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Syrian Civil War

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The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations. [1]

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Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi

Abū Bakr al-Baghdadi (أبو بكر البغدادي; born Ibrahim Awad Ibrahim al-Badri إبراهيم عواد إبراهيم علي محمد البدري السامرائي in 1971) is the leader of the Salafi jihadist militant terrorist organisation known as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL),Rewards for Justice – Retrieved 25 January 2017 which controls territory in several countries.

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Abu Kamal

Abu Kamal or Al-Bukamal (البوكمال) is a city on the Euphrates river in the Deir ez-Zor Governorate of eastern Syria near the border with Iraq.

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Abu Sayyaf (ISIL leader)

Abu Sayyaf is the nom de guerre of a senior leader of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) who was described as overseeing gas and oil operations.

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Academy Award for Best Documentary (Short Subject)

This is a list of films by year that have received an Academy Award together with the other nominations for best documentary short subject.

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Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature

The Academy Award for Documentary Feature is an award for documentary films.

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Afrin Canton

Afrin Canton (Kantona Efrînê, مقاطعة عفرين, translit) was one of the cantons of the de facto autonomous Democratic Federation of Northern Syria (DFNS).

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Afrin Region

Afrin Region (Herêma Efrînê, إقليم عفرين, translit) is the westernmost of the three regions of the de facto autonomous Democratic Federation of Northern Syria (DFNS, most commonly known as Rojava).

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Agence France-Presse

Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.

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Ahmad Jarba

Ahmad Jarba (أحمد عوينان العاصي الجربا), born in the city of Qamishli in 1969, is a Syrian opposition member and former political prisoner.

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Ahrar al-Sham

Harakat Ahrar al-Sham al-Islamiyya (lit), commonly referred to as Ahrar al-Sham, is a coalition of multiple Islamist and Salafist units that coalesced into a single brigade and later a division in order to fight against the Syrian Government led by Bashar al-Assad during the Syrian Civil War.

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Akhtarin

Akhtarin (أخترين) is a town in northern Aleppo Governorate, northwestern Syria.

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Al Arabiya

Al Arabiya (العربية, transliterated: or; meaning "The Arabic One" or "The Arab One") is a Saudi-owned pan-Arab television news channel broadcast in Modern Standard Arabic.

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Al Jazeera

Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.

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Al Jazeera English

Al Jazeera English (AJE) is an international state-funded 24-hour English-language news and current affairs TV channel owned and operated by Al Jazeera Media Network, headquartered in Doha, Qatar.

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Al Udeid Air Base

Al Udeid Air Base (Arabic:قاعدة العديد الجوية) is a military base southwest of Doha, Qatar, also known as Abu Nakhlah Airport (Arabic:مطار أبو نخلة).

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Al Waleed border crossing

Al Waleed border crossing (نقطة الوليد الحدودية العراقية, also spelled al-Walid), known in Syria as al-Tanf, is one of three official border crossings between Syria and Iraq.

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Al-Ahram Weekly

Al-Ahram Weekly is an English-language weekly broadsheet printed by the Al-Ahram Publishing House in Cairo, Egypt.

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Al-Bab

Al-Bab (الباب / ALA-LC: al-Bāb) is a city, de-jure administratively belonging to the Aleppo Governorate of the Syrian Arab Republic.

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Al-Fu'ah

Al-Fu'ah (الفوعة, also spelled al-Fouaa and al-Fo'ua) is a town in northern Syria, administratively part of the Idlib Governorate, located northeast of Idlib.

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Al-Hasakah

Al-Hasakah (الحسكة, Hesîçe, Ḥasake) also known as Al-Hasakeh, Al-Kasaka or simply Hasakah, is the capital city of the Al-Hasakah Governorate and it is located in the far northeastern corner of Syria.

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Al-Hasakah Governorate

Al-Hasakah Governorate (Muḥāfaẓat al-Ḥasakah, Parêzgeha Hesîçe, Huparkiyo d'Ḥasake, also known as Gozarto) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.

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Al-Malikiyah

Al-Malikiyah (المالكية, ܕܪܝܟ, Dayrik, Dêrika Hemko) is a small Syrian city and the center of an administrative district belonging to Al-Hasakah Governorate.

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Al-Mastumah

Al-Mastumah or Al Mastoume (المسطومة) is a village in northern Syria, administratively part of Idlib Governorate, located 7 kilometers south of Idlib and 60 kilometers southwest of Aleppo.

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Al-Monitor

Al-Monitor (المونيتور) is a media site launched in February 2012 by the Arab American entrepreneur Jamal Daniel and based in Washington, DC.

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Al-Nusra Front

Al-Nusra Front or Jabhat al-Nusra (جبهة النصرة.), known as Jabhat Fateh al-Sham (جبهة فتح الشام, transliteration: Jabhat Fataḥ al-Šām) after July 2016, and also described as al-Qaeda in Syria or al-Qaeda in the Levant, was a Salafist jihadist organization fighting against Syrian government forces in the Syrian Civil War.

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Al-Nusra Front–SRF/Hazzm Movement conflict

The al-Nusra Front–SRF/Hazzm Movement conflict started in late October 2014, during the Syrian Civil War, in Idlib and Aleppo governorates, during which al-Nusra attempted to establish an Islamic state rival to that of ISIL.

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Al-Qa'im (town)

Al-Qa'im (القائم) is an Iraqi town located nearly 400 km northwest of Baghdad near the Syrian border and situated along the Euphrates River, and located in the Al Anbar Governorate.

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Al-Qaeda

Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.

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Al-Qaryatayn

Al-Qaryatayn (القريتين, also spelled Karyatayn, Qaratin or Cariatein) is a town in central Syria, administratively part of the Homs Governorate located southeast of Homs.

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Al-Qusayr District

Al-Qusayr District (manṭiqat al-Qusair) is a district of the Homs Governorate in central Syria.

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Al-Qusayr offensive

The al-Qusayr offensive was an operation by the Syrian Government forces against Opposition forces at al-Qusayr in Homs province, during the Syrian Civil War.

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Al-Shaykh Maskin

Al-Shaykh Maskin (Al-Sheikh Meskīn, Şıh Miskin),Günümüzde Suriye Türkmenleri.

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Al-Thawrah

Al-Thawrah (الثورة), also known as al-Tabqah (الطبقة; Tebqa, ܛܒܩܗ; official name before 8 March 1967), is a city located in Raqqa Governorate (Syria), approximately west of Raqqa.

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Al-Zabadani

Al-Zabadani or Az-Zabadani (الزبداني) is a city and popular hill station in southwestern Syria in the Rif Dimashq Governorate, close to the border with Lebanon.

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Alaeddin Boroujerdi

Alaeddin Boroujerdi (born 1950) is a member of Iranian parliament and former Chairman for the Committee for Foreign Policy and National Security of the Islamic Consultative Assembly of Iran.

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Alawites

The Alawis, also rendered as Alawites (علوية Alawiyyah/Alawīyah), are a syncretic sect of the Twelver branch of Shia Islam, primarily centered in Syria.

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Aleppo

Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.

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Aleppo Governorate

Aleppo Governorate (محافظة حلب / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Ḥalab /) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.

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Aleppo offensive (November–December 2016)

The Aleppo offensive (November–December 2016), code named Operation Dawn of Victory by government forces, was a successful military offensive launched by the Syrian Armed Forces and allied groups against rebel-held districts in Aleppo.

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Aleppo offensive (October–December 2015)

The Aleppo offensive (October–December 2015) was an operation that started on 16 October when the Syrian Army launched a large-scale strategic offensive south of Aleppo.

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Aleppo offensive (September–October 2016)

The Aleppo offensive of September–October 2016 was the military operation launched in Aleppo in late September 2016 by the Syrian Army aiming to capture all of the remaining rebel-held parts of the city of Aleppo.

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Ali Khamenei

Sayyid Ali Hosseini Khamenei (سید علی حسینی خامنه‌ای,; born 17 July 1939) is a ''marja'' and the second and current Supreme Leader of Iran, in office since 1989.

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All-Russia State Television and Radio Broadcasting Company

The All-Russia State Television and Radio Broadcasting Company (Всероссийская государственная телевизионная и радиовещательная компания, Vserossiyskaya Gosudarstvennaya Televizionnaya i Radioveshchatelnaya Kompaniya), in short VGTRK (ВГТРК) which operates a large number of television and radio channels in 53 of Russia's languages.

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Allah

Allah (translit) is the Arabic word for God in Abrahamic religions.

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American-led intervention in the Syrian Civil War

The American-led intervention in the Syrian Civil War refers to US support of Syrian opposition and the Federation of Northern Syria during the course of the Syrian Civil War, and active involvement of US military against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant and against the al-Nusra Front from 2014.

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Amnesty International

Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.

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Ancient City of Aleppo

The Ancient City of Aleppo is the historic city centre of Aleppo, Syria.

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Anti-tank missile

An anti-tank missile (ATM), anti-tank guided missile (ATGM), anti-tank guided weapon (ATGW) or anti-armor guided weapon, is a guided missile primarily designed to hit and destroy heavily armored military vehicles.

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Anti-tank warfare

Anti-tank warfare arose as a result of the need to develop technology and tactics to destroy tanks during World War I. Since the first tanks were developed by the Triple Entente in 1916 but not operated in battle until 1917, the first anti-tank weapons were developed by the German Empire.

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April 2017 Turkish airstrikes in Syria and Iraq

In the morning of 25 April 2017, the Turkish Air Force conducted multiple bombing raids against the headquarters of the People's Protection Units (YPG) and the Women's Protection Units (YPJ) in northeastern Syria, while simultaneously launching airstrikes against positions of the Sinjar Resistance Units (YBS) on Mount Sinjar, northwestern Iraq.

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Arab League

The Arab League (الجامعة العربية), formally the League of Arab States (جامعة الدول العربية), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.

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Arab League monitors in Syria

On December 19, 2011, the Syrian government agreed to allow foreign observers from the Arab League to monitor Syria's progress in removing troops from protest areas, free political prisoners, and negotiate with dissidents.

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Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Syria Region

The Arab Socialist Bath Party – Syria Region (حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي – قطر سوريا Hizb Al-Ba'ath Al-Arabi Al-Ishtiraki – Qutr Suriya), officially the Syrian Regional Branch (Syria being a "region" of the Arab nation in Ba'ath ideology), is a neo-Ba'athist organisation founded on 7 April 1947 by Michel Aflaq, Salah al-Din al-Bitar and followers of Zaki al-Arsuzi.

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Arab Spring

The Arab Spring (الربيع العربي ar-Rabīʻ al-ʻArabī), also referred to as Arab Revolutions (الثورات العربية aṯ-'awrāt al-ʻarabiyyah), was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups, foreign interventions, and civil wars in North Africa and the Middle East that began on 18 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution.

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Arab states of the Persian Gulf

The Arab states of the Persian Gulf are the seven Arab states which border the Persian Gulf, namely Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

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Arabs

Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.

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Arameans

The Arameans, or Aramaeans (ܐܪ̈ܡܝܐ), were an ancient Northwest Semitic Aramaic-speaking tribal confederation who emerged from the region known as Aram (in present-day Syria) in the Late Bronze Age (11th to 8th centuries BC).

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Ariha

Ariha is also the local Arabic name for Jericho. Ariha (أريحا, also called Rīḥā, ريحا) is a town in northern Syria, administratively part of the Idlib Governorate, located south of Idlib.

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Armenian Apostolic Church

The Armenian Apostolic Church (translit) is the national church of the Armenian people.

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Armenian Genocide Memorial Church, Der Zor

Armenian Genocide Martyrs' Memorial (Մեծ Եղեռնի Նահատակաց Յուշահամալիր; كنيسة شهداء الأرمن) in Deir ez-Zor, Syria, was a complex dedicated to victims of the Armenian Genocide.

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ArmeniaNow

ArmeniaNow was an independent online news publication based in Yerevan, Armenia.

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Armenians in Syria

The Armenians in Syria are Syrian citizens of either full or partial Armenian descent.

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Arms trafficking

Arms trafficking, also known as gunrunning, is the trafficking of contraband weapons and ammunition.

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Army of Conquest

The Army of Conquest (جيش الفتح) or Jaish al-Fatah, abbreviated JaF, was a joint command center of Sunni Islamist Syrian rebel factions participating in the Syrian Civil War.

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Arrow (Israeli missile)

The Arrow or Hetz (חֵץ) is a family of anti-ballistic missiles designed to fulfill an Israeli requirement for a missile defense system that would be more effective against ballistic missiles than the MIM-104 Patriot surface-to-air missile.

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Ash Carter

Ashton Baldwin Carter (born September 24, 1954) is an American physicist and former Harvard University professor of Science and International Affairs who served as the 25th United States Secretary of Defense from February 2015 to January 2017.

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Asma al-Assad

Asma al-Assad (أسماء الأسد, Levantine pronunciation:;, أسماء فواز الأخرس:; born 11 August 1975) is the First Lady of Syria.

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Assyrian Church of the East

The Assyrian Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܖ̈ܝܐ ʻĒdtā d-Madenḥā d-Ātorāyē), officially the Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East (ʻEdtā Qaddīštā wa-Šlīḥāitā Qātolīqī d-Madenḥā d-Ātorāyē), is an Eastern Christian Church that follows the traditional christology and ecclesiology of the historical Church of the East.

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Assyrian people

Assyrian people (ܐܫܘܪܝܐ), or Syriacs (see terms for Syriac Christians), are an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East.

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Assyrians in Syria

Assyrians in Syria are people of Assyrian descent living in Syria.

