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Index Cattle

Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates. [1]

340 relations: Abomasum, African buffalo, Aggression in cattle, Agonistic behaviour, Aizu, Akabeko, Aleutian Islands, Aleutian wild cattle, Amino acid, Ammonia, Anaerobic lagoon, Anglo-Norman language, Animal slaughter, Aqua omnium florum, Archaism, Arezzo, Argentina, Artificial insemination, Assisted reproductive technology, Atmospheric methane, Aubrac cattle, Aurochs, Azores, Çayönü, Île Amsterdam, Babylonian law, Banteng, Beef, Beef cattle, Beefalo, Bielsk Podlaski, Big Bertha (cow), Binocular vision, Biodiversity, Bison, Blackleg (disease), Bluetongue disease, Bos, Bovinae, Bovine genome, Bovine spongiform encephalopathy, Braunvieh, Bronze Age, Bull riding, Bull-baiting, Bull-leaping, Bullfighting, Bullocky, Bullroarer, Bulls and Cows, ..., Calf, Camel, Capital (economics), Carbohydrate, Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere, Carl Linnaeus, Cart, Castration, Categorization, Cattle age determination, Cattle feeding, Cattle Health Initiative, Cattle in religion and mythology, Cattle judging, Cattle raiding, Cellulose, Chianina, Chillingham cattle, Chinese calendar, Chinese zodiac, Christian art, Clean Water Act, Cloning, Cloven hoof, Cognitive bias, Colloquialism, Colombia, Concentrated animal feeding operation, Cone cell, Conservation grazing, Cortisol, Cost externalizing, Couch, Cow dung, Cow tipping, Cowbell, Cowboy, Cud, Cultural identity, Czechs, Dairy, Dairy cattle, Decibel, Dermatophytosis, Developing country, Dichromacy, Digital dermatitis, Domestic yak, Domestication, Dominican Republic, Dwarf Lulu, Dzo, Ear tag, Educational toy, Electrolyte, Elk, Elm Farm Ollie, Enteric fermentation, Epping Forest, Escherichia coli, Ethology, Fallopian tube, Famous First Facts, Feedlot, Female reproductive system, Fence, Feral, Flehmen response, Food and Agriculture Organization, Food safety, Foot rot, Forb, Fovea centralis, Freemartin, Fuel, Fula people, Galápagos Islands, Gaur, Genetic testing, Genitive case, Genus, Global warming potential, Goat, Gomutra, Gonadotropin, Google Earth, Govinda, Grammatical number, Grass Island, Hong Kong, Great Chicago Fire, Guard dog, Gut flora, H. W. Wilson Company, Habituation, Haiti, Hardware disease, Hawaiian Islands, Heart, Heart rate, Heck cattle, Heraldry, Hereford cattle, Heritability, Hertz, Hide (skin), Highland cattle, Hinduism, Hippopotamus, Hispaniola, Historical Vedic religion, History of the world, Holstein Friesian cattle, Horn (anatomy), House cow, Human digestive system, Hybrid (biology), Induced ovulation (animals), Intensive animal farming, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, International trade, Intersex, Io9, Iraq, Irrigation, Jaico Publishing House, Jallikattu, Jersey cattle, Joule, Juan Fernández Islands, Judaism, Kaunas, Kerosene, Kidney, King James Version, Kinmen, Krishna, Kuchinoshima, Land use, Lantau Island, Lateralization of brain function, Leather, Liberty Times, List of animal sounds, List of antibiotic resistant bacteria, List of cattle breeds, List of domesticated animals, List of mammalian gestation durations, Liver, Livestock, Livestock branding, Livestock dehorning, Luke the Evangelist, Luteal phase, Maasai people, Mahabharata, Mammal, Mammary gland, Managed intensive rotational grazing, Manure, Mazovia, McDonald's, Mechanoreceptor, Mecklenburg, Meeting of the minds, Mesopotamia, Metabolism, Methanogen, Methanogenesis, Microorganism, Milking, Miniature Zebu, Minoan civilization, Mistake (contract law), Muskox, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium vaccae, Nandi (bull), Naru Island, Neatsfoot oil, Neolithic, New Guinea, Ngai, Nitrogen, Nociceptor, Ohalo, Old English, Olfactory bulb, Omasum, Onomatopoeia, Overgrazing, Ovulation, Ox, Ox (zodiac), Oxtail, Panchagavya, Pasture, Personal property, Pet, PH, Plough, Plural, Plurale tantum, Poaceae, Polled livestock, Progesterone, Proto-Indo-European language, Public health, Puranas, Quadrupedalism, Quantitative trait locus, Radial arm maze, Ranch, Rangeland, Ranjit Singh, Real property, Red heifer, Regurgitation (digestion), Reproduction, Reticulum (anatomy), Retina, Retractor muscle of the penis, Ridgling, Ritual purification, Rodeo, Rumen, Ruminant, Sacred bull, Sai Kung District, Sanga cattle, Scots language, Scur, Sebaceous gland, Selective breeding, Semen, Sherwood v. Walker, Shing Mun Country Park, Shiva, Short-chain fatty acid, Shorthorn, Sigmoid colon, Sociality, Southern France, Species, Spermatozoon, Stay apparatus, Stereopsis, Stomach, Stress (biology), Subfamily, Taiwan, Taurine cattle, Taurus (constellation), TB Alert, Teamster, Testicle, Texas Animal Health Commission, Texas Longhorn, The Daily Telegraph, The Economist, The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post, Thermoreceptor, Trichophyton verrucosum, Tristan da Cunha, Tuberculosis, Turek, Poland, Turin, Udder, Unconscious communication, Ungulate, Union of Concerned Scientists, United States Department of Agriculture, Urban legend, Urea, Uterus, Veal, Vedas, Veterinary surgery, Vomeronasal organ, Wagon, Water buffalo, Weaning, Western United States, Working animal, Yangmingshan, Yogurt, Zebu, 10th edition of Systema Naturae, 1966 anti-cow slaughter agitation. Expand index (290 more) »


The abomasum, also known as the maw, rennet-bag, or reed tripe, is the fourth and final stomach compartment in ruminants.

