of England, Ireland and Scotland between 1639 and 1651.
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Waterford (from Old Norse Veðrafjǫrðr, meaning "ram (wether) fjord") is a city in Ireland.
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Waterways Ireland (Uiscebhealaí Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Watterweys Airlann) is one of the six all-Ireland North/South implementation bodies established under the Belfast Agreement in 1999.
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The wave equation is an important second-order linear partial differential equation for the description of waves—as they occur in classical physics—such as mechanical waves (e.g. water waves, sound waves and seismic waves) or light waves.
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Wayne Pocket Rocket McCullough (born Wayne William McCullough; 7 July 1970) is a former professional boxer from Northern Ireland who competed from 1993 to 2008.
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A weather station is a facility, either on land or sea, with instruments and equipment for measuring atmospheric conditions to provide information for weather forecasts and to study the weather and climate.
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Weaving is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth.
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Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
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The Welsh (Cymry) are a nation and ethnic group native to, or otherwise associated with, Wales, Welsh culture, Welsh history, and the Welsh language.
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The West Indies or the Caribbean Basin is a region of the North Atlantic Ocean in the Caribbean that includes the island countries and surrounding waters of three major archipelagoes: the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles and the Lucayan Archipelago.
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West Region, Ireland
The West Region (coded IE013) is a NUTS Level III statistical region of the Republic of Ireland.
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Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
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Western European Summer Time
Western European Summer Time (WEST) is a summer daylight saving time scheme, 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
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Western European Time
Western European Time (WET, UTC±00:00) is a time zone covering parts of western and northwestern Europe.
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Wexford (Yola: Weiseforth) is the county town of County Wexford, Ireland.
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Whales are a widely distributed and diverse group of fully aquatic placental marine mammals.
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Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
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A wheel is a circular component that is intended to rotate on an axle bearing.
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Whisky or whiskey is a type of distilled alcoholic beverage made from fermented grain mash.
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White meat is meat which is pale in color before and after cooking.
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White people is a racial classification specifier, used mostly for people of European descent; depending on context, nationality, and point of view, the term has at times been expanded to encompass certain persons of North African, Middle Eastern, and South Asian descent, persons who are often considered non-white in other contexts.
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William Carleton (4 March 1794, Prolusk (often spelt as Prillisk as on his gravestone), Clogher, County Tyrone – 30 January 1869, Sandford Road, Ranelagh, Dublin) was an Irish writer and novelist.
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William III of England
William III (Willem; 4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702), also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702.
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Major Sir William Newenham Montague Orpen, (27 November 1878 – 29 September 1931), was an Irish artist who worked mainly in London.
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William Pitt the Younger
William Pitt the Younger (28 May 1759 – 23 January 1806) was a prominent British Tory statesman of the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
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William Rowan Hamilton
Sir William Rowan Hamilton MRIA (4 August 1805 – 2 September 1865) was an Irish mathematician who made important contributions to classical mechanics, optics, and algebra.
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William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin
William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, (26 June 1824 – 17 December 1907) was a Scots-Irish mathematical physicist and engineer who was born in Belfast in 1824.
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Williamite War in Ireland
The Williamite War in Ireland (1688–1691) (Cogadh an Dá Rí, meaning "war of the two kings"), was a conflict between Jacobites (supporters of the Catholic King James II of England and Ireland, VII of Scotland) and Williamites (supporters of the Dutch Protestant Prince William of Orange) over who would be monarch of the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of Ireland.
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A wind farm is a group of wind turbines in the same location used to produce electricity.
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Wind power is the use of air flow through wind turbines to mechanically power generators for electricity.
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A wind turbine is a device that converts the wind's kinetic energy into electrical energy.
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Winter of 2009–10 in Europe
The winter of 2009–2010 in Europe was unusually cold.
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Wolves in Ireland
Wolves in Ireland were once an integral part of the Irish countryside and culture, but are now extinct.
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World Heritage site
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
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World War I
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
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Wreck diving is recreational diving where the wreckage of ships, aircraft and other artificial structures are explored.
