350 relations: Ahmadiyya, Airbus, Airbus A380, Airbus A400M Atlas, Albert Hardenberg, Albert II of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Albrecht von Wallenstein, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Alliance 90/The Greens, Allied-occupied Germany, Alternative for Germany, Anheuser-Busch, Anheuser-Busch InBev, Archbishopric of Bremen, Arnulf of Carinthia, Art museum, Art Nouveau, Association football, Astrium, Automotive industry, Azalea, ÖVB Arena, İzmir, Bad Bederkesa, Battle of Lutter, Böttcherstraße, Beck's Brewery, Beer sommelier, Bernhard Hoetger, Bielefeld, Birgittenkloster Bremen, Blockland, Bremen, Bombing of Bremen in World War II, Borgward, Botanical garden, Bouches-du-Weser, Bourgeoisie, Brandenburg-Prussia, Bremen, Bremen (state), Bremen Airport, Bremen Cathedral, Bremen City Hall, Bremen Cotton Exchange, Bremen Hauptbahnhof, Bremen Ratskeller, Bremen Roland, Bremen S-Bahn, Bremen Soviet Republic, Bremen TV tower, ..., Bremen-Hemelingen, Bremen-Vegesack, Bremen-Verden, Bremen/Oldenburg Metropolitan Region, Bremer Bank (German bank), Bremer Marktplatz, Bremer Straßenbahn, Bremer Woll-Kämmerei, Bremerhaven, Bremervörde Castle, Brigandage, Bronze sculpture, Brothers Grimm, Bus, Calvinism, Carillon, Carl Gustaf Wrangel, Carolingian dynasty, Carolingian Empire, Carsten Sieling, Cathedral chapter, Catholic Church, Catholic League (German), Charlemagne, Charles X Gustav of Sweden, Charles XI of Sweden, Chauci, Christian Democratic Union of Germany, Christian IV of Denmark, Christianization, Christina, Queen of Sweden, Church of Our Lady, Bremen, Citizens in Rage, Citizenship, City council, City gate, City University of Applied Sciences (Bremen), City-state, Cog (ship), Commander-in-chief, Congress of Vienna, County of Hoya, Cuxhaven, Daimler AG, Dalian, David, De facto, De jure, Debasement, Degenerate art, Delmenhorst, Denazification, Denmark, Die PARTEI, Diocesan administrator, Diocese, Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Duchy of Holstein, Duchy of Oldenburg, Dudley, Durban, Dutch Republic, Dutch Revolt, Edict of Restitution, Elbe–Weser triangle, Elmlohe, Enclave and exclave, Eric IV, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg, Eric V, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg, Essighaus, Estate (law), Estates of the realm, Ethnography, Evangelical Church of Bremen, Expressionist architecture, Fallturm Bremen, FC Bayern Munich, Feoffment, Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, Focke-Wulf, Forum am Wall, Franks, Franz Wilhelm von Wartenberg, Fraunhofer Society, Frederick I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, Free City of Lübeck, Free Democratic Party (Germany), Free imperial city, Freedom of religion, Freiburg im Breisgau, Freimarkt, Friedehorst Park, Gdańsk, Georg Wulf, Gerhard Marcks, German Empire, German Evangelical Church Assembly, German mediatization, Germanic peoples, Germany, Glockenspiel House, Goethe-Institut, Gothic architecture, Gothic art, Gregorian calendar, Guild, Hachez, Haifa, Hamburg, Hamme (river), Hanover, Hanseatic League, Hapag-Lloyd, Harbor, Hartwig of Uthlede, Haus der Stadtsparkasse (Bremen), Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres, Helmut Jahn, Henrich Focke, HIStory World Tour, Holstein, Holy Roman Empire, Homage (feudal), House of Habsburg, House of Welf, Human Environment Animal Protection, Imperial Diet (Holy Roman Empire), Imperial immediacy, International Mathematical Olympiad, Israel, Jacobs University Bremen, James VI and I, Johann Smidt, Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly, John Frederick of Holstein-Gottorp, Prince-Bishop, John IV, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg, Köppen climate classification, Kellogg's, Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Hanover, Kiss (band), Kleine Weser and Werdersee, Kraft Foods, Kunsthalle Bremen, Land Wursten, Landfill, Langwedel, Lashmer Whistler, Last Supper, Lüneburg, Left-wing politics, Leibniz Association, Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, Lesum, Lex Saxonum, Liberty (division), List of cities and towns in Germany, List of Frankish kings, List of German football champions, List of mayors of Bremen, List of the highest points of the German states, Low-energy house, Lower Rhenish–Westphalian Circle, Lower Saxon Circle, Lower Saxony, Ludwig Roselius, Lukavac, Lutheranism, Maracaibo, Martin Heidegger, Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Max Planck Society, Mediatisation, Mediumwave transmitter Bremen, Meissen porcelain, Melitta, Mercedes-Benz, Mercedes-Benz C-Class, Mercedes-Benz CLK-Class, Mercedes-Benz GLK-Class, Mercedes-Benz SL-Class, Mercedes-Benz SLK-Class, Michael Jackson, Middle Low German, Minden, Moses, Napoleon, National Democratic Party of Germany, Natural history, Neutral country, Norddeutscher Lloyd, Nordenham, Nordmende, North German Confederation, North Sea, Northern Germany, Nosferatu, Oak (wine), Oceanic climate, Ochtum, Odin, OHB SE, Old Style and New Style dates, Oldenburg, Osnabrück, Ottoman Empire, Overseas Museum, Bremen, Passive house, Paul the Apostle, Paula Modersohn-Becker, Peace of Westphalia, Personal union, Pirate Party Germany, Pope Gregory XIII, Ports of Bremen, Power (social and political), Prince-bishop, Principality of Lüneburg, Protestantism, Ptolemy, Public transport, Pune, Raths-Apotheke (Bremen), Rathscafé (Bremen), Reformation, Renaissance, Renaissance architecture, Rhododendron, Rhododendron-Park Bremen, Riga, Riga City Council, Riksdag, Rimbert, Rixdollar, Robber baron (feudalism), Roland, Rostock, Saint Peter, Satellite, Saxe-Lauenburg, Saxon Wars, Saxons, Schönebecker Aue, Schütting (Bremen), Schlachte (Bremen), Schnoor, Science, Self-defense, Senate of Bremen, Sibling-in-law, Sister city, Social Democratic Party of Germany, Sovereign immunity, St Catherine's Monastery, Bremen, St. Pauli Girl, Stade, Stadtwaage (Bremen), States of Germany, SV Werder Bremen, Sweden, Swedish Wars on Bremen, Tamra, Techno, The Left (Germany), Theology of Huldrych Zwingli, Thirty Years' War, Tourist attraction, Town Musicians of Bremen, Trams in Bremen, Treaty of 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Ahmadiyya (officially, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community or the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at; الجماعة الإسلامية الأحمدية, transliterated: al-Jamā'ah al-Islāmiyyah al-Aḥmadiyyah; احمدیہ مسلم جماعت) is an Islamic religious movement founded in Punjab, British India, in the late 19th century.
