483 relations: Abalone, Adelgidae, Adiantum aethiopicum, Albatross, Alcyonacea, Algae, Allionia, Alps, Alyssum alyssoides, Amaranthus albus, Amaranthus cruentus, Amaranthus tricolor, Amphibia in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Amphibian, Amphisbaenia, Amyris elemifera, Anacamptis papilionacea, Anacamptis sancta, Anarhichadidae, Anglerfish, Anguis, Ani (bird), Animal, Anomiidae, Ant, Anteater, Antelope, Ape, Aphid, Aphrodita, Apocynum androsaemifolium, Arachnid, Arbutus andrachne, Argonaut (animal), Ark clam, Armadillo, Arthropod, Ascaris, Asilidae, Attelabidae, Auk, Aves in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Avocet, Barnacle, Bat, Batis maritima, Batoidea, Bear, Beaver, Bed bug, ..., Bee, Bee-eater, Binomial nomenclature, Biodiversity Heritage Library, Bird, Bird-of-paradise, Blister beetle, Boa (genus), Bombyliidae, Botfly, Brassia caudata, Bryozoa, Buccinidae, Bucida buceras, Bulla (gastropod), Bunting (bird), Buprestidae, Bustard, Butterfly, Butterflyfish, Caddisfly, Caecilian, Calycanthus, Camel, Campanula barbata, Carabus, Cardinal (bird), Carex capitata, Carex distans, Carl Alexander Clerck, Carl Linnaeus, Carlo Allioni, Carpobrotus edulis, Casimir Christoph Schmidel, Cassidinae, Cat, Catfish, Catharanthus roseus, Cattle, Cecropia peltata, Cedrela odorata, Centipede, Certhia, Cestoda, Cetacea, Chamidae, Charonia, Chicken, Chimaera, Chiton, Chromolaena odorata, Chrysophyllum oliviforme, Cicada, Cissus verticillata, Civet, Cladocera, Click beetle, Cobitis, Cobra, Coccinellidae, Coccoloba pubescens, Coccoloba uvifera, Cochlearia anglica, Cockle (bivalve), Cockroach, Cod, Coilostylis ciliaris, Coluber, Colugo, Columbidae, Common ostrich, Condor, Conopidae, Conus, Coot, Coralline algae, Cordyline fruticosa, Cornetfish, Coryphaena, Cottidae, Crab, Crane (bird), Crane fly, Crocodilia, Croton glandulosus, Crow, Crustacean, Cuckoo, Cunila origanoides, Cunonia capensis, Curassow, Curculionidae, Cusk-eels, Cutlassfish, Cuttlefish, Cypraeidae, Cyprinus, Damselfly, Darkling beetle, David de Gorter, Deer, Dermestidae, Desmostachya bipinnata, Diodon, Dog, Dolphin, Donacidae, Doris (gastropod), Dorstenia drakena, Draco (genus), Dragonet, Dragonfly, Duck, Dytiscidae, Eagle, Earthworm, Earwig, Echinochloa colona, Eel, Elephant, Empididae, Equisetum giganteum, Esox, Excoecaria agallocha, Falcon, Finch, Fire coral, Fish, Flamingo, Flatfish, Flea, Flying fish, François Boissier de Sauvages de Lacroix, Frog, Fungus, Gall wasp, Genipa americana, Geranium pusillum, Giant granadilla, Giraffe, Goat, Goby, Godwit, Goldenseal, Goose, Gorgonian, Grebe, Grias cauliflora, Ground beetle, Grouse, Gull, Gymnotus, Hagfish, Halesia carolina, Hare, Hedgehog, Helicidae, Heliotropium arborescens, Heron, Herring, Herring smelt, Hippoboscidae, Hippopotamus, Histeridae, Holcus mollis, Homo, Hoopoe, Hornbill, Hornet, Horse, Horse-fly, Housefly, Human, Hummingbird, Hydra (genus), Hyena, Ibis, Ichneumonoidea, Illicium anisatum, Insect, Insecta in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, International Association for Plant Taxonomy, International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, Inula spiraeifolia, Ipomoea hederifolia, Jean-François Séguier, Jellyfish, Johann Ernst Hebenstreit, Johannes Burman, John Dory, John Ellis (naturalist), Juglans cinerea, Kenaf, Kingfisher, Krameria ixine, Lactuca canadensis, Lagerstroemia indica, Lamium orvala, Lamprey, Lanius, Lark, Leaf beetle, Lecythis ollaria, Leech, Lemur, Lernaea, Lichen, Liver fluke, Lizard, Lobster, Longhorn beetle, Loon, Loricariidae, Louse, Lumpsucker, Lutjanidae, Mackerel, Macroramphosus, Magnolia acuminata, Magnolia grandiflora, Magnolia tripetala, Mammal, Mammalia in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Manatee, Mayfly, Mecoptera, Mergus, Millipede, Mite, Mole (animal), Mongoose, Monkey, Mordellidae, Mormyridae, Mosquito, Moth, Mouse, Mucuna pruriens, Mullet (fish), Mullus, Muricidae, Musk deer, Mutillidae, Myidae, Myna, Mytilidae, Narwhal, Nautilus, Necydalinae, Nematomorpha, Nepidae, Nereis, Neritidae, Neuroptera, Nightjar, Notonectidae, Nuthatch, Octopus, Oenothera perennis, Old World silverside, Opiliones, Opossum, Organ pipe coral, Oriolus, Orthopteroid, Ostraciidae, Ostreidae, Owl, Oystercatcher, Paeonia tenuifolia, Pangolin, Parrot, Paspalum distichum, Patellidae, Patrick Browne, PDF, Peafowl, Pectis ciliaris, Pectis linifolia, Pedalium, Pegasidae, Pelican, Penguin, Perch, Petrel, Phalarope, Pheasant, Philip Miller, Pholadidae, Phytolacca icosandra, Pig, Pinnidae, Pinniped, Pipefish, Pipit, Pisces in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Plant, Plover, Poa palustris, Polemonium reptans, Polycarpon tetraphyllum, Polygonum perfoliatum, Porcupine, Porpoise, Portlandia grandiflora, Portuguese man o' war, Priapulida, Principle of Priority, Puffin, Pyrrhula, Rabbit, Rail (bird), Ranunculus parviflorus, Rattlesnake, Raven, Remora, Reptile, Reseda odorata, Rheum palmatum, Rhinoceros, Roller, Rorqual, Rosa pimpinellifolia, Rove beetle, Sagittaria lancifolia, Salamander, Salix retusa, Salmon, Salp, Sand lance, Sandpiper, Sawfly, Saxifraga cuneifolia, Scabiosa prolifera, Scale insect, Scarabaeidae, Scleractinia, Scorpaenidae, Scorpion, Scyllaeidae, Sea anemone, Sea pen, Sea urchin, Seahorse, Serpulidae, Sesuvium portulacastrum, Shark, Sheep, Shrew, Silphidae, Silphium perfoliatum, Silverfish, Skimmer, Sloth, Slug, Snakefly, Soldier beetle, Solenidae, South Africa, Sparidae, Species Plantarum, Sperm whale, Sphex, Sphingidae, Spider, Spondylus, Spoonbill, Springtail, Squid, Squirrel, Starfish, Stargazer (fish), Starling, Stickleback, Stork, Stromateidae, Strombidae, Sturgeon, Svenska Spindlar, Swallow, Swan, Swift, Swordfish, Talinum fruticosum, Tellinidae, Teredo navalis, Termite, Tern, Tethydidae, Tetraodontidae, Threadfin, Thrips, Thrush (bird), Tick, Tit (bird), Toad, Tortoise, Toucan, Triggerfish, Triglidae, Triplaris americana, Tripsacum dactyloides, Trochidae, Tropicbird, Trout, Trumpeter (bird), Tubularia, Tuna, Tunicate, Turbina corymbosa, Turbinidae, Turkey (bird), Turtle, Tusk shell, Typhlops, Uppsala University, Ursinia anthemoides, Veneridae, Vermes in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Veronica austriaca, Volutidae, Volvox, Vulture, Wagtail, Weasel, Weever, William Turton, Woodlouse, Woodpecker, Wrasse, Wryneck, Zinnia peruviana. Expand index (433 more) » « Shrink index
Abalone (or; via Spanish abulón, from Rumsen aulón) is a common name for any of a group of small to very large sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Haliotidae.