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Astana

Astana (Астана, Astana) is the capital city of Kazakhstan.

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Astrakhan

Astrakhan (p) is a city in southern Russia and the administrative center of Astrakhan Oblast.

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Atme

Atme (اطمه, also spelled Atma, Atima, Atmeh) is a village in northern Syria, administratively part of the Idlib Governorate, located north of Idlib and just east of the border with Turkey.

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Ayman al-Zawahiri

Ayman Mohammed Rabie al-Zawahiri (أيمن محمد ربيع الظواهري, born June 19, 1951) is the current leader of Al-Qaeda and a current or former member and senior official of Islamist organizations which have orchestrated and carried out attacks in North America, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East.

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Azaz

Azaz (أعزاز A‘zāz, Hurrian: Azazuwa, Azázion, Neo-Assyrian: Ḫazazu, Old Aramaic: Ḥzz) is a city in northwestern Syria, roughly north-northwest of Aleppo.

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Ba'ath Party (Syrian-dominated faction)

The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (meaning "resurrection" or "renaissance"; حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي Hizb Al-Ba'ath Al-'Arabī Al-Ishtirākī), also referred to as the pro-Syrian Ba'ath movement, is a neo-Ba'athist political party with branches across the Arab world.

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Ballistic missile

A ballistic missile follows a ballistic trajectory to deliver one or more warheads on a predetermined target.

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Barada

The Barada (بردى / ALA-LC: Baradá) is the main river of Damascus, the capital city of Syria.

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Bashar al-Assad

Bashar Hafez al-Assad (بشار حافظ الأسد, Levantine pronunciation:;; born 11 September 1965) is a Syrian politician who has been the 19th and current President of Syria since 17 July 2000.

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Basil Al-Khatib

Basil Al-Khatib (باسل الخطيب) is a Syrian movie and TV director, from a Palestinian origin.

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Bassel al-Assad

Bassel al-Assad (Arabic: باسل الأسد Bāssel al Assad; 23 March 1962 – 21 January 1994) was a Syrian engineer, colonel, and politician who was the eldest son of President of Syria Hafez al-Assad and the older brother of (later) President Bashar al-Assad.

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Battle of al-Hasakah (2016)

The Battle of al-Hasakah (2016) was a battle between the paramilitary police of the Asayish and the People's Protection Units (YPG), against the pro-government National Defence Forces and the Syrian Arab Army, backed by the Syrian Arab Air Force, in the city of al-Hasakah, Syria.

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Battle of Al-Shaykh Maskin (2014)

The Battle of Al-Shaykh Maskin started with a Syrian Arab Army attempt, during the Syrian civil war in Daraa Governorate, to capture Al-Shaykh Maskin and thus secure the Daraa–Damascus highway.

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Battle of Al-Shaykh Maskin (2015–16)

The Battle of Al-Shaykh Maskin was an offensive by the Syrian Army to capture the town of Al-Shaykh Maskin in the Daraa Governorate and secure the Daraa–Damascus highway.

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Battle of Al-Tabqa airbase

The Battle of Al-Tabqa airbase refers to a series of clashes between the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) and the Syrian Arab Army in August 2014, during the Syrian Civil War.

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Battle of Aleppo (2012–2016)

The Battle of Aleppo (معركة حلب) was a major military confrontation in Aleppo, the largest city in Syria, between the Syrian opposition (including the Free Syrian Army (FSA) and other largely-Sunni groups, such as the Levant Front and the Al-Qaeda-affiliated Al-Nusra Front) against the government of Bashar al-Assad, supported by Hezbollah, Shia militias and Russia, and against the Kurdish People's Protection Units. The battle began on 19 July 2012 and was part of the ongoing Syrian Civil War. A stalemate that had been in place for four years finally ended in July 2016, when Syrian government troops closed the rebels' last supply line into Aleppo with the support of Russian airstrikes. In response, rebel forces launched unsuccessful counteroffensives in September and October that failed to break the siege; in November, government forces embarked on a decisive campaign that resulted in the recapture of all of Aleppo by December 2016. The Syrian government victory was widely seen as a potential turning point in Syria's civil war. The large scale devastation of the battle and its importance led combatants to name it the "mother of battles" or "Syria's Stalingrad". The battle was marked by widespread violence against civilians, alleged repeated targeting of hospitals and schools (mostly by pro-government Air Forces and to a lesser extent by the rebels), and indiscriminate aerial strikes and shelling against civilian areas. It was also marked by the inability of the international community to resolve the conflict peacefully. The UN special envoy to Syria proposed to end the battle by giving East Aleppo autonomy, but the idea was rejected by the Syrian government. Hundreds of thousands of residents were displaced by the fighting and efforts to provide aid to civilians or facilitate evacuation were routinely disrupted by continued combat and mistrust between the opposing sides. Various claims of war crimes emerged during the battle, including the use of chemical weapons by both Syrian government forces and rebel forces, the use barrel bombs by the Syrian Air Force, the dropping of cluster munitions on populated areas by Russian and Syrian forces, the carrying out of "double tap" airstrikes to target rescue workers responding to previous strikes, summary executions of civilians and captured soldiers by both sides, indiscriminate shelling and use of highly inaccurate improvised artillery by rebel forces. During the 2016 Syrian government offensive, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights warned that "crimes of historic proportions" were being committed in Aleppo. Fighting also caused severe destruction to the Old City of Aleppo, a UNESCO World Heritage site. An estimated 33,500 buildings have been either damaged or destroyed. After four years of fighting, the battle represents one of the longest sieges in modern warfare and one of the bloodiest battles of the Syrian Civil War, leaving an estimated 31,000 people dead, almost a tenth of the estimated overall war casualties at that time.

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Battle of Bosra (2015)

The Battle of Bosra refers to a military operation launched by Syrian rebels during the Syrian Civil War, in order to capture the city of Bosra.

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Battle of Deir ez-Zor (September–November 2017)

The battle for Deir ez-Zor was a conflict between Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) and the Syrian Arab Army for the city of Deir ez-Zor, a provincial capital, located on the banks of the Euphrates river.

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Battle of Nasib Border Crossing

The Battle of Nasib Border Crossing was a battle on 1 April 2015 during the Syrian Civil War that resulted in anti-government rebels capturing the Nasib Border Crossing, the last Syria government-held border crossing with Jordan.

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Battle of Raqqa (2017)

The 2017 Battle of Raqqa was the fifth and final phase of the Raqqa campaign (2016–2017) launched by the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) against the Islamic State (ISIL) with an aim to seize the city of Raqqa, the de facto capital of ISIL since 2014.

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BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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BGM-71 TOW

The BGM-71 TOW ("Tube-launched, Optically tracked, Wire-guided") is an American anti-tank missile.

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Bolivia

Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.

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Business Insider

Business Insider is an American financial and business news website that also operates international editions in the UK, Australia, China, Germany, France, South Africa, India, Italy, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Netherlands, Nordics, Poland, Spanish and Singapore.

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Car bomb

A car bomb, lorry bomb, or truck bomb, also known as a vehicle-borne improvised explosive device (VBIED), is an improvised explosive device placed inside a car or other vehicle and detonated.

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Caspian Flotilla

The Caspian Flotilla (r) is the flotilla of the Russian Navy in the Caspian Sea.

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Central Intelligence Agency

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).

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Central Syria campaign (2017)

The Central Syria campaign (2017) was a large-scale military operation of the Syrian Army (SAA) against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) during the Syrian Civil War.

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Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS) is, by U.S. law, the highest-ranking and senior-most military officer in the United States Armed Forces 10 USC 152.

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Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter

Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter sets out the UN Security Council's powers to maintain peace.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Chlorine

Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.

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Christian militias in Syria

A number of Christian militias have formed in Syria since the start of the Syrian Civil War in 2011.

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Christianity in Syria

Christians in Syria make up approximately 10% of the population.

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Circassians in Syria

The Circassians in Syria (Circassian: Сирием ис адыгэхэр) refers to the Circassian diaspora, some of whom settled in Syria (then part of the Ottoman Empire) in the 19th century.

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Civil uprising phase of the Syrian Civil War

The civil uprising phase of the Syrian Civil War, or as it was sometimes called by the media the Syrian Revolution of Dignity was an early stage of protests – with subsequent violent reaction by the Syrian Arab Republic authorities – lasting from March to 28 July 2011.

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Cluster munition

A cluster munition is a form of air-dropped or ground-launched explosive weapon that releases or ejects smaller submunitions.

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Combined Air Operations Centre

Combined Air Operations Centre (CAOC) is a multinational headquarters for tactical and operational control of NATO Air Forces below the Joint Force Command level.

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Combined Joint Task Force – Operation Inherent Resolve

Combined Joint Task Force – Operation Inherent Resolve (CJTF–OIR) is the Joint Task Force established by the US-led international coalition against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), set up by the US Central Command to coordinate military efforts against ISIL (Da'esh), and is composed of US military forces and personnel from over 30 countries.

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Committee to Protect Journalists

The Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) is an American independent non-profit, non-governmental organization, based in New York City, New York with correspondents around the world.

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Convention on Cluster Munitions

The Convention on Cluster Munitions (CCM) is an international treaty that prohibits the use, transfer, and stockpiling of cluster bombs, a type of explosive weapon which scatters submunitions ("bomblets") over an area.

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Council of Ministers (Syria)

The Cabinet of Syria is the chief executive body of the Syrian Arab Republic.

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Crematory

A crematory (also known as a crematorium, cremator or retort) is a machine in which bodies are burned down to the bones, eliminating all soft tissue.

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Cutaneous condition

A cutaneous condition is any medical condition that affects the integumentary system—the organ system that encloses the body and includes skin, hair, nails, and related muscle and glands.

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Dabiq, Syria

Dabiq (دابق) is a town in northern Syria, about northeast of Aleppo and around south of Syria's border with Turkey.

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Damascus

Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.

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Damascus Spring

The Damascus Spring (ربيع دمشق) was a period of intense political and social debate in Syria which started after the death of President Hafiz al-Asad in June 2000 and continued to some degree until autumn 2001, when most of the activities associated with it were suppressed by the government.

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Damascus Time

Damascus Time (به وقت شام) is a drama movie by Ebrahim Hatamikia, Iranian director.

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Daraa

Daraa (درعا, Levantine Arabic:, also Darʿā, Dara’a, Deraa, Dera'a, Dera, Derʿā and Edrei; means "fortress", compare Dura-Europos) is a city in southwestern Syria, located about north of the border with Jordan.

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Daraa Governorate

Dara`a Governorate (مُحافظة درعا / ALA-LC) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.

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Daraa offensive (February–June 2017)

The Daraa offensive (February–June 2017), code named as the battle of "Death Rather than Humiliation" (الموت ولا المذلة) by the rebels, was a military operation launched by Syrian rebels against positions of the Syrian Arab Army in the Manshiyah District of Daraa city, in southern Syria, during the Syrian Civil War.

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Daraa offensive (October 2014)

The October Daraa offensive, code-named "wa al-Fajr wa Layali Asher" ("By the Dawn and ten nights"), was a military operation launched by Syrian rebels during the Syrian civil war in Daraa Governorate, in an attempt to take control of Al-Harra and Al-Sanamayn.

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Dayr Hafir

Dayr Hafir (دير حافر / ALA-LC: Dayr Ḥāfir) is a Syrian city in the Aleppo Governorate, east of Aleppo on the Aleppo-Raqqa highway, to the north of Sabkhat al-Jabbul.

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De facto

In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.

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De-escalation

De-escalation refers to behavior that is intended to escape escalations of conflicts.

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Death of Hamza Ali Al-Khateeb

Hamza Ali Al-Khateeb (حمزة علي الخطيب) (October 24, 1997 – May 25, 2011) was a 13-year-old Syrian boy who died while allegedly in the custody of the Syrian government in Daraa.

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Defense Intelligence Agency

The Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) is an external intelligence service of the United States federal government specializing in defense and military intelligence.

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Deir ez-Zor

Deir ez-Zor (دير الزور Dayr az-Zūr; Syriac: ܕܝܪܐ ܙܥܘܪܬܐ Dayrāʾ Zəʿōrtāʾ) is the largest city in eastern Syria and the seventh largest in the country.

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Deir ez-Zor Airport

Deir ez-Zor Airport (مطار دير الزور) is an airport serving Deir ez-Zor, a city in northeastern Syria.

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Deir ez-Zor Governorate

Deir ez-Zor Governorate (مُحافظة دير الزور / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Dayr az-Zawr) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.

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Democratic Federation of Northern Syria

The Democratic Federation of Northern Syria (DFNS), commonly known as Rojava, is a de facto autonomous region in northern Syria.

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Democratic Union Party (Syria)

The Democratic Union Party or PYD (Partiya Yekîtiya Demokrat; translit; translit) is a Kurdish democratic confederalist political party established on 20 September 2003 in northern Syria.

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Der Spiegel

Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.

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Destruction of cultural heritage by ISIL

Deliberate destruction and theft of cultural heritage has been conducted by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant since 2014 in Iraq, Syria, and to a lesser extent in Libya.

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Destruction of Syria's chemical weapons

The destruction of Syria's chemical weapons began on 14 September 2013 after Syria entered into several international agreements which called for the elimination of Syria's chemical weapon stockpiles and set a destruction deadline of 30 June 2014.

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Diphtheria

Diphtheria is an infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae.

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Division 30

The 30th Infantry Division (الفرقة 30 مشاة), commonly referred to as Division 30, also called the New Syrian Forces, was a Syrian rebel group formed by the United States.