Airbus SE is a European corporation, registered in the Netherlands and trading shares in France, Germany and Spain.
The Airbus A380 is a double-deck, wide-body, four-engine jet airliner manufactured by multi-national manufacturer Airbus.
The Airbus A400M Atlas Airbus Military, 6 July 2012.
Albert Hardenberg or Albert Rizaeus (c. 1510 in Rheeze near Hardenberg – 18 May 1574 in Emden) was a Reformed theologian and Protestant reformer, who was also active as a reformer in Cologne, Bremen and Emden.
Albert II of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (died 14 April 1395) was Prince-Archbishop of Bremen in the years 1361–1395.
Albrecht Wenzel Eusebius von Wallenstein (Albrecht Václav Eusebius z Valdštejna; 24 September 158325 February 1634),Schiller, Friedrich.
The Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (German: Alfred-Wegener-Institut, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung) is located in Bremerhaven, Germany, and a member of the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres.
Alliance 90/The Greens, often simply Greens (Bündnis 90/Die Grünen or Grüne), is a green political party in Germany that was formed from the merger of the German Green Party (founded in West Germany in 1980 and merged with the East Greens in 1990) and Alliance 90 (founded during the Revolution of 1989–1990 in East Germany) in 1993.
Upon the defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II, the victorious Allies asserted their joint authority and sovereignty over 'Germany as a whole', defined as all territories of the former German Reich which lay west of the Oder–Neisse line, having declared the extinction of Nazi Germany at the death of Adolf Hitler (see 1945 Berlin Declaration).
Alternative for Germany (Alternative für Deutschland, AfD) is a right-wing to far-right political party in Germany.
Anheuser-Busch Companies, LLC is an American brewing company headquartered in St. Louis, Missouri.
Anheuser-Busch InBev SA/NV (abbreviated as AB InBev) is a Belgian-Brazilian transnational beverage and brewing company with global headquarters in Leuven, Belgium.
The Archdiocese of Bremen (also Archdiocese of Hamburg-Bremen, Erzbistum Bremen, not to be confused with the modern Archdiocese of Hamburg, founded in 1994) is a historical Roman Catholic diocese (787–1566/1648) and formed from 1180 to 1648 an ecclesiastical state (continued under other names until 1823), named Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen (Erzstift Bremen) within the Holy Roman Empire.
Arnulf of Carinthia (850 – December 8, 899) was the duke of Carinthia who overthrew his uncle, Emperor Charles the Fat, became the Carolingian king of East Francia from 887, the disputed King of Italy from 894 and the disputed Holy Roman Emperor from February 22, 896 until his death at Regensburg, Bavaria.
An art museum or art gallery is a building or space for the exhibition of art, usually visual art.
Art Nouveau is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts, that was most popular between 1890 and 1910.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Astrium was an aerospace manufacturer subsidiary of the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (EADS) that provided civil and military space systems and services from 2006 to 2013.
The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, development, manufacturing, marketing, and selling of motor vehicles, some of them are called automakers.
Azaleas are flowering shrubs in the genus Rhododendron, particularly the former sections Tsutsuji (evergreen) and Pentanthera (deciduous).
ÖVB Arena (originally Stadthalle Bremen, formerly Bremen-Arena and AWD-Dome) is the largest indoor arena in Bremen, Germany.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
İzmir is a metropolitan city in the western extremity of Anatolia and the third most populous city in Turkey, after Istanbul and Ankara.
Bad Bederkesa is a village and a former municipality in the district of Cuxhaven, in Lower Saxony, Germany.
The Battle of Lutter (Lutter am Barenberge) took place during the Thirty Years' War, on 27 August 1626 (17 August 1626 in the old Julian calendar), between the forces of the Lower Saxon Circle, combining mostly Protestant states, and led by its Circle Colonel Christian IV of Denmark, and the forces of the Catholic League.
Böttcherstraße is a street in the historic centre of Bremen, Germany.
Beck's Brewery, also known as Brauerei Beck & Co., is a brewery in the northern German city of Bremen.
A beer sommelier, also called a cicerone, is a trained professional who works in the hospitality and alcoholic beverage industry specializing in the service and knowledge of beer.
Bernhard Hoetger (4 May 1874 in Dortmund – 18 July 1949 in Interlaken) was a German sculptor, painter and handicrafts artist of the Expressionist movement.
Bielefeld is a city in the Ostwestfalen-Lippe Region in the north-east of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
The Birgittenkloster (Convent of Saint Birgitta) is a Bridgettine convent in Bremen, Germany, founded in October 2002.
The Bombing of Bremen in World War II by the British Royal Air Force and US Eighth Air Force targeted strategic targets in the state Free Hanseatic City of Bremen, which had heavy anti-aircraft artillery but only 35 fighter aircraft in the area.
The former Borgward car manufacturing company, based in Bremen, Germany, was founded by Carl F. W. Borgward (1890–1963).
A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms botanic and botanical and garden or gardens are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word botanic is generally reserved for the earlier, more traditional gardens.
Bouches-du-Weser ("Mouths of the Weser") was a department of the First French Empire in present-day Germany.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
Brandenburg-Prussia (Brandenburg-Preußen) is the historiographic denomination for the Early Modern realm of the Brandenburgian Hohenzollerns between 1618 and 1701.
The City Municipality of Bremen (Stadtgemeinde Bremen) is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany, which belongs to the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (also called just "Bremen" for short), a federal state of Germany.
The Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (Freie Hansestadt Bremen) is the smallest and least populous of Germany's 16 states.
Bremen Airport Hans Koschnick (German: Flughafen Bremen)) is the international airport of the city and state of Bremen in Northern Germany. It is located south of the city and handled 2.66 million passengers in 2015. It mainly features flights to European metropolitan and leisure destinations and serves as a base for Germania and Ryanair.
Bremen Cathedral (Bremer Dom or St.), dedicated to St. Peter, is a church situated in the market square in the center of Bremen, in northern Germany.
The Bremen City Hall is the seat of the President of the Senate and Mayor of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen.
The Bremen Cotton Exchange (Bremer Baumwollbörse) was built in 1902 on the market square in Bremen, Germany, to house the offices of the city's cotton exchange founded in 1872.
Bremen Hauptbahnhof (German for Bremen main station) is a railway station in the city of Bremen in northwestern Germany.