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African buffalo

The African buffalo or Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is a large African bovine.

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Aggression in cattle

Aggression in cattle is usually a result of fear, learning, and hormonal state, however, many other factors can contribute to aggressive behaviors in cattle.

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Agonistic behaviour

Agonistic behaviour is any social behaviour related to fighting.

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is the westernmost of the three regions of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, the other two regions being Nakadōri in the central area of the prefecture and Hamadōri in the east.

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is a legendary cow from the Aizu region of Japan, who inspired a traditional toy.

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Aleutian Islands

The Aleutian Islands (Tanam Unangaa, literally "Land of the Aleuts", possibly from Chukchi aliat, "island") are a chain of 14 large volcanic islands and 55 smaller ones belonging to both the U.S. state of Alaska and the Russian federal subject of Kamchatka Krai.

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Aleutian wild cattle

Aleutian wild cattle are feral wild cattle found on the Alaskan Aleutian islands.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

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Anaerobic lagoon

An anaerobic lagoon or manure lagoon is a man-made outdoor earthen basin filled with animal waste that undergoes anaerobic respiration as part of a system designed to manage and treat refuse created by concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs).

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Anglo-Norman language

Anglo-Norman, also known as Anglo-Norman French, is a variety of the Norman language that was used in England and, to a lesser extent, elsewhere in the British Isles during the Anglo-Norman period.

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Animal slaughter

Animal slaughter is the killing of animals, usually referring to killing domestic livestock.

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Aqua omnium florum

Aqua omnium florum or all-flower water was water distilled from cow-dung in May, when the cows ate fresh grass with meadow flowers.

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In language, an archaism (from the ἀρχαϊκός, archaïkós, 'old-fashioned, antiquated', ultimately ἀρχαῖος, archaîos, 'from the beginning, ancient') is the use of a form of speech or writing that is no longer current or that is current only within a few special contexts.

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Arezzo is a city and comune in Italy, capital of the province of the same name located in Tuscany.

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Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.

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Artificial insemination

Artificial insemination (AI) is the deliberate introduction of sperm into a female's uterus or cervix for the purpose of achieving a pregnancy through in vivo fertilization by means other than sexual intercourse.

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Assisted reproductive technology

Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is the technology used to achieve pregnancy in procedures such as fertility medication, in vitro fertilization and surrogacy.

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Atmospheric methane

Atmospheric methane is the methane present in earth's atmosphere.

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Aubrac cattle

The Aubrac is a French breed of domestic beef cattle.

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The aurochs (or; pl. aurochs, or rarely aurochsen, aurochses), also known as urus or ure (Bos primigenius), is an extinct species of large wild cattle that inhabited Europe, Asia, and North Africa.

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The Azores (or; Açores), officially the Autonomous Region of the Azores (Região Autónoma dos Açores), is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal.

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Çayönü is a Neolithic settlement in southeastern Turkey inhabited around 7200 to 6600 BC.

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Île Amsterdam

Île Amsterdam (also known as Amsterdam Island, New Amsterdam, or Nouvelle Amsterdam, is an island named after the ship Nieuw Amsterdam, in turn named after the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam that later became New York City in the United States. It lies in the southern Indian Ocean. It is part of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands and, together with neighbouring Île Saint-Paul to the south, forms one of the five districts of the territory. The Martin-de-Viviès research station, first called Camp Heurtin and then La Roche Godon, is the only settlement on the island and is home to about thirty seasonal inhabitants involved in biological, meteorological and geomagnetic studies.

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Babylonian law

Babylonian law is a subset of cuneiform law that has received particular study, owing to the singular extent of the associated archaeological material that has been found for it.

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The banteng (Bos javanicus), also known as tembadau, is a species of wild cattle found in Southeast Asia.

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Beef is the culinary name for meat from cattle, particularly skeletal muscle.

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Beef cattle

Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production).

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Beefalo, also referred to as cattalo or the American hybrid, are a fertile hybrid offspring of domestic cattle (Bos taurus), usually a male in managed breeding programs, and the American bison (Bison bison), usually a female in managed breeding programs.

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Bielsk Podlaski

Bielsk Podlaski (Бельск Падляскі, Більськ) is an Urban Gmina (Polish: gmina miejska) (Town) in Bielsk County, Podlaskie Voivodeship.

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Big Bertha (cow)

Big Bertha (17 March 1945 – 31 December 1993) was a cow who held two Guinness World Records: she was the oldest cow recorded, dying just three months short of her 49th birthday, and she also held the record for lifetime breeding, having produced 39 calves.

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Binocular vision

In biology, binocular vision is a type of vision in which an animal having two eyes is able to perceive a single three-dimensional image of its surroundings.

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Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.

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Bison are large, even-toed ungulates in the genus Bison within the subfamily Bovinae.

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Blackleg (disease)

Blackleg, black quarter, quarter evil, or quarter ill (gangraena emphysematosa) is an infectious bacterial disease most commonly caused by Clostridium chauvoei, a Gram-positive bacterial species.

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Bluetongue disease

Bluetongue disease is a non-contagious, insect-borne, viral disease of ruminants, mainly sheep and less frequently cattle, goats, buffalo, deer, dromedaries, and antelope.

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Bos (from Latin bōs: cow, ox, bull) is the genus of wild and domestic cattle.

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The biological subfamily Bovinae includes a diverse group of 10 genera of medium to large-sized ungulates, including domestic cattle, bison, African buffalo, the water buffalo, the yak, and the four-horned and spiral-horned antelopes.

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Bovine genome

The genome of a female Hereford cow has been sequenced by the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium, a team of researchers led by the National Institutes of Health and the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

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Bovine spongiform encephalopathy

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly known as mad cow disease, is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy and fatal neurodegenerative disease in cattle that may be passed to humans who have eaten infected flesh.

