314 relations: Adolf Frederick, King of Sweden, Adolf Hitler, Aeneid, Alexander Roslin, Anders Celsius, Anders Sparrman, Andrew Dickson White, Animalia Paradoxa, Anthropomorpha, Antoine de Jussieu, Archiater, Aristotle, Artemisia annua, Artemisinin, August Strindberg, Augustin Pyramus de Candolle, Author citation (botany), Älmhult Municipality, Öland, Banknote, Baruch Spinoza, Beekeeping, Bibliotheca Botanica, Binomial nomenclature, Biodiversity, Biodiversity Heritage Library, Biology, Botanical nomenclature, Botany, Cabinet of curiosities, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Cameralism, Canals of Amsterdam, Carl Gustaf Tessin, Carl Gyllenborg, Carl Linnaeus the Younger, Carl Peter Thunberg, Carl Zimmer, Catherine the Great, Côn Sơn Island, Celsius, Centuria Insectorum, Charles Darwin, Chelsea Physic Garden, Christoph Theodor Aeby, Classes Plantarum, Classical antiquity, Clergy house, Coat of arms, ..., Collins English Dictionary, Continent, Creation–evolution controversy, Critica Botanica, Cryptogam, Curate, Dalarna, Daniel Solander, Debunker, Dejima, DNA sequencing, Dormouse, Dragon, Duchy of Carniola, Dutch East India Company, Dutch Republic, Edward Lee Greene, Elisabeth Christina von Linné, Ennoblement, Enslow Publishing, Erasmus Darwin, Ernst Haeckel, Estate (land), Eureka effect, Falun, Family (biology), Flora, Flora Lapponica, Florin, Four temperaments, Frances Lincoln, French language, Fundamenta Botanica, Gaspard Bauhin, Gävle, Göttingen, Genera Plantarum, Genus, Georg Eberhard Rumphius, George Clifford III, Georges Cuvier, Ginkgo biloba, Giovanni Antonio Scopoli, Gotland, Grammar school, Great chain of being, Greek language, Greenwood Publishing Group, Gripsholm Castle, Gulf of Bothnia, Gunnar Broberg, Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden, Gymnasium (school), Gynoecium, Hamburg, Hans Sloane, Harderwijk, Harry Veitch, Hartekamp, Harvard University Press, Hebrew language, Heemstede, Herman Boerhaave, Hierarchy, History of botany, History of phycology, HMS Endeavour, HMS Resolution (1771), Homo, Hortus Cliffortianus, Human, Human skin color, Hyoscine, Idrija, Image of God, Index card, International Association for Plant Taxonomy, International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, International Plant Names Index, Jacob Theodor Klein, Jacobus Bontius, James Cook, James Edward Smith, Jan Frederik Gronovius, Japan, Jay Hosler, Jean-Emmanuel Gilibert, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Jesus, Johan Andreas Murray, Johan Gottschalk Wallerius, Johann Bartsch, Johann Bauhin, Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, Johann Georg Gmelin, Johann Jacob Dillenius, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Burman, Johannes Palmberg, John Ray, Johns Hopkins University Press, Jonas Alströmer, Joseph Banks, Joseph Pitton de Tournefort, Julian calendar, Katedralskolan, Växjö, Kilian Stobæus, Kingdom (biology), Lapland (Sweden), Lar gibbon, Lars Roberg, Latin, Legendary creature, Lernaean Hydra, Library of Congress, Lichen, Linda Hall Library, Linnaea, Linnaea borealis, Linnaean Garden, Linnaean taxonomy, Linnaeite, Linnaeus University, Linnaeus' flower clock, Linnaeus' Hammarby, Linné (crater), Linnean Medal, Linnean Society of London, List of cryptids, List of students of Linnaeus, Louisa Ulrika of Prussia, Luleå, Lund University, Lutheranism, Malaria, Mammal Species of the World, Manticore, Mathematics, Mercer University Press, Methuen Publishing, Mind, Minister (Christianity), Morality, Morphology (biology), Moss, Nagasaki, Napoleon, National Geographic, Natur & Kultur, Natural history, Natural History (Pliny), Natural History Museum, London, Nature (journal), Nepenthe, Nepenthes, Netherlands, Nils Rosén von Rosenstein, Nobiliary particle, Nobility, Nomenclature, Olm, Olof Celsius, Olof Rudbeck the Younger, On the Origin of Species, Order (biology), Order of the Polar Star, Ornithology, Oxford University Press, OxfordDictionaries.com, PageRank, Patronymic, PDF, Pehr Kalm, Pehr Löfling, Peter Artedi, Peter Ascanius, Peter Forsskål, Philip Miller, Philosophia Botanica, Phoenix (mythology), Phylogenetics, Phylum, Physalis angulata, Physician, Physiology, Pitcher plant, Plant reproductive morphology, Plasmodium, PLOS One, Praeses, Primate, Princeton University Press, Prussian Academy of Sciences, Quadrumana, Race (biology), Råshult, Røros, Rector (ecclesiastical), Reindeer, Riksdag, Rowman & Littlefield, Royal Society of Sciences in Uppsala, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sami people, Satyrus (ape), Sébastien Vaillant, Scania, Sciatica, Scientific Revolution, Scopolia, Simia, Slovenia, Småland, Sorbus × intermedia, Soul, Species Plantarum, Stamen, Stockholm, Sweden, Swedes, Swedish calendar, Swedish East India Company, Swedish Institute, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Systema Naturae, Systematic Biology, Talk.origins, Tattoo, Taxidermy, Taxonomic rank, Taxonomy (biology), The Beast (Revelation), The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, The Garden (journal), The Gardeners Dictionary, Theodor Ludwig Wilhelm von Bischoff, Theology, Theomorphism, Tilia, Tornio, Traditional Chinese medicine, Typographic ligature, Umeå, University and State Library Düsseldorf, University of California Museum of Paleontology, University of California Press, University of Harderwijk, Uppsala, Uppsala Cathedral, Uppsala University, Västergötland, Växjö, Visby, Von, Walnut, Wastebasket taxon, Wet nurse, Willem Piso, William Shakespeare, William T. Stearn, World view, Yeoman, Zoology, 10th edition of Systema Naturae. Expand index (264 more) » « Shrink index
Adolf Frederick or Adolph Frederick (Adolf Fredrik, Adolf Friedrich; 14 May 171012 February 1771) was King of Sweden from 1751 until his death.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
The Aeneid (Aeneis) is a Latin epic poem, written by Virgil between 29 and 19 BC, that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who travelled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans.