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Douma chemical attack

On 7 April 2018, a chemical attack in the Syrian city of Douma reportedly killed at least 70 people.

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Douma, Syria

Douma (Dūmā) is a city in Syria.

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Drought

A drought is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water.

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Druze

The Druze (درزي or, plural دروز; דרוזי plural דרוזים) are an Arabic-speaking esoteric ethnoreligious group originating in Western Asia who self-identify as unitarians (Al-Muwaḥḥidūn/Muwahhidun).

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Durham University

Durham University (legally the University of Durham) is a collegiate public research university in Durham, North East England, with a second campus in Stockton-on-Tees.

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Dysentery

Dysentery is an inflammatory disease of the intestine, especially of the colon, which always results in severe diarrhea and abdominal pains.

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Early insurgency phase of the Syrian Civil War

The early insurgency phase of the Syrian Civil War lasted from late July 2011 to April 2012, and was associated with the rise of armed oppositional militias across Syria and the beginning of armed rebellion against the authorities of the Syrian Arab Republic.

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East Aleppo offensive (January–April 2017)

The East Aleppo offensive (2017), also referred to as the Dayr Hafir offensive (2017), was an operation launched by the Syrian Army to prevent Turkish-backed rebel forces from advancing deeper into Syria, and also to ultimately capture the ISIL stronghold of Dayr Hafir.

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Eastern Aramaic languages

Eastern Aramaic languages have developed from the varieties of Aramaic that developed in and around Mesopotamia (Iraq, southeast Turkey, northeast Syria and northwest and southwest Iran), as opposed to western varieties of the Levant (modern Levantine Syria and Lebanon).

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Eastern Catholic Churches

The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, and in some historical cases Uniate Churches, are twenty-three Eastern Christian particular churches sui iuris in full communion with the Pope in Rome, as part of the worldwide Catholic Church.

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Eastern Christianity

Eastern Christianity consists of four main church families: the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox churches, the Eastern Catholic churches (that are in communion with Rome but still maintain Eastern liturgies), and the denominations descended from the Church of the East.

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Embassy of the United States, Baghdad

The Embassy of the United States of America in Baghdad is the diplomatic mission of United States of America in the Republic of Iraq.

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Endgame: Syria

Endgame: Syria is a trading card based newsgame developed by GameTheNews.net, a project looking to turn news into games.

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Eurofighter Typhoon

The Eurofighter Typhoon is a twin-engine, canard-delta wing, multirole fighter.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Fateh-110

Fateh-110 (فاتح-۱۱۰, "conqueror") is a single-stage solid-propellant, surface-to-surface missile with at least a 200 km range, and it is produced domestically within Iran by the Aerospace Industries Organization, including the solid fuel propellant.

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February 2018 Israel–Syria incident

On 10 February 2018, an Israeli F-16I was shot down by the Syrian air defenses after conducting an air raid on Iran-backed positions inside Syrian territory.

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Federalism

Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system.

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Federation Council (Russia)

The Federation Council (Сове́т Федера́ции; Sovet Federatsii, common abbreviation: Совфед (Sovfed) or Senate) is the upper house of the Federal Assembly of Russia (the parliament of the Russian Federation), according to the 1993 Constitution of the Russian Federation.

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Flitah

Flitah or Meshrefah (Arabic: فليطة أو مشرفة) is a Syrian village in the An-Nabek District of the Rif Dimashq Governorate.

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Foreign involvement in the Syrian Civil War

Foreign involvement in the Syrian Civil War refers to political, military and operational support to parties involved in the ongoing conflict in Syria that began in March 2011, as well as active foreign involvement.

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Fox News

Fox News (officially known as the Fox News Channel, commonly abbreviated to FNC) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel owned by the Fox Entertainment Group, a subsidiary of 21st Century Fox.

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France 24

France 24 (pronounced "France vingt-quatre") is a state-owned 24-hour international news and current affairs television network based in Paris.

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Free market

In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.

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Free Syrian Army

The Free Syrian Army (al-Jaysh as-Sūrī al-Ḥurr; abbreviated FSA) is a loose faction in the Syrian Civil War founded on 29 July 2011 by officers of the Syrian Armed Forces who said their goal was to bring down the government of Bashar al-Assad.

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Freedom of assembly

Freedom of assembly, sometimes used interchangeably with the freedom of association, is the individual right or ability of people to come together and collectively express, promote, pursue, and defend their collective or shared ideas.

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Freedom of association

Freedom of association encompasses both an individual's right to join or leave groups voluntarily, the right of the group to take collective action to pursue the interests of its members, and the right of an association to accept or decline membership based on certain criteria.

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Freedom of speech

Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.

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French aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle

Charles de Gaulle is the flagship of the French Navy (Marine Nationale).

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French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon

The Mandate for Syria and Lebanon (Mandat français pour la Syrie et le Liban; الانتداب الفرنسي على سوريا ولبنان) (1923−1946) was a League of Nations mandate founded after the First World War and the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire concerning Syria and Lebanon.

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Front organization

A front organization is any entity set up by and controlled by another organization, such as intelligence agencies, organized crime groups, banned organizations, religious or political groups, advocacy groups, or corporations.

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General Atomics MQ-1 Predator

The General Atomics MQ-1 Predator is an American remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) built by General Atomics that was used primarily by the United States Air Force (USAF) and Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).

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General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon

The General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon is a single-engine supersonic multirole fighter aircraft originally developed by General Dynamics (now Lockheed Martin) for the United States Air Force (USAF).

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Geneva II Conference on Syria

The Geneva II Conference on Syria (also called Geneva II Middle East peace conference or simply Geneva IIUN News Center. Preparations for upcoming Syria peace conference ‘on track,’ says UN chief. "The goal of the so-called "Geneva II" conference is to achieve a political solution to the conflict through a comprehensive agreement between the Government and the opposition for the full implementation of the Geneva communiqué, adopted after the first international meeting on the issue on 30 June 2012, which called for the creation of a transitional government that would lead to holding elections.".) was a United Nations-backed international peace conference on the future of Syria with the aim of ending the Syrian Civil War, by bringing together the Syrian government and the Syrian opposition to discuss the clear steps towards a transitional government for Syria with full executive powers.

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Geneva peace talks on Syria (2016)

The Geneva peace talks on Syria, also known as Geneva III, are intended peace negotiations between the Syrian government and opposition in Geneva under the auspices of the UN.

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Geneva peace talks on Syria (2017)

The Geneva peace talks on Syria in 2017, also called the Geneva IV, V, VI, VII & VIII talks, were peace negotiations between the Syrian government and the Syrian opposition under the auspices of the United Nations.

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Ghouta

Ghouta (غوطة دمشق / ALA-LC: Ghūṭat Dimashq) is a countryside and suburban area in southwestern Syria that surrounds the city of Damascus along its eastern and southern rim.

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Ghouta chemical attack

The Ghouta chemical attack occurred in Ghouta, Syria during the Syrian Civil War, in the early hours of 21 August 2013.

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Global Heritage Fund

Global Heritage Fund (GHF) is a non-profit organization that operates internationally.

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Global warming

Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.

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Golan Heights

The Golan Heights (هضبة الجولان or مرتفعات الجولان, רמת הגולן), or simply the Golan, is a region in the Levant, spanning about.

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Graffiti

Graffiti (plural of graffito: "a graffito", but "these graffiti") are writing or drawings that have been scribbled, scratched, or painted, typically illicitly, on a wall or other surface, often within public view.

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Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch

The Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch, also known as the Antiochian Orthodox Church (Πατριαρχεῖον Ἀντιοχείας, Patriarcheîon Antiocheías; بطريركية أنطاكية وسائر المشرق للروم الأرثوذكس, Baṭriyarkiyya Anṭākiya wa-Sāʾir al-Mashriq li'l-Rūm al-Urthūdhuks), is an autocephalous Greek Orthodox Church within the wider communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity.

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Greeks in Syria

The Greek presence in Syria began in the 7th century BC and became more prominent during the Hellenistic period and when the Seleucid Empire was centered there.

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Gregory III Laham

Gregory III Laham (غريغوريوس الثالث لحام; Gregorius III Lahamus; born Lutfy Laham, December 15, 1933, in Darayya, Syria), Patriarch of Antioch and All the East, of Alexandria and Jerusalem, was the spiritual leader of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church, elected on November 29, 2000, succeeding Patriarch Maximos V Hakim.

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Gulf Cooperation Council

The Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (مجلس التعاون لدول الخليج العربية), originally (and still colloquially) known as the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC, مجلس التعاون الخليجي), is a regional intergovernmental political and economic union consisting of all Arab states of the Persian Gulf except Iraq.

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Gypsies in Iraq

The Kawliya or Qawliya (كاولية or كاولي), also known as Zott and Ghorbati (known in English as Gypsies), is a community in Iraq of Indian origin, estimated to number over 60,000 people.

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Hafez al-Assad

Hafez al-Assad (حافظ الأسد,; 6 October 1930 – 10 June 2000) was a Syrian politician and field marshal of the Syrian Armed Forces who served as President of Syria from 1971 to 2000.

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Haji Bakr

Samir Abd Muhammad al-Khlifawi, better known by the nom de guerre Haji Bakr, was a senior leader of the militant group Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), heading its Military Council and leading its operations in Syria, prior to his killing by Syrian rebels in January 2014.

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Hama

Hama (حماة,; ܚܡܬ Ḥmṭ, "fortress"; Biblical Hebrew: חֲמָת Ḥamāth) is a city on the banks of the Orontes River in west-central Syria.

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Hama Governorate

Hama Governorate (مُحافظة حماة / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Ḥamā) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.

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Hama offensive (March–April 2017)

The Hama offensive (March–April 2017) was a military offensive launched by Syrian rebel groups led by Hay'at Tahrir al-Sham (HTS) north of the city of Hama, as part of the Syrian Civil War.

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HarperCollins

HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C. is one of the world's largest publishing companies and is one of the Big Five English-language publishing companies, alongside Hachette, Macmillan, Penguin Random House, and Simon & Schuster.

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Hassan al-Nouri

Hassan al-Nouri (born 1960) was a candidate for the Syrian presidential election in June 2014.

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Hassan Nasrallah

Hassan Nasrallah (حسن نصرالله; born 31 August 1960) is the third and current Secretary General of the Lebanese political and paramilitary party Hezbollah since his predecessor, Abbas al-Musawi, was assassinated by the Israel Defense Forces in February 1992.

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Hawar News Agency

Hawar News Agency (sometimes abbreviated ANHA) (وكالة أنباء هاوار) is an online Kurdish news service based in Al-Hasaka, Syria.

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Haytham Manna

Haytham Manna (al-Awdat) is a Syrian writer; he spent three decades as a human rights activist who helped create and became spokesperson for the Arab Commission for Human Rights (ACHR).

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Hazzm Movement

The Hazzm Movement (حركة حزم, Ḥarakat Ḥazzm, meaning Movement of Steadfastness) was an alliance of Syrian rebel groups affiliated with the Free Syrian Army in northwestern Syria that existed from 25 January 2014 until 1 March 2015, when many of them dissolved into the Levant Front.

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Hürriyet Daily News

The Hürriyet Daily News, formerly Hürriyet Daily News and Economic Review and Turkish Daily News, is the oldest current English-language daily in Turkey, founded in 1961.

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Hepatitis

Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue.

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Hezbollah

Hezbollah (pronounced; حزب الله, literally "Party of Allah" or "Party of God")—also transliterated Hizbullah, Hizballah, etc.

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Hezbollah involvement in the Syrian Civil War

Hezbollah involvement in the Syrian Civil War has been substantial since the beginning of armed insurgency phase of the Syrian Civil War, and turned into active support and troop deployment from 2012 onwards. By 2014, Hezbollah involvement begun to turn steady in support of Syrian Ba'athist Government forces across Syria. Hezbollah deployed several thousand fighters in Syria and by 2015 lost up to 1,500 fighters in combat. Hezbollah has also been very active to prevent rebel penetration from Syria to Lebanon, being one of the most active forces in the Syrian Civil War spillover in Lebanon. In the past, Hezbollah has served a strategic arm of Iran in the region, allegedly playing a key role in the Iran–Israel and Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy conflicts in the middle east. In a number of occasions, Hezbollah weapon convoys in Syria and Syrian-Lebanese border areas were attacked, with Israel being the main suspected party behind most such attacks, though Israel did not claim responsibility except for the March 2017 Israel–Syria incident. Hezbollah convoys have also been attacked by Syrian rebel factions, most notably the Al-Nusra Front.

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Hittites

The Hittites were an Ancient Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC.

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HJ-8

The HJ-8 or Hongjian-8 is a second generation tube-launched, optically tracked, wire-guided anti-tank missile system which was originally deployed by the Chinese People's Liberation Army since the late 1980s.

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Homs

Homs (حمص / ALA-LC: Ḥimṣ), previously known as Emesa or Emisa (Greek: Ἔμεσα Emesa), is a city in western Syria and the capital of the Homs Governorate.

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Homs Governorate

Homs Governorate (مُحافظة حمص / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Ḥimṣ) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.

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Houla massacre

The Houla massacre (مجزرة الحولة) was an attack that took place on May 25, 2012, in the midst of the Syrian Civil War, in the town of Taldou, in the Houla Region of Syria, a string of towns northwest of Homs.

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Human rights activists

Human rights defenders or human rights activists are people who, individually or with others, act to promote or protect human rights.

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Human Rights Watch

Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.

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I.B. Tauris

I.B. Tauris (usually typeset as I.B.Tauris) was an independent publishing house with offices in London and New York City.