The Ratskeller around 1900 The Bremen Ratskeller is the council wine cellar (German: "Ratskeller") of the Townhall of Bremen.
The Bremen Roland is a statue of Roland, erected in 1404.
The Bremen S-Bahn (Regio-S-Bahn Bremen/Niedersachsen) is an S-Bahn network in Germany, covering the Bremen/Oldenburg Metropolitan Region, from Bremerhaven in the north to Twistringen in the south and Bad Zwischenahn and Oldenburg in the west.
The Bremen Soviet Republic was an unrecognised, short-lived state, existing for 25 days in 1919.
Bremen-Walle Telecommunication Tower (official designation of Bremen TV tower), which is not accessible for the public, is, just like the telecommunication tower at Münster and the Friedrich-Clemens-Gerke Tower in Cuxhaven, a reproduction of the telecommunication tower Kiel (draft: Architect dipl. Ing. Gerhard Kreisel and dipl. Ing. Guenter H. Mueller, Kiel).
Hemelingen is an eastern district of the city of Bremen.
Vegesack is a northern district of the city of Bremen.
Bremen-Verden, formally the Duchies of Bremen and Verden (Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden), were two territories and immediate fiefs of the Holy Roman Empire, which emerged and gained imperial immediacy in 1180. By their original constitution they were prince-bishoprics of the Archdiocese of Bremen and Bishopric of Verden. In 1648, both prince-bishoprics were secularised, meaning that they were transformed into hereditary monarchies by constitution, and from then on both the Duchy of Bremen and the Duchy of Verden were always ruled in personal union, initially by the royal houses of Sweden, the House of Vasa and the House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, and later by the House of Hanover. With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, Bremen-Verden's status as fiefs of imperial immediacy became void; as they had been in personal union with the neighbouring Kingdom of Hanover, they were incorporated into that state.
The European Metropolitan Region of Bremen/Oldenburg (Metropolregion Bremen/Oldenburg) is one of the eleven metropolitan regions in Germany.
The Bremer Bank was a fully owned subsidiary of the Dresdner Bank with branches in Bremen's districts Mitte (city center next to the Bremen Cathedral), Neustadt, Utbremen, and Vegesack.
The Bremer Marktplatz (Bremen Market Square) is a square situated in the centre of the Hanseatic City of Bremen, Germany.
Bremer Straßenbahn AG (translates from German as Bremen Tramways Corporation), often abbreviated BSAG, is the public transport provider for Bremen, Germany, offering tramway and bus services.
Bremer Woll-Kämmerei (BWK) is a worldwide operating company for manufacturing wool and trading in wool and similar products.
Bremerhaven (literally "Bremen's harbour", Low German: Bremerhoben) is a city at the seaport of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen, a state of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Bremervörde Castle (Schloss Bremervörde), also called Vörde Castle, in the German town of Bremervörde in northern Lower Saxony was the largest fortification in the region.
Brigandage is the life and practice of highway robbery and plunder.
Bronze is the most popular metal for cast metal sculptures; a cast bronze sculpture is often called simply a "bronze".
The Brothers Grimm (die Brüder Grimm or die Gebrüder Grimm), Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, were German academics, philologists, cultural researchers, lexicographers and authors who together collected and published folklore during the 19th century.
A bus (archaically also omnibus, multibus, motorbus, autobus) is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
A carillon is a musical instrument that is typically housed in the bell tower (belfry) of a church or municipal building.
Carl Gustaf Wrangel (also Carl Gustav Wrangel; 23 December 1613 – 5 July 1676) was a high-ranking Swedish noble, statesman and military commander in the Thirty Years', Torstenson, Bremen, Second Northern and Scanian Wars.
The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Carolings or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family founded by Charles Martel with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD.
The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages.
Carsten Günter Erich Sieling (born 13 January 1959) is a German politician of the SPD.
According to both Anglican and Catholic canon law, a cathedral chapter is a college of clerics (chapter) formed to advise a bishop and, in the case of a vacancy of the episcopal see in some countries, to govern the diocese during the vacancy.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic League (Liga Catholica, Katholische Liga) was a coalition of Catholic states of the Holy Roman Empire formed 10 July 1609.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
Charles X Gustav, also Carl Gustav (Karl X Gustav; 8 November 1622 – 13 February 1660), was King of Sweden from 1654 until his death.
Charles XI, also Carl (Karl XI; 24 November 1655old style – 5 April 1697old style), was King of Sweden from 1660 until his death in a period of Swedish history known as the Swedish Empire (1611–1718).
The Chauci (Chauken, and identical or similar in other regional modern languages) were an ancient Germanic tribe living in the low-lying region between the Rivers Ems and Elbe, on both sides of the Weser and ranging as far inland as the upper Weser.
The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands, CDU) is a Christian democratic and liberal-conservative political party in Germany.
Christian IV (Christian den Fjerde; 12 April 1577 – 28 February 1648), sometimes colloquially referred to as Christian Firtal in Denmark and Christian Kvart or Quart in Norway, was king of Denmark-Norway and Duke of Holstein and Schleswig from 1588 to 1648.
Christianization (or Christianisation) is the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire groups at once.
Christina (– 19 April 1689) reigned as Queen of Sweden from 1632 until her abdication in 1654.
The Church of Our Lady (Kirche Unser Lieben Frauen) is an Evangelical Protestant church situated northwest of the Market Square in Bremen, Germany.
Citizens in Rage (Bürger in Wut (BIW)) is a German right-wing populist voters' association represented in the state parliament of Bremen.
Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation.
A city council, town council, town board, or board of aldermen is the legislative body that governs a city, town, municipality, or local government area.
A city gate is a gate which is, or was, set within a city wall.
The City University of Applied Sciences (German: Hochschule Bremen) is a public Fachhochschule, a University of Applied Sciences located in Bremen, Germany.
A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.
A cog is a type of ship that first appeared in the 10th century, and was widely used from around the 12th century on.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.
The County of Hoya (German: Grafschaft Hoya) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire, located in the present German state of Lower Saxony.
Cuxhaven is an independent town and seat of the Cuxhaven district, in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Daimler AG is a German multinational automotive corporation.
Dalian is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning Province, China.
David is described in the Hebrew Bible as the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
In law and government, de jure (lit) describes practices that are legally recognised, whether or not the practices exist in reality.
Debasement is the practice of lowering the value of currency.
Degenerate art (Entartete Kunst) was a term adopted in the 1920s by the Nazi Party in Germany to describe modern art.
Delmenhorst is an urban district (Kreisfreie Stadt) in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Denazification (Entnazifizierung) was an Allied initiative to rid German and Austrian society, culture, press, economy, judiciary, and politics of any remnants of the National Socialist ideology (Nazism).