Alexander Roslin (often spelled Alexandre in French; 15 July 1718 – 5 July 1793) was a Swedish portrait painter who worked in Scania, Bayreuth, Paris, Italy, Warsaw and St. Petersburg, primarily for members of aristocratic families.
Anders Celsius (27 November 170125 April 1744) was a Swedish astronomer, physicist and mathematician.
Anders Sparrman (27 February 1748, Tensta, Uppland – 9 August 1820) was a Swedish naturalist, abolitionist and an apostle of Carl Linnaeus.
Andrew Dickson White (November 7, 1832 – November 4, 1918) was an American historian and educator, who was the cofounder of Cornell University and served as its first president for nearly two decades.
Animalia Paradoxa (Latin for "contradictory animals"; cf. paradox) are the mythical, magical or otherwise suspect animals mentioned in editions 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 of Carl Linnaeus's seminal work under the header "Paradoxa".
Anthropomorpha is a defunct taxon, replaced by Primates.
Antoine de Jussieu (6 July 168622 April 1758) was a French naturalist.
An archiater was a chief physician of a monarch, who typically retained several.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Artemisia annua, also known as sweet wormwood, sweet annie, sweet sagewort, annual mugwort or annual wormwood, is a common type of wormwood native to temperate Asia, but naturalized in many countries including scattered parts of North America.
Artemisinin and its semi-synthetic derivatives are a group of drugs used against Plasmodium falciparum malaria.
Johan August Strindberg (22 January 184914 May 1912) was a Swedish playwright, novelist, poet, essayist and painter.
Augustin Pyramus de Candolle also spelled Augustin Pyrame de Candolle (4 February 17789 September 1841) was a Swiss botanist.
In botanical nomenclature, author citation refers to citing the person or group of people who validly published a botanical name, i.e. who first published the name while fulfilling the formal requirements as specified by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN).
Älmhult Municipality (Älmhults kommun) is a municipality in central Kronoberg County in southern Sweden, where the town of Älmhult is seat.
Öland (known in Latin as Oelandia, and sometimes written Øland in other Scandinavian languages, and Oland internationally) is the second largest Swedish island and the smallest of the traditional provinces of Sweden.
A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable promissory note, made by a bank, payable to the bearer on demand.
Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa,; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin.
Beekeeping (or apiculture) is the maintenance of bee colonies, commonly in man-made hives, by humans.
Bibliotheca Botanica ("Bibliography of botany", Amsterdam, 1736, Salomen Schouten; 2nd edn., 1751) is a botany book by Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778).
Binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system") also called nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
The Biodiversity Heritage Library (BHL) is a consortium of natural history and botanical libraries that cooperate to digitize and make accessible the legacy literature of biodiversity held in their collections and to make that literature available for open access and responsible use as a part of a global “biodiversity commons.” The BHL consortium works with the international taxonomic community, rights holders, and other interested parties to ensure that this biodiversity heritage is made available to a global audience through open access principles.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Botanical nomenclature is the formal, scientific naming of plants.
Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology.
Cabinets of curiosities (also known in German loanwords as Kunstkabinett, Kunstkammer or Wunderkammer; also Cabinets of Wonder, and wonder-rooms) were encyclopedic collections of objects whose categorical boundaries were, in Renaissance Europe, yet to be defined.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Boston metropolitan area.
Cameralism (German: Kameralismus) was a German science and technology of administration in the 18th and early 19th centuries.
Amsterdam, capital of the Netherlands, has more than one hundred kilometers of grachten (canals), about 90 islands and 1,500 bridges.
Carl Gustaf Tessin (5 September 1695 – 7 January 1770) was a Swedish Count and politician and son of architect Nicodemus Tessin the Younger and Hedvig Eleonora Stenbock.
Count Carl Gyllenborg (7 March 1679 in Stockholm – 9 December 1746 in Uppsala) was a Swedish statesman and author.
Carl Linnaeus the Younger, Carl von Linné or Carolus Linnaeus the Younger (20 January 1741 – 1 November 1783) was a Swedish naturalist.
Carl Peter Thunberg, also known as Karl Peter von Thunberg, Carl Pehr Thunberg, or Carl Per Thunberg (11 November 1743 – 8 August 1828), was a Swedish naturalist and an apostle of Carl Linnaeus.
Carl Zimmer (born 1966) is a popular science writer and blogger who has specialized in the topics of evolution and parasites.
Catherine II (Russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Yekaterina Alekseyevna; –), also known as Catherine the Great (Екатери́на Вели́кая, Yekaterina Velikaya), born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader.