The Adelgidae is a small family of the Hemiptera closely related to the aphids, and often included in the Aphidoidea with the Phylloxeridae or placed within the superfamily Phylloxeroidea as a sister of the Aphidoidea within the infraorder Aphidomorpha.
Adiantum aethiopicum, also known as the common maidenhair fern, is a small fern of widespread distribution.
Albatrosses, of the biological family Diomedeidae, are large seabirds related to the procellariids, storm petrels and diving petrels in the order Procellariiformes (the tubenoses).
Alcyonacea, or soft corals, is an order of corals which do not produce calcium carbonate skeletons.
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
Allionia, commonly known as windmills or trailing four o'clock, is a genus of two species widespread in the western hemisphere.
The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.
Alyssum alyssoides is a species of flowering plant in the mustard family known by several common names, including pale madwort and yellow alyssum.
Amaranthus albus is an annual species of flowering plant.
Amaranthus cruentus is a flowering plant species that yields the nutritious staple amaranth grain.
Amaranthus tricolor, known as edible amaranth, is a species in the genus Amaranthus (family Amaranthaceae).
In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus described the Amphibia as: Animals that are distinguished by a body cold and generally naked; stern and expressive countenance; harsh voice; mostly lurid color; filthy odor; a few are furnished with a horrid poison; all have cartilaginous bones, slow circulation, exquisite sight and hearing, large pulmonary vessels, lobate liver, oblong thick stomach, and cystic, hepatic, and pancreatic ducts: they are deficient in diaphragm, do not transpire (sweat), can live a long time without food, are tenatious of life, and have the power of reproducing parts which have been destroyed or lost; some undergo a metamorphosis; some cast (shed) their skin; some appear to live promiscuously on land or in the water, and some are torpid during the winter.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
Amphisbaenia (called amphisbaenians or worm lizards) is a group of usually legless squamates, comprising over 180 extant species.
Amyris elemifera is a species of flowering plant in the citrus family, Rutaceae.
Anacamptis papilionacea is a species of orchid.
Anacamptis sancta is a species of orchid.
The wolffish, also known as sea wolves, are a family, Anarhichadidae, of perciform fish.
Anglerfish are fish of the teleost order Lophiiformes.
SlowwormsThe "slow-" in slowworm is distinct from the English adjective slow ("not fast"); the word comes from Old English slāwyrm, where slā- means "slowworm" and wyrm means "serpent, reptile".
The anis are the three species of near-passerine birds in the genus Crotophaga of the cuckoo family.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Anomiidae is a family of saltwater clams, marine bivalve molluscs related to scallops and oysters, and known as anomiids.
Ants are eusocial insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera.
Anteater is a common name for the four extant mammal species of the suborder Vermilingua (meaning "worm tongue") commonly known for eating ants and termites.
An antelope is a member of a number of even-toed ungulate species indigenous to various regions in Africa and Eurasia.
Apes (Hominoidea) are a branch of Old World tailless anthropoid primates native to Africa and Southeast Asia.
Aphids are small sap-sucking insects and members of the superfamily Aphidoidea.
Aphrodita, or sea mouse, is a genus of marine polychaete worms found in the Mediterranea sea and the eastern and western Atlantic Ocean.
Apocynum androsaemifolium, the fly-trap dogbane or spreading dogbane, is a flowering plant in the Gentianales order.
Arachnids are a class (Arachnida) of joint-legged invertebrate animals (arthropods), in the subphylum Chelicerata.
Arbutus andrachne, commonly called the Greek strawberry tree, is an evergreen shrub or small tree in the family Ericaceae, native to the Mediterranean region, the Middle East, and southwestern Asia.
The argonauts (genus Argonauta, the only extant genus in the family Argonautidae) are a group of pelagic octopuses.
Ark clam is the common name for a family of small to large-sized saltwater clams or marine bivalve molluscs in the family Arcidae.
Armadillos are New World placental mammals in the order Cingulata with a leathery armour shell.
An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.
Ascaris is a genus of parasitic nematode worms known as the "small intestinal roundworms", which is a type of helminth (parasitic worm).
The Asilidae are the robber fly family, also called assassin flies.
The Attelabidae is a widespread family of weevils.
An auk or alcid is a bird of the family Alcidae in the order Charadriiformes.
In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae published in 1758, the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus described 554 species of bird and gave each a binomial name.
The four species of avocets are a genus, Recurvirostra, of waders in the same avian family as the stilts.
A barnacle is a type of arthropod constituting the infraclass Cirripedia in the subphylum Crustacea, and is hence related to crabs and lobsters.
Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera; with their forelimbs adapted as wings, they are the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight.
Batis maritima, the saltwort or beachwort, is a halophyte.
Batoidea is a superorder of cartilaginous fish commonly known as rays.
Bears are carnivoran mammals of the family Ursidae.
The beaver (genus Castor) is a large, primarily nocturnal, semiaquatic rodent.
Bed bugs are parasitic insects in the genus Cimex that feed exclusively on blood.
Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the European honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax.
The bee-eaters are a group of near-passerine birds in the family Meropidae containing three genera and 27 species.
Binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system") also called nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages.
The Biodiversity Heritage Library (BHL) is a consortium of natural history and botanical libraries that cooperate to digitize and make accessible the legacy literature of biodiversity held in their collections and to make that literature available for open access and responsible use as a part of a global “biodiversity commons.” The BHL consortium works with the international taxonomic community, rights holders, and other interested parties to ensure that this biodiversity heritage is made available to a global audience through open access principles.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
The birds-of-paradise are members of the family Paradisaeidae of the order Passeriformes.
Blister beetles are beetles of the family Meloidae, so called for their defensive secretion of a blistering agent, cantharidin.
Boa is a genus of non-venomous boas found in Mexico, Central and South America.
The Bombyliidae are a family of flies.
Botflies, also known as warble flies, heel flies and gadflies, are a family of flies technically known as Oestridae.
The tailed Brassia (Brassia caudata) is a species of orchid.
Bryozoa (also known as the Polyzoa, Ectoprocta or commonly as moss animals) are a phylum of aquatic invertebrate animals.
The Buccinidae are a very large and diverse taxonomic family of large sea snails, often known as whelks or true whelks.
Bucida buceras is a tree in the Combretaceae family.
Bulla is a genus of medium to large hermaphrodite sea snails, shelled marine opisthobranch gastropod molluscs.
Buntings are a group of Eurasian and African passerine birds of the family Emberizidae.
Buprestidae is a family of beetles known as jewel beetles or metallic wood-boring beetles because of their glossy iridescent colors.
Bustards, including floricans and korhaans, are large, terrestrial birds living mainly in dry grassland areas and on the steppes of the Old World.
Butterflies are insects in the macrolepidopteran clade Rhopalocera from the order Lepidoptera, which also includes moths.
The butterflyfish are a group of conspicuous tropical marine fish of the family Chaetodontidae; the bannerfish and coralfish are also included in this group.
The caddisflies, or order Trichoptera, are a group of insects with aquatic larvae and terrestrial adults.
Caecilians (New Latin for "blind ones") are a group of limbless, serpentine amphibians.
Calycanthus (sweetshrub) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Calycanthaceae, endemic to North America.
A camel is an even-toed ungulate in the genus Camelus that bears distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back.
Campanula barbata, common name Bearded Bellflower, is a species of perennial bellflower in the family Campanulaceae.
Carabus is a genus of beetle in family Carabidae.
Cardinals, in the family Cardinalidae, are passerine birds found in North and South America.
Carex capitata is a species of sedge known by the common name capitate sedge.
