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Index Lutheranism

Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian. [1]

384 relations: Abraham Calovius, Adam and Eve, Aegidius Hunnius, Altar rails, Anathema, Anglicanism, Apology of the Augsburg Confession, Apostles' Creed, Athanasian Creed, Augsburg Confession, Augsburg Fortress, Augsburg Interim, August Friedrich Christian Vilmar, August Hermann Francke, Austria, Awakening (Finnish religious movement), Baptism, Bartholomäus Ziegenbalg, Bell tower, Beta Sigma Psi, Biblical apocrypha, Biblical Hebrew, Biblical inspiration, Body of Doctrine, Book of Concord, Brazil, Breviary, Brill Publishers, Calvinism, Cambridge University Press, Cameroon, Canada, Catechism, Catholic Church, Catholic–Lutheran dialogue, Central African Republic, Chad, Change ringing, Charles Porterfield Krauth, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Chorale, Christ (title), Christian angelology, Christian apologetics, Christian Cyclopedia, Christian III of Denmark, Christian mission, Christian mysticism, Christian Scriver, Christian views on Hell, ..., Christian Wolff (philosopher), Christian Worship: A Lutheran Hymnal, Christianity, Church of England, Church of Sweden, Church of the Lutheran Brethren of America, Church of the Lutheran Confession, Church Order (Lutheran), Clarity of scripture, Closed communion, Common table prayer, Compline, Concordia Publishing House, Concupiscence, Confession (Lutheran Church), Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference, Confessional Lutheranism, Consubstantiation, Contemporary worship, Contemporary worship music, Conventicle, Copenhagen, Council of Trent, Creed, Croatia, Crypto-Calvinism, Cuius regio, eius religio, Czech Republic, Daily devotional, Damnation, Danish language, David Hollatz (dogmatician), Decision theology, Declaratio Ferdinandei, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, Denmark–Norway, Development of doctrine, Didacticism, Diet of Worms, Divine right of kings, Ecumenical council, Ecumenical creeds, Ecumenism, Episcopal Church (United States), Episcopal polity, Ernst Wilhelm Hengstenberg, Estonia, Ethiopia, Eucharist, Eucharist in Lutheranism, Evangelical Church in Germany, Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, Evangelical Lutheran General Synod of the United States of America, Evangelical Lutheran Synod, Evangelical Lutheran Synodical Conference of North America, Evangelical Lutheran Worship, Evangelicalism, Evangelisch-Lutherische Gebetsbruderschaft, Ex opere operato, Examination of the Council of Trent, Excommunication, Faroe Islands, Finland, Finnish language, First Communion, Folk high school, Formal and material principles of theology, Formula of Concord, Fort Apache Indian Reservation, France, Franz Pieper, Frederick I of Denmark, Frederick William III of Prussia, Free church, Free will in theology, Freemasonry, Friar, Friedrich Julius Stahl, Full communion, Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft, General Council of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in North America, Georg Calixtus, George Forell, German Americans, German Christians, German Evangelical Church, German Evangelical Church Confederation, German idealism, German language, Germans, Germany, Gnesio-Lutherans, God the Father, God the Son, God's Word Is Our Great Heritage, Good works, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Gottlieb Christoph Adolf von Harless, Greenland, Gustav I of Sweden, Hans Nielsen Hauge, Hans Tausen, Harper (publisher), Haugean movement, Heinrich Müller (theologian), Heresy, High Church Lutheranism, Historical criticism, Historical-grammatical method, Holy Roman Emperor, Holy Roman Empire, Holy Spirit, Huldrych Zwingli, Hungary, Hymn, Hypostatic union, Iceland, Immanuel Kant, Imputed righteousness, Incarnation (Christianity), Incurvatus in se, India, Indifferentism, Indonesia, Industrialisation, Infant baptism, Inner mission, International Lutheran Council, Japan, Jesper Brochmand, Jesper Swedberg, Joachim Lütkemann, Johann Arndt, Johann Conrad Dannhauer, Johann Eck, Johann Friedrich König, Johann Georg Hamann, Johann Gerhard, Johann Gottfried Herder, Johann Hülsemann, Johann Konrad Wilhelm