Côn Sơn, also known as Côn Lôn, is the largest island of the Côn Đảo archipelago, off the coast of southern Vietnam.
The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).
Centuria Insectorum (Latin, "one hundred insects") is a 1763 taxonomic work by Carl Linnaeus, and defended as a thesis by Boas Johansson; which of the two men should be credited with its authorship has been the subject of some controversy.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
The Chelsea Physic Garden was established as the Apothecaries' Garden in London, England, in 1673.
Christoph Theodor Aeby (25 February 1835 – 7 July 1885) was a Swiss anatomist and anthropologist, born in Phalsbourg, Lorraine, France.
Classes Plantarum (‘Classes of plants’, Leiden, Oct. 1738) was written by Carl Linnaeus, a Swedish botanist, physician, zoologist and naturalist.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
A clergy house or rectory is the residence, or former residence, of one or more priests or ministers of religion.
A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard.
The Collins English Dictionary is a printed and online dictionary of English.
A continent is one of several very large landmasses of the world.
The creation–evolution controversy (also termed the creation vs. evolution debate or the origins debate) involves an ongoing, recurring cultural, political, and theological dispute about the origins of the Earth, of humanity, and of other life.
Critica Botanica ("Critique of botany", Leiden, July, 1737) was written by Swedish botanist, physician, zoologist and naturalist Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778).
A cryptogam (scientific name Cryptogamae) is a plant (in the wide sense of the word) that reproduces by spores, without flowers or seeds.
A curate is a person who is invested with the ''care'' or ''cure'' (''cura'') ''of souls'' of a parish.
Dalarna (English exonym: Dalecarlia), is a historical province or landskap in central Sweden.
Daniel Carlsson Solander or Daniel Charles Solander (19 February 1733 – 13 May 1782) was a Swedish naturalist and an Apostle of Carl Linnaeus.
A debunker is a person or organization who attempts to expose or discredit claims believed to be false, exaggerated, or pretentious.
, in old Western documents Latinised as Deshima, Decima, Desjima, Dezima, Disma, or Disima, was a Dutch trading post notable for being the single place of direct trade and exchange between Japan and the outside world during the Edo period. It was a small fan-shaped artificial island formed by digging a canal through a small peninsula in the bay of Nagasaki in 1634 by local merchants. Dejima was built to constrain foreign traders. Originally built to house Portuguese traders, it was used by the Dutch as a trading post from 1641 until 1853. Covering an area of or, it was later integrated into the city through the process of land reclamation. In 1922, the "Dejima Dutch Trading Post" was designated a Japanese national historic site.
DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule.
A dormouse is a rodent of the family Gliridae (this family is also variously called Myoxidae or Muscardinidae by different taxonomists).
A dragon is a large, serpent-like legendary creature that appears in the folklore of many cultures around the world.
The Duchy of Carniola (Vojvodina Kranjska, Herzogtum Krain, Krajna) was a State of the Holy Roman Empire, established under Habsburg rule on the territory of the former East Frankish March of Carniola in 1364.
The United East India Company, sometimes known as the United East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; or Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie in modern spelling; abbreviated to VOC), better known to the English-speaking world as the Dutch East India Company or sometimes as the Dutch East Indies Company, was a multinational corporation that was founded in 1602 from a government-backed consolidation of several rival Dutch trading companies.
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
Edward Lee Greene, Ph.D., (August 10, 1843 – November 10, 1915) was an American botanist known for his numerous publications including the two-part and the naming or redescribing of over 4,400 species of plants in the American West.
Elisabeth Christina von Linné (1743–1782), was a Swedish botanist, daughter of Carl von Linné and Sara Elisabeth Moræa.
Ennoblement is the conferring of nobility—the induction of an individual into the noble class.
Enslow Publishing is an American publisher of books and eBooks founded by Ridley M. Enslow, Jr.
Erasmus Darwin (12 December 173118 April 1802) was an English physician.
Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919) was a German biologist, naturalist, philosopher, physician, professor, marine biologist, and artist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms, and coined many terms in biology, including anthropogeny, ecology, phylum, phylogeny, and Protista. Haeckel promoted and popularised Charles Darwin's work in Germany and developed the influential but no longer widely held recapitulation theory ("ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny") claiming that an individual organism's biological development, or ontogeny, parallels and summarises its species' evolutionary development, or phylogeny.
Historically, an estate comprises the houses, outbuildings, supporting farmland, and woods that surround the gardens and grounds of a very large property, such as a country house or mansion.
The eureka effect (also known as the Aha! moment or eureka moment) refers to the common human experience of suddenly understanding a previously incomprehensible problem or concept.
Falun is a city and the seat of Falun Municipality in Dalarna County, Sweden, with 37,291 inhabitants in 2010.
In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.
Flora is the plant life occurring in a particular region or time, generally the naturally occurring or indigenous—native plant life.
Flora Lapponica (Amsterdam, 1737) is an account of the plants of Lapland written by botanist, zoologist and naturalist Carl Linnaeus (1707-1788) following his expedition to Lapland.
The Florentine florin was a coin struck from 1252 to 1533 with no significant change in its design or metal content standard during that time.
The Four temperament theory is a proto-psychological theory that suggests that there are four fundamental personality types: sanguine, choleric, melancholic, and phlegmatic.
Frances Elisabeth Rosemary Lincoln (20 March 1945 – 26 February 2001) was an English independent publisher of illustrated books.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Fundamenta Botanica (“Foundations of botany”) (Amsterdam, Salomon Schouten, ed. 1, 1736) was one of the major works of the Swedish botanist, zoologist and physician Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) and issued both as a separate work and part of the Bibliotheca Botanica.