Carex distans, commonly known as distant sedge, is a plant species in the sedge family, Cyperaceae.
Carl Alexander Clerck (1709 – 22 July 1765) was a Swedish entomologist and arachnologist.
Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
Carlo Allioni (23 September 1728 in Turin – 30 July 1804 in Turin) was an Italian physician and professor of botany at the University of Turin.
Carpobrotus edulis is a ground-creeping plant with succulent leaves in the genus Carpobrotus, native to South Africa.
Casimir Christoph Schmidel (born 21 November 1718 in Bayreuth, Germany, died 18 December 1792 in Ansbach, Germany) was a naturalist of the 18th century who researched in botany and mineralogy.
The Cassidinae (tortoise and leaf-mining beetles) are a subfamily of the leaf beetles, or Chrysomelidae.
The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus or Felis catus) is a small, typically furry, carnivorous mammal.
Catfish (or catfishes; order Siluriformes or Nematognathi) are a diverse group of ray-finned fish.
Catharanthus roseus, commonly known as the Madagascar periwinkle, rose periwinkle, or rosy periwinkle, is a species of flowering plant in the dogbane family Apocynaceae.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
Cecropia peltata is a fast-growing tree in the genus Cecropia.
Cedrela odorata is a commercially important species of tree in the chinaberry family, Meliaceae, commonly known as Spanish cedar or Cuban cedar or cedro in Spanish.
Centipedes (from Latin prefix centi-, "hundred", and pes, pedis, "foot") are arthropods belonging to the class Chilopoda of the subphylum Myriapoda, an arthropod group which also includes Millipedes and other multi-legged creatures.
Certhia is the genus of birds containing the typical treecreepers, which together with the African and Indian spotted creepers make up the family Certhiidae.
Cestoda is a class of parasitic worms in the flatworm (Platyhelminthes) phylum, commonly known as tapeworms.
Cetacea are a widely distributed and diverse clade of aquatic mammals that today consists of the whales, dolphins, and porpoises.
Chamidae, common name the jewel boxes or jewel box clams, is a taxonomic family of saltwater clams, the marine bivalve mollusks in the order Veneroida.
Charonia is a genus of very large sea snail, commonly known as Triton's trumpet or Triton snail.
The chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a type of domesticated fowl, a subspecies of the red junglefowl.
Chimaeras the order Chimaeriformes, known informally as ghost sharks, rat fish (not to be confused with the rattails), spookfish (not to be confused with the true spookfish of the family Opisthoproctidae), or rabbit fish (not to be confused with the family Siganidae).
Chitons are marine molluscs of varying size in the class Polyplacophora, formerly known as Amphineura.
Chromolaena odorata is a tropical and subtropical species of flowering shrub in the sunflower family.
Chrysophyllum oliviforme, commonly known as the satinleaf, is a medium-sized tree native to Florida, the Bahamas, the Greater Antilles, and Belize.
The cicadas are a superfamily, the Cicadoidea, of insects in the order Hemiptera (true bugs).
Cissus verticillata, also known as princess vine, millionaire vine and curtain ivy, is evergreen perennial vine in the Vitaceae (grapevine) family.
A civet is a small, lithe-bodied, mostly nocturnal mammal native to tropical Asia and Africa, especially the tropical forests.
The Cladocera are an order of small crustaceans commonly called water fleas.
Insects in the family Elateridae are commonly called click beetles (or "typical click beetles" to distinguish them from the related families Cerophytidae, Eucnemidae, and Plastoceridae).
Cobitis is a genus of fish in the family Cobitidae.
Cobra is the common name of various elapid snakes, most of which belonging to the genus Naja.
Coccinellidae is a widespread family of small beetles ranging in size from 0.8 to 18 mm (0.03 to 0.71 inches).
Coccoloba pubescens (Grandleaf Seagrape; syn. C. grandifolia, also sometimes called "Eve's Umbrella") is a species of Coccoloba native to coastal regions of the Caribbean, on Antigua, Barbados, Barbuda, Dominica, Hispaniola, Martinique, Montserrat, and Puerto Rico.
Coccoloba uvifera is a species of flowering plant in the buckwheat family, Polygonaceae, that is native to coastal beaches throughout tropical America and the Caribbean, including southern Florida, the Bahamas, the Greater and Lesser Antilles, and Bermuda.
The flowering plant Cochlearia anglica is known by the common names English scurvygrass and long-leaved scurvy grass.
A cockle is a small, edible, marine bivalve mollusc.
Cockroaches are insects of the order Blattodea, which also includes termites. About 30 cockroach species out of 4,600 are associated with human habitats. About four species are well known as pests. The cockroaches are an ancient group, dating back at least as far as the Carboniferous period, some 320 million years ago. Those early ancestors however lacked the internal ovipositors of modern roaches. Cockroaches are somewhat generalized insects without special adaptations like the sucking mouthparts of aphids and other true bugs; they have chewing mouthparts and are likely among the most primitive of living neopteran insects. They are common and hardy insects, and can tolerate a wide range of environments from Arctic cold to tropical heat. Tropical cockroaches are often much bigger than temperate species, and, contrary to popular belief, extinct cockroach relatives and 'roachoids' such as the Carboniferous Archimylacris and the Permian Apthoroblattina were not as large as the biggest modern species. Some species, such as the gregarious German cockroach, have an elaborate social structure involving common shelter, social dependence, information transfer and kin recognition. Cockroaches have appeared in human culture since classical antiquity. They are popularly depicted as dirty pests, though the great majority of species are inoffensive and live in a wide range of habitats around the world.
Cod is the common name for the demersal fish genus Gadus, belonging to the family Gadidae.
Coilostylis ciliaris (Fringed Star Orchid), formerly Epidendrum ciliare, is a species of orchid in the genus Coilostylis.
Coluber is a genus of thin-bodied, fast-moving, colubrid snakes commonly known as racers.
Colugos are arboreal gliding mammals found in Southeast Asia.
Pigeons and doves constitute the animal family Columbidae and the order Columbiformes, which includes about 42 genera and 310 species.
The ostrich or common ostrich (Struthio camelus) is either of two species of large flightless birds native to Africa, the only living member(s) of the genus Struthio, which is in the ratite family.
Condor is the common name for two species of New World vultures, each in a monotypic genus.
The Conopidae, usually known as the thick-headed flies, are a family of flies within the Brachycera suborder of Diptera.
Conus is a genus of predatory sea snails, or cone snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Conidae.Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S. (2015). Conus Linnaeus, 1758. In: MolluscaBase (2015). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p.
Coots are small water birds that are members of the rail family, Rallidae.
Coralline algae are red algae in the order Corallinales.
Cordyline fruticosa is an evergreen flowering plant in the Asparagus family, Asparagaceae, known by a wide variety of common names, including cabbage palm, good luck plant, palm lily, ti plant, Kī, Lā‘ī (Hawaiian), Tī Pore (Māori), Sī (Tongan), Lauti (Samoan), and Autī (Tahitian).
The cornetfishes or flutemouths are a small family, the Fistulariidae, of extremely elongated fishes in the order Syngnathiformes.
Coryphaena is a genus of marine ray-finned fishes known as the dolphinfishes.
The Cottidae are a family of fish in the superfamily Cottoidea, the sculpins.
Crabs are decapod crustaceans of the infraorder Brachyura, which typically have a very short projecting "tail" (abdomen) (translit.
Cranes are a family, Gruidae, of large, long-legged and long-necked birds in the group Gruiformes.
Crane fly is a common name referring to any member of the insect family Tipulidae, of the order Diptera, true flies in the superfamily Tipuloidea.
Crocodilia (or Crocodylia) is an order of mostly large, predatory, semiaquatic archosaurian reptiles, known as crocodilians.
Croton glandulosus has many common names such as vente conmigo, tooth-leaved croton, tropic croton and sand croton.
A Crow is a bird of the genus Corvus, or more broadly is a synonym for all of Corvus.
Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.
The cuckoos are a family of birds, Cuculidae, the sole taxon in the order Cuculiformes.