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Idlib

Idlib (إدلب, also spelled Edlib or Idleb) is a city in northwestern Syria, capital of the Idlib Governorate, southwest of Aleppo.

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Idlib Governorate

Idlib Governorate (مُحافظة ادلب / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Idlib) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.

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IHS Markit

IHS Markit Ltd is a global information provider based in London, United Kingdom.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indigo Publications

Indigo Publications is a French company that publishes numerous trade newsletters and websites, mostly dedicated to specialized business sectors.

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Infection

Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.

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Institute for the Study of War

The Institute for the Study of War (ISW) is a United States–based think tank founded in 2007 by Kimberly Kagan.

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Insyriated

Insyriated is a 2017 Belgian drama film directed by Philippe Van Leeuw.

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Interfax

Interfax Ltd. (Интерфакс) is a privately-held independent major news agency in Russia (along with state-operated TASS and RIA Novosti) and information services company headquartered in Moscow.

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International Affairs (journal)

International Affairs is a leading peer-reviewed academic journal of international relations.

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International Business Times

The International Business Times is an American online news publication that publishes seven national editions and four languages.

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International Committee of the Red Cross

The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland, and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate.

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Iran

Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Iran–Syria relations

Syria and Iran are strategic allies.

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Iranian involvement in the Syrian Civil War

The Islamic Republic of Iran and the Syrian Arab Republic are close strategic allies, and Iran has provided significant support for the Syrian Government in the Syrian Civil War, including logistical, technical and financial support, as well as training and some combat troops.

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Iraq

Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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Iraq War

The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.

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Iraq–Syria border

The Iraqi–Syrian border runs for a total length of 599 km across Upper Mesopotamia and the Syrian desert.

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Iraqi Army

The Iraqi Army, officially the Iraqi Ground Forces, is the ground force component of the Iraqi Armed Forces, having been active in various incarnations throughout the 20th and 21st centuries.

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Iraqi Civil War (2014–present)

The Iraqi Civil War is an armed conflict which began in January 2014.

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IRIN

IRIN (formerly Integrated Regional Information Networks) is a news agency focusing on humanitarian stories in regions that are often forgotten, under-reported, misunderstood or ignored.

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Islamic Front (Syria)

The Islamic Front (الجبهة الإسلامية, al-Jabhat al-Islāmiyyah) was a Sunni Islamist rebel group involved in the Syrian Civil War, which was formed by the merger of seven separate groups on 22 November 2013.

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Islamic Relief

Islamic Relief Worldwide (IRW) is an international humanitarian organisation that provides development programs and humanitarian relief around the globe, regardless of race, political affiliation, gender or belief.

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Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps

The Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) (lit or Sepâh for short) is a branch of Iran's Armed Forces founded after 1979 Revolution on 22 April 1979 by order of Ayatollah Khomeini.IISS Military Balance 2006, Routledge for the IISS, London, 2006, p. 187 Whereas the regular military (or Artesh) defends Iran's borders and maintains internal order, according to the Iranian constitution, the Revolutionary Guard (pasdaran) is intended to protect the country's Islamic Republic system. The Revolutionary Guards state that their role in protecting the Islamic system is preventing foreign interference as well as coups by the military or "deviant movements". The Revolutionary Guards have roughly 125,000 military personnel including ground, aerospace and naval forces. Its naval forces are now the primary forces tasked with operational control of the Persian Gulf. GlobalBearings.net, 15 December 2011. It also controls the paramilitary Basij militia which has about 90,000 active personnel.Abrahamian, Ervand, History of Modern Iran, Columbia University Press, 2008 pp. 175–76 Its media arm is Sepah News. Since its origin as an ideologically driven militia, the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution has taken a greater role in nearly every aspect of Iranian society. Its expanded social, political, military and economic role under President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's administration—especially during the 2009 presidential election and post-election suppression of protest—has led many Western analysts to argue that its political power has surpassed even that of the Shia clerical system. The Chief Commander of the Guardians since 2007 is Mohammad Ali Jafari, who was preceded by Yahya Rahim Safavi from 1997.

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Islamic State of Iraq

The Islamic State of Iraq (ISI; دولة العراق الإسلامية) (commonly referred to as al-Qaeda in Iraq) was a militant Salafist jihadist group that aimed to establish an Islamic state in Sunni, Arab-majority areas of Iraq during the Iraq War and later in Syria during the Syrian Civil War.

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Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.

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Islamism

Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.

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Islamist uprising in Syria

The Islamist uprising in Syria comprised a series of revolts and armed insurgencies by Sunni Islamists, mainly members of the Muslim Brotherhood from 1976 until 1982.

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Israel

Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Jabal Zawiya

Mount Zāwiya (جبل الزاوية ǧabal az-Zāwiya) or Mount Rīḥā (جبل ريحا ǧabal Rīḥā) (also in medieval times: Banī-ʻUlaym Mountain (جبل بني عليم) ǧabal Banī-ʻUlaym) is a highland region in Idlib Governorate in northwestern Syria.

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James Foley (journalist)

James Wright Foley (October 18, 1973 – August 19, 2014) was an American journalist and video reporter.

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Jan Egeland

Jan Egeland (born 12 September 1957) is a Norwegian diplomat, political scientist, humanitarian leader and former Labour Party politician.

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Jane's Defence Weekly

Jane's Defence Weekly (abbreviated as JDW) is a weekly magazine reporting on military and corporate affairs, edited by Peter Felstead.

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Jane's Information Group

Jane's Information Group (often referred to as Jane's) is a British publishing company specialising in military, aerospace and transportation topics.

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Jarabulus

Jarabulus (جرابلس / ALA-LC: Jarābulus; Cerablus, North Syrian Arabic: Jrāblos), is a Syrian city administratively belonging to Aleppo Governorate.

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Jaysh al-Islam

Jaysh al-Islam (جيش الإسلام, meaning Army of Islam), formerly known as Liwa al-Islam (لواء الإسلام, Brigade of Islam), is a coalition of Islamist rebel units involved in the Syrian Civil War.

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Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs

The Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs (JCPA) is an Israeli research institute specializing in public diplomacy and foreign policy founded in 1976.

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Jihad

Jihad (جهاد) is an Arabic word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim.

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Jihadism

The term "Jihadism" (also "jihadist movement", "jihadi movement" and variants) is a 21st-century neologism found in Western languages to describe Islamist militant movements perceived as military movements "rooted in Islam" and "existentially threatening" to the West.

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Jim Mattis

James Norman Mattis (born September 8, 1950) is the current and 26th United States Secretary of Defense and former United States Marine Corps general who served as 11th Commander of United States Central Command during the Presidency of Barack Obama.

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Jisr al-Shughur

Jisr ash-Shugur (جسر الشغور,, Cisr eş-ŞuğurGünümüzde Suriye Türkmenleri. — ORSAM Rapor № 83. ORSAM – Ortadoğu Türkmenleri Programı Rapor № 14. Ankara — Kasım 2011, 33 pages. also spelled Jisr al-Shughour) is a city in the Idlib Governorate in northwestern Syria.

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Joe Biden

Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. (born November 20, 1942) is an American politician who served as the 47th Vice President of the United States from 2009 to 2017.

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John Kerry

John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is an American politician who served as the 68th United States Secretary of State from 2013 to 2017.

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Joint Chiefs of Staff

The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is a body of senior uniformed leaders in the United States Department of Defense who advise the President of the United States, the Secretary of Defense, the Homeland Security Council and the National Security Council on military matters.

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Jordan–Syria border

The border between Syria and Jordan measures 375 km.

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Kafr Batna

Kafr Batna (كفر بطنا, also spelled Kfar Batna and Kafar Batna) is a town in the Rif Dimashq Governorate in southern Syria and a suburb of Damascus.

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Kafriya

Kafriya (كفريا, also spelled Kifarya or Kefraya) is a village in northern Syria, administratively part of the Idlib Governorate, located northwest of Idlib.

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Kaspiysk

Kaspiysk (Каспи́йск; Lak: Ккасппи; Dargin; Lezgian; Каспийск) is a city in the Republic of Dagestan, Russia, located on the Caspian Sea, southeast of Makhachkala.

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Khabour Guards

The Khabour Guards (Mawtḇā d-Nāṭorē d-Ḥābor; مجلس حرس الخابور الآشوري) is an Assyrian Syrian militia created after the collapse of Syrian government control in the Assyrian-majority Khabur valley northwest of al-Hasakah Governorate.

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Khan Shaykhun chemical attack

The Khan Shaykhun chemical attack took place on 4 April 2017 on the town of Khan Shaykhun in the Idlib Governorate of Syria.

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Khmeimim Air Base

Khmeimim Air Base, also Hmeimim Air Base is a Syrian airbase currently operated by Russia, located south-east of the city of Latakia in Hmeimim, Latakia Governorate, Syria.

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Khorasan group

The Khorasan group, sometimes known simply as Khorasan, is an alleged group of senior al-Qaeda members operating in Syria.

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Kobanî

Kobanî (also rendered Kobanê, كوباني, ܟܘܒܐܢܝ), officially Ayn al-Arab (عين العرب), is a city in the Aleppo Governorate in northern Syria, lying immediately south of the border with Turkey.

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Kofi Annan

Kofi Atta Annan (born 8 April 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1997 to December 2006.

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Kofi Annan Syrian peace plan

The Kofi Annan peace plan for Syria or the six-point peace plan for Syria was launched in March 2012 by the Arab League and the United Nations (UN), when the violent Syrian conflict or civil war had raged for a year.

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Kommersant

Kommersant (Коммерса́нтъ,, The Businessman, often shortened to Ъ) is a nationally distributed daily newspaper published in Russia mostly devoted to politics and business.

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Krak des Chevaliers

Krak des Chevaliers (حصن الفرسان), also Crac des Chevaliers, Ḥoṣn al-Akrād (rtl, literally "Castle of the Kurds"), formerly Crac de l'Ospital is a Crusader castle in Syria and one of the most important preserved medieval castles in the world.

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Kurdish National Alliance in Syria

The Kurdish National Alliance in Syria is a Syrian Kurdish coalition formed by five Syrian Kurdish parties in the city of Amuda in the al-Hasakah Governorate of northeastern Syria in 13 February 2016.

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Kurdish National Council

The Kurdish National Council (KNC,, ENKS; المجلس الوطني الكوردي Al-Majlis Al-Watani Al-Kurdi) is a Syrian Kurdish political organization funded by the President of Iraqi Kurdistan Masoud Barzani and Turkey in the Syrian Civil War.

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Kurds

The Kurds (rtl, Kurd) or the Kurdish people (rtl, Gelî kurd), are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).

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Kurds in Syria

Kurds in Syria refers to people born in or residing in Syria who are of Kurdish origin.

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Kuweires offensive (September–November 2015)

On 14 September 2015, the Syrian Arab Army (SAA) – in cooperation with the National Defence Forces (NDF) and the Al-Ba'ath Battalion – launched a fresh offensive inside the Aleppo Governorate's southeastern countryside in order to lift the Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham's (ISIS) two-year-long siege of the isolated Kuweires Military Airbase.

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Ladder to Damascus

Ladder to Damascus (سلم إلى دمشق) is a 2013 Syrian drama film directed by Mohammad Malas.

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Last Men in Aleppo

Last Men in Aleppo (in Arabic آخر الرجال في حلب) is a 2017 documentary film about the Syrian Civil War.

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Law–Citizenship–Rights Movement

The Law–Citizenship–Rights Movement (قيم مواطنة حقوق), QMH (from the English transliteration qiyyam, muwatana, huqouq), also known as Teyar El-Qemih (from the Arabic acronym), and translated as Wheat Wave Movement, is a democratic secular multi-ethnic political party established in 2015 in northern Syria.

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Left-wing politics

Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.

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Leishmaniasis

Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by parasites of the Leishmania type.

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Levantine archaeology

Levantine archaeology is the archaeological study of the Levant.

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List of massacres during the Syrian Civil War

Dozens of massacres have been carried out during the Syrian civil war to date.

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List of modern conflicts in the Middle East

This is a list of modern conflicts in the Middle East ensuing in the geographic and political region known as the Middle East.

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List of ongoing armed conflicts

The following is a list of ongoing armed conflicts that are taking place around the world and continue to result in violence.

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List of proxy wars

This is a list of proxy wars.

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List of United States attacks on Syria during the Syrian Civil War

The following is a list of United States′s attacks on forces belonging to, or allied with the Syrian government during the Syrian Civil War.

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List of wars and battles involving al-Qaeda

The following is a list of conflicts involving the militant group known as al-Qaeda throughout its various incarnations.

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List of wars by death toll

This list of wars by death toll includes death toll estimates of all deaths that are either directly or indirectly caused by war.

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List of wars involving Iran

The following is an historical overview of the list of wars and conflicts involving Iran (Persia).

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List of wars involving Syria

This is a list of wars that independent Syria has been involved in since independence, including periods of the Arab Kingdom of Syria (1920), Mandatory Syrian Republic, Syrian Republic (1946–63), United Arab Republic (1958–61) and Ba'athist Syria.

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Liwa Abu al-Fadhal al-Abbas

The Brigade of Abu al-Fadl al-Abbas (Arabic:لواء أبو الفضل العباس, Liwa Abu al-Fadl al-Abbas), also known as the al-Abbas Brigade (Arabic:كتائب العباس, Kata'ib al-Abbas), was a pro-government Twelver Shia Muslim militant group operating throughout Syria.