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Braunvieh (German, "brown cattle") is a breed or group of breeds of domestic cattle originating in Switzerland and distributed throughout the Alpine region.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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Bull riding

Bull riding is a rodeo sport that involves a rider getting on a bucking bull and attempting to stay mounted while the animal tries to buck off the rider.

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Bull-baiting is a blood sport involving pitting a bull against another animal, usually a dog.

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Bull-leaping (also taurokathapsia, from Greek ταυροκαθάψια) is a motif of Middle Bronze Age figurative art, notably of Minoan Crete, but also found in Hittite Anatolia, the Levant, Bactria and the Indus Valley.

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Bullfighting is a physical contest that involves humans and animals attempting to publicly subdue, immobilise, or kill a bull, usually according to a set of rules, guidelines, or cultural expectations.

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A bullocky is an Australian English term for the driver of a bullock team. The American term is bullwhacker.

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The bullroarer, rhombus, or turndun, is an ancient ritual musical instrument and a device historically used for communicating over great distances.

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Bulls and Cows

Bulls and Cows (also known as Cows and Bulls or Pigs and Bulls or Bulls and Cleots) is an old code-breaking mind or paper and pencil game for two or more players, predating the commercially marketed board game Mastermind.

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A calf (plural, calves) is the young of domestic cattle.

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A camel is an even-toed ungulate in the genus Camelus that bears distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back.

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Capital (economics)

In economics, capital consists of an asset that can enhance one's power to perform economically useful work.

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A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).

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Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere

Carbon dioxide is an important trace gas in Earth's atmosphere.

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Carl Linnaeus

Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.

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A cart is a vehicle designed for transport, using two wheels and normally pulled by one or a pair of draught animals.

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Castration (also known as gonadectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which an individual loses use of the testicles.

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Categorization is the process in which ideas and objects are recognized, differentiated, and understood.

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Cattle age determination

The age of cattle is determined chiefly by examination of the teeth, and less perfectly by the horn rings or the length of the tail brush; however due to bang-tailing, which is the act of cutting the long hairs at the tip of the tail short to identify the animal after management practices, the latter is least reliable.

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Cattle feeding

Different cattle feeding production systems have separate advantages and disadvantages.

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Cattle Health Initiative

The British Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) has funded 27 Farm Health Planning projects, known as the Cattle Health Project.

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Cattle in religion and mythology

Due to the multiple benefits from cattle, there are varying beliefs about cattle in societies and religions.

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Cattle judging

Cattle judging is the process of judging a series of cattle and pronouncing a first-, second- and third-place animal based on each animal's individual traits compared to that of the others.

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Cattle raiding

Cattle raiding is the act of stealing cattle.

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Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.

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The Chianina is an Italian breed of cattle, formerly principally a draught breed, now raised mainly for beef.

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Chillingham cattle

Chillingham cattle, also known as Chillingham wild cattle, are a breed of cattle that live in a large enclosed park at Chillingham Castle, Northumberland, England.

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Chinese calendar

The traditional Chinese calendar (official Chinese name: Rural Calendar, alternately Former Calendar, Traditional Calendar, or Lunar Calendar) is a lunisolar calendar which reckons years, months and days according to astronomical phenomena.

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Chinese zodiac

The Chinese zodiac is a classification scheme that assigns an animal and its reputed attributes to each year in a repeating 12-year cycle.

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Christian art

Christian art is sacred art which uses themes and imagery from Christianity.

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Clean Water Act

The Clean Water Act (CWA) is the primary federal law in the United States governing water pollution.

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Cloning is the process of producing genetically identical individuals of an organism either naturally or artificially.

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Cloven hoof

A cloven hoof, cleft hoof, divided hoof or split hoof is a hoof split into two toes.

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Cognitive bias

A cognitive bias is a systematic pattern of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment.

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Everyday language, everyday speech, common parlance, informal language, colloquial language, general parlance, or vernacular (but this has other meanings too), is the most used variety of a language, which is usually employed in conversation or other communication in informal situations.

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Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.

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Concentrated animal feeding operation

A concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO), as defined by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is an animal feeding operation (AFO)—a farm in which animals are raised in confinement—that has over 1000 "animal units" confined for over 45 days a year.

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Cone cell

Cone cells, or cones, are one of three types of photoreceptor cells in the retina of mammalian eyes (e.g. the human eye).

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Conservation grazing

Conservation grazing is the use of semi-feral or domesticated grazing livestock to maintain and increase the biodiversity of natural or semi-natural grasslands, heathlands, wood pasture, wetlands and many other habitats.

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Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.

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Cost externalizing

Cost externalizing is a socioeconomic term describing how a business maximizes its profits by off-loading indirect costs and forcing negative effects to a third party.

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A couch (British English, U.S. English), also known as a sofa or settee (Canadian English and British English), is a piece of furniture for seating two or three people in the form of a bench, with armrests, that is partially or entirely upholstered, and often fitted with springs and tailored cushions.

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Cow dung

Cow dung, also known as cow pats, cow pies or cow manure, is the waste product of bovine animal species.

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Cow tipping

Cow tipping is the purported activity of sneaking up on any unsuspecting or sleeping upright cow and pushing it over for entertainment.

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A cow bell or cowbell is a bell worn by freely roaming animals made to scare off any predators.

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A cowboy is an animal herder who tends cattle on ranches in North America, traditionally on horseback, and often performs a multitude of other ranch-related tasks.

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Cud is a portion of food that returns from a ruminant's stomach to the mouth to be chewed for the second time.

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Cultural identity

Cultural identity is the identity or feeling of belonging to a group.

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The Czechs (Češi,; singular masculine: Čech, singular feminine: Češka) or the Czech people (Český národ), are a West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to the Czech Republic in Central Europe, who share a common ancestry, culture, history and Czech language.

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A dairy is a business enterprise established for the harvesting or processing (or both) of animal milk – mostly from cows or goats, but also from buffaloes, sheep, horses, or camels – for human consumption.