Cunila origanoides — common names stone mint, frost mint, dittany, and American dittany — is a perennial late-summer-flowering subshrub with small purple flowers, which is native to the Eastern United States.
Cunonia capensis (butterspoon tree, butterknife tree, African red alder, red alder or rooiels) is a small tree, found in the afromontane forests of Southern Africa, and along rivers.
Curassows are one of the three major groups of cracid birds.
The Curculionidae are the family of the "true" weevils (or "snout beetles").
The cusk-eel family, Ophidiidae, is a group of marine bony fishes in the order Ophidiiformes.
The cutlassfishes are about 40 species of predatory fish in the family Trichiuridae (order Perciformes) found in seas throughout the world.
Cuttlefish or cuttles are marine animals of the order Sepiida. They belong to the class Cephalopoda, which also includes squid, octopuses, and nautiluses. Cuttlefish have a unique internal shell, the cuttlebone. Despite their name, cuttlefish are not fish but molluscs. Cuttlefish have large, W-shaped pupils, eight arms, and two tentacles furnished with denticulated suckers, with which they secure their prey. They generally range in size from, with the largest species, Sepia apama, reaching in mantle length and over in mass. Cuttlefish eat small molluscs, crabs, shrimp, fish, octopus, worms, and other cuttlefish. Their predators include dolphins, sharks, fish, seals, seabirds, and other cuttlefish. The average life expectancy of a cuttlefish is about one to two years. Recent studies indicate cuttlefish are among the most intelligent invertebrates. (television program) NOVA, PBS, April 3, 2007. Cuttlefish also have one of the largest brain-to-body size ratios of all invertebrates. The 'cuttle' in 'cuttlefish' comes from the Old English name for the species, cudele, which may be cognate with the Old Norse koddi ('cushion') and the Middle Low German Kudel ('rag'). The Greco-Roman world valued the cuttlefish as a source of the unique brown pigment the creature releases from its siphon when it is alarmed. The word for it in both Greek and Latin, sepia, now refers to the reddish-brown color sepia in English.
Cypraeidae, common name the cowries (singular: cowry), is a taxonomic family of small to large sea snails.
Cyprinus is the genus of typical carps in family Cyprinidae.
Damselflies are insects of the suborder Zygoptera in the order Odonata.
Darkling beetle is the common name of the large family of beetles, Tenebrionidae.
David de Gorter (April 30, 1717 – April 8, 1783) was a Dutch physician and botanist.
Deer (singular and plural) are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae.
Dermestidae are a family of Coleoptera that are commonly referred to as skin beetles.
Desmostachya bipinnata, commonly known in English by the names Halfa grass, big cordgrass, and salt reed-grass, is an Old World perennial grass, long known and used in human history.
Porcupinefishes or balloonfishes, are any of the various species of the genus Diodon, the type genus of Diodontidae.
The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris when considered a subspecies of the gray wolf or Canis familiaris when considered a distinct species) is a member of the genus Canis (canines), which forms part of the wolf-like canids, and is the most widely abundant terrestrial carnivore.
Dolphins are a widely distributed and diverse group of aquatic mammals.
The Donacidae, the bean clams or wedge shells, are a family of bivalve molluscs of the order Veneroida.
Doris is a genus of sea slugs, specifically dorid nudibranchs.
Dorstenia drakena is a species of herb in the plant family Moraceae which is native to Mexico and Central America.
Draco is a genus of agamid lizards that are also known as flying lizards, flying dragons or gliding lizards.
Dragonets are small, perciform, marine fish of the diverse family Callionymidae (from the Greek kallis, "beautiful" and onyma, "name") found mainly in the tropical waters of the western Indo-Pacific.
A dragonfly is an insect belonging to the order Odonata, infraorder Anisoptera (from Greek ἄνισος anisos, "uneven" and πτερόν pteron, "wing", because the hindwing is broader than the forewing).
Duck is the common name for a large number of species in the waterfowl family Anatidae, which also includes swans and geese.
The Dytiscidae – based on the Greek dytikos (δυτικός), "able to dive" – are the predaceous diving beetles, a family of water beetles.
Eagle is the common name for many large birds of prey of the family Accipitridae.
An earthworm is a tube-shaped, segmented worm found in the phylum Annelida.
Earwigs make up the insect order Dermaptera.
Echinochloa colona, commonly known as jungle rice, deccan grass, or Awnless barnyard grass, is a type of wild grass originating from tropical Asia.
An eel is any ray-finned fish belonging to the order Anguilliformes, which consists of four suborders, 20 families, 111 genera and about 800 species.
Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae and the order Proboscidea.
Empididae is a family of flies with over 3,000 described species occurring worldwide in all the Ecozones but the majority are found in the Holarctic.
Equisetum giganteum, with the common name southern giant horsetail, is a species of horsetail native to South America and Central America, from central Chile east to Brazil and north to southern Mexico.
Esox is a genus of freshwater fish, the only living genus in the family Esocidae—the esocids which were endemic to North America and Eurasia during the Paleogene through present.
Excoecaria agallocha, a mangrove species, belongs to the genus Excoecaria of the family Euphorbiaceae.
Falcons are birds of prey in the genus Falco, which includes about 40 species.
The true finches are small to medium-sized passerine birds in the family Fringillidae.
Fire corals (Millepora) are a genus of colonial marine organisms that exhibit physical characteristics similar to that of coral.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
Flamingos or flamingoes are a type of wading bird in the family Phoenicopteridae, the only bird family in the order Phoenicopteriformes.
A flatfish is a member of the order Pleuronectiformes of ray-finned demersal fishes, also called the Heterosomata, sometimes classified as a suborder of Perciformes.
Fleas are small flightless insects that form the order Siphonaptera.
The Exocoetidae are a family of marine fishes in the order Beloniformes class Actinopterygii.
François Boissier de Sauvages de Lacroix (May 12, 1706 – February 19, 1767) was a French physician and botanist who was a native of Alès.
A frog is any member of a diverse and largely carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order Anura (Ancient Greek ἀν-, without + οὐρά, tail).
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Gall wasps, also called gallflies, are a family (Cynipidae) in the wasp superfamily Cynipoidea within the suborder Apocrita of the order Hymenoptera.
Genipa Americana is a species of trees in the family Rubiaceae.
Geranium pusillum, commonly known as small-flowered crane's-bill or (in North America) small geranium, is a herbaceous annual plant of the genus Geranium.
The giant granadilla, barbadine (Trinidad), grenadine (Haiti), giant tumbo or badea, ටං ටිං, Passiflora quadrangularis, produces the largest fruit of any species within the genus Passiflora.
The giraffe (Giraffa) is a genus of African even-toed ungulate mammals, the tallest living terrestrial animals and the largest ruminants.
The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.
Gobies are fishes of the family Gobiidae, one of the largest fish families comprising more than 2,000 species in more than 200 genera.
The godwits are a group of large, long-billed, long-legged and strongly migratory waders of the bird genus Limosa.
Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis), also called orangeroot or yellow puccoon, is a perennial herb in the buttercup family Ranunculaceae, native to southeastern Canada and the eastern United States.
Geese are waterfowl of the family Anatidae.
Gorgonians are sessile colonial cnidarians found throughout the oceans of the world, especially in the tropics and subtropics.
A grebe is a member of the order Podicipediformes and the only type of bird associated with this order.
The anchovy pear (Grias cauliflora)"anchovy pear" in The New Encyclopædia Britannica.
Ground beetles are a large, cosmopolitan family of beetles, Carabidae, with more than 40,000 species worldwide, around 2,000 of which are found in North America and 2,700 in Europe.
Grouse are a group of birds from the order Galliformes, in the family Phasianidae.
Gulls or seagulls are seabirds of the family Laridae in the suborder Lari.
Gymnotus is a genus of Neotropical freshwater fish in the family Gymnotidae found widely in South America, Central America and southern Mexico (36th parallel south to 18th parallel north).
Hagfish, the class '''Myxini''' (also known as Hyperotreti), are eel-shaped, slime-producing marine fish (occasionally called slime eels).