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X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
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11th meridian west
The meridian 11° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, Africa, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
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1958 FIFA World Cup
The 1958 FIFA World Cup, the sixth staging of the World Cup, was hosted by Sweden from 8 to 29 June.
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1982 FIFA World Cup
The 1982 FIFA World Cup, the 12th FIFA World Cup, was held in Spain from 13 June to 11 July 1982.
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1986 FIFA World Cup
The 1986 FIFA World Cup, the 13th FIFA World Cup, was held in Mexico from 31 May to 29 June 1986.
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1990 FIFA World Cup
The 1990 FIFA World Cup was the 14th FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international football world championship tournament.
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1991 Rugby World Cup
The 1991 Rugby World Cup was the second edition of the Rugby World Cup, and was jointly hosted by England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland and France; at that time, the five European countries that participated in the Five Nations Championship making it the first Rugby World Cup to be staged in the northern hemisphere, with England as the host of the championship game.
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1992 Summer Olympics
The 1992 Summer Olympic Games (Spanish: Juegos Olímpicos de Verano de 1992; Catalan: Jocs Olímpics d'estiu de 1992), officially known as the Games of the XXV Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event celebrated in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain in 1992.
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1994 FIFA World Cup
The 1994 FIFA World Cup was the 15th FIFA World Cup, held in nine cities across the United States from 17 June to 17 July 1994.
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1998–99 Heineken Cup
The 1998–99 Heineken Cup was the fourth edition of the Heineken Cup.
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1999 Rugby World Cup
The 1999 Rugby World Cup was the fourth Rugby World Cup, the quadrennial international rugby union championship.
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2000 Summer Olympics
The 2000 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXVII Olympiad and commonly known as Sydney 2000 or the Millennium Olympic Games/Games of the New Millennium, were an international multi-sport event which was held between 15 September and 1 October 2000 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
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2002 FIFA World Cup
The 2002 FIFA World Cup was the 17th FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial world championship for men's national football teams organized by FIFA.
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2003 European heat wave
The 2003 European heat wave led to the hottest summer on record in Europe since at least 1540.
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2005–06 Heineken Cup
The 2005–06 Heineken Cup was the eleventh edition of the European Heineken Cup rugby union club tournament.
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2006 Ryder Cup
The 36th Ryder Cup Matches were held 22–24 September 2006 in Ireland at the Palmer Course of the K Club in Straffan, County Kildare, west of Dublin.
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2007–08 Heineken Cup
The 2007–08 Heineken Cup was the 13th edition of the Heineken Cup, the annual rugby union European club competition for clubs from the top six nations in European rugby.
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2008–09 Heineken Cup
The 2008–09 Heineken Cup was the fourteenth edition of the Heineken Cup, the annual rugby union European club competition for clubs from the top six nations in European rugby.
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2010 Commonwealth Games
The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games and commonly known as Delhi 2010, was an international multi-sport event that was held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010.
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2010 European Amateur Boxing Championships
The Men's 2010 European Amateur Boxing Championships were held in Moscow, Russia from June 4 to June 13, 2010.
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2010–11 Heineken Cup
The 2010–11 Heineken Cup was the 16th season of the Heineken Cup, the annual rugby union European club competition for clubs from the top six nations in European rugby.
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2011 Open Championship
The 2011 Open Championship was a men's major golf championship and the 140th Open Championship, held from 14–17 July at Royal St George's Golf Club in Sandwich, Kent, England.
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2011–12 Heineken Cup
The 2011–12 Heineken Cup was the 17th season of the Heineken Cup, the annual rugby union European club competition for clubs from the top six nations in European rugby.
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51st parallel north
The 51st parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 51 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
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56th parallel north
The 56th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 56 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
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5th meridian west
The meridian 5° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
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Airlan, Airlann, Auld Sod, IRELAND, Ireland (Island), Ireland (island), Ireland (region), Irland, Irlanda, Irlandia, Island Ireland, Island ireland, Island of Ireland, The island of Ireland.