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
Die Partei für Arbeit, Rechtsstaat, Tierschutz, Elitenförderung und basisdemokratische Initiative (Party for Labour, Rule of Law, Animal Protection, Promotion of Elites and Grassroots Democratic Initiative), using the recursive acronym Die PARTEI (The PARTY), is a German political party that was founded in 2004 by the editors of the German satirical magazine Titanic.
A diocesan administrator is a provisional ordinary of a Roman Catholic particular church.
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration".
The Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Herzogtum Braunschweig-Lüneburg), or more properly the Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg, was an historical duchy that existed from the late Middle Ages to the Early Modern era within the Holy Roman Empire.
The Duchy of Holstein (Herzogtum Holstein, Hertugdømmet Holsten) was the northernmost state of the Holy Roman Empire, located in the present German state of Schleswig-Holstein.
The Duchy of Oldenburg (Herzogtum Oldenburg) — named after its capital, the town of Oldenburg — was a state in the north-west of present-day Germany.
Dudley is a large town in the county of West Midlands, England, south-east of Wolverhampton and north-west of Birmingham.
Durban (eThekwini, from itheku meaning "bay/lagoon") is the largest city in the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal and the third most populous in South Africa after Johannesburg and Cape Town.
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
The Dutch Revolt (1568–1648)This article adopts 1568 as the starting date of the war, as this was the year of the first battles between armies.
The Edict of Restitution, passed eleven years into the Thirty Years' War on March 6, 1629 following Catholic successes at arms, was a belated attempt by Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor to restore the religious and territorial situations reached in the Peace of Augsburg (1555), whose "Ecclesiastical Reservation" had impeded the secularization of Catholic church lands after 1555, so no further Catholic church lands could be converted to Protestant control.
The region between the Elbe and Weser rivers (the triangle of Bremen, Hamburg, and Cuxhaven) forms the Elbe–Weser triangle (Elbe-Weser-Dreieck), also rendered Elbe-Weser Triangle, in northern Germany.
Elmlohe is a village and a former municipality in the district of Cuxhaven, in Lower Saxony, Germany.
An enclave is a territory, or a part of a territory, that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state.
Eric IV of Saxe-Lauenburg (1354 – 21 June 1411 or 1412) was a son of Eric II, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg and Agnes of Holstein.
Eric V of Saxe-Lauenburg (died 1436) was a member of the House of Ascania; son of Duke Eric IV of Saxe-Lauenburg and Sophia of Brunswick-Lüneburg.
The Essighaus was an impressive gabled town house in the old town of Bremen in northern Germany.
An estate, in common law, is the net worth of a person at any point in time alive or dead.
The estates of the realm, or three estates, were the broad orders of social hierarchy used in Christendom (Christian Europe) from the medieval period to early modern Europe.
Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of people and cultures.
The Evangelical Church of Bremen (Bremische Evangelische Kirche) is a United Protestant member church of the Evangelical Church in Germany in the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen.
Expressionist architecture is an architectural movement in Europe during the first decades of the 20th century in parallel with the expressionist visual and performing arts that especially developed and dominated in Germany.
Fallturm Bremen is a drop tower at the Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity at the University of Bremen in Bremen.
Fußball-Club Bayern München e.V., commonly known as FC Bayern München, FCB, Bayern Munich, or FC Bayern, is a German sports club based in Munich, Bavaria (Bayern).
In the Middle Ages, especially under the European feudal system, feoffment or enfeoffment was the deed by which a person was given land in exchange for a pledge of service.
Ferdinand II (9 July 1578 – 15 February 1637), a member of the House of Habsburg, was Holy Roman Emperor (1619–1637), King of Bohemia (1617–1619, 1620–1637), and King of Hungary (1618–1637).
Ferdinand III (13 July 1608 – 2 April 1657) was Holy Roman Emperor from 15 February 1637 until his death, as well as King of Hungary and Croatia, King of Bohemia and Archduke of Austria.
Focke-Wulf Flugzeugbau AG was a German manufacturer of civil and military aircraft before and during World War II.
The Forum am Wall building in Bremen, Germany, dates from 1908 when it was constructed in the Neo-Renaissance style as the municipal police headquarters (Polizeihaus).
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
Franz Wilhelm, Count von Wartenberg (born at Munich, 1 March 1593; died at Ratisbon, 1 December 1661) was a Bavarian Catholic Bishop of Osnabrück, expelled from his see in the Thirty Years' War and later restored, and at the end of his life a Cardinal.
The Fraunhofer Society (Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e.V., "Fraunhofer Society for the Advancement of Applied Research") is a German research organization with 69institutes spread throughout Germany, each focusing on different fields of applied science (as opposed to the Max Planck Society, which works primarily on basic science).
Frederick (– 5 June 1400), a member of the House of Welf, was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruling Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel from 1373 until his death.
Frederick I (Friedrich I, Federico I; 1122 – 10 June 1190), also known as Frederick Barbarossa (Federico Barbarossa), was the Holy Roman Emperor from 2 January 1155 until his death.
The Free and Hanseatic City of Lübeck was a city-state from 1226 to 1937, in what is now the German states of Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
The Free Democratic Party (Freie Demokratische Partei, FDP) is a liberal and classical liberal political party in Germany.
In the Holy Roman Empire, the collective term free and imperial cities (Freie und Reichsstädte), briefly worded free imperial city (Freie Reichsstadt, urbs imperialis libera), was used from the fifteenth century to denote a self-ruling city that had a certain amount of autonomy and was represented in the Imperial Diet.
Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.
Freiburg im Breisgau (Alemannic: Friburg im Brisgau; Fribourg-en-Brisgau) is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, with a population of about 220,000.
Freimarkt (lit. Free Fair) in Bremen, Germany, first held in 1035, is one of the oldest fairs in Germany.
The Friedehorst Park (Friedehorstpark), also called the Lehnhof Park (Lehnhofpark), is a green space in the Bremen borough of Burglesum on the border of states of Bremen and Lower Saxony.
Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.
Georg Wulfwas a German aviation pioneer and aircraft manufacturer.
Gerhard Marcks (18 February 1889 – 13 November 1981) was a German artist, known primarily as a sculptor, but who is also known for his drawings, woodcuts, lithographs and ceramics.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
The German Protestant Church Assembly (German Deutscher Evangelischer Kirchentag, DEKT) is an assembly of lay members of the Evangelical Church in Germany that organises biannual events of faith, culture and political discussion.
German mediatization (deutsche Mediatisierung) was the major territorial restructuring that took place between 1802 and 1814 in Germany and the surrounding region by means of the mass mediatization and secularization of a large number of Imperial Estates.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Glockenspiel House (Haus des Glockenspiels) is a building in Bremen in the north of Germany.