Halesia carolina, commonly called Carolina silverbell or little silverbell, is a species of flowering plant in the family Styracaceae, native to the southeastern United States.
Hares and jackrabbits are leporids belonging to the genus Lepus.
A hedgehog is any of the spiny mammals of the subfamily Erinaceinae, in the eulipotyphlan family Erinaceidae.
Helicidae is a large, diverse family of small to large, air-breathing land snails, sometimes called the "typical snails." A number of species in this family are valued as food items, including Cornu aspersum (formerly Helix aspersa) the brown or garden snail, and Helix pomatia the "escargot".
Heliotropium arborescens, the garden heliotrope, is a species of flowering plant in the borage family Boraginaceae, native to Peru.
The herons are the long-legged freshwater and coastal birds in the family Ardeidae, with 64 recognised species, some of which are referred to as egrets or bitterns rather than herons.
Herring are forage fish, mostly belonging to the family Clupeidae.
The herring smelts or argentines are a family, Argentinidae, of marine smelts.
Hippoboscidae, the louse flies or keds, are obligate parasites of mammals and birds.
The common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), or hippo, is a large, mostly herbivorous, semiaquatic mammal native to sub-Saharan Africa, and one of only two extant species in the family Hippopotamidae, the other being the pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis or Hexaprotodon liberiensis).
Histeridae is a family of beetles commonly known as Clown beetles or Hister beetles.
Holcus mollis, known as creeping soft grass or creeping velvet grass, is a species of grass, native to Europe and western Asia.
Homo (Latin homō "human being") is the genus that encompasses the extant species Homo sapiens (modern humans), plus several extinct species classified as either ancestral to or closely related to modern humans (depending on a species), most notably Homo erectus and Homo neanderthalensis.
Hoopoes are colourful birds found across Afro-Eurasia, notable for their distinctive "crown" of feathers.
The hornbills (Bucerotidae) are a family of bird found in tropical and subtropical Africa, Asia and Melanesia.
Hornets (insects in the genera Vespa and Provespa) are the largest of the eusocial wasps, and are similar in appearance to their close relatives yellowjackets.
The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.
Horse-flies or horseflies (for other names, see common names) are true flies in the family Tabanidae in the insect order Diptera.
The housefly (Musca domestica) is a fly of the suborder Cyclorrhapha.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
Hummingbirds are birds from the Americas that constitute the family Trochilidae.
Hydra is a genus of small, fresh-water organisms of the phylum Cnidaria and class Hydrozoa.
Hyenas or hyaenas (from Greek ὕαινα hýaina) are any feliform carnivoran mammals of the family Hyaenidae.
The ibises (collective plural ibis; classical plurals ibides and ibes) are a group of long-legged wading birds in the family Threskiornithidae, that inhabit wetlands, forests and plains.
The superfamily Ichneumonoidea contains the two largest families within Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae and Braconidae.
Illicium anisatum, with common names Japanese star anise, aniseed tree, and sacred anise tree, known in Japan as, is a tree closely related to the Chinese star anise (Illicium verum).
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus classified the arthropods, including insects, arachnids and crustaceans, among his class "Insecta".
The International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) promotes an understanding of plant biodiversity, facilitates international communication of research between botanists, and oversees matters of uniformity and stability in plant names.
The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a widely accepted convention in zoology that rules the formal scientific naming of organisms treated as animals.
The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is an organization dedicated to "achieving stability and sense in the scientific naming of animals".
Inula spiraeifolia is a European species perennial herbaceous plant belonging to the genus Inula within the daisy family.
Ipomoea hederifolia is a species of herbaceous annual vine native to the Americas.
Jean-François Séguier (25 November 1703 – 1 September 1784) was a French archaeologist, epigraphist, astronomer and botanist from Nîmes.
Jellyfish or sea jelly is the informal common name given to the medusa-phase of certain gelatinous members of the subphylum Medusozoa, a major part of the phylum Cnidaria.
Johann Ernst Hebenstreit (15 January 1703 – 5 December 1757) was a German physician and naturalist born in Neustadt an der Orla.
Johannes Burman (26 April 1707 in Amsterdam – 20 February 1780), was a Dutch botanist and physician.
John Dory, St Pierre or Peter's Fish, refers to fish of the genus Zeus, especially Zeus faber, of widespread distribution.
John Ellis (– 15 October 1776) was a British linen merchant and naturalist.
Juglans cinerea, commonly known as butternut or white walnut, is a species of walnut native to the eastern United States and southeast Canada.
Kenaf, Hibiscus cannabinus, is a plant in the Malvaceae family also called Deccan hemp and Java jute.
Kingfishers or Alcedinidae are a family of small to medium-sized, brightly colored birds in the order Coraciiformes.
Krameria ixine (abrojo colorado) is a perennial shrub of the family Krameriaceae, the Rhatanies.
Lactuca canadensis is a species of wild lettuce known by the common names Canada lettuce, Canada wild lettuce, tall lettuce, and Florida blue lettuce.
Lagerstroemia indica (crape myrtle, crepe myrtle, crepeflower) is a species in the genus Lagerstroemia in the family Lythraceae.
Lamium orvala, known as balm-leaved archangel, is a species of flowering plant in the family Lamiaceae, native to central eastern Europe (Austria, Italy, Hungary, Former Yugoslavia, Ukraine, Moldova).
Lampreys (sometimes also called, inaccurately, lamprey eels) are an ancient lineage of jawless fish of the order Petromyzontiformes, placed in the superclass Cyclostomata.
Lanius, the typical shrikes, are a genus of passerine birds in the shrike family.
Larks are passerine birds of the family Alaudidae.
The insects of the beetle family Chrysomelidae are commonly known as leaf beetles, and include over 37,000 (and probably at least 50,000) species in more than 2,500 genera, making up one of the largest and most commonly encountered of all beetle families.
Lecythis ollaria is a species of tree found growing in forests in Brazil and Venezuela.
Leeches are segmented parasitic or predatory worm-like animals that belong to the phylum Annelida and comprise the subclass Hirudinea.
Lemurs are a clade of strepsirrhine primates endemic to the island of Madagascar.
Lernaea (also incorrectly spelled Lernea) is a genus of copepod crustaceans commonly called anchor worms, parasitic on freshwater fishes.
A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi in a symbiotic relationship.
Liver fluke is a collective name of a polyphyletic group of parasitic trematodes under the phylum Platyhelminthes.
Lizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with over 6,000 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains.
Lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans.
The longhorn beetles (Cerambycidae; also known as long-horned or longhorn beetles or longicorns) are a cosmopolitan family of beetles, typically characterized by extremely long antennae, which are often as long as or longer than the beetle's body.
The loons (North America) or divers (Great Britain/Ireland) are a group of aquatic birds found in many parts of North America and northern Eurasia.
Loricariidae is the largest family of catfish (order Siluriformes), with 92 genera and just over 680 species to date, with new species being described each year.
Louse (plural: lice) is the common name for members of the order Phthiraptera, which contains nearly 5,000 species of wingless insect.
Lumpsuckers or lumpfish are mostly small scorpaeniform marine fish of the family Cyclopteridae.
Snappers are a family of perciform fish, Lutjanidae, mainly marine, but with some members inhabiting estuaries, feeding in fresh water.
Mackerel is a common name applied to a number of different species of pelagic fish, mostly, but not exclusively, from the family Scombridae.
Macroramphosus, snipefishes or bellowfishes, is a genus of fishes found in tropical and subtropical oceans at depths down to.
Magnolia acuminata, commonly called the cucumber tree (often spelled as a single word "cucumbertree"), cucumber magnolia or blue magnolia, is one of the largest magnolias, and one of the cold-hardiest.
Magnolia grandiflora, commonly known as the southern magnolia or bull bay, is a tree of the family Magnoliaceae native to the southeastern United States, from coastal North Carolina to central Florida, and west to East Texas.