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Local Coordination Committees of Syria

The Local Coordination Committees of Syria (لجان التنسيق المحلية في سوريا: LCCSyria or LCCs) are a network of local groups that organise and report on protests as part of the Syrian uprising.

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London Review of Books

The London Review of Books (LRB) is a British journal of literary essays.

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Looting

Looting, also referred to as sacking, ransacking, plundering, despoiling, despoliation, and pillaging, is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe, such as war, natural disaster (where law and civil enforcement are temporarily ineffective), or rioting.

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Madaya, Syria

Madaya (مضايا) is a small mountainous town in Syria, located at an altitude of around.

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Mahdi al-Harati

Mahdi al-Harati (born c. 1973) is an Irish-Libyan politician and former co-commander of the Tripoli Brigade during the Libyan Civil War.

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Maher Hajjar

Maher Abd Al-Hafiz Hajjar (born 1968) is a Syrian politician, MP for Aleppo for the opposition People's Will Party and a candidate for the Syrian presidential election, 2014.

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Main Intelligence Directorate

Main Intelligence Directorate (p), abbreviated GRU (p), is the foreign military intelligence agency of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (formerly the Soviet Army General Staff of the Soviet Union).

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Makhachkala

Makhachkala (p; Анжи-кала; Lak: Гьанжи; Avar: МахӀачхъала; Lezgian: Магьачкъала; Rutul: МахаӀчкала) is the capital city of the Republic of Dagestan, Russia.

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Manbij

Manbij (منبج, Minbic) is a city in the northeast of Aleppo Governorate in northern Syria, 30 kilometers west of the Euphrates.

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Manbij offensive

The Manbij offensive, code-named Operation Martyr and Commander Faysal Abu Layla by the SDF, was a 2016 military offensive operation by the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) to capture the city of Manbij from the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), and eventually, the ISIL-held areas through Al-Bab to Herbel, in the area referred to as the "Manbij Pocket" in the northern Aleppo Governorate.

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Mandaeans

Mandaeans (aṣ-Ṣābi'a al-Mandā'iyūn) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia and are followers of Mandaeism, a Gnostic religion.

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March 1949 Syrian coup d'état

The March 1949 Syrian coup d'état was a bloodless coup d'état that took place on 30 March, and was the first military coup in modern Syrian history which overthrew the country's democratically elected government.

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Marj al-Sultan

Marj al-Sultan (مرج السلطان, also spelled Marj Sultan) is a village in southern Syria, administratively part of the Rif Dimashq Governorate, located 15 kilometers east of Damascus city.

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McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet

The McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet is a twin-engine, supersonic, all-weather, carrier-capable, multirole combat jet, designed as both a fighter and attack aircraft (hence the F/A designation).

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Measles

Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.

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Menagh Military Airbase

Menagh Military Air Base (or Minnigh airport, Minakh Air Base) (قاعدة مطار منغ) is a Syrian Air Force installation located south of Azaz, Aleppo Governorate, Syria near the village of Manaq.

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Metrojet Flight 9268

Metrojet Flight 9268 was an international chartered passenger flight, operated by Russian airline Kogalymavia (branded as Metrojet).

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Mhallami

The Mhallami also Mhalmites, (محلّمي,; ܡܚܠܡܝ̈ܐ,; Turkish: Mıhellemi) is an Arab tribe, most of whom are living in and around the city of Mardin, Turkey.

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Michael Fallon

Sir Michael Cathel Fallon (born 14 May 1952) is a British politician of the Conservative Party serving as member of parliament (MP) for Sevenoaks since 1997.

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MILAN

MILAN (Missile d´infanterie léger antichar; Light anti-tank infantry missile, milan is French for kite) is a European anti-tank guided missile.

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Minority group

A minority group refers to a category of people differentiated from the social majority, those who hold on to major positions of social power in a society.

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Monumental Arch of Palmyra

The Monumental Arch, also called the Arch of Triumph (قوس النصر) or the Arch of Septimius Severus, was a Roman ornamental archway in Palmyra, Syria.

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Movement for a Democratic Society

The Movement for a Democratic Society (Tevgera Civaka Demokratîk, TEV-DEM, حركة المجتمع الديمقراطي, Zaw'o d'Kensho Demoqraṭoyo) is the coalition governing the de facto autonomous region of the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria (DFNS).

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Mujahideen

Mujahideen (مجاهدين) is the plural form of mujahid (مجاهد), the term for one engaged in Jihad (literally, "holy war").

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Multi-party system

A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coalition.

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Muslim

A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.

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Muslim Brotherhood

The Society of the Muslim Brothers (جماعة الإخوان المسلمين), better known as the Muslim Brotherhood (الإخوان المسلمون), is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassan al-Banna in 1928.

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Muslim Brotherhood of Syria

The Muslim Brotherhood of Syria (الإخوان المسلمون في سوريا Al-Ikhwan Al-Muslimun fi Suriya), formerly the Islamic Socialist Front, has been described as "a branch" of the Sunni Islamist Muslim Brotherhood, and as "very loosely affiliated" to the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood.

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Mustafa Aydın

Mustafa Aydın is a Turkish academic (Professor of International Relations), writer, columnist, TV commentator, and public intellectual.

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National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces

The National Coalition for Syrian Revolution and Opposition Forces (الائتلاف الوطني لقوى الثورة والمعارضة السورية), commonly named the Syrian National Coalition (الائتلاف الوطني السوري), is a coalition of opposition groups in the Syrian Civil War that was founded in Doha, Qatar, in November 2012.

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National Defence Forces

The National Defence Forces (NDF) (قوات الدفاع الوطني Quwāt ad-Difāʿ al-Watanī) is a pro-government militia, formed after summer 2012 and organized by the Syrian government during the Syrian Civil War as a part-time volunteer reserve component of the Syrian Armed Forces.

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National Post

The National Post is a conservative Canadian English-language newspaper.

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NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.

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Nattoreh

The Assyrian People's Guard – Nattoreh (Naṭore d'Tel Tamer Ashoraye; اللجنه الشعبيه للحرس الأشوري) is an Assyrian Syrian militia based in the Khabur valley town of Tell Tamer northwest of Al-Hasakah, an area with a large Assyrian population.

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Navi Pillay

Navanethem "Navi" Pillay (born 23 September 1941) is a South African jurist who served as the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights from 2008 to 2014.

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News Deeply

News Deeply is an online journalism and technology company, based in New York City, specializing in single-issue news websites.

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News.com.au

news.com.au is an Australian news and entertainment website owned by News Corp Australia.

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NEWSru

NEWSru is a Russian online news sites.

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Nezavisimaya Gazeta

Nezavisimaya Gazeta (t) is a Russian daily newspaper.

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North Governorate

North Governorate (الشمال) is one of the governorates of Lebanon.

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Northern Iraq offensive (June 2014)

The Northern Iraq offensive began on 4 June 2014, when the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL; sometimes referred to as the Islamic State (IS)) and aligned forces began a major offensive in northern Iraq against the Iraqi government, following earlier clashes that had begun in December 2013.

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Northwestern Syria campaign (October 2017–February 2018)

The Northwestern Syria campaign (October 2017–February 2018) was a large-scale military operation that initially started with an offensive conducted by ISIL forces on areas controlled by Tahrir al-Sham (HTS) in the northern Hama Governorate.

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Northwestern Syria offensive (April–June 2015)

The Northwestern Syria offensive (April–June 2015), dubbed by the rebels as the Battle of Victory, took place in the Idlib and Hama governorates during the Syrian Civil War.

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Northwestern Syria offensive (October–November 2015)

On 7 October 2015, shortly after the start of the Russian air campaign in Syria, the Syrian government forces and its allies launched a ground offensive against anti-government positions in northwestern Syria, initially in northern Hama Governorate.

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November 2015 Paris attacks

The November 2015 Paris attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks that occurred on Friday, 13 November 2015 in Paris, France and the city's northern suburb, Saint-Denis.

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NOW News

NOW News (sometimes abbreviated NOW) is a Beirut-based Lebanese news website focused on the Middle East founded in late 2012 and published in both English and Arabic by M Publishing SAL.

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NPR

National Public Radio (usually shortened to NPR, stylized as npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization based in Washington, D.C. It serves as a national syndicator to a network of over 1,000 public radio stations in the United States.

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Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (commonly known as the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)) is a United Nations agency that works to promote and protect the human rights that are guaranteed under international law and stipulated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948.

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Omran al-Zoubi

Omran Ahed al-Zoubi (عمران عاهد الزعبي) (born 27 September 1959 in Damascus, Syria) is the former Minister of Information in the Government of Syria from June 2012 until July 2016.

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One-party state

A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.

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Operation Euphrates Shield

Operation Euphrates Shield (Fırat Kalkanı Harekâtı) was a cross-border operation by the Turkish military and Turkey-aligned Syrian opposition groups in the Syrian Civil War which led to the Turkish occupation of northern Syria. Operations were carried out in the region between the Euphrates river to the east and the rebel-held area around Azaz to the west. The Turkish military and Turkey-aligned Syrian rebel groups, some of which used the Free Syrian Army label, fought against forces of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) as well as against the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) from 24 August 2016. On 29 March 2017, the Turkish military officially announced that Operation Euphrates Shield was "successfully completed". The Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan said on the first day of the operation that it was aimed against both the ISIL and Syrian Kurdish "terror groups that threaten our country in northern Syria". The objective to capture Manbij, under the de facto control of the Rojava administration, that had been promulgated by the Turkish president at the end of February 2017 remained unfulfilled.

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Operation Shader

Operation Shader is the operational code name given to the contribution of the United Kingdom in the ongoing military intervention against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL).

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Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons

The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) is an intergovernmental organisation and the implementing body for the Chemical Weapons Convention, which entered into force on 29 April 1997.

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Organisation of Islamic Cooperation

The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; منظمة التعاون الإسلامي; Organisation de la coopération islamique) is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states, with a collective population of over 1.3 billion as of 2009 with 47 countries being Muslim Majority countries.

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Our War

Our War (La nostra guerra) is a 2016 Italian-American documentary film directed by Bruno Chiaravalloti, Claudio Jampaglia and Benedetta Argentieri.

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Palestinians in Syria

Palestinians in Syria (الفلسطينيون في سوريا) are people of Palestinian origin, most of whom have been residing in Syria after they were expelled and displaced from their homeland during the 1948 Palestinian exodus.

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Palmyra

Palmyra (Palmyrene: Tadmor; تَدْمُر Tadmur) is an ancient Semitic city in present-day Homs Governorate, Syria.

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Palmyra Castle

Palmyra Castle, also known as Fakhr-al-Din al-Ma'ani Castle (قلعة فخر الدين المعني) or Tadmur Castle, is a castle overlooking Palmyra in the province of Homs, Syria.

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Palmyra offensive (March 2016)

The Palmyra offensive (March 2016) was a military operation of the Syrian Arab Army, supported by Russian airstrikes, to recapture from the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant the city of Tadmur (near the ruins of the ancient city of Palmyra), which was strategically important for both forces due to its position in central Syria.

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Panavia Tornado

The Panavia Tornado is a family of twin-engine, variable-sweep wing multirole combat aircraft, which was jointly developed and manufactured by Italy, the United Kingdom, and West Germany.

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Parliament of the United Kingdom

The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.

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Paveway

Paveway is a series of laser-guided bombs (LGBs).

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People's Council of Syria

The People's Council (مجلس الشعب, Majlis al-Sha'ab; Assemblée du peuple) is Syria's legislative authority.

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People's Protection Units

The People's Protection Units (یەکینەکانی پاراستنی گەل;Yekîneyên Parastina Gel, وحدات حماية الشعب, translit; YPG) is a mainly-Kurdish militia in Syria and the primary component of the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria's Syrian Democratic Forces.

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Phantom (2015 film)

Phantom is a 2015 Indian action spy thriller film directed by Kabir Khan, produced by Sajid Nadiadwala and Siddharth Roy Kapur, and starring Saif Ali Khan and Katrina Kaif in leading roles.

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Poliomyelitis

Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is an infectious disease caused by the poliovirus.

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Presidency of Donald Trump

Donald Trump was inaugurated as the 45th President of the United States at noon EST on January 20, 2017, succeeding Barack Obama.

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President of Russia

The President of the Russian Federation (Prezident Rossiyskoy Federatsii) is the elected head of state of the Russian Federation, as well as holder of the highest office in Russia and commander-in-chief of the Russian Armed Forces.

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President of Syria

The President of Syria is the head of state of the Syrian Arab Republic.

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Presidential system

A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.

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Proxy war

A proxy war is an armed conflict between two states or non-state actors which act on the instigation or on behalf of other parties that are not directly involved in the hostilities.

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PublicAffairs

PublicAffairs (or PublicAffairs Books) is an imprint of the Perseus Books Group, an American book publishing company located in New York City.

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Qamishli Airport

Qamishli Airport (مطار القامشلي) is an airport serving Qamishli, a city in northeastern Syria.

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Qasem Soleimani

Major General Qasem Soleimani (قاسم سلیمانی, born 11 March 1957) is an Iranian senior military officer in the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) and since 1998 commander of its Quds Force—a division primarily responsible for extraterritorial military and clandestine operations.

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Qatar

Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Quds Force

The Quds Force (سپاه قدس sepāh-e qods) is a special forces unit of Iran's Revolutionary Guards responsible for their extraterritorial operations.

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Rabia, Syria

Gaballe (Gebelli, Gaballī) or Al-Rabiea (El-Rabia, Al-Rābeīā), also spelled Rabia (Rābīāh) is a town in northwestern Syria, administratively part of the Latakia Governorate, located north of Latakia.