Gaspard Bauhin or Caspar Bauhin (Latinised Casparus Bauhinus; 17 January 1560 – 5 December 1624), was a Swiss botanist whose Phytopinax (1596) described thousands of plants and classified them in a manner that draws comparisons to the later binomial nomenclature of Linnaeus.
Gävle is a city in Sweden, the seat of Gävle Municipality and the capital of Gävleborg County.
Göttingen (Low German: Chöttingen) is a university city in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Genera Plantarum is a publication of Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778).
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
Georg Eberhard Rumphius (originally: Rumpf; baptized c. November 1, 1627 – June 15, 1702) was a German-born botanist employed by the Dutch East India Company in what is now eastern Indonesia, and is best known for his work Herbarium Amboinense produced in the face of severe personal tragedies, including the death of his wife and a daughter in an earthquake, going blind from glaucoma, loss of his library and manuscripts in major fire, and losing early copies of his book when the ship carrying it was sunk.
George Clifford III (7 January 1685, Amsterdam – 10 April 1760, Heemstede) was a wealthy Dutch banker and one of the directors of the Dutch East India Company.
Jean Léopold Nicolas Frédéric, Baron Cuvier (23 August 1769 – 13 May 1832), known as Georges Cuvier, was a French naturalist and zoologist, sometimes referred to as the "founding father of paleontology".
Ginkgo biloba, commonly known as ginkgo or gingko (both pronounced), also known as the maidenhair tree, is the only living species in the division Ginkgophyta, all others being extinct.
Giovanni Antonio Scopoli (sometimes Latinized as Johannes Antonius Scopolius) (3 June 1723 – 8 May 1788) was an Italian physician and naturalist.
Gotland (older spellings include Gottland or Gothland), Gutland in the local dialect, is a province, county, municipality, and diocese of Sweden.
A grammar school is one of several different types of school in the history of education in the United Kingdom and other English-speaking countries, originally a school teaching Latin, but more recently an academically-oriented secondary school, differentiated in recent years from less academic Secondary Modern Schools.
The Great Chain of Being is a strict hierarchical structure of all matter and life, thought in medieval Christianity to have been decreed by God.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.
Gripsholm Castle (Gripsholms slott) is a castle in Mariefred, Södermanland, Sweden.
The Gulf of Bothnia (Pohjanlahti; Bottenhavet) is the northernmost arm of the Baltic Sea.
Gunnar Broberg (born 1942) is since 1990 Professor in History of Science and Ideas at Lund University, Sweden.
Gustav IV Adolf or Gustav IV Adolph (1 November 1778 – 7 February 1837) was King of Sweden from 1792 until his abdication in 1809.
A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, and providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and US preparatory high schools.
Gynoecium (from Ancient Greek γυνή, gyne, meaning woman, and οἶκος, oikos, meaning house) is most commonly used as a collective term for the parts of a flower that produce ovules and ultimately develop into the fruit and seeds.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
Sir Hans Sloane, 1st Baronet, (16 April 1660 – 11 January 1753) was an Irish physician, naturalist and collector noted for bequeathing his collection to the British nation, thus providing the foundation of the British Museum.
Harderwijk (Dutch Low Saxon: Harderwiek) is a municipality and city almost at the exact geographical centre of the Netherlands.
Sir Harry James Veitch (24 June 1840 – 6 July 1924) was an eminent English horticulturist in the nineteenth century, who was the head of the family nursery business, James Veitch & Sons, based in Chelsea, London.
Hartekamp, or Hartecamp, is the name of a villa in Heemstede, North Holland, Netherlands, on the Bennebroek border.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Heemstede is a municipality and a town in the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland.
Herman Boerhaave (31 December 1668 – 23 September 1738)Underwood, E. Ashworth.
A hierarchy (from the Greek hierarchia, "rule of a high priest", from hierarkhes, "leader of sacred rites") is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, and either vertically or diagonally.
The history of botany examines the human effort to understand life on Earth by tracing the historical development of the discipline of botany—that part of natural science dealing with organisms traditionally treated as plants.
The history of phycology is the history of the scientific study of algae.
HMS Endeavour, also known as HM Bark Endeavour, was a British Royal Navy research vessel that Lieutenant James Cook commanded to Australia and New Zealand on his first voyage of discovery from 1768 to 1771.
HMS Resolution was a sloop of the Royal Navy, a converted merchant collier purchased by the Navy and adapted, in which Captain James Cook made his second and third voyages of exploration in the Pacific.
Homo (Latin homō "human being") is the genus that encompasses the extant species Homo sapiens (modern humans), plus several extinct species classified as either ancestral to or closely related to modern humans (depending on a species), most notably Homo erectus and Homo neanderthalensis.
The Hortus Cliffortianus is a work of early botanical literature published in 1737.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
Human skin color ranges in variety from the darkest brown to the lightest hues.
Hyoscine, also known as scopolamine, is a medication used to treat motion sickness and postoperative nausea and vomiting.
Idrija (Italian and German: IdriaLeksikon občin kraljestev in dežel zastopanih v državnem zboru, vol. 6: Kranjsko. 1906. Vienna: C. Kr. Dvorna in Državna Tiskarna, p. 124.) is a town in western Slovenia.
The Image of God is a concept and theological doctrine in Judaism, Christianity, and Sufism of Islam, which asserts that human beings are created in the image and likeness of God.