Magnolia tripetala, commonly called umbrella magnolia or simply umbrella-tree, is a deciduous tree native to the eastern United States in the Appalachian Mountains, the Ozarks, and the Ouachita Mountains.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae (published 1758–1759), Carl Linnaeus described the Mammalia as one of the six classes of animals, characterized by being: Animals that suckle their young by means of lactiferous teats.
Manatees (family Trichechidae, genus Trichechus) are large, fully aquatic, mostly herbivorous marine mammals sometimes known as sea cows. There are three accepted living species of Trichechidae, representing three of the four living species in the order Sirenia: the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis), the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), and the West African manatee (Trichechus senegalensis).
Mayflies (also known as Canadian soldiers in the United States, and as shadflies or fishflies in Canada and the upper Midwestern U.S.; also up-winged flies in the United Kingdom) are aquatic insects belonging to the order Ephemeroptera.
Mecoptera (from the Greek: mecos.
Mergus is the genus of the typical mergansers, fish-eating ducks in the subfamily Anatinae.
Millipedes are a group of arthropods that are characterised by having two pairs of jointed legs on most body segments; they are known scientifically as the class Diplopoda, the name being derived from this feature.
Mites are small arthropods belonging to the class Arachnida and the subclass Acari (also known as Acarina).
Moles are small mammals adapted to a subterranean lifestyle (i.e., fossorial).
Mongoose is the popular English name for 29 of the 34 species in the 14 genera of the family Herpestidae, which are small feliform carnivorans native to southern Eurasia and mainland Africa.
Monkeys are non-hominoid simians, generally possessing tails and consisting of about 260 known living species.
The Mordellidae are a family of beetles commonly known as tumbling flower beetles for the typical irregular movements they make when escaping predators, or as pintail beetles due to their abdominal tip which aids them in performing these tumbling movements.
The family Mormyridae, sometimes called "elephantfish" (more properly freshwater elephantfish), are freshwater fish in the order Osteoglossiformes native to Africa.
Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies that constitute the family Culicidae.
Moths comprise a group of insects related to butterflies, belonging to the order Lepidoptera.
A mouse (Mus), plural mice, is a small rodent characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, a body-length scaly tail and a high breeding rate.
Mucuna pruriens is a tropical legume native to Africa and tropical Asia and widely naturalized and cultivated.
The mullets or grey mullets are a family (Mugilidae) of ray-finned fish found worldwide in coastal temperate and tropical waters, and some species in fresh water.
Mullus is a subtropical marine genus of perciform fish of the family Mullidae (goatfish) and includes the red mullets, occurring mainly in the southwest Atlantic near the South American coast and in the Eastern Atlantic including the Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Muricidae is a large and varied taxonomic family of small to large predatory sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks, commonly known as murex snails or rock snails.
Musk deer can refer to any one, or all seven, of the species that make up Moschus, the only extant genus of the family Moschidae.
The Mutillidae are a family of more than 3,000 species of wasps whose wingless females resemble large, hairy ants.
Myidae, common name the softshell clams, is a taxonomic family of marine bivalve molluscs in the order Myoida.
The myna (also known as mynah) is a bird of the starling family (Sturnidae).
The Mytilidae are a family of small to large saltwater mussels, marine bivalve mollusks in the order Mytiloida.
The narwhal (Monodon monoceros), or narwhale, is a medium-sized toothed whale that possesses a large "tusk" from a protruding canine tooth.
The nautilus (from the Latin form of the original ναυτίλος, 'sailor') is a pelagic marine mollusc of the cephalopod family Nautilidae, the sole extant family of the superfamily Nautilaceae and of its smaller but near equal suborder, Nautilina.
Necydalinae is a small subfamily of the longhorn beetle family (Cerambycidae), historically treated as a tribe within the subfamily Lepturinae, but recently recognized as a separate subfamily.
Nematomorpha (sometimes called Gordiacea, and commonly known as horsehair worms or Gordian worms) are a phylum of parasitoid animals superficially similar to nematode worms in morphology, hence the name.
Nepidae is a family of exclusively aquatic Heteropteran insects in the order Hemiptera.
Nereis is a genus of polychaete worms in the family Nereididae.
Neritidae, common name the nerites, is a taxonomic family of small- to medium-sized saltwater and freshwater snails which have a gill and a distinctive operculum.
The insect order Neuroptera, or net-winged insects, includes the lacewings, mantidflies, antlions, and their relatives.
Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal or crepuscular birds in the family Caprimulgidae, characterized by long wings, short legs and very short bills.
Notonectidae is a cosmopolitan family of aquatic insects in the order Hemiptera, commonly called backswimmers because they swim upside down.
The nuthatches constitute a genus, Sitta, of small passerine birds belonging to the family Sittidae.
The octopus (or ~) is a soft-bodied, eight-armed mollusc of the order Octopoda.
Oenothera perennis is a species of herbaceous flowering plant native to the eastern United States and Canada.
The Old World silversides are a family, Atherinidae, of fish in the order Atheriniformes.
The Opiliones or (formerly Phalangida) are an order of arachnids colloquially known as harvestmen, harvesters or daddy longlegs.
The opossum is a marsupial of the order Didelphimorphia endemic to the Americas.
The Organ pipe coral (Tubipora musica) is an alcyonarian coral native to the waters of the Indian Ocean and the central and western regions of the Pacific Ocean.
Orioles are colourful Old World passerine birds in the genus Oriolus, the namesake of the corvoidean family Oriolidae.
Orthopteroids are insects which historically would have been included in the order Orthoptera.
Ostraciidae is a family of squared, bony fish belonging to the order Tetraodontiformes, closely related to the pufferfishes and filefishes.
The Ostreidae, the true oysters, include most species of molluscs commonly consumed as oysters.
Owls are birds from the order Strigiformes, which includes about 200 species of mostly solitary and nocturnal birds of prey typified by an upright stance, a large, broad head, binocular vision, binaural hearing, sharp talons, and feathers adapted for silent flight.
The oystercatchers are a group of waders forming the family Haematopodidae, which has a single genus, Haematopus.
Paeonia tenuifolia is a herbaceous species of peony that is called пион тонколистный (pion tonkolistnyy) in Russian, and nazikyarpaq pion in Azeri, both meaning "fine-leaved peony".
Pangolins or scaly anteaters are mammals of the order Pholidota (from the Greek word φολῐ́ς, "horny scale").
Parrots, also known as psittacines, are birds of the roughly 393 species in 92 genera that make up the order Psittaciformes, found in most tropical and subtropical regions.
Paspalum distichum is a species of grass.
Patellidae is a taxonomic family of sea snails or true limpets, marine gastropod molluscs in the clade Patellogastropoda.
Patrick Browne (1720–1790) was an Irish physician and botanist.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
The peafowl include three species of birds in the genera Pavo and Afropavo of the Phasianidae family, the pheasants and their allies.
Pectis ciliaris (donkeyweed) is a species of cinchweed and is an annual plant.
Pectis linifolia (romero macho) is a summer blooming annual plant and genus of Pectis.
Pedalium is a genus of plant in the Pedaliaceae family comprising one species, Pedalium murex.
The seamoths make up a family of fishes, the Pegasidae, within the order Gasterosteiformes.
Pelicans are a genus of large water birds that make up the family Pelecanidae.
Penguins (order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) are a group of aquatic, flightless birds.
Perch is a common name for fish of the genus Perca, freshwater gamefish belonging to the family Percidae.
Petrels are tube-nosed seabirds in the bird order Procellariiformes.
A phalarope is any of three living species of slender-necked shorebirds in the genus Phalaropus of the bird family Scolopacidae.
Pheasants are birds of several genera within the subfamily Phasianinae, of the family Phasianidae in the order Galliformes.
Philip Miller FRS (1691 – 18 December 1771) was an English botanist of Scottish descent.
Pholadidae, known as piddocks or angelwings, are a family of bivalve molluscs similar to a clam.
Phytolacca icosandra, sometimes known as button pokeweed or tropical pokeweed, is a species of flowering plant found in the neotropics and introduced into the warmer areas of the western USA.