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Dairy cattle

Dairy cattle (also called dairy cows) are cattle cows bred for the ability to produce large quantities of milk, from which dairy products are made.

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The decibel (symbol: dB) is a unit of measurement used to express the ratio of one value of a physical property to another on a logarithmic scale.

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Dermatophytosis, also known as ringworm, is a fungal infection of the skin.

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Developing country

A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Dichromacy (di meaning "two" and chroma meaning "color") is the state of having two types of functioning color receptors, called cone cells, in the eyes.

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Digital dermatitis

Digital dermatitis is a disease that causes lameness in cattle.

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Domestic yak

The domestic yak (Bos grunniens) is a long-haired domesticated bovid found throughout the Himalayan region of the Indian subcontinent, the Tibetan Plateau and as far north as Mongolia and Russia.

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Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group.

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Dominican Republic

The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana) is a sovereign state located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.

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Dwarf Lulu

The Dwarf Lulu is a breed of cattle that is native to the mountains of Central Asia.

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A dzo (Tibetan མཛོ་ mdzo) (also spelled zo, zho and dzho) is a hybrid between the yak and domestic cattle.

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Ear tag

An ear tag is a plastic or metal object used for identification of domestic livestock and other animals.

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Educational toy

Educational toys (sometimes called "instructive toys") are objects of play, generally designed for children, which are expected to stimulate learning.

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An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.

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The elk or wapiti (Cervus canadensis) is one of the largest species within the deer family, Cervidae, in the world, and one of the largest land mammals in North America and Eastern Asia.

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Elm Farm Ollie

Elm Farm Ollie (known as "Nellie Jay" and post-flight as "Sky Queen") was the first cow to fly in an airplane, doing so on 18 February 1930, as part of the International Air Exposition in St. Louis, Missouri, United States.

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Enteric fermentation

Enteric fermentation is a digestive process by which carbohydrates are broken down by microorganisms into simple molecules for absorption into the bloodstream of an animal.

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Epping Forest

Epping Forest is a area of ancient woodland between Epping in the north and Wanstead in the south, straddling the border between Greater London and Essex.

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Escherichia coli

Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).

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Ethology is the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour, usually with a focus on behaviour under natural conditions, and viewing behaviour as an evolutionarily adaptive trait.

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Fallopian tube

The Fallopian tubes, also known as uterine tubes or salpinges (singular salpinx), are two very fine tubes lined with ciliated epithelia, leading from the ovaries of female mammals into the uterus, via the uterotubal junction.

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Famous First Facts

Famous First Facts is a book listing "First Happenings, Discoveries and Inventions in the United States".

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A feedlot or feed yard is a type of animal feeding operation (AFO) which is used in intensive animal farming for finishing livestock, notably beef cattle, but also swine, horses, sheep, turkeys, chickens or ducks, prior to slaughter.

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Female reproductive system

The female reproductive system is made up of the internal and external sex organs that function in reproduction of new offspring.

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A fence is a structure that encloses an area, typically outdoors, and is usually constructed from posts that are connected by boards, wire, rails or netting.

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A feral animal or plant (from Latin fera, "a wild beast") is one that lives in the wild but is descended from domesticated individuals.

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Flehmen response

The flehmen response, also called the flehmen position, flehmen reaction, flehming, or flehmening, is a behavior in which an animal curls back its upper lip exposing its front teeth, inhales with the nostrils usually closed, and then often holds this position for several seconds.

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Food and Agriculture Organization

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.

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Food safety

Food safety is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent food-borne illness.

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Foot rot

Foot rot, or infectious pododermatitis, is a hoof infection commonly found in sheep, goats, and cattle.

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A forb (sometimes spelled phorb) is an herbaceous flowering plant that is not a graminoid (grasses, sedges and rushes).

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Fovea centralis

The fovea centralis is a small, central pit composed of closely packed cones in the eye.

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A freemartin or free-martin (sometimes martin heifer) is an infertile female mammal with masculinized behavior and non-functioning ovaries.

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A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work.

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Fula people

The Fula people or Fulani or Fulany or Fulɓe (Fulɓe; Peul; Fulani or Hilani; Fula; Pël; Fulaw), numbering between 40 and 50 million people in total, are one of the largest ethnic groups in the Sahel and West Africa, widely dispersed across the region.

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Galápagos Islands

The Galápagos Islands (official name: Archipiélago de Colón, other Spanish name: Las Islas Galápagos), part of the Republic of Ecuador, are an archipelago of volcanic islands distributed on either side of the equator in the Pacific Ocean surrounding the centre of the Western Hemisphere, west of continental Ecuador.

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The gaur (Bos gaurus), also called the Indian bison, is the largest extant bovine.

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Genetic testing

Genetic testing, also known as DNA testing, allows the determination of bloodlines and the genetic diagnosis of vulnerabilities to inherited diseases.

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Genitive case

In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.

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A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.

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Global warming potential

Global warming potential (GWP) is a relative measure of how much heat a greenhouse gas traps in the atmosphere.

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The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.

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Gomutra or gaumutra (Sanskrit: गोमूत्र; cow urine) is urine from cows used for therapeutic purposes in traditional Indian medicine, Ayurveda, and also for purification in Vaastu Shastra.

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Gonadotropins are glycoprotein polypeptide hormones secreted by gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary of vertebrates.

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Google Earth

Google Earth is a computer program that renders a 3D representation of Earth based on satellite imagery.

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and (Sanskrit/Hindi: गोविन्द/गोविंद and गोपाल) (also known as) are the names of Vishnu which mean "The finder of Veda" & "Protector of Veda" as 'Go' means Veda, Cow and also senses.

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Grammatical number

In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").

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Grass Island, Hong Kong

Grass Island or Tap Mun is an island in Hong Kong, located in the northeastern part of the territory.

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Great Chicago Fire

The Great Chicago Fire was a conflagration that burned from Sunday, October 8, to Tuesday, October 10, 1871.