An index card (or system card in Australian English) consists of card stock (heavy paper) cut to a standard size, used for recording and storing small amounts of discrete data.
The International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) promotes an understanding of plant biodiversity, facilitates international communication of research between botanists, and oversees matters of uniformity and stability in plant names.
The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a widely accepted convention in zoology that rules the formal scientific naming of organisms treated as animals.
The International Plant Names Index (IPNI) describes itself as "a database of the names and associated basic bibliographical details of seed plants, ferns and lycophytes." Coverage of plant names is best at the rank of species and genus.
Jacob Theodor Klein (nickname Plinius Gedanensium; 15 August 1685 – 27 February 1759) was a German jurist, historian, botanist, zoologist, mathematician and diplomat in service of Polish King August II the Strong.
Jacobus Bontius (Jacob de Bondt) (1592, in Leiden – 30 November 1631, in Batavia, Dutch East Indies) was a Dutch physician and a pioneer of tropical medicine.
Captain James Cook (7 November 1728Old style date: 27 October14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy.
Sir James Edward Smith (2 December 1759 – 17 March 1828) was an English botanist and founder of the Linnean Society.
Jan Frederik Gronovius (also seen as Johann Frederik and Johannes Fredericus) (10 February 1690 in Leiden – 10 July 1762 in Leiden) was a Dutch botanist notable as a patron of Linnaeus.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Jay Hosler is the author and illustrator of science-oriented comics.
Jean-Emmanuel Gilibert (21 June 1741, Lyon - 2 September 1814, Lyon) was a French politician, botanist, freemason, medical doctor and member of the Académie de Lyon.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Johan Andreas (Anders) Murray (27 January 1740 – 22 May 1791) was a Swedish physician of German descent and botanist who published a major work on plant-derived medicines.
Johan Gottschalk Wallerius (11 July 1709 – 16 November 1785) was a Swedish chemist and mineralogist.
Johann Bartsch (1709, Königsberg – 1738, Suriname) was a German physician, who graduated in the Netherlands at Leiden University in 1737.
Johann (or Jean) Bauhin (12 December 1541 – 26 October 1613) was a Swiss botanist, born in Basel.
Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (11 May 1752 – 22 January 1840) was a German physician, naturalist, physiologist, and anthropologist.
Johann Georg Gmelin (8 August 1709 – 20 May 1755) was a German naturalist, botanist and geographer.
Johann Jacob Dillen Dillenius (1684–2 April 1747) was a German botanist.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.
Johannes Burman (26 April 1707 in Amsterdam – 20 February 1780), was a Dutch botanist and physician.
Johannes Palmberg (c.1640–1691) was a Swedish botanist, physician, and priest who in 1684 published the early Swedish textbook in botany, ’’Serta Florea Svecana’’ or ’’Swenske Örtekrantz’’, a flora with alphabetically arranged pictures of the 150 most common trees and herbs together with descriptions of their use for medical purposes.
John Ray FRS (29 November 1627 – 17 January 1705) was an English naturalist widely regarded as one of the earliest of the English parson-naturalists.
The Johns Hopkins University Press (also referred to as JHU Press or JHUP) is the publishing division of Johns Hopkins University.
Jonas Alströmer (7 January 1685 – 2 June 1761) was a pioneer of agriculture and industry in Sweden.
Sir Joseph Banks, 1st Baronet, (19 June 1820) was an English naturalist, botanist and patron of the natural sciences.
Joseph Pitton de Tournefort (5 June 1656 – 28 December 1708) was a French botanist, notable as the first to make a clear definition of the concept of genus for plants.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
Katedralskolan (Sw: "the cathedral school") is a high school in Växjö, Sweden.
Kilian Stobæus (1690 - 1742) was a Swedish physician, natural scientist, and historian.
In biology, kingdom (Latin: regnum, plural regna) is the second highest taxonomic rank, just below domain.
Lappland, often Anglicized as Lapland (Latin: Lapponia, Northern Sami: Sápmi), is a province in northernmost Sweden.
The lar gibbon (Hylobates lar), also known as the white-handed gibbon, is an endangered primate in the gibbon family, Hylobatidae.
Lars Roberg (4 January 1664 in Stockholm – 21 May 1742 in Uppsala) was a Swedish physician.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
A legendary, mythical, or mythological creature, traditionally called a fabulous beast or fabulous creature, is a fictitious, imaginary and often supernatural animal, often a hybrid, sometimes part human, whose existence has not or cannot be proved and that is described in folklore or fiction but also in historical accounts before history became a science.
The Lernaean Hydra or Hydra of Lerna (Λερναῖα Ὕδρα, Lernaîa Hýdra), more often known simply as the Hydra, was a serpentine water monster in Greek and Roman mythology.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi in a symbiotic relationship.
The Linda Hall Library is a privately endowed American library of science, engineering and technology located in Kansas City, Missouri, sitting "majestically on a urban arboretum." It is the "largest independently funded public library of science, engineering and technology in North America" and "among the largest science libraries in the world.".
Linnaea is a plant genus in the family Caprifoliaceae (the honeysuckle family).
Linnaea borealis is a species of flowering plant in the family Caprifoliaceae (the honeysuckle family).
The Linnaean Garden or Linnaeus' Garden (Linnéträdgården) is the oldest of the botanical gardens belonging to Uppsala University in Sweden.
Linnaean taxonomy can mean either of two related concepts.
Linnaeite is a cobalt sulfide mineral with the composition Co+2Co+32S4.
Linnaeus University (LNU) (Linnéuniversitetet) is a state university in the Småland region of Sweden.