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RAF Akrotiri

Royal Air Force Akrotiri or more simply RAF Akrotiri is a large Royal Air Force station, on the Mediterranean island of Cyprus.

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Rankous

Rankous or Rankus (رنكوس) is a Syrian town and summer resort in the province's Damascus countryside (Rif Dimashq) located in Mount Qalamoun (anti-Lebanon) in Syria, 45 km from Damascus, with a total area of 22.277 km ², extends between 1650 and 2150 m. The climate of the town is cool in summer and cold in winter.

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Raqqa

Raqqa (الرقة; Kurdish: Reqa) also called Raqa, Rakka and Al-Raqqah is a city in Syria located on the northeast bank of the Euphrates River, about east of Aleppo.

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Raqqa campaign (2016–2017)

The Raqqa campaign (codenamed Operation Wrath of Euphrates) was a military operation launched by the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) in the Raqqa Governorate, with the goal of isolating and eventually capturing the Islamic State's capital city, Raqqa.

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Red Lines

Red Lines is a documentary film produced by Spark Media in 2014.

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Red Sea

The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.

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Refugees of the Syrian Civil War

Refugees of the Syrian Civil War or Syrian refugees are citizens and permanent residents of Syrian Arab Republic, who have fled from their country since the onset of the Syrian Civil War in 2011 and have sought asylum in other parts of the world. In 2016, from an estimated pre-war population of 22 million, the United Nations (UN) identified 13.5 million Syrians requiring humanitarian assistance, of which more than 6 million are internally displaced within Syria, and around 5 million are refugees outside of Syria. The vast majority of the latter are hosted by countries neighboring Syria. Among countries of the Regional Refugee and Resilience Plan (3RP), a coordination platform including neighboring countries (with the exception of Israel) and Egypt, the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) counted 5,165,502 registered refugees, as of August 2017. Turkey is the largest host country of registered refugees with over 3.5 million Syrian refugees. The UNHCR counted almost 1 million asylum applicants in Europe, as of August 2017. Humanitarian aid to internally displaced persons (IDPs) within Syria and Syrian refugees in neighbouring countries is planned largely through the UNHCR. By 2016, various nations had made pledges to the UNHCR to permanently resettle 170,000 registered refugees.

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ReliefWeb

ReliefWeb is the largest humanitarian information portal in the world.

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Reuters

Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.

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RIA Novosti

RIA Novosti (РИА Новости), sometimes RIA (РИА) for short, was Russia's international news agency until 2013 and continues to be the name of a state-operated domestic Russian-language news agency.

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Rif Dimashq Governorate

Rif Dimashq Governorate (محافظة ريف دمشق, literally, the "Governorate of the Countryside of Damascus") is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.

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Rif Dimashq offensive (February–April 2018)

The Rif Dimashq offensive (February–April 2018), code-named Operation Damascus Steel, was a military offensive launched by the Syrian Arab Army (SAA) in February 2018 in a bid to capture the rebel-held eastern Ghouta suburb.

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Robert Fisk

Robert Fisk (born 12 July 1946) is an English writer and journalist.

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Rockwell B-1 Lancer

The Rockwell B-1 LancerThe name "Lancer" is only applied to the B-1B version, after the program was revived.

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Rojava conflict

The Rojava conflict, also known as the Rojava revolution, is a political upheaval and military conflict taking place in Northern Syria, known among Kurdish nationalists as Western Kurdistan or Rojava.

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Rossiyskaya Gazeta

(Российская газета, lit. Russian Gazette) is a Russian newspaper published by the Government of Russia.

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Russia

Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Russian Aerospace Forces

The Russian Aerospace Forces or VKS (r) are the Aerospace Forces of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.

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Russian Air Force

The Russian Air Force (r, literally "military air forces of Russia") is a branch of the Russian Aerospace Forces, the latter being formed on 1 August 2015 with the merger of the Russian Air Force and the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces.

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Russian Armed Forces

The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (r) are the military service of the Russian Federation, established after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

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Russian cruiser Moskva

Moskva (Москва — "Moscow", formerly Slava (Слава — "Glory")) is the lead ship of the Project 1164 ''Atlant'' class of guided missile cruisers in the Russian Navy.

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Russian involvement in the Syrian Civil War

Russia has supported the internationally recognised government of Syria since the beginning of the Syrian conflict in 2011: politically, with military aid, and since 30 September 2015 also through direct military involvement.

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Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War

The Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War began in September 2015, after an official request by the Syrian government for military aid against rebel and jihadist groups.

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Russian naval facility in Tartus

The Russian naval facility in Tartus is a leased military installation of the Russian Navy located on the northern edge of the sea port of the Syrian city of Tartus.

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Russian Navy

The Russian Navy (r, lit. Military-Maritime Fleet of the Russian Federation) is the naval arm of the Russian Armed Forces.

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Salafi jihadism

Salafi jihadism or jihadist-Salafism is a transnational religious-political ideology based on a belief in "physical" jihadism and the Salafi movement of returning to what adherents believe to be true Sunni Islam.

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Salih Muslim

Salih Muslim Muhammad (Kurmanji Salih Muslim Mihemed, Ṣāliḥ Muslim Muḥammad) is the former co-chairman of the Democratic Union Party (PYD), the driving power behind the de facto autonomous Kurdish-controlled region of Rojava in Northern Syria.

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Salim Idris

Salim Idris (سلیم ادریس Salīm Idrīs) (born 1957) is the former Chief of Staff of the Supreme Military Council (SMC) of the Free Syrian Army, which is the main Syrian armed opposition group.

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Salma, Syria

Salma (سلمى) is a village in northwestern Syria, administratively part of the Latakia Governorate, located northeast of Latakia.

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Salman al-Murshid

Sulayman al-Murshid (1907 – 16 December 1946, ‎سليمان المرشد) was a Syrian Alawi religious figure, political leader, and the founder of al-Murshidyah religious sect.

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Sanitation

Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage.

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Sarin

Sarin, or NATO designation GB (G-series, 'B'), is a highly toxic synthetic organophosphorus compound.

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Sayyidah Zaynab Mosque

Sayyidah Zaynab Mosque (مسجد السيدة زينب) is a mosque located in the city of Sayyidah Zaynab, in the southern suburbs of Damascus, Syria.

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Scud

Scud is the name of a series of tactical ballistic missiles developed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War.

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Secretary of State for Defence

Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Defence (Defence Secretary) is an official within Her Majesty's Government and head of the Ministry of Defence.

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Secularity

Secularity (adjective form secular, from Latin saeculum meaning "worldly", "of a generation", "temporal", or a span of about 100 years) is the state of being separate from religion, or of not being exclusively allied with or against any particular religion.

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Sednaya Prison

Sednaya Prison (سجن صيدنايا) is a military prison near Damascus in Syria operated by the government of Bashar al-Assad.

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Semitic people

Semites, Semitic people or Semitic cultures (from the biblical "Shem", שם) was a term for an ethnic, cultural or racial group who speak or spoke the Semitic languages.

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September 2016 Deir ez-Zor air raid

The Deir ez-Zor air raid was a series of 37 U.S.-led Coalition airstrikes near the Deir ez-Zor Airport in eastern Syria on 17 September 2016, lasting from 3:55 p.m. to 4:56 p.m. Damascus time, that killed between 90 and 106 Syrian Army soldiers and wounded 110 more.

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September 2016 Urum al-Kubra Aid Convoy attack

A United Nations and Syrian Arab Red Crescent aid convoy unloading at a warehouse along Highway 60 in the rebel-held city of Urum al-Kubra, approximately 15 kilometers (9 mi) west of the city of Aleppo in the Aleppo Governorate of Syria, was destroyed during a late night attack on 19 September 2016, during the Syrian Civil War.

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Sergey Lavrov

Sergey Viktorovich Lavrov (Серге́й Ви́кторович Лавро́в,; born 21 March 1950) is a Russian diplomat and politician; he is currently the Foreign Minister of Russia, in office since 2004.

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Sergey Shoygu

Sergey Kuzhugetovich Shoygu (Серге́й Кужуге́тович Шойгу́, Сергей Күжүгет оглу Шойгу; born 21 May 1955) is a Russian politician and General of the army who has served in the Government of Russia as Minister of Defence and the CIS as Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Defense since 2012.

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Sexual assault

Sexual assault is an act in which a person coerces or physically forces a person to engage in a sexual act against their will.

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Seymour Hersh

Seymour Myron "Sy" Hersh (born April 8, 1937) is an American investigative journalist and political writer based in Washington, D.C. He is a longtime contributor to The New Yorker magazine on national security matters and has also written for the London Review of Books since 2013.

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Shabak people

The Shabak people (الشبك, شەبەک) are a group in Iraq, who speak Shabaki, a Northwestern Iranian language of the Kurdish Zaza–Gorani group.

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Shabiha

Shabiha (North Levantine Arabic: شبيحة,; also romanized Shabeeha or Shabbiha; loosely translated "spirits", "ghosts", "shadows", or "apparitions") are mostly Alawite groups of armed militia in support of the Ba'ath Party government of Syria, led by the Al-Assad family.

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Shahba Canton

The Shahba Canton (Kantona Şehba, مقاطعة الشهباء, translit) is a de facto autonomous region in the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria.

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Sham Legion

The Sham Legion (فيلق الشام, Faylaq al-Sham) is an alliance of Sunni Islamist rebel groups formed in March 2014, during the Syrian Civil War. The alliance was formed from 19 different groups, some of which were previously affiliated with the Muslim Brotherhood of Syria and the Shields of the Revolution Council.

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Sharia

Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.

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Shayrat Airbase

Shayrat Airbase is home to the Syrian Air Force 50th Air Brigade located in Homs.

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Shell (projectile)

A shell is a payload-carrying projectile that, as opposed to shot, contains an explosive or other filling, though modern usage sometimes includes large solid projectiles properly termed shot.

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Shia Islam

Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.

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Siege

A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition, or a well-prepared assault.

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Siege of Deir ez-Zor (2014–17)

The Siege of Deir ez-Zor was a siege imposed by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) against districts in the city of Deir ez-Zor held by the Syrian Army, in an attempt to capture the city and secure full control of the Deir ez-Zor Governorate.

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Siege of Eastern Ghouta

The Siege of Eastern Ghouta was a siege that was laid by Syrian Government forces in April 2013, to the area in eastern Ghouta held by anti-government forces since November 2012, during the Syrian Civil War.

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Siege of Kobanî

The Siege of Kobanî was launched by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (also known as ISIL, ISIS, or Daesh) militants on 13 September 2014, in order to capture the Kobanî Canton and its main city of Kobanî (also known as Kobanê or Ayn al-Arab) in northern Syria, in the de facto autonomous region of Rojava. By 2 October 2014, ISIL succeeded in capturing 350 Kurdish villages and towns within the vicinity of Kobanê, generating a wave of some 300,000 displaced Kurds, who fled across the border into Turkey's Şanlıurfa Province. By January 2015, this had risen to 400,000. The Kurdish People's Protection Units (YPG) backed by Euphrates Volcano joint operations room, some Free Syrian Army (FSA) reinforcements, heavily armed Peshmerga of the Kurdistan Regional Government, and American and US-allied Arab militaries' airstrikes began to recapture Kobane. On 26 January 2015, the YPG and its allies, along with the continued US-led airstrikes, began to retake the city, driving ISIL into a steady retreat. The city of Kobanê was fully recaptured on 27 January; however, most of the remaining villages in the Kobanî Canton remained under ISIL control. Kurdish militia along with allied Arab armed groups backed by further airstrikes, then made rapid advances in rural Kobanî, with ISIL withdrawing 25 km from the city of Kobanî by 2 February. By late April 2015, ISIL had lost almost all of the villages it had captured in the Canton, but maintained control of a few dozen villages it seized in the northwestern part of the Raqqa Governorate. In late June 2015, ISIL launched a new offensive against the city, killing at least 233 civilians. The militants were quickly driven back. The battle for Kobanî was considered a turning point in the war against ISIL.

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Signals intelligence

Signals intelligence (SIGINT) is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether communications between people (communications intelligence—abbreviated to COMINT) or from electronic signals not directly used in communication (electronic intelligence—abbreviated to ELINT).

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Silvered Water, Syria Self-Portrait

Silvered Water, Syria Self-Portrait (ماء الفضة, Eau argentée, Syrie autoportrait) is a Syrian documentary film about the Syrian Civil War, directed by Ossama Mohammed and Wiam Simav Bedirxan.

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Sniper: Legacy

Sniper: Legacy is a 2014 American direct-to-video action film directed by Don Michael Paul.

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Sootoro

The Gozarto Protection Force (GPF) and Sootoro, united as one organisation (ܚܝܠܘ̈ܬܐ ܕܣܘܬܪܐ ܕܓܙܪܬܐ, سوتورو), are a regional militia based in Qamishli, Al-Hasakah Governorate, Syria, composed of members of the local an ethnic Assyrian/Syriac and some Armenian communities, founded after the outbreak of the Syrian Civil War that began in 2011.

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Southern Damascus offensive (April–May 2018)

The Southern Damascus offensive began on 19 April 2018 when the Syrian Armed Forces began to clear an enclave held by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) in southern Damascus in the Yarmouk Camp.

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Southern Front (Syrian rebel group)

The Southern Front (الجبهة الجنوبية) is a Syrian rebel alliance consisting of 58 or 54 Syrian opposition factions affiliated with the Free Syrian Army, established on 13 February 2014 in southern Syria.