Löhe, Johann Melchior Goeze, Johann Sebastian Bach, Johann Wilhelm Baier, Johannes Andreas Quenstedt, Johannes Gezelius the younger, John Calvin, John Robinson (bishop of London), Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification, Josquin des Prez, Junker, Justification (theology), Karl Graul, Kazakhstan, Kenneth Scott Latourette, Kenya, Koine Greek, Laestadianism, Laity, Lars Levi Laestadius, Latvia, Laurentius Petri, Law and Gospel, Lay confession, Leipzig Debate, Leonhard Hutter, Liberal Christianity, List of Lutheran churches, List of Lutheran clergy, List of Lutheran colleges and universities in the United States, List of Lutheran denominations, List of Lutheran denominations in North America, List of Lutheran dioceses and archdioceses, List of Lutheran schools in Australia, Liturgy, Ludwig Senfl, Luther Bible, Luther's Large Catechism, Luther's Small Catechism, Lutheran Book of Worship, Lutheran Church of Australia, Lutheran Church of China, Lutheran Church–Canada, Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod, Lutheran Council in the United States of America, Lutheran orthodoxy, Lutheran scholasticism, Lutheran school, Lutheran Service Book, Lutheran World Federation, Lutheran World Relief, Lutheran Worship, Madagascar, Magisterium, Malawi, Malaysia, Martin Chemnitz, Martin Luther, Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg, Martin Moller, Marxism, Mary, mother of Jesus, Matins in Lutheranism, Matthias Flacius, Megachurch, Memorialism, Metal Mass, Middle Colonies, Mikael Agricola, Millennialism, Monergism, Moravian Church in North America, N. F. S. Grundtvig, Namibia, National church, Neo-feudalism, Neo-Lutheranism, Neology, Netherlands, New Testament, Nicene Creed, Nicolaus Hunnius, Nigeria, Ninety-five Theses, North Dakota District (LCMS), Norway, Norwegian language, Obsequium religiosum, Olaus Petri, Old Lutherans, Old Testament, Open communion, Paavo Ruotsalainen, Papua New Guinea, Patriotism, Peace of Augsburg, Peace of Passau, Pentecostalism, Pew Research Center, Philip Melanchthon, Philipp Spener, Philippine Independent Church, Philippists, Pietism, Poland, Pope, Portals of Prayer, Porvoo Communion, Postil, Predestination, Presbyterian Church (USA), Protestant Church in the Netherlands, Protestantism, Prussian Union of Churches, Rationalism, Real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, Reformation, Reformation in Denmark–Norway and Holstein, Reformed Church in America, Roman Curia, Roman Empire, Romanticism, Rule of Faith, Sacrament, Sacramental bread, Sacramental union, Sacramentarians, Sacred tradition, Salomo Glassius, Samuel Simon Schmucker, San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation, Scandinavia, Scandinavian Americans, Schmalkaldic League, Schmalkaldic War, Scholastic Lutheran Christology, Scholasticism, Se Wsi Testamenti, Seal of the Confessional (Lutheran Church), Second Vatican Council, Secularization, Serbia, Silesia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Smalcald Articles, Society of Jesus, Sola fide, Sola gratia, Sola scriptura, South Africa, South Wisconsin District (LCMS), Spiritual death, St. Catherine's Church, Hamburg, State religion, Stephan Praetorius, Stockholm Bloodbath, Stole (vestment), Sunday school, Superintendent (ecclesiastical), Sweden, Swedish language, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Ten Commandments, Testimony, The gospel, The Lutheran Hymnal, Theodor Kliefoth, Theology of Martin Luther, Thirty Years' War, Total depravity, Transubstantiation, Trinity, Ubiquitarians, Unitarianism, United and uniting churches, United Church of Christ, United Evangelical Lutheran Church of Germany, United Kingdom, United Methodist Church, United States, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, University of Helmstedt, University of Jena, Upper Midwest, Uppsala Synod, Valentin Ernst Löscher, Vespers in Lutheranism, War of the Fourth Coalition, Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod, Zimbabwe. Expand index (334 more) »

Abraham Calovius

Abraham Calovius (also Abraham Calov or Abraham Kalau; 16 April 161225 February 1686) was a Lutheran theologian, and was one of the champions of Lutheran orthodoxy in the 17th century.