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Guard dog

A guard dog or watch dog (not to be confused with the attack dog) is a dog used to guard against, and watch for unwanted or unexpected people or animals.

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Gut flora

Gut flora, or gut microbiota, or gastrointestinal microbiota, is the complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and other animals, including insects.

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H. W. Wilson Company

The H. W. Wilson Company, Inc., was founded in 1898 and is located in The Bronx, New York.

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Habituation is a form of learning in which an organism decreases or ceases its responses to a stimulus after repeated or prolonged presentations.

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Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.

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Hardware disease

Hardware disease is a common term for bovine traumatic reticuloperitonitis.

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Hawaiian Islands

The Hawaiian Islands (Mokupuni o Hawai‘i) are an archipelago of eight major islands, several atolls, numerous smaller islets, and seamounts in the North Pacific Ocean, extending some from the island of Hawaiokinai in the south to northernmost Kure Atoll.

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The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.

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Heart rate

Heart rate is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of the heart per minute (bpm).

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Heck cattle

Heck cattle are a hardy breed of domestic cattle.

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Heraldry is a broad term, encompassing the design, display, and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony, rank, and pedigree.

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Hereford cattle

The Hereford (pronounced hair-uh-furd in the UK and hur-furd or hur-uh-ford in the US) is a British breed of beef cattle that originated in the county of Herefordshire, in the West Midlands of England.

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Heritability is a statistic used in the fields of breeding and genetics that estimates the degree of variation in a phenotypic trait in a population that is due to genetic variation between individuals in that population.

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The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.

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Hide (skin)

A hide or skin is an animal skin treated for human use.

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Highland cattle

Highland cattle (Bò Ghàidhealach; Heilan coo) are a Scottish cattle breed.

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Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.

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The common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), or hippo, is a large, mostly herbivorous, semiaquatic mammal native to sub-Saharan Africa, and one of only two extant species in the family Hippopotamidae, the other being the pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis or Hexaprotodon liberiensis).

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Hispaniola (Spanish: La Española; Latin and French: Hispaniola; Haitian Creole: Ispayola; Taíno: Haiti) is an island in the Caribbean island group, the Greater Antilles.

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Historical Vedic religion

The historical Vedic religion (also known as Vedism, Brahmanism, Vedic Brahmanism, and ancient Hinduism) was the religion of the Indo-Aryans of northern India during the Vedic period.

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History of the world

The history of the world is the history of humanity (or human history), as determined from archaeology, anthropology, genetics, linguistics, and other disciplines; and, for periods since the invention of writing, from recorded history and from secondary sources and studies.

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Holstein Friesian cattle

Holstein Friesians (often shortened to Holsteins in North America, while the term Friesians is often used in the UK) are a breed of dairy cattle originating from the Dutch provinces of North Holland and Friesland, and Schleswig-Holstein in Northern Germany and Jutland.

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Horn (anatomy)

A horn is a permanent pointed projection on the head of various animals consisting of a covering of keratin and other proteins surrounding a core of live bone.

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House cow

A house cow is a cow kept to provide milk for a home kitchen.

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Human digestive system

The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder).

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Hybrid (biology)

In biology, a hybrid, or crossbreed, is the result of combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction.

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Induced ovulation (animals)

Ovulation occurs at the ovary surface and is described as the process in which an oocyte (female germ cell) is released from the follicle.

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Intensive animal farming

Intensive animal farming or industrial livestock production, also known as factory farming, is a production approach towards farm animals in order to maximize production output, while minimizing production costs.

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Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a scientific and intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations, set up at the request of member governments, dedicated to the task of providing the world with an objective, scientific view of climate change and its political and economic impacts.

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International trade

International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories.

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Intersex people are born with any of several variations in sex characteristics including chromosomes, gonads, sex hormones, or genitals that, according to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, "do not fit the typical definitions for male or female bodies".

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io9 is a blog launched in 2008 by Gawker Media, which focuses on the subjects of science fiction, fantasy, futurism, science, technology and related areas.

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Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.

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Jaico Publishing House

Jaico Publishing House is a prominent publisher in India.

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Jallikattu (or sallikkattu), also known as eru thazhuvuthal and manju virattu, is a traditional spectacle in which a Bos indicus bull, such as the Pulikulam or Kangayam breeds, is released into a crowd of people, and multiple human participants attempt to grab the large hump on the bull's back with both arms and hang on to it while the bull attempts to escape.

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Jersey cattle

The Jersey is a breed of small dairy cattle.

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The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.

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Juan Fernández Islands

The Juan Fernández Islands (Archipiélago Juan Fernández) are a sparsely inhabited island group reliant on tourism and fishing in the South Pacific Ocean.

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Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.

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Kaunas (also see other names) is the second-largest city in Lithuania and the historical centre of Lithuanian economic, academic, and cultural life.

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Kerosene, also known as paraffin, lamp oil, and coal oil (an obsolete term), is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum.

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The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.

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King James Version

The King James Version (KJV), also known as the King James Bible (KJB) or simply the Version (AV), is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, begun in 1604 and completed in 1611.

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Kinmen or Quemoy (see also "Names" section below), officially Kinmen County, is a group of islands, governed by the Republic of China (ROC), which is located just off the southeastern coast of mainland China, including Great Kinmen, Lesser Kinmen, Wuqiu and several surrounding islets.

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Krishna (Kṛṣṇa) is a major deity in Hinduism.

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, literally "mouth island", is one of the Tokara Islands, belonging to Kagoshima Prefecture.

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Land use

Land use involves the management and modification of natural environment or wilderness into built environment such as settlements and semi-natural habitats such as arable fields, pastures, and managed woods.

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Lantau Island

Lantau Island (also Lantao Island) is the largest island in Hong Kong, located at the mouth of the Pearl River.

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Lateralization of brain function

The lateralization of brain function is the tendency for some neural functions or cognitive processes to be specialized to one side of the brain or the other.