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Special Activities Division

The Special Activities Division (SAD) is a division of the United States Central Intelligence Agency responsible for covert operations.

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Special Envoy of the Secretary-General

A Special Envoy of the Secretary-General (SESG) is a senior United Nations official appointed by the United Nations Secretary-General to deal with a set of specific issues.

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Special Forces (United States Army)

The United States Army Special Forces, colloquially known as the Green Berets due to their distinctive service headgear, are a special operations force tasked with five primary missions: unconventional warfare (the original and most important mission of Special Forces), foreign internal defense, special reconnaissance, direct action, and counter-terrorism.

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State of emergency

A state of emergency is a situation in which a government is empowered to perform actions that it would normally not be permitted.

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Steven Sotloff

Steven Joel Sotloff (סטיבן סוטלוף; May 11, 1983 – September 2, 2014) was an American-Israeli journalist.

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Subhi al-Tufayli

Subhi al-Tufayli (صبحي الطفيلي) (born 1948) was the first Secretary-General or leader of Hezbollah for a year.

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Sufism

Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.

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Suicide attack

A suicide attack is any violent attack in which the attacker expects their own death as a direct result of the method used to harm, damage or destroy the target.

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Sulfur mustard

Sulfur mustard, commonly known as mustard gas, is the prototypical substance of the sulfur-based family of cytotoxic and vesicant chemical warfare agents known as the sulfur mustards which have the ability to form large blisters on exposed skin and in the lungs.

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Sunni Islam

Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.

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Supreme Constitutional Court of Syria

The Supreme Constitutional Court (المحكمة الدستورية العليا, Al-Mahkamah al-Dustūrīyah al-‘Ulyā) is the highest jurisdictional authority in the Syrian Arab Republic.

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Supreme Council of the Syrian Revolution

Supreme Council of the Syrian Revolution (SCSR) (المجلس الأعلى للثورة السورية) is a Syrian opposition group supporting the overthrow of the Bashir al-Assad government in Syria during the Syrian civil war.

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Supreme Leader of Iran

The Supreme Leader of Iran (rahbar-e mo'azzam-e irān), also called the Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution (رهبر معظم انقلاب اسلامی), officially in Iran, called the Supreme Leadership Authority (مقام معظم رهبری), is the head of state and highest ranking political and religious authority in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

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Suqour al-Sham Brigades

The Suqour al-Sham Brigades (ألوية صقور الشام, Hawks of the Levant Brigades), also known as the Sham Falcons Brigades, is an armed rebel organisation formed by Ahmed Abu Issa early in the Syrian Civil War to fight against the Syrian Government.

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Sutoro

The Syriac Security Office (Mawtbo d'Sutoro Suryoyo, سوتورو), commonly known as the Sutoro or the Sutoro Police, is an ethnic Assyrian, Syriac-Christian police force in Jazira Canton of the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria in Syria, where it works in concert with the general Asayish police force of the canton with the mission to police ethnic Assyrian areas and neighbourhoods.

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Syria

Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.

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Syria's Tomorrow Movement

The Syria's Tomorrow Movement (Arabic: تيار الغد السوري) is a Syrian opposition party founded in March 2016 in Cairo by Ahmad Jarba, a Syrian National Council member.

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Syria–United States relations

Diplomatic relations between Syria and the United States are currently non-existent; they were suspended in 2012 after the onset of the Syrian Civil War.

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Syriac Military Council

The Syriac Military Council (translit, MFS for short; المجلس العسكري السرياني السوري) is an Assyrian/Syriac military organisation in Syria.

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Syriac Orthodox Church

The Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch (ʿĪṯo Suryoyṯo Trišaṯ Šubḥo; الكنيسة السريانية الأرثوذكسية), or Syriac Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East, is an Oriental Orthodox Church with autocephalous patriarchate established in Antioch in 518, tracing its founding to St. Peter and St. Paul in the 1st century, according to its tradition.

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Syrian Air Force

The Syrian Air Force, officially the Syrian Arab Air Force (القوات الجوية العربية السورية, Al Quwwat al-Jawwiyah al Arabiya as-Souriya), is the air force branch of the Syrian Armed Forces.

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Syrian Arab News Agency

The Syrian Arab News Agency (SANA) (الوكالة العربية السورية للأنباء) is a news agency in Syria.

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Syrian Archaeological Heritage Under Threat

Syrian Archaeological Heritage Under Threat, also known as Syrian Archaeological Heritage in Danger, Patrimoine Syrien or Le patrimoine archéologique syrien en danger (الآثار السورية في خطر) is a cultural heritage activist group that runs a Facebook page documenting the damage to Syrian and World Heritage during the Syrian Civil War.

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Syrian Army

The Syrian Army, officially the Syrian Arab Army (SAA) (al-Jayš al-ʿArabī as-Sūrī), is the land force branch of the Syrian Armed Forces.

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Syrian Civil War ceasefires

Several attempts have been made to broker ceasefires in the Syrian Civil War.

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Syrian Democratic Council

The Syrian Democratic Council (مجلس سوريا الديمقراطية MSD, translit, Meclîsa Sûriya Demokratîk) is the political wing of the Syrian Democratic Forces in the de facto autonomous Democratic Federation of Northern Syria.

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Syrian Democratic Forces

The Syrian Democratic Forces (translit, Hêzên Sûriya Demokratîk, translit), commonly abbreviated as SDF, HSD or QSD, are a multi-ethnic and multi-religious alliance of predominantly Kurdish, but also Arab and Assyrian/Syriac militias, as well as some smaller Turkmen, Armenian, Circassian and Chechen groups/participation in the Syrian Civil War. The SDF is mostly composed of, and militarily led by, the People's Protection Units (YPG), a mostly Kurdish militia. Founded in October 2015, the SDF states its mission as fighting to create a secular, democratic and federal Syria, along the lines of the Rojava Revolution in northern Syria. The updated December 2016 constitution of the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria names the SDF as its official defence force. The primary opponents of the SDF and their allies are the Salafist and Islamic fundamentalist groups involved in the civil war, in particular the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), Turkey-backed Syrian opposition groups, al-Qaeda affiliates, and their allies. The SDF has focused primarily on ISIL, successfully driving them from important strategic areas, such as Al-Hawl, Shaddadi, Tishrin Dam, Manbij, al-Tabqah, Tabqa Dam, Baath Dam, and ISIL's former capital of Raqqa.

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Syrian Desert campaign (May–July 2017)

The Syrian Desert campaign (May–July 2017) is a military operation of the Syrian Army that initially started along the highway from Damascus to the border with Iraq against rebel forces during the Syrian Civil War.

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Syrian Kurdish–Islamist conflict (2013–present)

The Syrian Kurdish–Islamist conflict, a major theater in the Syrian Civil War, started after fighting erupted between the Kurdish People's Protection Units (YPG) and Islamist rebel factions in the city of Ras al-Ayn.

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Syrian National Council

The Syrian National Council (SNC; المجلس الوطني السوري., al-Majlis al-Waṭanī as-Sūri, Conseil national syrien), sometimes known as the Syrian National Transitional Council or the National Council of Syria, is a Syrian opposition coalition, based in Istanbul, Turkey, formed in August 2011 during the Syrian civil uprising (which escalated into civil war) against the government of Bashar al-Assad.

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Syrian Observatory for Human Rights

The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (also known as SOHR; المرصد السوري لحقوق الإنسان), founded in May 2006, is a UK-based information office whose stated aim is to document human rights abuses in Syria; it has focused since 2011 on the Syrian Civil War.

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Syrian opposition

The Syrian opposition (المعارضة السورية) is an umbrella term for the political structure represented by the Syrian National Coalition and associated anti-government Syrian groups with certain territorial control in the form of a proto-state as an alternative Syrian government, claiming to be the legitimate Syrian Arab Republic and also sometimes known just as the Republic of Syria.

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Syrian parliamentary election, 2012

A parliamentary election to the Syrian People's Council was held in Syria on 7 May 2012, following the approval of a new constitution of Syria, in a referendum on 26 February 2012.

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Syrian Republic (1946–63)

The Syrian Republic (الجمهورية السورية; République syrienne) was recognized as a sovereign state in 1945 and became de-facto independent in April 1946 from the French Mandate of Syria and Lebanon.

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Syrian Revolution General Commission

Syrian Revolution General Commission (SRGC) (الهيئة العامة للثورة السورية) is a Syrian coalition of 40 Syrian opposition groups to unite their efforts during the Syrian civil war that was announced on 19 August 2011 in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Syrian Revolutionaries Front

The Syrian Revolutionaries Front (جبهة ثوار سوريا, Jabhat Thowar Suriya, SRF, also translated Syrian Rebel Front) is, according to Lebanon's Daily Star, an alliance of 14 relatively moderate Islamist and some secular armed groups fighting under the banner of the Free Syrian Army, formed in December 2013, thus according to Arutz Sheva further sidelining the FSA and its leadership Supreme Military Council.

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Syrian territories

Syrian territories refers to territories de-jure belonging to the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic but only partially controlled by it de-facto, with large portions of territories overtaken by various factions during the Syrian Civil War, including the Syrian opposition, Islamist Ahrar al-Sham, the North Syria Federation, the Tahrir al-Sham Emirate, the terror group Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant and the Turkish military and their proxy militias.

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Syrian Turkmen

Syrian Turkmen (also referred to as Syrian Turkomans or simply Syrian Turks or Turks of Syria) (تركمان سوريا, Suriye Türkmenleri or Suriye Türkleri), are Syrian citizens of mainly Turkish origin whose families had migrated to Syria from Anatolia during the centuries of Ottoman rule (1516-1918).

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Syrian Turkmen Brigades

Syrian Turkmen Brigades (Suriye Türkmen Tugayları), also called the United Turkmen Army (Birleşik Türkmen Ordusu), are an informal armed opposition structure composed of Syrian Turkmen and Turks that form the military wing of the Syrian Turkmen Assembly, primarily fighting against the Syrian Armed Forces, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) and the Syrian Democratic Forces.

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Syrians

Syrians (سوريون), also known as the Syrian people (الشعب السوري ALA-LC: al-sha‘ab al-Sūrī; ܣܘܪܝܝܢ), are the inhabitants of Syria, who share a common Levantine Semitic ancestry.

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Taftanaz

Taftanaz (تفتناز, also spelled Teftanaz) is a town in northwestern Syria, administratively part of the Idlib Governorate, located 17 kilometers northeast of Idlib.

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Tahrir al-Sham

Hay'at Tahrir al-Sham (transliteration:, "Organization for the Liberation of the Levant" or "Levant Liberation Committee"), commonly referred to as Tahrir al-Sham and abbreviated HTS, also known as al-Qaeda in Syria, is an active Salafist jihadist militant group involved in the Syrian Civil War.

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Takfiri

A takfiri (تكفيري) is a Muslim who accuses another Muslim (or an adherent of another Abrahamic faith) of apostasy.

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Tartus

Tartus (طرطوس / ALA-LC: Ṭarṭūs; also transliterated Tartous) is a city on the Mediterranean coast of Syria.

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TASS

Russian News Agency TASS (Informatsionnoye agentstvo Rossii TASS), abbr.

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Tawhid

Tawhid (توحيد, meaning "oneness " also romanized as tawheed, touheed, or tevhid) is the indivisible oneness concept of monotheism in Islam.

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Tell (archaeology)

In archaeology, a tell, or tel (derived from تَل,, 'hill' or 'mound'), is an artificial mound formed from the accumulated refuse of people living on the same site for hundreds or thousands of years.

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Tell Rifaat

Tell Rifaat (تل رفعت, also spelled Tel Rifaat, Tel Rif'at or Tal Rifaat) is a city in northern Aleppo Governorate, northwestern Syria.

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Temple of Baalshamin

The Temple of Baalshamin was an ancient temple in the city of Palmyra, Syria, dedicated to the Canaanite sky deity Baalshamin.

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Temple of Bel

The Temple of Bel (معبد بل), sometimes also referred to as the "Temple of Baal", was an ancient temple located in Palmyra, Syria.

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Terrorism

Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a financial, political, religious or ideological aim.

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Terrorism in Syria

Terrorism in Syria has a long history dating from the Islamist Uprising in the early 80s and to the ongoing Syrian Civil War which witnessed the rise of radical Islamist groups such as ISIL, al-Nusra and other al-Qaeda affiliated groups.

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Tertiary sector of the economy

The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory.

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The Atlantic

The Atlantic is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher, founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts.

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The Christian Science Monitor

The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is a nonprofit news organization that publishes daily articles in electronic format as well as a weekly print edition.

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The Daily Telegraph

The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.

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The Economist

The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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The Independent

The Independent is a British online newspaper.

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The International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation and Political Violence

The International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation and Political Violence (ICSR) is a non-profit, non-governmental think tank based in the Department of War Studies at King’s College London whose mission is to educate the public and help policymakers and practitioners find more intelligent solutions in dealing with radicalisation and political violence.

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The Irish Times

The Irish Times is an Irish daily broadsheet newspaper launched on 29 March 1859.

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The National Interest

The National Interest (TNI) is an American bimonthly international affairs magazine published by the Center for the National Interest.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The New Yorker

The New Yorker is an American magazine of reportage, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry.

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The Return to Homs

The Return to Homs is a 2013 Syrian-German documentary film written and directed by Talal Derki.

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The War Show

The War Show is a 2016 Syrian-Danish-German documentary film co-written and directed by Andreas Dalsgaard and Obaidah Zytoon.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.

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The White Helmets (film)

The White Helmets is a 2016 British short documentary film.