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Adam and Eve

Adam and Eve, according to the creation myth of the Abrahamic religions, were the first man and woman.

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Aegidius Hunnius

Aegidius Hunnius the Elder (21 December 1550 in Winnenden – 4 April 1603 in Wittenberg) was a Lutheran theologian of the Lutheran scholastic tradition and father of Nicolaus Hunnius.

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Altar rails

The altar rail (also known as a communion rail or chancel rail) is a low barrier, sometimes ornate and usually made of stone, wood or metal in some combination, delimiting the chancel or the sanctuary and altar in a church, from the nave and other parts that contain the congregation.

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Anathema, in common usage, is something or someone that is detested or shunned.

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Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.

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Apology of the Augsburg Confession

The Apology of the Augsburg Confession was written by Philipp Melanchthon during and after the 1530 Diet of Augsburg as a response to the Pontifical Confutation of the Augsburg Confession, Charles V's commissioned official Roman Catholic response to the Lutheran Augsburg Confession of June 25, 1530.

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Apostles' Creed

The Apostles' Creed (Latin: Symbolum Apostolorum or Symbolum Apostolicum), sometimes entitled Symbol of the Apostles, is an early statement of Christian belief—a creed or "symbol".

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Athanasian Creed

The Athanasian Creed, also known as Pseudo-Athanasian Creed or Quicunque Vult (also Quicumque Vult), is a Christian statement of belief focused on Trinitarian doctrine and Christology.

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Augsburg Confession

The Augsburg Confession, also known as the Augustan Confession or the Augustana from its Latin name, Confessio Augustana, is the primary confession of faith of the Lutheran Church and one of the most important documents of the Lutheran Reformation.

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Augsburg Fortress

Augsburg Fortress is the official publishing house of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA), also publishing for the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada (ELCIC) as Augsburg Fortress Canada.

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Augsburg Interim

The Augsburg Interim ("Declaration of His Roman Imperial Majesty on the Observance of Religion Within the Holy Empire Until the Decision of the General Council") was an imperial decree ordered on 15 May 1548 at the 1548 Diet of Augsburg by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, who had just defeated the forces of the Protestant Schmalkaldic League in the Schmalkaldic War of 1546/47.

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August Friedrich Christian Vilmar

August Friedrich Christian Vilmar, German Neo-Lutheran theologian; born at Solz (near Rotenburg, 78 m. NE of Frankfurt) November 21, 1800; died at Marburg July 30, 1868.

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August Hermann Francke

August Hermann Francke (22 March 1663, Lübeck8 June 1727, Halle) was a German Lutheran clergyman, philanthropist, and Biblical scholar.

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Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.

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Awakening (Finnish religious movement)

The Awakening (herännäisyys or körttiläisyys) is a Lutheran religious movement in Finland which has found followers in the provinces of Savo and Ostrobothnia.

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Baptism (from the Greek noun βάπτισμα baptisma; see below) is a Christian sacrament of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity.

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Bartholomäus Ziegenbalg

Bartholomäus Ziegenbalg (10 July 1682 – 23 February 1719) was a member of the Lutheran clergy and the first Pietist missionary to India.

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Bell tower

A bell tower is a tower that contains one or more bells, or that is designed to hold bells even if it has none.

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Beta Sigma Psi

Beta Sigma Psi (ΒΣΨ), commonly known as Beta Sig is a United States-based fraternity, and the oldest Christian fraternity globally.

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Biblical apocrypha

The Biblical apocrypha (from the Greek ἀπόκρυφος, apókruphos, meaning "hidden") denotes the collection of apocryphal ancient books found in some editions of Christian Bibles in a separate section between the Old and New Testaments or as an appendix after the New Testament.