Linnaeus' flower clock was a garden plan hypothesized by Carl Linnaeus that would take advantage of several plants that open or close their flowers at particular times of the day to accurately indicate the time.
Linnaeus' Hammarby (Linnés Hammarby) is a historic house museum, and one of three botanical gardens belonging to Uppsala University, located in Sweden.
Linné is a small lunar impact crater located in the western Mare Serenitatis.
The Linnean Medal of the Linnean Society of London was established in 1888, and is awarded annually to alternately a botanist or a zoologist or (as has been common since 1958) to one of each in the same year.
The Linnean Society of London is a society dedicated to the study of, and the dissemination of information concerning, natural history, evolution and taxonomy.
This is a list of cryptids (from the Greek κρύπτω, krypto, meaning "hide" or "hidden") notable within cryptozoology, a pseudoscience that presumes the existence of animals and plants that have been derived from anecdotal or other evidence considered insufficient by mainstream science.
This list encompasses students of the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778), professor of Medicine at Uppsala University from 1741 until 1777, who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of taxonomy and also had a deep indirect influence through his many students.
Louisa Ulrika of Prussia (Lovisa Ulrika; Luise Ulrike) (24 July 1720 – 16 July 1782) was Queen of Sweden between 1751 and 1771 by her marriage to King Adolf Frederick, and queen mother during the reign of King Gustav III.
Luleå (Westrobothnian: Lul, Leul, or Leol; Luleju) is a city on the coast of northern Sweden, and the capital of Norrbotten County, the northernmost county in Sweden.
Lund University (Lunds universitet) is a public university, consistently ranking among the world's top 100 universities.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference is a standard reference work in mammology giving descriptions and bibliographic data for the known species of mammals.
The manticore (Early Middle Persian Mardyakhor) is a Persian legendary creature similar to the Egyptian sphinx.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
Mercer University Press, established in 1979, is a publisher that is part of Mercer University.
Methuen Publishing Ltd is an English publishing house.
The mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, language and memory.
In Christianity, a minister is a person authorized by a church, or other religious organization, to perform functions such as teaching of beliefs; leading services such as weddings, baptisms or funerals; or otherwise providing spiritual guidance to the community.
Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
Mosses are small flowerless plants that typically grow in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.
() is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture on the island of Kyushu in Japan.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.
Natur & Kultur is a Swedish publishing foundation with head office in Stockholm known for an extensive series of teaching materials.
Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals, fungi and plants in their environment; leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study.
The Natural History (Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD.
The Natural History Museum in London is a natural history museum that exhibits a vast range of specimens from various segments of natural history.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Nepenthe (νηπενθές) is a fictional medicine for sorrow, literally an anti-depressant – a "drug of forgetfulness" mentioned in ancient Greek literature and Greek mythology, depicted as originating in Egypt.
Nepenthes, also known as tropical pitcher plants, is a genus of carnivorous plants in the monotypic family Nepenthaceae.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Nils Rosén von Rosenstein (11 February 1706 – 16 July 1773) was a Swedish physician.
A nobiliary particle is used in a surname or family name in many Western cultures to signal the nobility of a family.
Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary.
Nomenclature is a system of names or terms, or the rules for forming these terms in a particular field of arts or sciences.
The olm or proteus (Proteus anguinus) is an aquatic salamander in the family Proteidae, the only exclusively cave-dwelling chordate species found in Europe.
Olof Celsius (the elder) (19 July 1670 – 24 June 1756) was a Swedish botanist, philologist and clergyman, He was a professor at Uppsala University, Sweden.
Olof Rudbeck the Younger or Olaus Rudbeckius junior (15 March 1660, Uppsala – 23 March 1740) was a Swedish explorer, scientist, and the son of Olaus Rudbeck Sr.
On the Origin of Species (or more completely, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life),The book's full original title was On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life.
In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.
The Order of the Polar Star (Swedish: Nordstjärneorden) is a Swedish order of chivalry created by King Frederick I on 23 February 1748, together with the Order of the Sword and the Order of the Seraphim.
Ornithology is a branch of zoology that concerns the study of birds.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
OxfordDictionaries.com, originally titled Oxford Dictionaries Online (ODO) and rebranded Oxford Living Dictionaries in 2017, is an online dictionary produced by the Oxford University Press (OUP) publishing house, a department of the University of Oxford, which also publishes a number of print dictionaries, among other works.
PageRank (PR) is an algorithm used by Google Search to rank websites in their search engine results.
A patronymic, or patronym, is a component of a personal name based on the given name of one's father, grandfather (i.e., an avonymic), or an even earlier male ancestor.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
Pehr Kalm (6 March 1716 – 16 November 1779) (in Finland also known as Pietari Kalm and in some English-language translations as Peter Kalm) was a Finnish explorer, botanist, naturalist, and agricultural economist.
Pehr Löfling (31 January 1729 – 22 February 1756) was a Swedish botanist and an apostle of Carl Linnaeus.
Peter Artedi or Petrus Arctaedius (27 February 170528 September 1735) was a Swedish naturalist and is known as the "father of Ichthyology." Artedi was born in Anundsjö in the province of Ångermanland.
Peter Ascanius (24 May 1723 – 4 June 1803) was a Norwegian biologist.
Peter Forsskål, sometimes spelled Pehr Forsskål, Peter Forskaol, Petrus Forskål or Pehr Forsskåhl, (11 January 1732 – 11 July 1763) was a Swedish explorer, orientalist, naturalist and an apostle of Carl Linnaeus.