A pig is any of the animals in the genus Sus, within the even-toed ungulate family Suidae.
The Pinnidae are a taxonomic family of large saltwater clams sometimes known as pen shells.
Pinnipeds, commonly known as seals, are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals.
Pipefishes or pipe-fishes (Syngnathinae) are a subfamily of small fishes, which, together with the seahorses and seadragons, form the family Syngnathidae.
The pipits are a cosmopolitan genus, Anthus, of small passerine birds with medium to long tails.
In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus described the Pisces as: Always inhabiting the waters; are swift in their motion and voracious in their appetites.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Plovers are a widely distributed group of wading birds belonging to the subfamily Charadriinae.
Poa palustris (fowl bluegrass, fowl meadowgrass, swamp meadowgrass, woodland bluegrass) is a species of grass native to Asia, Europe and Northern America.
Polemonium reptans is a perennial herbaceous plant native to eastern North America.
Polycarpon tetraphyllum, commonly known as four-leaved allseed (also fourleaf allseed or fourleaf manyseed), is a plant of the family Caryophyllaceae (pinks).
Polygonum perfoliatum (syn. Persicaria perfoliata) is a species of flowering plant in the buckwheat family.
Porcupines are rodents with a coat of sharp spines, or quills, that protect against predators.
Porpoises are a group of fully aquatic marine mammals that are sometimes referred to as mereswine, all of which are classified under the family Phocoenidae, parvorder Odontoceti (toothed whales).
Portlandia grandiflora is a species of plant in the Rubiaceae family.
The Atlantic Portuguese man o' war (Physalia physalis), also known as the man-of-war, is a marine hydrozoan of the family Physaliidae found in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans.
Priapulida (priapulid worms, from Gr. πριάπος, priāpos 'Priapus' + Lat. -ul-, diminutive), sometimes referred to as penis worms, is a phylum of unsegmented marine worms.
valid name. Priority is a fundamental principle of modern botanical nomenclature and zoological nomenclature.
Puffins are any of three small species of alcids (auks) in the bird genus Fratercula with a brightly coloured beak during the breeding season.
Pyrrhula is a small genus of passerine birds, commonly called bullfinches, belonging to the finch family (Fringillidae).
Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha (along with the hare and the pika).
The rails, or Rallidae, are a large cosmopolitan family of small- to medium-sized ground-living birds.
Ranunculus parviflorus is a species of buttercup known by the common name smallflower buttercup.
Rattlesnakes are a group of venomous snakes of the genera Crotalus and Sistrurus of the subfamily Crotalinae (the pit vipers).
A raven is one of several larger-bodied species of the genus Corvus.
The remoras, sometimes called suckerfish, are a family (Echeneidae) of ray-finned fish in the order Perciformes.
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
Reseda odorata is a species of flowering plant in the reseda family known by many common names, including garden mignonette and common mignonette.
Rheum palmatum, commonly called Chinese rhubarb, ornamental rhubarb, Turkish rhubarb, Turkey rhubarb, Indian rhubarb, Russian rhubarb or rhubarb root (and within Chinese herbal medicine da-huang).
A rhinoceros, commonly abbreviated to rhino, is one of any five extant species of odd-toed ungulates in the family Rhinocerotidae, as well as any of the numerous extinct species.
The rollers are an Old World family, Coraciidae, of near passerine birds.
Rorquals (Balaenopteridae) are the largest group of baleen whales, a family with nine extant species in two genera.
Rosa pimpinellifolia, the burnet rose, is a species of rose native to western, central and southern Europe (north to Iceland and Norway) and northwest Africa.
The rove beetles are a family (Staphylinidae) of beetles, primarily distinguished by their short elytra (wing covers) that typically leave more than half of their abdomens exposed.
Sagittaria lancifolia, the bulltongue arrowhead, is a perennial, monocot plant in the family Alismataceae, genus Sagittaria, with herbaceous growth patterns.
Salamanders are a group of amphibians typically characterized by a lizard-like appearance, with slender bodies, blunt snouts, short limbs projecting at right angles to the body, and the presence of a tail in both larvae and adults.
Salix retusa is a species of flowering plant in the family Salicaceae.
Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae.
A salp (plural salps), salpa (plural salpae or salpas), is a barrel-shaped, planktonic tunicate.
A sand lance or sandlance is a fish belonging to the family Ammodytidae.
Sandpipers are a large family, Scolopacidae, of waders or shorebirds.
Sawflies are the insects of the suborder Symphyta within the order Hymenoptera alongside ants, bees and wasps.
Saxifraga cuneifolia, the lesser Londonpride, shield-leaved saxifrage or spoon-leaved saxifrage, is a herbaceous perennial plant belonging to the Saxifragaceae family.
Scabiosa prolifera (Carmel daisy) is a flowering plant of the family Caprifoliaceae.
The scale insects are small insects of the order Hemiptera, suborder Sternorrhyncha.
The family Scarabaeidae as currently defined consists of over 30,000 species of beetles worldwide, often called scarabs or scarab beetles.
Scleractinia, also called stony corals or hard corals, are marine animals in the phylum Cnidaria that build themselves a hard skeleton.
Scorpaenidae (also known as the scorpionfish) are a family of mostly marine fish that includes many of the world's most venomous species.
Scorpions are predatory arachnids of the order Scorpiones.
Scyllaeidae is a taxonomic family of sea slugs, nudibranchs, marine gastropod mollusks in the superfamily Tritonioidea.
Sea anemones are a group of marine, predatory animals of the order Actiniaria.
Sea pens are colonial marine cnidarians belonging to the order Pennatulacea.
Sea urchins or urchins are typically spiny, globular animals, echinoderms in the class Echinoidea.
Seahorse (also written sea-horse and sea horse) is the name given to 54 species of small marine fishes in the genus Hippocampus.
The Serpulidae are a family of sessile, tube-building annelid worms in the class Polychaeta.
Sesuvium portulacastrum is a sprawling perennial herb that grows in coastal areas throughout much of the world.
Sharks are a group of elasmobranch fish characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton, five to seven gill slits on the sides of the head, and pectoral fins that are not fused to the head.
Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock.
A shrew (family Soricidae) is a small mole-like mammal classified in the order Eulipotyphla.
Silphidae is a family of beetles that are known commonly as large carrion beetles, carrion beetles or burying beetles.
Silphium perfoliatum, the cup plant or cup-plant, is a species of flowering plant in the family Asteraceae, native to eastern and central North America.
A silverfish (Lepisma saccharina) is a small, wingless insect in the order Zygentoma (formerly Thysanura).
The skimmers, forming the genus Rynchops, are tern-like birds in the family Laridae.
Sloths are arboreal mammals noted for slowness of movement and for spending most of their lives hanging upside down in the trees of the tropical rainforests of South America and Central America.
Slug, or land slug, is a common name for any apparently shell-less terrestrial gastropod mollusc.
Snakeflies are a group of insects comprising the order Raphidioptera, which is divided into two families: Raphidiidae and Inocelliidae consisting of roughly 260 species.
The soldier beetles (Cantharidae) are relatively soft-bodied, straight-sided beetles.
Solenidae, commonly called "razor shells," is a family of marine bivalve molluscs in the unassigned Euheterodonta.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
The Sparidae are a family of fish in the order Perciformes, commonly called sea breams and porgies.
Species Plantarum (Latin for "The Species of Plants") is a book by Carl Linnaeus, originally published in 1753, which lists every species of plant known at the time, classified into genera.
The sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) or cachalot is the largest of the toothed whales and the largest toothed predator.
Wasps of the genus Sphex (commonly known as digger wasps) are cosmopolitan predators that sting and paralyze prey insects.
The Sphingidae are a family of moths (Lepidoptera), commonly known as hawk moths, sphinx moths, and hornworms; it includes about 1,450 species.
Spiders (order Araneae) are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs and chelicerae with fangs that inject venom.
Spondylus is a genus of bivalve molluscs, the only genus in the family Spondylidae.