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The World Factbook

The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.

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Thermobaric weapon

A thermobaric weapon is a type of explosive that uses oxygen from the surrounding air to generate a high-temperature explosion, and in practice the blast wave typically produced by such a weapon is of a significantly longer duration than that produced by a conventional condensed explosive.

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Three-star rank

An officer of three-star rank is a senior commander in many of the armed services holding a rank described by the NATO code of OF-8.

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Timber Sycamore

Timber Sycamore was a classified weapons supply and training program run by the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and supported by Arab intelligence services, such as the security service in Saudi Arabia.

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Tomahawk (missile)

The Tomahawk Land Attack Missile (TLAM) is a long-range, all-weather, subsonic cruise missile that is primarily used by the United States Navy and Royal Navy in ship and submarine-based land-attack operations.

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Tony Blair

Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007.

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Torture

Torture (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim.

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TOS-1

TOS-1 (тяжёлая огнемётная система (ТОС-1), Heavy Flamethrower System) is a Soviet 220mm 30-barrel (original system, Ob.634 or TOS-1M) or 24-barrel (Ob.634B or TOS-1A) multiple rocket launcher and thermobaric weapon mounted on a T-72 tank chassis.

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Tower of Elahbel

The Tower of Elahbel (also known as Tower 13, or Kubbet el 'Arus) was a four-storey sandstone tower tomb near the ancient city of Palmyra in Syria.

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Tripoli, Lebanon

Tripoli (طرابلس / ALA-LC: Ṭarābulus; Lebanese Arabic: Ṭrāblos; Trablusşam) is the largest city in northern Lebanon and the second-largest city in the country.

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Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).

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Tupolev Tu-22M

The Tupolev Tu-22M (Russian: Туполев Ту-22М; NATO reporting name: Backfire) is a supersonic, variable-sweep wing, long-range strategic and maritime strike bomber developed by the Tupolev Design Bureau.

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Turkish Air Force

The Turkish Air Force (Türk Hava Kuvvetleri) is the aerial warfare service branch of the Turkish Armed Forces.

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Turkish Armed Forces

The Turkish Armed Forces (TAF; Türk Silahlı Kuvvetleri, TSK) are the military forces of the Republic of Turkey.

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Turkish involvement in the Syrian Civil War

Turkey, which had had a relatively friendly relationship with Syria over the decade prior to the start of the civil unrest in Syria in the spring of 2011, condemned the Syrian president Bashar Assad over the violent crackdown on protests in 2011 and later that year joined a number of other countries demanding his resignation.

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Turkish military operation in Afrin

In January 2018, the Turkish military launched a military operation, code-named Operation Olive Branch (Zeytin Dalı Harekâtı) by Turkey, in the SDF-controlled Afrin District and the Tell Rifaat Subdistrict.

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Turkish occupation of northern Syria

The Turkish occupation of northern Syria refers to areas of Syria captured by the Turkish Armed Forces and their proxy forces since August 2016 during the Syrian Civil War.

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Turkish-backed Free Syrian Army

The Turkish-backed Free Syrian Army (abbreviated as TFSA), partially reorganized as the Syrian National Army (al-Jayš al-Watanī as-Sūrī, Suriye Millî Ordusu) by Turkey since 30 May 2017, is an armed Syrian opposition structure mainly composed of Syrian Arab and Syrian Turkmen rebels operating in northern Syria, mostly being a part of Operation Euphrates Shield or groups active in the area that are allied to the groups participating in the operation.

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Typhoid fever

Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to ''Salmonella'' typhi that causes symptoms.

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Ulama

The Arabic term ulama (علماء., singular عالِم, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah and uluma), according to the Encyclopedia of Islam (2000), in its original meaning "denotes scholars of almost all disciplines".

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UNICEF

The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations (UN) program headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.

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United Arab Republic

The United Arab Republic (UAR; الجمهورية العربية المتحدة) was, between 1958 and 1971, a sovereign state in the Middle East, and between 1958 and 1961, a short-lived political union consisting of Egypt (including the occupied Gaza Strip) and Syria.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United Nations Charter

The Charter of the United Nations (also known as the UN Charter) of 1945 is the foundational treaty of the United Nations, an intergovernmental organization.

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United Nations Commission on Human Rights

The United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR) was a functional commission within the overall framework of the United Nations from 1946 until it was replaced by the United Nations Human Rights Council in 2006.

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United Nations General Assembly

The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.

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United Nations Mission to Investigate Alleged Uses of Chemical Weapons in the Syrian Arab Republic

The United Nations Mission to Investigate Allegations of the Use of Chemical Weapons in the Syrian Arab Republic was a fact-finding mission to investigate possible use of chemical weapons in Syria.

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United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs

The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) is a United Nations (UN) body formed in December 1991 by General Assembly Resolution 46/182.

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United Nations Security Council

The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.

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United Nations Security Council Resolution 2249

United Nations Security Council Resolution 2249 was unanimously adopted on 20 November 2015.

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United Nations Security Council Resolution 2254

The United Nations Security Council Resolution 2254 was unanimously adopted on 18 December 2015.

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United Nations Security Council Resolution 2268

The United Nations Security Council Resolution 2268 was unanimously adopted on 26 February 2016.

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United Press International

United Press International (UPI) is an international news agency whose newswires, photo, news film, and audio services provided news material to thousands of newspapers, magazines, radio and television stations for most of the 20th century.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Agency for International Development

The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is an independent agency of the United States federal government that is primarily responsible for administering civilian foreign aid and development assistance.

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United States Armed Forces

The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.

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United States Central Command

The United States Central Command (USCENTCOM or CENTCOM) is a theater-level Unified Combatant Command of the U.S. Department of Defense.

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United States Congress

The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.

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United States Department of State

The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.

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United States special operations forces

United States special operations forces (SOF) are components of the Department of Defense's United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM).

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University for Peace

The University for Peace (UPEACE) is an intergovernmental organization with university status, established by treaty in 1980 and having its main campus in Costa Rica.

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Unmanned combat aerial vehicle

An unmanned combat aerial vehicle (UCAV), also known as a combat drone or simply a drone, is an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that usually carries aircraft ordnance such as missiles and is used for drone strikes.

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Vaccination

Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.

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Valery Gerasimov

Valery Vasilyevich Gerasimov (p; born 8 September 1955) is a Russian General, the current Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Russia, and first Deputy Defence Minister, replacing Nikolay Makarov.

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Večernji list

Večernji list (also known as Večernjak, Evening paper) is a conservative Croatian daily newspaper published in Zagreb.

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Vienna

Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.

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Vienna peace talks for Syria

The Vienna peace talks for Syria, as of 14 November 2015 known as the talks of the International Syria Support Group (ISSG), are negotiations of foreign powers that began in Vienna, Austria in October 2015 at the level of foreign ministers, to resolve the conflict in Syria, after unsuccessful previous Syrian peace initiatives.

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Vladimir Putin

Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.

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Wadi Barada offensive (2016–17)

The Wadi Barada offensive (2016–17) was a military operation against rebel-held villages in the Barada River valley by the Syrian Army and allied forces, including pro-government militias and Lebanese Hezbollah between December 2016 and January 2017.

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War

War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.

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Webster University

Webster University is an American non-profit private university with its main campus in Webster Groves, Missouri.

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Whooping cough

Whooping cough (also known as pertussis or 100-day cough) is a highly contagious bacterial disease.

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Women Under Siege Project

The Women Under Siege Project is an independent initiative of the Women's Media Center (WMC).

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Women's Protection Units

The Women's Protection Units or Women's Defense Units (Yekîneyên Parastina Jin, YPJ, pronounced Yuh-Pah-Juh; Wahdat Himayat al-Mar'a; Ḥdoywotho d'Sutoro d'Neshe) is an all-female military organization.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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World Heritage site

A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Yarmouk Camp

Yarmouk Camp (مخيم اليرموك) is a district of the city of Damascus, populated by Palestinians, with hospitals and schools.

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Yazidis

The Yazidis, or Yezidis (Êzidî), are a Kurdish-speaking people, indigenous to a region of northern Mesopotamia (known natively as Ezidkhan) who are strictly endogamous.

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Yemeni Civil War (2015–present)

The Yemeni Civil War is an ongoing conflict that began in 2015 between two factions, each claiming to constitute the Yemeni government, along with their supporters and allies.

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10 May 2012 Damascus bombings

The 10 May 2012 Damascus bombings were carried out using a pair of car bombs allegedly detonated by suicide bombers outside a military intelligence complex in Damascus, Syria.

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1000 Days of Syria

1000 Days of Syria is a hypertext-based historical fiction game centered on the first 1000 days of the Syrian Civil War.

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1954 Syrian coup d'état

The 1954 Syrian coup d'état took place in February of that year to overthrow the government of Adib Shishakli.

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1963 Syrian coup d'état

The 1963 Syrian coup d'état, referred to by the Syrian government as the 8 March Revolution (ثورة الثامن من آذار), was the successful seizure of power in Syria by the military committee of the Syrian Regional Branch of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party.

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2011 Damascus bombings

On 23 December 2011, two seemingly coordinated bombings occurred in the Syrian capital of Damascus.

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2012–13 escalation of the Syrian Civil War

The 2012–13 escalation of the Syrian Civil War refers to the third phase of the Syrian Civil War, which gradually escalated from a UN-mediated cease fire attempt during April–May 2012 and deteriorated into radical violence, escalating the conflict level to a full-fledged civil war.

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2014 Quneitra offensive

The 2014 Quneitra offensive, code-named “The Real Promise” or "Chargers of Dawn", was a military operation launched by Syrian rebels during the Syrian civil war in Quneitra Governorate, in an attempt to take control of several sections in the central part of the province and around Quneitra city "with the aim of opening the way to Damascus." The Quneitra Crossing is considered to be a "gateway" into Damascus from the west.

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2014 Syrian detainee report

The 2014 Syrian detainee report, also known as the Caesar Report, formally titled A Report into the credibility of certain evidence with regard to Torture and Execution of Persons Incarcerated by the current Syrian regime is a report that claims to detail "the systematic killing of more than 11,000 detainees by the Syrian government in one region during the Syrian Civil War over a two and half year period from March 2011 to August 2013".

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2015 Russian Sukhoi Su-24 shootdown

A Turkish Air Force F-16 fighter jet shot down a Russian Sukhoi Su-24M attack aircraft near the Syria–Turkey border on 24 November 2015.

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2015 Southern Syria offensive

The 2015 Southern Syria offensive, code-named "Operation Martyrs of Quneitra", was an offensive launched in southern Syria during the Syrian Civil War by the Syrian Arab Army, Hezbollah and Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps forces.

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2015 Zabadani cease-fire agreement

The 2015 Zabadani ceasefire agreement between Syrian opposition forces and the Syrian Armed Forces was achieved on 24 September 2015, with mediation from the United Nations, following the Battle of Zabadani (2015).

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2015–16 Latakia offensive

The 2015–16 Latakia offensive was a campaign of the Syrian Civil War that was launched by government forces in October 2015 to recapture rebel-held territory in the Latakia Governorate bordering Turkey.

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2016 Aleppo summer campaign

The 2016 Aleppo summer campaign started with a military operation launched on the northern outskirts of Aleppo in late June 2016, by the Syrian Arab Army.

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2017 Abu Kamal offensive

The 2017 Abu Kamal offensive, codenamed Operation Fajr-3 (translated Operation Dawn 3), was a military offensive launched by the Syrian Arab Army and its allies against members of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) in the Deir ez-Zor Governorate.

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2017 Aleppo suicide car bombing

On 15 April 2017, a car bomb detonated near a convoy of buses in the al-Rashideen neighbourhood of western Aleppo, Syria.

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2017 Western Iraq campaign

The Western Iraq campaign was a military operation by the Iraqi Army against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, in the western province of Anbar, and on the border with Syria, with the goal of completely expelling ISIL forces from its last strongholds in Iraq.

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2018 missile strikes against Syria

On 14 April 2018, beginning at 04:00 Syrian time (UTC+3), the United States, France, and the United Kingdom carried out a series of military strikes involving aircraft and ship-based missiles against multiple government sites in Syria.

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3M-54 Kalibr

The Russian 3M-54 Калибр (Kalibr) and 3M-14 Бирюза (Biryuza, Turqoise) (NATO codename SS-N-27 Sizzler and SS-N-30A) are Russian surface ship and submarine-launched anti-ship and coastal anti ship (AShM) and land attack cruise missiles (LACM) developed by the Novator Design Bureau (OKB-8).

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50 Feet from Syria

50 Feet from Syria is a 2015 short-documentary film about a Syrian-American orthopedic surgeon Hisham Bismar who travels to the Turkey-Syrian border situated Al-Amal Hospital during the Syrian civil war.

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7 Days in Syria

7 Days in Syria is a 2015 American documentary film directed and produced by Robert Rippberger.

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89th Academy Awards

The 89th Academy Awards ceremony, presented by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), honored the best films of 2016, and took place on February 26, 2017, at the Dolby Theatre in Hollywood, Los Angeles, California, at 5:30 p.m. PST.

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90th Academy Awards

The 90th Academy Awards ceremony, presented by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), honored the best films of 2017 and took place at the Dolby Theatre in Hollywood, Los Angeles, California.

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9K111 Fagot

The 9K111 Fagot (Фагот; "bassoon") is a second-generation tube-launched SACLOS wire-guided anti-tank missile system of the Soviet Union for use from ground or vehicle mounts.

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9M133 Kornet

No description.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syrian_Civil_War

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