Philip Miller FRS (1691 – 18 December 1771) was an English botanist of Scottish descent.
Philosophia Botanica ("Botanical Philosophy", ed. 1, Stockholm & Amsterdam, 1751.) was published by the Swedish naturalist and physician Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) who greatly influenced the development of botanical taxonomy and systematics in the 18th and 19th centuries.
In Greek mythology, a phoenix (φοῖνιξ, phoînix) is a long-lived bird that cyclically regenerates or is otherwise born again.
In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.
In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.
Physalis angulata is an erect, herbaceous, annual plant belonging to the nightshade family Solanaceae.
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
Pitcher plants are several different carnivorous plants which have modified leaves known as pitfall traps—a prey-trapping mechanism featuring a deep cavity filled with digestive liquid.
Plant reproductive morphology is the study of the physical form and structure (the morphology) of those parts of plants directly or indirectly concerned with sexual reproduction.
Plasmodium is a genus of unicellular eukaryotes that are obligate parasites of vertebrates and insects.
PLOS One (stylized PLOS ONE, and formerly PLoS ONE) is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science (PLOS) since 2006.
Praeses (Latin praesides) is a Latin word meaning "placed before" or "at the head".
A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
The Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences (Königlich-Preußische Akademie der Wissenschaften) was an academy established in Berlin, Germany on 11 July 1700, four years after the Akademie der Künste, or "Arts Academy," to which "Berlin Academy" may also refer.
Quadrumana and Bimana form an obsolete division of the primates: the Quadrumana are primates with four hands (two attached to the arms and two attached to the legs), and the Bimana are those with two hands and two feet.
In biological taxonomy, race is an informal rank in the taxonomic hierarchy, below the level of subspecies.
Råshult is a village just north of Älmhult in Kronoberg County, Småland, Lolland.
(Plassje) is a municipality in Trøndelag county, Norway.
A rector is, in an ecclesiastical sense, a cleric who functions as an administrative leader in some Christian denominations.
The reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), also known as the caribou in North America, is a species of deer with circumpolar distribution, native to Arctic, sub-Arctic, tundra, boreal and mountainous regions of northern Europe, Siberia and North America.
The Riksdag (riksdagen or Sveriges riksdag) is the national legislature and the supreme decision-making body of Sweden.
Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.
The Royal Society of Sciences in Uppsala (Swedish Kungliga Vetenskaps-Societeten i Uppsala), is the oldest of the royal academies in Sweden.
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences or Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien is one of the Royal Academies of Sweden.
The Sami people (also known as the Sámi or the Saami) are a Finno-Ugric people inhabiting Sápmi, which today encompasses large parts of Norway and Sweden, northern parts of Finland, and the Murmansk Oblast of Russia.
Satyrus (also known as callitrix or cericopithicus) is a species of ape described in some medieval bestiaries.
Sébastien Vaillant (26 May 1669 – 20 May 1722) was a French botanist.
Scania, also known as Skåne, is the southernmost province (landskap) of Sweden.
Sciatica is a medical condition characterized by pain going down the leg from the lower back.
The Scientific Revolution was a series of events that marked the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature.
Scopolia is a genus of five species of flowering plants in the family Solanaceae, native to Europe and Asia.
In his Systema Naturae of 1758, Carolus Linnaeus divided the Order Primates into four genera: Homo, Simia, Lemur, and Vespertilio.
Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
Småland is a historical province (landskap) in southern Sweden.
Sorbus intermedia, the Swedish whitebeam, is a species of whitebeam found in southern Sweden, with scattered occurrences in easternmost Denmark (Bornholm), the far southwest of Finland, Estonia, Latvia and northern Poland.
In many religious, philosophical, and mythological traditions, there is a belief in the incorporeal essence of a living being called the soul. Soul or psyche (Greek: "psychē", of "psychein", "to breathe") are the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, thinking, etc.
Species Plantarum (Latin for "The Species of Plants") is a book by Carl Linnaeus, originally published in 1753, which lists every species of plant known at the time, classified into genera.
The stamen (plural stamina or stamens) is the pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Swedes (svenskar) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Sweden.
The Swedish calendar (Svenska kalendern) or Swedish style (Svenska stilen) was a calendar in use in Sweden and its possessions from 1 March 1700 until 30 February 1712 (see below).
The Swedish East India Company (Svenska Ostindiska Companiet or SOIC) was founded in Gothenburg, Sweden, in 1731 for the purpose of conducting trade with the Far East.
The Swedish Institute (Svenska Institutet, SI) is a Government agency in Sweden with the responsibility to spread information about Sweden outside the country.
The Swedish Royal Museum of Natural History (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, literally, the National Museum of Natural History), in Stockholm, is one of two major museums of natural history in Sweden, the other one being located in Gothenburg.
(originally in Latin written with the ligature æ) is one of the major works of the Swedish botanist, zoologist and physician Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) and introduced the Linnaean taxonomy.
Systematic Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists.
talk.origins (often capitalised to Talk.Origins or abbreviated as t.o.) is a moderated Usenet discussion forum concerning the origins of life, and evolution.
A tattoo is a form of body modification where a design is made by inserting ink, dyes and pigments, either indelible or temporary, into the dermis layer of the skin to change the pigment.
Taxidermy is the preserving of an animal's body via stuffing and mounting for the purpose of display or study.
In biological classification, taxonomic rank is the relative level of a group of organisms (a taxon) in a taxonomic hierarchy.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
The Beast (Θηρίον, Thērion) may refer to one of two beasts described in the Book of Revelation.