The Goethe-Institut (GI, "Goethe Institute") is a non-profit German cultural association operational worldwide with 159 institutes, promoting the study of the German language abroad and encouraging international cultural exchange and relations.
Gothic architecture is an architectural style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages.
Gothic art was a style of medieval art that developed in Northern France out of Romanesque art in the 12th century AD, led by the concurrent development of Gothic architecture.
The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used civil calendar in the world.
A guild is an association of artisans or merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area.
Hachez is a chocolate manufacturing company based in Bremen in northern Germany.
Haifa (חֵיפָה; حيفا) is the third-largest city in Israel – after Jerusalem and Tel Aviv– with a population of in.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
The Hamme is a 48 km long river in Germany, Lower Saxony, north-east of Bremen.
Hanover or Hannover (Hannover), on the River Leine, is the capital and largest city of the German state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), and was once by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, under their title as the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later described as the Elector of Hanover).
The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.
Hapag-Lloyd is a multinational German-based transportation company.
A harbor or harbour (see spelling differences; synonyms: wharves, haven) is a sheltered body of water where ships, boats, and barges can be docked.
Hartwig of Uthlede (died 3 November 1207) was a German nobleman who – as Hartwig II – Prince-Archbishop of Bremen (1185–1190 and de facto again 1192–1207) and one of the originators of the Livonian Crusade.
Haus der Stadtsparkasse (Stadtsparkasse Building) is a Rococo landmark on the "Marktplatz" (Market Square) in Bremen, Germany.
The Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres (Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren) is the largest scientific organisation in Germany.
Helmut Jahn (born January 4, 1940) is a Chicago-based German-American architect, known for designs such as the Sony Center on the Potsdamer Platz in Berlin, Germany, the Messeturm in Frankfurt, Germany, the One Liberty Place in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (formerly the tallest building in Philadelphia), and the Suvarnabhumi Airport, an international airport in Bangkok, Thailand.
Henrich Focke (8 October 1890 – 25 February 1979) was a German aviation pioneer from Bremen and also a co-founder of the Focke-Wulf company.
The HIStory World Tour was the third and final worldwide solo concert tour by American artist Michael Jackson, covering Europe, Africa, Asia, Oceania and North America.
Holstein (Northern Low Saxon: Holsteen, Holsten, Latin and historical Holsatia) is the region between the rivers Elbe and Eider.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
Homage in the Middle Ages was the ceremony in which a feudal tenant or vassal pledged reverence and submission to his feudal lord, receiving in exchange the symbolic title to his new position (investiture).
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
The House of Welf (also Guelf or Guelph) is a European dynasty that has included many German and British monarchs from the 11th to 20th century and Emperor Ivan VI of Russia in the 18th century.
The Party Human Environment Animal Protection (Partei Mensch Umwelt Tierschutz, short form: Animal Protection Party, Tierschutzpartei) is a political party in Germany, founded in 1993.
The Imperial Diet (Dieta Imperii/Comitium Imperiale; Reichstag) was the deliberative body of the Holy Roman Empire.
Imperial immediacy (Reichsfreiheit or Reichsunmittelbarkeit) was a privileged constitutional and political status rooted in German feudal law under which the Imperial estates of the Holy Roman Empire such as Imperial cities, prince-bishoprics and secular principalities, and individuals such as the Imperial knights, were declared free from the authority of any local lord and placed under the direct ("immediate", in the sense of "without an intermediary") authority of the Emperor, and later of the institutions of the Empire such as the Diet (Reichstag), the Imperial Chamber of Justice and the Aulic Council.
The International Mathematical Olympiad (IMO) is an annual six-problem mathematical olympiad for pre-college students, and is the oldest of the International Science Olympiads.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Jacobs University Bremen (previously International University Bremen, IUB) is an international, private residential university in Vegesack in Bremen-Nord, Bremen, Germany.
James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.
Johann Smidt (November 5, 1773 – May 7, 1857) was an important Bremen politician, theologian, and founder of Bremerhaven.
Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly (Johan t'Serclaes; February 1559 – 30 April 1632) was a field marshal who commanded the Catholic League's forces in the Thirty Years' War.
John Frederick of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp (born 1 September 1579 in Gottorp, a part of today's Schleswig; died 3 September 1634 in, a part of today's Buxtehude) was the Lutheran Administrator of the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen, the Prince-Bishopric of Lübeck and the Prince-Bishopric of Verden.
John IV of Saxe-Lauenburg (*?–1414*) was a son of Duke Eric IV of Saxe-Lauenburg and Sophia of Brunswick-Lüneburg.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Kellogg's is a DBA for the Kellogg Company, an American multinational food-manufacturing company headquartered in Battle Creek, Michigan, United States.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Kingdom of Hanover (Königreich Hannover) was established in October 1814 by the Congress of Vienna, with the restoration of George III to his Hanoverian territories after the Napoleonic era.
Kiss (often stylized as KISS) is an American rock band formed in New York City in January 1973 by Paul Stanley, Gene Simmons, Peter Criss, and Ace Frehley.
Until 1968 the Kleine Weser and the Werdersee were part of the river Weser in Bremen, Germany.
Kraft Foods Group, Inc. is an American grocery manufacturing and processing conglomerate headquartered in the Chicago suburb of Northfield, Illinois, part of the Kraft Heinz Company.
The Kunsthalle Bremen is an art museum in Bremen, Germany.
Land Wursten is a former Samtgemeinde ("collective municipality") in the district of Cuxhaven, in Lower Saxony, Germany.
A landfill site (also known as a tip, dump, rubbish dump, garbage dump or dumping ground and historically as a midden) is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial.
Langwedel is a municipality in the district of Verden, in Lower Saxony, Germany.
General Sir Lashmer Gordon Whistler, 3 September 1898 – 4 July 1963), known as "Bolo", was a British Army officer who served in both the world wars. A junior officer during the First World War, during the Second World War he achieved senior rank serving with Field Marshal Sir Bernard Montgomery in North Africa and North-western Europe from 1942 to 1945. Montgomery considered that Whistler "was about the best infantry brigade commander I knew". In peacetime, his outstanding powers of leadership were shown in a series of roles in the decolonisation process, and he reached the four-star rank of a full general, without having attended the Staff College, Camberley, then considered almost essential for an officer wishing to attain high rank, and which a significant majority of the British generals of the war had attended. This, in Richard Mead's words, was "proof that lacking a Staff College qualification was no barrier to advancement for the right man."Mead (2007), p. 484.
The Last Supper is the final meal that, in the Gospel accounts, Jesus shared with his Apostles in Jerusalem before his crucifixion.