Spoonbills are a genus, Platalea, of large, long-legged wading birds.
Springtails (Collembola) form the largest of the three lineages of modern hexapods that are no longer considered insects (the other two are the Protura and Diplura).
Squid are cephalopods of the two orders Myopsida and Oegopsida, which were formerly regarded as two suborders of the order Teuthida, however recent research shows Teuthida to be paraphyletic.
Squirrels are members of the family Sciuridae, a family that includes small or medium-size rodents.
Starfish or sea stars are star-shaped echinoderms belonging to the class Asteroidea.
The stargazers are a family, Uranoscopidae, of perciform fish that have eyes on top of their heads (hence the name).
Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds in the family Sturnidae.
The Gasterosteidae are a family of fish including the sticklebacks.
Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked wading birds with long, stout bills.
The family Stromateidae of butterfish contains 15 species of fish in three genera.
Strombidae, commonly known as the true conchs, is a taxonomic family of medium-sized to very large sea snails in the superfamily Stromboidea.
Sturgeon is the common name for the 27 species of fish belonging to the family Acipenseridae.
The book or Aranei Svecici (Swedish and Latin, respectively, for "Swedish spiders") was one of the major works of the Swedish arachnologist and entomologist Carl Alexander Clerck and appeared in Stockholm in the year 1757.
The swallows and martins, or Hirundinidae, are a family of passerine birds found around the world on all continents except Antarctica.
Swans are birds of the family Anatidae within the genus Cygnus.
The swifts are a family, Apodidae, of highly aerial birds.
Swordfish (Xiphias gladius), also known as broadbills in some countries, are large, highly migratory, predatory fish characterized by a long, flat bill.
Talinum fruticosum (common local name ನೆಲಬಸಳೆ - "Nela basale" in Kannada) is a herbaceous perennial plant that is native to Mexico, the Caribbean, West Africa, Central America, and much of South America.
The Tellinidae are a family of marine bivalve molluscs of the order Veneroida.
Teredo navalis, the naval shipworm, is a species of saltwater clam, a marine bivalve mollusc in the family Teredinidae, the shipworms.
Termites are eusocial insects that are classified at the taxonomic rank of infraorder Isoptera, or as epifamily Termitoidae within the cockroach order Blattodea.
Terns are seabirds in the family Laridae that have a worldwide distribution and are normally found near the sea, rivers, or wetlands.
Tethydidae is a family of dendronotid nudibranch gastropod mollusks in the superfamily Tritonioidea.
The Tetraodontidae are a family of primarily marine and estuarine fish of the order Tetraodontiformes.
Threadfins are silvery grey perciform marine fish of the family Polynemidae.
Thrips (order Thysanoptera) are minute (most are 1 mm long or less), slender insects with fringed wings and unique asymmetrical mouthparts.
The thrushes are a family, Turdidae, of passerine birds with a worldwide distribution.
Ticks are small arachnids, part of the order Parasitiformes.
The tits, chickadees, and titmice constitute the Paridae, a large family of small passerine birds which occur mainly in the Northern Hemisphere and Africa.
Toad is a common name for certain frogs, especially of the family Bufonidae, that are characterized by dry, leathery skin, short legs, and large bumps covering the parotoid glands.
Tortoises are a family, Testudinidae. Testudinidae is a Family under the order Testudines and suborder Cryptodira.
Toucans are members of the Neotropical near passerine bird family Ramphastidae.
Triggerfishes are about 40 species of often brightly colored fish of the family Balistidae.
The Triglidae, commonly known as sea robins or gurnard, are a family of bottom-feeding scorpaeniform fish.
Triplaris americana is a species of flowering plant in the knotweed family known by many common names, including ant tree Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk.
Tripsacum dactyloides, commonly called eastern gamagrass, is a warm-season, sod-forming bunch grass.
The Trochidae, common name top-snails or top-shells, are a taxonomic family of very small to large sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the clade Vetigastropoda (according to the taxonomy of the Gastropoda by Bouchet & Rocroi from 2005).
Tropicbirds are a family, Phaethontidae, of tropical pelagic seabirds.
Trout is the common name for a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the genera Oncorhynchus, Salmo and Salvelinus, all of the subfamily Salmoninae of the family Salmonidae.
The trumpeters are a family of birds restricted to the humid forests of the Amazon and Guiana Shield in South America.
Tubularia is a genus of hydroids that appear to be furry pink tufts or balls at the end of long strings, thus causing them to be sometimes be called "pink-mouthed" or "pink-hearted" hydroids.
A tuna is a saltwater fish that belongs to the tribe Thunnini, a sub-grouping of the mackerel family (Scombridae).
A tunicate is a marine invertebrate animal, a member of the subphylum Tunicata, which is part of the Chordata, a phylum which includes all animals with dorsal nerve cords and notochords.
Turbina corymbosa, syn. Rivea corymbosa, is a species of morning glory, native throughout Latin America from Mexico as far south as Peru and widely naturalised elsewhere.
Turbinidae, the turban snails, are a family of small to large marine gastropod molluscs in the superfamily Trochoidea.
The turkey is a large bird in the genus Meleagris, which is native to the Americas.
Turtles are diapsids of the order Testudines (or Chelonii) characterized by a special bony or cartilaginous shell developed from their ribs and acting as a shield.
The tusk shells or tooth shells, often referred to by the more-technical term scaphopods (Greek, "boat-footed"), are members of a class of shelled marine mollusc with worldwide distribution, and are the only class of exclusively infaunal marine molluscs.
Typhlops is a genus of blind snakes found in Europe, Africa, Asia and Central and South America.
Uppsala University (Uppsala universitet) is a research university in Uppsala, Sweden, and is the oldest university in Sweden and all of the Nordic countries still in operation, founded in 1477.
Ursinia anthemoides or solar fire is an annual, herbaceous flowering plant of the genus Ursinia,, Annie's Annuals and Perennials, 2012, access date 23-03-2012 native to South Africa.
The Veneridae or venerids, common name the venus clams, are a very large family of minute to large, saltwater clams, marine bivalve molluscs.
In 1758, in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, the Swedish scientist and taxonomist Carl Linnaeus described the class "Vermes" as: Animals of slow motion, soft substance, able to increase their bulk and restore parts which have been destroyed, extremely tenatious of life, and the inhabitants of moist places.
Veronica austriaca (syn. V. teucrium) (broadleaf speedwell, large speedwell, Austrian speedwell, or saw-leaved speedwell) is a species of flowering plant in the family Plantaginaceae, native to northern temperate Europe.
Volutidae, common name volutes, are a taxonomic family of predatory sea snails that range in size from 9 mm to over 500 mm, marine gastropod mollusks.
Volvox is a polyphyletic genus of chlorophyte green algae in the family Volvocaceae.
A vulture is a scavenging bird of prey.
The wagtails are a genus, Motacilla, of passerine birds in the family Motacillidae.
A weasel is a mammal of the genus Mustela of the family Mustelidae.
Weevers (or weeverfish) are 9 extant species of fishes of family Trachinidae, order Trachiniformes, part of the Percomorpha clade.
William Turton (21 May 1762 – 28 December 1835) was an English naturalist.
A woodlouse (plural woodlice) is a terrestrial isopod crustacean with a rigid, segmented, long exoskeleton and fourteen jointed limbs.
Woodpeckers are part of the family Picidae, a group of near-passerine birds that also consist of piculets, wrynecks, and sapsuckers.
The wrasses are a family, Labridae, of marine fish, many of which are brightly colored.
The wrynecks (genus Jynx) are a small but distinctive group of small Old World woodpeckers.
Zinnia peruviana, the Peruvian zinnia, is an annual flowering plant in the family Asteraceae.
10th edition of System Naturae, 10th edition of Systema Nature, 10th edition of Systema Naturæ, 10th edition of Systema naturae, Linnaeus (1758), List of Species in the Systema Naturae 10th Edition, Tenth edition of Systema Naturae, Tenth edition of Systema Naturæ.