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Leather is a durable and flexible material created by tanning animal rawhides, mostly cattle hide.

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Liberty Times

The Liberty Times is a newspaper published in Taiwan in Traditional Chinese.

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List of animal sounds

This is a list of words used in the English language to represent the noises of particular animals, especially noises used by animals for communication.

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List of antibiotic resistant bacteria

A list of antibiotic resistant bacteria is provided below.

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List of cattle breeds

Over 800 breeds of cattle are recognized worldwide, some of which adapted to the local climate, others which were bred by humans for specialized uses.

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List of domesticated animals

This page gives a list of domestic animals, also including a list of animals which are or may be currently undergoing the process of domestication and animals that have an extensive relationship with humans beyond simple predation.

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List of mammalian gestation durations

No description.

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The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.

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Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool.

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Livestock branding

Livestock branding is a technique for marking livestock so as to identify the owner.

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Livestock dehorning

Dehorning is the process of removing the fully grown horns of livestock.

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Luke the Evangelist

Luke the Evangelist (Latin: Lūcās, Λουκᾶς, Loukãs, לוקאס, Lūqās, לוקא, Lūqā&apos) is one of the Four Evangelists—the four traditionally ascribed authors of the canonical Gospels.

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Luteal phase

The luteal phase is the latter phase of the menstrual cycle (in humans and a few other animals) or the earlier phase of the estrous cycle (in other placental mammals).

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Maasai people

Maasai are a Nilotic ethnic group inhabiting central and southern Kenya and northern Tanzania.

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The Mahābhārata (महाभारतम्) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa.

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Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.

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Mammary gland

A mammary gland is an exocrine gland in mammals that produces milk to feed young offspring.

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Managed intensive rotational grazing

In agriculture, Managed intensive rotational grazing (MIRG), also known as simply as managed grazing or cell grazing, mob grazing and holistic managed planned grazing, describes a variety of closely related systems of forage use in which ruminant and non-ruminant herds and/or flocks are regularly and systematically moved to fresh rested areas with the intent to maximize the quality and quantity of forage growth.

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Manure is organic matter, mostly derived from animal feces except in the case of green manure, which can be used as organic fertilizer in agriculture.

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Mazovia (Mazowsze) is a historical region (dzielnica) in mid-north-eastern Poland.

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McDonald's is an American fast food company, founded in 1940 as a restaurant operated by Richard and Maurice McDonald, in San Bernardino, California, United States.

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A mechanoreceptor is a sensory receptor that responds to mechanical pressure or distortion.

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Mecklenburg (locally, Low German: Mękel(n)borg) is a historical region in northern Germany comprising the western and larger part of the federal-state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.

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Meeting of the minds

Meeting of the minds (also referred to as mutual agreement, mutual assent or consensus ad idem) is a phrase in contract law used to describe the intentions of the parties forming the contract.

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Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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Methanogens are microorganisms that produce methane as a metabolic byproduct in anoxic conditions.

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Methanogenesis or biomethanation is the formation of methane by microbes known as methanogens.

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A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.

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Milking is the act of removing milk from the mammary glands of cattle, water buffalo, goats, sheep and more rarely camels, horses and donkeys.

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Miniature Zebu

The Miniature Zebu is a modern American breed of zebuine miniature cattle.

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Minoan civilization

The Minoan civilization was an Aegean Bronze Age civilization on the island of Crete and other Aegean Islands which flourished from about 2600 to 1600 BC, before a late period of decline, finally ending around 1100.

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Mistake (contract law)

In contract law, a mistake is an erroneous belief, at contracting, that certain facts are true.

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The muskox (Ovibos moschatus), also spelled musk ox and musk-ox (in ᐅᒥᖕᒪᒃ, umingmak), is an Arctic hoofed mammal of the family Bovidae, noted for its thick coat and for the strong odor emitted during the seasonal rut by males, from which its name derives.

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Mycobacterium bovis

Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) is a slow-growing (16- to 20-hour generation time) aerobic bacterium and the causative agent of tuberculosis in cattle (known as bovine TB).

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Mycobacterium vaccae

Mycobacterium vaccae is a nonpathogenic species of the Mycobacteriaceae family of bacteria that lives naturally in soil.

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Nandi (bull)

Nandi (नन्दि, நந்தி, ನಂದಿ, న౦ది, ନନ୍ଦି) is the name of the gate- guardian deity of Kailasa, the abode of Lord Shiva.

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Naru Island

is one of the Gotō Islands in Japan.

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Neatsfoot oil

Neatsfoot oil is a yellow oil rendered and purified from the shin bones and feet (but not the hooves) of cattle.

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The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.

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New Guinea

New Guinea (Nugini or, more commonly known, Papua, historically, Irian) is a large island off the continent of Australia.

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Ngai (Engai, Enkai, Mweai, Mwiai) is the Supreme God in the religions of the Kamba and Kikuyu of Kenya.

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Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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A nociceptor is a sensory neuron that responds to damaging or potentially damaging stimuli by sending “possible threat” signals to the spinal cord and the brain.

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Ohalo is the common designation for the archaeological site Ohalo II in the vicinity of the Sea of Galilee, and one of the best preserved hunter-gatherer archaeological sites of the Last Glacial Maximum, having been radiocarbon dated to around 19,400 BP.

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Old English

Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.

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Olfactory bulb

The olfactory bulb (bulbus olfactorius) is a neural structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, the sense of smell.

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The omasum, also known as the bible, the fardel, the manyplies and the psalterium, is the third compartment of the stomach in ruminants.

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An onomatopoeia (from the Greek ὀνοματοποιία; ὄνομα for "name" and ποιέω for "I make", adjectival form: "onomatopoeic" or "onomatopoetic") is a word that phonetically imitates, resembles or suggests the sound that it describes.

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Overgrazing occurs when plants are exposed to intensive grazing for extended periods of time, or without sufficient recovery periods.

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Ovulation is the release of eggs from the ovaries.