Lüneburg (officially the Hanseatic City of Lüneburg, German: Hansestadt Lüneburg,, Low German Lümborg, Latin Luneburgum or Lunaburgum, Old High German Luneburc, Old Saxon Hliuni, Polabian Glain), also called Lunenburg in English, is a town in the German state of Lower Saxony.
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.
The Leibniz Association (German: Leibniz-Gemeinschaft or Wissenschaftsgemeinschaft Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz) is a union of German non-university research institutes from various branches of study.
Leopold I (name in full: Leopold Ignaz Joseph Balthasar Felician; I.; 9 June 1640 – 5 May 1705) was Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary, Croatia, and Bohemia.
The Lesum is a long river in northern Germany, right tributary of the Weser, navigable for Class III ships.
The Lex Saxonum are a series of laws issued by Charlemagne between 782 and 803 as part of his plan to subdue the Saxon nation.
A liberty was an English unit originating in the Middle Ages, traditionally defined as an area in which regalian right was revoked and where the land was held by a mesne lord (i.e. an area in which rights reserved to the king had been devolved into private hands).
This is a complete list of the 2,060 towns and cities in Germany (as of January 1, 2018).
The Franks were originally led by dukes (military leaders) and reguli (petty kings).
The German football champions are the annual winners of the highest association football competition in Germany.
The Free Hanseatic City of Bremen, which is one of the states of Germany, is governed by the Senate of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen.
This list of the highest points of the German states shows the highest mountain or hill in each German federal state together with its height and links to lists of other mountains and hills.
A low-energy house is any type of house that from design, technologies and building products uses less energy, from any source, than a traditional or average contemporary house.
The Lower Rhenish–Westphalian Circle (Niederrheinisch-Westfälischer Reichskreis) was an Imperial Circle of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Lower Saxon Circle (Niedersächsischer Reichskreis) was an Imperial Circle of the Holy Roman Empire.
Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen, Neddersassen) is a German state (Land) situated in northwestern Germany.
Ludwig Roselius (2 June 1874 – 15 May 1943) was a German coffee merchant and founder of the company Kaffee HAG.
Lukavac is a town and municipality located in Tuzla Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Maracaibo is a city and municipality in northwestern Venezuela, on the western shore of the strait that connects Lake Maracaibo to the Gulf of Venezuela.
Martin Heidegger (26 September 188926 May 1976) was a German philosopher and a seminal thinker in the Continental tradition and philosophical hermeneutics, and is "widely acknowledged to be one of the most original and important philosophers of the 20th century." Heidegger is best known for his contributions to phenomenology and existentialism, though as the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy cautions, "his thinking should be identified as part of such philosophical movements only with extreme care and qualification".
The Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology is located in Bremen, Germany.
The Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science (Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e. V.; abbreviated MPG) is a formally independent non-governmental and non-profit association of German research institutes founded in 1911 as the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and renamed the Max Planck Society in 1948 in honor of its former president, theoretical physicist Max Planck.
In politics and law, mediatisation is the loss of immediacy, the status of persons not subject to local lords but only to a higher authority directly, such as the Holy Roman Emperor.
The Mediumwave Transmitter Bremen is the mediumwave broadcasting facility of Radio Bremen situated at Bremen-Oberneuland, Germany.
Meissen porcelain or Meissen china was the first European hard-paste porcelain.
Melitta is a Germany-based company selling coffee, paper coffee filters, and coffee makers, part of the Melitta Group, which also has Melitta branches in other countries world-wide.
Mercedes-Benz is a global automobile marque and a division of the German company Daimler AG.
The Mercedes-Benz C-Class is a line of compact executive cars produced by Daimler AG.
The Mercedes-Benz CLK-Class is a former series of mid-size or entry-level luxury coupés and convertibles produced by Mercedes-Benz between 1997 and 2010.
The Mercedes-Benz GLK (codename X204) is a compact luxury SUV that went on sale from the autumn of 2008 after its public debut at the 2008 Beijing Auto Show alongside the competing Audi Q5.
The Mercedes-Benz SL-Class is a grand touring car manufactured by Mercedes since 1954.
The Mercedes-Benz SLC-Class is a compact luxury roadster manufactured by Daimler-Benz in three generations; R170 launched in 1996, the R171 in 2004 and R172 in 2011.
Michael Joseph Jackson (August 29, 1958 – June 25, 2009) was an American singer, songwriter, and dancer.
Middle Low German or Middle Saxon (ISO 639-3 code gml) is a language that is the descendant of Old Saxon and the ancestor of modern Low German.
Minden is a town of about 83,000 inhabitants in the north-east of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Mosesמֹשֶׁה, Modern Tiberian ISO 259-3; ܡܘܫܐ Mūše; موسى; Mωϋσῆς was a prophet in the Abrahamic religions.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) is a far-right and ultranationalist political party in Germany.
Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals, fungi and plants in their environment; leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study.
A neutral country is a state, which is either neutral towards belligerents in a specific war, or holds itself as permanently neutral in all future conflicts (including avoiding entering into military alliances such as NATO).
Norddeutscher Lloyd (NDL) (North German Lloyd) was a German shipping company.
Nordenham is a town in the Wesermarsch district, in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Nordmende, originally from Bremen, Germany, is a trademark owned by Technicolor SA.
The North German Confederation (Norddeutscher Bund) was the German federal state which existed from July 1867 to December 1870.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
Northern Germany (Norddeutschland) is the region in the north of Germany whose exact area is not precisely or consistently defined.
Nosferatu, eine Symphonie des Grauens (translated as Nosferatu: A Symphony of Horror; or simply Nosferatu) is a 1922 German Expressionist horror film, directed by F. W. Murnau, starring Max Schreck as the vampire Count Orlok.
Oak is used in winemaking to vary the color, flavor, tannin profile and texture of wine.
An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.
The Ochtum is a left tributary of the Weser, roughly 26 km long, in Lower Saxony and Bremen (Germany).
In Germanic mythology, Odin (from Óðinn /ˈoːðinː/) is a widely revered god.
OHB SE is a European multinational technology corporation.
Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written.
Oldenburg is an independent city in the district of Oldenburg in the state of Lower Saxony, Germany.
Osnabrück (Ossenbrügge; archaic Osnaburg) is a city in the federal state of Lower Saxony in north-west Germany.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Overseas Museum in Bremen (Übersee Museum Bremen) is a Natural History and ethnographic museum in northern Germany.
Passive house (Passivhaus) is a rigorous, voluntary standard for energy efficiency in a building, which reduces the building's ecological footprint.
Paul the Apostle (Paulus; translit, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (translit; Saũlos Tarseús), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world.
Paula Modersohn-Becker (8 February 1876 – 30 November 1907) was a German painter and one of the most important representatives of early expressionism.
The Peace of Westphalia (Westfälischer Friede) was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster that virtually ended the European wars of religion.