The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex is a book by English naturalist Charles Darwin, first published in 1871, which applies evolutionary theory to human evolution, and details his theory of sexual selection, a form of biological adaptation distinct from, yet interconnected with, natural selection.
The Garden is the monthly magazine of the British Royal Horticultural Society (RHS), circulated to all the society's members as a benefit of membership; it is also sold to the public.
The Gardeners Dictionary was a widely cited reference series, written by Philip Miller (1691 – 1771), which tended to focus on plants cultivated in England.
Theodor Ludwig Wilhelm von Bischoff (October 28, 1807 in Hannover – December 5, 1882 in Munich) was a German physician and biologist.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
Theomorphism, from Greek θεος, theos (God) and μορφη, morphē (shape or form) Is the early Christian heresy that states that change in the divine nature is possible.
Tilia is a genus of about 30 species of trees, or bushes, native throughout most of the temperate Northern Hemisphere.
Tornio (official name: Tornion kaupunki; in Duortnus; in Torneå) is a city and municipality in Lapland, Finland.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a style of traditional medicine built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage (tui na), exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy, but recently also influenced by modern Western medicine.
In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more graphemes or letters are joined as a single glyph.
Umeå (South Westrobothnian; Uumaja, Ume Sami: Ubmeje, Upmeje, Ubmi) is a city in north east Sweden.
The University and State Library Düsseldorf (Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Düsseldorf, abbreviated ULB Düsseldorf) is a central service institution of Heinrich Heine University.
The University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) is a paleontology museum located on the campus of the University of California, Berkeley.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of Harderwijk (1648–1811), also named the Guelders Academy (Academia Gelro-Zutphanica), was located in the town of Harderwijk, in the Republic of the United Provinces (now: the Netherlands).
Uppsala (older spelling Upsala) is the capital of Uppsala County and the fourth largest city of Sweden, after Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö.
Uppsala Cathedral (Uppsala domkyrka) is a cathedral located between the Uppsala University Main Building and the River Fyris in the centre of Uppsala, Sweden.
Uppsala University (Uppsala universitet) is a research university in Uppsala, Sweden, and is the oldest university in Sweden and all of the Nordic countries still in operation, founded in 1477.
Västergötland, also known as West Gothland or the Latinized version Westrogothia in older literature, is one of the 25 traditional non-administrative provinces of Sweden (landskap in Swedish), situated in the southwest of Sweden.
Växjö is a city and the seat of Växjö Municipality, Kronoberg County, Sweden.
Visby is a locality and the seat of Gotland Municipality in Gotland County, on the island of Gotland, Sweden with 24,330 inhabitants,.
Von is a term used in German language surnames either as a nobiliary particle indicating a noble patrilineality or as a simple preposition that approximately means of or from in the case of commoners.
A walnut is the nut of any tree of the genus Juglans (Family Juglandaceae), particularly the Persian or English walnut, Juglans regia.
Wastebasket taxon (also called a wastebin taxon, dustbin taxon or catch-all taxon) is a term used by some taxonomists to refer to a taxon that has the sole purpose of classifying organisms that do not fit anywhere else.
A wet nurse is a woman who breast feeds and cares for another's child.
Willem Piso (in Dutch Willem Pies, in Latin Guilielmus Piso, also called Guilherme Piso in Portuguese) (1611 in Leiden – November 28, 1678 in Amsterdam) was a Dutch physician and naturalist who participated as an expedition doctor in Dutch Brazil from 1637 – 1644, sponsored by count Johan Maurits van Nassau-Siegen and the Dutch West India Company.
William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
William Thomas Stearn (16 April 1911 – 9 May 2001) was a British botanist.
A world view or worldview is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing the whole of the individual's or society's knowledge and point of view.
A yeoman was a member of a social class in late medieval to early modern England.
Zoology or animal biology is the branch of biology that studies the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct, and how they interact with their ecosystems.
The 10th edition of Systema Naturae is a book written by Carl Linnaeus and published in two volumes in 1758 and 1759, which marks the starting point of zoological nomenclature.
Anthropomorpha race, C. Linnaeus, Carl Lineaus, Carl Linnaeus (Sweden), Carl Linne, Carl Linneaus, Carl Linneus, Carl Linnæus, Carl Linné, Carl Nilsson Linnaeus, Carl Nilsson Linneus, Carl Nilsson Linnæus, Carl Von Linn, Carl Von Linne, Carl Von-Linné, Carl von Linn, Carl von Linnaeus, Carl von Linne, Carl von Linne (Sweden), Carl von Linneus, Carl von Linné, Carl von Linné (Sweden), Carl von linne, Carlous Linnaeus, Carolus Linaeus, Carolus Linnaeus, Carolus Linnaeus (Sweden), Carolus Linne, Carolus Linneaus, Carolus Linnæus, Carolus Linné, Carolus a Linne, Carolus a Linné, Carolus linnaues, Carrolus Linnaeus, Europaeus albus, Europeus, Feral Race, Feral race, Genera morborum, Homo lar, Homo monstosus, Homo monstrosus, Homo sapiens asiaticus luridus, Homo sapiens monstrosus, Karl Linnaeus, Karl von Linne, Karl von Linné, L., Linaeus, Lineaus, Linn., Linnaeus, Linnaeus (Entomology), Linnaeus (taxonomy), Linnaeus, Carolus, Linne', Linneaus, Linneus, Linnæus, Linné, Monstrosous race, Monstrosus, Monstrosus (disambiguation), Rubescens, Von Linne, Von Linné.