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An ox (plural oxen), also known as a bullock in Australia and India, is a bovine trained as a draft animal or riding animal.

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Ox (zodiac)

The Ox (牛) is the second of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar.

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Oxtail (occasionally spelled ox tail or ox-tail) is the culinary name for the tail of cattle.

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Panchagavya or panchakavyam is a concoction prepared by mixing five products of cow and used in traditional Indian rituals.

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Pasture (from the Latin pastus, past participle of pascere, "to feed") is land used for grazing.

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Personal property

Personal property is generally considered property that is movable, as opposed to real property or real estate.

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A pet or companion animal is an animal kept primarily for a person's company, protection, or entertainment rather than as a working animal, livestock, or laboratory animal.

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In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.

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A plough (UK) or plow (US; both) is a tool or farm implement used in farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed or planting to loosen or turn the soil.

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The plural (sometimes abbreviated), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.

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Plurale tantum

A plurale tantum (Latin for "plural only", plural form: pluralia tantum) is a noun that appears only in the plural form and does not have a singular variant for referring to a single object.

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Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses, commonly referred to collectively as grass.

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Polled livestock

Polled livestock (animals) are livestock without horns in species which are normally horned.

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Progesterone (P4) is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species.

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Proto-Indo-European language

Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.

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Public health

Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".

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The Puranas (singular: पुराण), are ancient Hindu texts eulogizing various deities, primarily the divine Trimurti God in Hinduism through divine stories.

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Quadrupedalism or pronograde posture is a form of terrestrial locomotion in animals using four limbs or legs.

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Quantitative trait locus

A quantitative trait locus (QTL) is a section of DNA (the locus) which correlates with variation in a phenotype (the quantitative trait).

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Radial arm maze

The radial arm maze was designed by Olton and Samuelson in 1976 to measure spatial learning and memory in rats.

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A ranch is an area of land, including various structures, given primarily to the practice of ranching, the practice of raising grazing livestock such as cattle or sheep for meat or wool.

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Rangelands are grasslands, shrublands, woodlands, wetlands, and deserts that are grazed by domestic livestock or wild animals.

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Ranjit Singh

Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1780 –1839) was the leader of the Sikh Empire, which ruled the northwest Indian subcontinent in the early half of the 19th century.

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Real property

In English common law, real property, real estate, realty, or immovable property is land which is the property of some person and all structures (also called improvements or fixtures) integrated with or affixed to the land, including crops, buildings, machinery, wells, dams, ponds, mines, canals, and roads, among other things.

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Red heifer

The red heifer (פָרָה אֲדֻמָּה; para adumma), also known as the red cow, was a cow brought to the priests as a sacrifice according to the Hebrew Bible, and its ashes were used for the ritual purification of Tum'at HaMet ("the impurity of the dead"), that is, an Israelite who had come into contact with a corpse.

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Regurgitation (digestion)

Regurgitation is the expulsion of material from the pharynx, or esophagus, usually characterized by the presence of undigested food or blood.

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Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".

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Reticulum (anatomy)

The reticulum is the first chamber in the alimentary canal of a ruminant animal.

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The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.

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Retractor muscle of the penis

In some animals the male penis possesses a muscle enabling retraction into the prepuce.

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A ridgling (also spelled ridgeling), or rig, is a cryptorchid; a male animal with one or both testicles undescended, usually describing a ram, bull, or male horse, but cryptorchidism also can be an issue in dogs and cats.

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Ritual purification

Ritual purification is the purification ritual prescribed by a religion by which a person about to perform some ritual is considered to be free of uncleanliness, especially prior to the worship of a deity, and ritual purity is a state of ritual cleanliness.

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Rodeo is a competitive sport that arose out of the working practices of cattle herding in Spain, Mexico, and later Central America, South America, the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand.

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The rumen, also known as a paunch, forms the larger part of the reticulorumen, which is the first chamber in the alimentary canal of ruminant animals.

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Ruminants are mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach prior to digestion, principally through microbial actions.

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Sacred bull

Numerous peoples throughout the world have at one point in time honored bulls as sacred.

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Sai Kung District

Sai Kung District is the second largest district in Hong Kong in terms of area.

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Sanga cattle

Sanga cattle is the collective name for indigenous cattle of sub-Saharan Africa.

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Scots language

Scots is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster (where the local dialect is known as Ulster Scots).

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A scur is an incompletely developed horn growth.

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Sebaceous gland

Sebaceous glands are microscopic exocrine glands in the skin that secrete an oily or waxy matter, called sebum, to lubricate and waterproof the skin and hair of mammals.

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Selective breeding

Selective breeding (also called artificial selection) is the process by which humans use animal breeding and plant breeding to selectively develop particular phenotypic traits (characteristics) by choosing which typically animal or plant males and females will sexually reproduce and have offspring together.

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Semen, also known as seminal fluid, is an organic fluid that may contain spermatozoa.

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Sherwood v. Walker

Sherwood v. Walker, 66 Mich.

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Shing Mun Country Park

The Shing Mun Country Park (established June 24, 1977) is a country park of Hong Kong, hugging the Shing Mun Reservoir.

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Shiva (Sanskrit: शिव, IAST: Śiva, lit. the auspicious one) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism.

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Short-chain fatty acid

Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), also referred to as volatile fatty acids (VFAs), are fatty acids with two to six carbon atoms.

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The Shorthorn breed of cattle originated in the North East of England in the late 18th century.

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Sigmoid colon

The sigmoid colon (pelvic colon) is the part of the large intestine that is closest to the rectum and anus.

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Sociality is the degree to which individuals in an animal population tend to associate in social groups (Gregariousness) and form cooperative societies.

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Southern France

Southern France or the South of France, colloquially known as le Midi, is a defined geographical area consisting of the regions of France that border the Atlantic Ocean south of the Marais Poitevin, Spain, the Mediterranean, and Italy.

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In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.