A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.
The Pirate Party Germany (Piratenpartei Deutschland), commonly known as Pirates (German: Piraten), is a political party in Germany founded in September 2006 at c-base.
Pope Gregory XIII (Gregorius XIII; 7 January 1502 – 10 April 1585), born Ugo Boncompagni, was Pope of the Catholic Church from 13 May 1572 to his death in 1585.
The Ports of Bremen, Bremen Ports or Bremish Ports, in German "Bremische Häfen" consist of the commercial ports in Bremen and Bremerhaven.
In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behaviour of people.
A prince-bishop is a bishop who is also the civil ruler of some secular principality and sovereignty.
The Principality of Lüneburg (later also referred to as Celle) was a territorial division of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg within the Holy Roman Empire, immediately subordinate to the emperor.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, or mass transit) is transport of passengers by group travel systems available for use by the general public, typically managed on a schedule, operated on established routes, and that charge a posted fee for each trip.
Pune, formerly spelled Poona (1857–1978), is the second largest city in the Indian state of Maharashtra, after Mumbai.
The Raths-Apotheke (literally: Council Apothecary) is a listed building on the Market Square (Marktplatz) in Bremen, Germany.
The old Rathscafé (Town Council Café), now named Deutsches Haus, is a listed building on the market place (Marktplatz) in Bremen, Germany.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Renaissance architecture is the European architecture of the period between the early 14th and early 17th centuries in different regions, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture.
Rhododendron (from Ancient Greek ῥόδον rhódon "rose" and δένδρον déndron "tree") is a genus of 1,024 species of woody plants in the heath family (Ericaceae), either evergreen or deciduous, and found mainly in Asia, although it is also widespread throughout the highlands of the Appalachian Mountains of North America.
The Rhododendron-Park Bremen (46 hectares), also known as the Rhododendron-Park und Botanischer Garten Bremen or Botanika im Rhododendron-Park, is a major collection of rhododendrons and azaleas, as well as a substantial botanical garden (3.2 hectares), located at Deliusweg 40, Bremen, Bremen (state), Germany.
Riga (Rīga) is the capital and largest city of Latvia.
Riga City Council (Rīgas Dome) is the government of Riga City, the capital of Latvia.
The Riksdag (riksdagen or Sveriges riksdag) is the national legislature and the supreme decision-making body of Sweden.
Saint Rimbert (or Rembert) (Flanders, 830 – 11 June 888 in Bremen) was archbishop of Bremen-Hamburg from 865 until his death.
Rixdollar is the English term for silver coinage used throughout the European continent (Reichsthaler, rijksdaalder, rigsdaler, riksdaler).
A robber baron or robber knight (German Raubritter) was an unscrupulous feudal landowner who imposed high taxes and tolls out of keeping with the norm without authorization by some higher authority, while protected by his fief's legal status.
Roland (Frankish: *Hrōþiland; Latin: Hruodlandus, Rotholandus; died 15 August 778) was a Frankish military leader under Charlemagne who became one of the principal figures in the literary cycle known as the Matter of France.
Rostock is a city in the north German state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
Saint Peter (Syriac/Aramaic: ܫܸܡܥܘܿܢ ܟܹ݁ܐܦ݂ܵܐ, Shemayon Keppa; שמעון בר יונה; Petros; Petros; Petrus; r. AD 30; died between AD 64 and 68), also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, or Simon, according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Great Church.
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
The Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg (Herzogtum Sachsen-Lauenburg, called Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony) between the 14th and 17th centuries), was a reichsfrei duchy that existed 1296–1803 and 1814–1876 in the extreme southeast region of what is now Schleswig-Holstein.
The Saxon Wars, also called the Saxon War or Saxon Uprising (not to be confused with the Saxon Rebellion of 1073-75), were the campaigns and insurrections of the more than thirty years from 772, when Charlemagne first entered Saxony with the intent to conquer, to 804, when the last rebellion of disaffected tribesmen was crushed.
The Saxons (Saxones, Sachsen, Seaxe, Sahson, Sassen, Saksen) were a Germanic people whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, Saxonia) near the North Sea coast of what is now Germany.
The Schönebecker Aue is a geest stream in Bremen and Lower Saxony, Germany.
The Schütting, situated on the Marktplatz (market square) in Bremen, Germany, initially served the city's merchants and tradesmen as a guild house.
The Schlachte is a promenade along the east bank of the River Weser in the old town of Bremen in the north of Germany.
Schnoor is a neighbourhood in the medieval centre of the German city of Bremen, and the only part of it that has preserved a medieval character.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Self-defence (self-defense in some varieties of English) is a countermeasure that involves defending the health and well-being of oneself from harm.
The Senate of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (German: Senat der Freien Hansestadt Bremen) is the government of the German city-state Free Hanseatic City of Bremen.
David and Jonathan, sworn friends and confidants, became brothers-in-law when David married Jonathan's sister Michal. One's sibling-in-law is one's spouse's sibling, or one's sibling's spouse, or ones's spouse's sibling's spouse. By gender, this is specified as brother-in-law for one's spouse's brother, one's sibling's husband, or one's spouse's sibling's husband, and sister-in-law for the one's spouse's sister, one's sibling's wife, or one's spouse's sibling's wife. Just like other affines, or "in-laws", siblings-in-law are related by a type of kinship called affinity. Just like the children of one's siblings, the children of one's siblings-in-law are called simply ''nieces'' and ''nephews'' – if necessary, specified whether "by marriage", as opposed to "by blood" or "by adoption". One study, examining the issue of envy in the triadic system of sibling, sibling-in-law and spouse, concluded that "The sibling-in-law relationship shared similarities with both spousal and sibling relationships" and that "Relational closeness and satisfaction for all relationships in the triad were correlated." In Islamic law (shariʿa) and Jewish law (halakhah) sexual relations between siblings-in-law are prohibited as incestuous, unless the spouse is no longer married. Conversely, in Judaism there was the custom of yibbum, whereby a man had a non-obligatory duty to wed his deceased brother's childless widow so she might have progeny by him. If one pair of siblings is married to another pair of siblings, the siblings-in-law are thus doubly-related, each of the four both through one's spouse and through one's sibling, while the children of the two couples are double cousins.
Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.
The Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD) is a social-democratic political party in Germany.
Sovereign immunity, or crown immunity, is a legal doctrine by which the sovereign or state cannot commit a legal wrong and is immune from civil suit or criminal prosecution.
St Catherine's Monastery (St.-Katharinen-Kloster) in Bremen, Germany, was founded in 1253 by the Dominicans.
Stade is a city in Lower Saxony in northern Germany.
The Stadtwaage (weigh house) at No.
Germany is a federal republic consisting of sixteen states (Land, plural Länder; informally and very commonly Bundesland, plural Bundesländer).
Sportverein Werder Bremen von 1899 e. V., commonly known as Werder Bremen, is a German sports club located in Bremen in the northwest German federal state Free Hanseatic City of Bremen.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
The Swedish Wars on Bremen were fought between the Swedish Empire and the Hanseatic town of Bremen in 1654 and 1666.
Tamra (طمرة, טַמְרָה or) is an Arab city in the North District of Israel located in the Lower Galilee north of the city of Shefa-'Amr and approximately east of Acre.
Techno is a form of electronic dance music that emerged in Detroit, Michigan, in the United States during the mid-to-late 1980s.
The Left (Die Linke), also commonly referred to as the Left Party (die Linkspartei), is a democratic socialist political party in Germany.
The theology of Huldrych Zwingli was based on the Bible, taking scripture as the inspired word of God and placing its authority higher than what he saw as human sources such as the ecumenical councils and the church fathers.
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.
A tourist attraction is a place of interest where tourists visit, typically for its inherent or exhibited natural or cultural value, historical significance, natural or built beauty, offering leisure and amusement.
The "Town Musicians of Bremen" (Die Bremer Stadtmusikanten) is a popular fairy tale retrieved and recorded by the Brothers Grimm.
The Bremen tramway network (Straßenbahnnetz Bremen) is a network of tramways forming part of the public transport system in Bremen, Germany.
The Treaty of Habenhausen was the result of peace negotiations after the Second Swedish war on Bremen between Sweden and the city of Bremen.
Twistringen is a town in the district of Diepholz, Lower Saxony, Germany.
A united church, also called a uniting church, is a church formed from the merger or other form of union of two or more different Protestant denominations.
The University of Bremen (German Universität Bremen) is a public university in Bremen, Germany, with approximately 23,500 people from 115 countries.
The University of the Arts Bremen (German: Hochschule für Künste Bremen, HfK Bremen) is a public university in Bremen, Germany.
The Universum Bremen is a science museum in Bremen, Germany.
A vassal is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe.
Vector Foiltec is a business using transparent plastic (ETFE) cushions filled with air as an architectural cladding technology.
The historic territory of Verden emerged from the Monarchs of the Frankish Diocese of Verden in the area of present-day central and northeastern Lower Saxony and existed as such until 1648.
Verden an der Aller, also called Verden (Aller) or simply Verden, is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany, on the river Aller.
Viertel (literally "quarter") is a centrally located neighborhood in the city of Bremen, Germany.
The War of the Lüneburg Succession (Lüneburger Erbfolgekrieg) was a conflict over the succession to the Principality of Lüneburg that broke out in 1370 in north Germany and lasted, with interruptions, for 18 years.
The Wümme is a river in northern Germany.
A weigh house or weighing house is a public building at or within which goods are weighed.
Werner Naumann (16 June 1909 – 25 October 1982) was State Secretary in Joseph Goebbels' Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda during the Third Reich.
The Weser is a river in Northwestern Germany.
The Weser Tower is a multistorey building in Bremen, designed by the American architect of German origin Helmut Jahn.
Weserstadion is a multi-purpose stadium in Bremen, Germany.
The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages (the others being the North Germanic and the extinct East Germanic languages).
West Low German, also known as Low Saxon (Niedersächsisch or Westniederdeutsch; literally: Nether-saxon; Nedersassisch, Nedersaksies, Platduuts, Plat(t); Nedersaksisch) is a group of Low German (also Low Saxon; German: Niederdeutsch or Plattdeutsch, Dutch: Nederduits) dialects spoken in parts of the Netherlands, northwestern Germany and southern Denmark (in North Schleswig by the German minority).
Widukind, also known as Widuking or Wittekind, was a leader of the Saxons and the chief opponent of the Frankish king Charlemagne during the Saxon Wars from 777 to 785.
Carl Wilhelm Kaisen (22 May 1887 – 19 December 1979) was a German politician from the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD).
Willehad or Willihad (Willehadus/Willihadus); 745 AD 8 November 789 AD) was a Christian missionary and the Bishop of Bremen from 787 AD. Willehad was born in Northumbria and probably received his education at York under Ecgbert. A friend of Alcuin he was ordained after his education and, about the year 766, he went to Frisia, preaching at Dokkum and in Overijssel, to continue the missionary work of Boniface who had been martyred by the Frisians in 754. At an assembly in Paderborn in 777, Saxony was divided into missionary zones. The zone between the Weser and the Elbe, called Wigmodia, was given to Willehad. From 780 he preached in the region of the lower Weser River on commission from Charlemagne. He barely escaped with his life when the Frisians wanted to kill him as well and he returned to the area around Utrecht. Once again he and his fellow missionaries barely escaped with their lives when the local pagans wanted to kill them for destroying some temples. Finally, in 780, Charlemagne sent him to evangelize the Saxons. He preached to them for two years but, in 782, the Saxons under Widukind, rebelled against Charlemagne and Willehad was forced to flee to Frisia. He took the opportunity to travel to Rome where he reported to Pope Adrian I on his work. Upon his return from Rome, Willehad retired for a time to the monastery of Echternach, in present-day Luxembourg. He spent two years there reassembling his missionary team. After Charlemagne's conquest of the Saxons, Willehad preached in the region about the lower Elbe and the lower Weser. In 787 Willehad was consecrated bishop, and that part of Saxony and Friesland about the mouth of the Weser assigned him for his diocese. He chose as his see the city of Bremen, which is mentioned for the first time in documents of 782, and built there a cathedral. Praised for its beauty by Anschar, it was dedicated in 789. Willehad died in Blexen upon Weser, today a part of Nordenham. He is buried in the city's cathedral, which he consecrated shortly before his death on 8 November 789. Anschar compiled a life of Willehad, and the preface which he wrote was considered a masterpiece for that age. In 860, a sick girl from Wege (Weyhe) travelled to his grave. There, she was reportedly cured by a miracle. This was the first time the small village was mentioned in any historical documents.
Windhoek (Windhuk; ǀAiǁgams; Otjomuise) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Namibia.
A wine cellar is a storage room for wine in bottles or barrels, or more rarely in carboys, amphorae, or plastic containers.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
The 3rd (United Kingdom) Division, known at various times as the Iron Division, 3rd (Iron) Division, Monty's Iron Sides or as Iron Sides;Delaforce is a regular army division of the British Army.
Bremen (city), Bremen enclave, Bremen, Germany, Freee Hanseatic City of Bremen, Geography of Bremen, Hanseatic city of Bremen, Hills of Bremen, History of Bremen, Krähenberg, Bremen, Rönnebeck, Schwachhausen, UN/LOCODE:DEBRE.