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A spermatozoon (pronounced, alternate spelling spermatozoön; plural spermatozoa; from σπέρμα "seed" and ζῷον "living being") is a motile sperm cell, or moving form of the haploid cell that is the male gamete.

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Stay apparatus

The stay apparatus is a group of ligaments, tendons and muscles which "lock" major joints in the limbs of the horse.

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Stereopsis (from the Greek στερεο- stereo- meaning "solid", and ὄψις opsis, "appearance, sight") is a term that is most often used to refer to the perception of depth and 3-dimensional structure obtained on the basis of visual information deriving from two eyes by individuals with normally developed binocular vision.

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The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.

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Stress (biology)

Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.

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In biological classification, a subfamily (Latin: subfamilia, plural subfamiliae) is an auxiliary (intermediate) taxonomic rank, next below family but more inclusive than genus.

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Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.

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Taurine cattle

Taurine cattle (Bos taurus taurus), also called European cattle, are a subspecies of domesticated cattle originating in the Near East.

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Taurus (constellation)

Taurus (Latin for "the Bull") is one of the constellations of the zodiac, which means it is crossed by the plane of the ecliptic.

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TB Alert

TB Alert is the UK’s national tuberculosis charity: it is the only charity that focuses on TB both in the UK and overseas – in India, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Malawi.

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A teamster, in modern American English, is a truck driver, or a member of the International Brotherhood of Teamsters, a labor union in the United States and Canada.

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The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans.

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Texas Animal Health Commission

The Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC) is a state agency of Texas.

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Texas Longhorn

The Texas Longhorn is a breed of cattle known for its characteristic horns, which can extend to over tip to tip for bulls, and tip to tip for steers and exceptional cows.

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The Daily Telegraph

The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.

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The Economist

The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Wall Street Journal

The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.

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A thermoreceptor is a non-specialised sense receptor, or more accurately the receptive portion of a sensory neuron, that codes absolute and relative changes in temperature, primarily within the innocuous range.

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Trichophyton verrucosum

Trichophyton verrucosum, commonly known as the cattle ringworm fungus, is a dermatophyte largely responsible for fungal skin disease in cattle, but is also a common cause of ringworm in donkeys, dogs, goat, sheep, and horses.

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Tristan da Cunha

Tristan da Cunha, colloquially Tristan, is both a remote group of volcanic islands in the south Atlantic Ocean and the main island of that group.

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Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).

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Turek, Poland

Turek is a town in central Poland with 29 522 inhabitants.

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Turin (Torino; Turin) is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy.

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An udder is an organ formed of the mammary glands of female four-legged mammals, particularly ruminants such as cattle, goats, sheep and deer.

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Unconscious communication

Unconscious (or intuitive) communication is the subtle, unintentional, unconscious cues that provide information to another individual.

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Ungulates (pronounced) are any members of a diverse group of primarily large mammals that includes odd-toed ungulates such as horses and rhinoceroses, and even-toed ungulates such as cattle, pigs, giraffes, camels, deer, and hippopotami.

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Union of Concerned Scientists

The Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) is a nonprofit science advocacy organization based in the United States.

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United States Department of Agriculture

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.

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Urban legend

An urban legend, urban myth, urban tale, or contemporary legend is a form of modern folklore.

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Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.

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The uterus (from Latin "uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals.

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Veal is the meat of calves, in contrast to the beef from older cattle.

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The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.

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Veterinary surgery

Veterinary surgery is surgery performed on animals by veterinarians, whereby the procedures fall into three broad categories: orthopaedics (bones, joints, muscles), soft tissue surgery (skin, body cavities, cardiovascular system, GI/urogenital/respiratory tracts), and neurosurgery. Advanced surgical procedures such as joint replacement (total hip, knee and elbow replacement), fracture repair, stabilization of cranial cruciate ligament deficiency, oncologic (cancer) surgery, herniated disc treatment, complicated gastrointestinal or urogenital procedures, kidney transplant, skin grafts, complicated wound management, minimally invasive procedures (arthroscopy, laparoscopy, thoracoscopy) are performed by veterinary surgeons (as registered in their jurisdiction). Most general practice veterinarians perform routine surgery, some also perform additional procedures. The goal of veterinary surgery may be quite different in pets and in farm animals. In the former, the situation is more close to that with human beings, where the benefit to the patient is the important factor. In the latter, the economic benefit is more important.

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Vomeronasal organ

The vomeronasal organ (VNO), or the Jacobson's organ, is an auxiliary olfactory sense organ that is found in many animals.

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A wagon (also alternatively and archaically spelt waggon in British and Commonwealth English) is a heavy four-wheeled vehicle pulled by draught animals or on occasion by humans (see below), used for transporting goods, commodities, agricultural materials, supplies and sometimes people.

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Water buffalo

The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) or domestic Asian water buffalo is a large bovid originating in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and China.

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Weaning is the process of gradually introducing an infant mammal to what will be its adult diet and withdrawing the supply of its mother's milk.

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Western United States

The Western United States, commonly referred to as the American West, the Far West, or simply the West, traditionally refers to the region comprising the westernmost states of the United States.

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Working animal

A working animal is an animal, usually domesticated, that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks.

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Yangmingshan National Park is one of the nine national parks in Taiwan, located between Taipei and New Taipei City.

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Yogurt, yoghurt, or yoghourt (or; from yoğurt; other spellings listed below) is a food produced by bacterial fermentation of milk.

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A zebu (Bos primigenius indicus or Bos indicus or Bos taurus indicus), sometimes known as indicine cattle or humped cattle, is a species or subspecies of domestic cattle originating in the Indian Subcontinent.

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10th edition of Systema Naturae

The 10th edition of Systema Naturae is a book written by Carl Linnaeus and published in two volumes in 1758 and 1759, which marks the starting point of zoological nomenclature.

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1966 anti-cow slaughter agitation

In 1966, Hindu organisations agitated to demand a ban on the slaughter of cows in India, as enshrined in the Directive Principles of State Policy in the Constitution of India.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cattle

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