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Biblical Hebrew

Biblical Hebrew (rtl Ivrit Miqra'it or rtl Leshon ha-Miqra), also called Classical Hebrew, is an archaic form of Hebrew, a Canaanite Semitic language spoken by the Israelites in the area known as Israel, roughly west of the Jordan River and east of the Mediterranean Sea.

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Biblical inspiration

Biblical inspiration is the doctrine in Christian theology that the authors and editors of the Bible were led or influenced by God with the result that their writings may be designated in some sense the word of God.

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Body of Doctrine

Body of Doctrine (Latin: Corpus doctrinae) in Protestant theology of the 16th and 17th centuries is the anthology of the confessional or credal writings of a group of Christians with a common confession of faith.

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Book of Concord

The Book of Concord or Concordia (often, Lutheran Confessions is appended to or substituted for the title) (1580) is the historic doctrinal standard of the Lutheran Church, consisting of ten credal documents recognized as authoritative in Lutheranism since the 16th century.

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Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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The Breviary (Latin: breviarium) is a book in many Western Christian denominations that "contains all the liturgical texts for the Office, whether said in choir or in private." Historically, different breviaries were used in the various parts of Christendom, such as Aberdeen Breviary, Belleville Breviary, Stowe Breviary and Isabella Breviary, although eventually the Roman Breviary became the standard within the Roman Catholic Church.

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Brill Publishers

Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.

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Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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No description.

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Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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A catechism (from κατηχέω, "to teach orally") is a summary or exposition of doctrine and serves as a learning introduction to the Sacraments traditionally used in catechesis, or Christian religious teaching of children and adult converts.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Catholic–Lutheran dialogue

Catholic–Lutheran dialogue is a series of discussions which began during July 1964 as an outgrowth of the Second Vatican Council.

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Central African Republic

The Central African Republic (CAR; Sango: Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka; République centrafricaine, or Centrafrique) is a landlocked country in Central Africa.

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Chad (تشاد; Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad ("Republic of the Chad"), is a landlocked country in Central Africa.

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Change ringing

Change ringing is the art of ringing a set of tuned bells in a controlled manner to produce variations in their striking sequences.

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Charles Porterfield Krauth

Charles Porterfield Krauth (March 17, 1823 – January 2, 1883) was a pastor, theologian and educator in the Lutheran branch of Christianity.

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Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor

Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.

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Chorale is the name of several related musical forms originating in the music genre of the Lutheran chorale.

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Christ (title)

In Christianity, Christ (Greek Χριστός, Christós, meaning "the anointed one") is a title for the saviour and redeemer who would bring salvation to the Jewish people and humanity.

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Christian angelology

In Christianity, angels are agents of God, based on angels in Judaism.

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Christian apologetics

Christian apologetics (ἀπολογία, "verbal defence, speech in defence") is a branch of Christian theology that attempts to defend Christianity against objections.

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Christian Cyclopedia

Christian Cyclopedia (originally Lutheran Cyclopedia) is a one-volume compendium of theological data, ranging from ancient figures to contemporary events.

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Christian III of Denmark

Christian III (12 August 1503 – 1 January 1559) reigned as King of Denmark from 1534 until his death, and King of Norway from 1537 until his death.

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Christian mission

A Christian mission is an organized effort to spread Christianity.

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Christian mysticism

Christian mysticism refers to the development of mystical practices and theory within Christianity.

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Christian Scriver

Christian Scriver (2 January 1629 – 5 April 1693) was a German Lutheran minister and devotional writer.

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Christian views on Hell

In Christian theology, Hell is the place or state into which by God's definitive judgment unrepentant sinners pass either immediately after death (particular judgment) or in the general judgment.

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Christian Wolff (philosopher)

Christian Wolff (less correctly Wolf,; also known as Wolfius; ennobled as Christian Freiherr von Wolff; 24 January 1679 – 9 April 1754) was a German philosopher.

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Christian Worship: A Lutheran Hymnal

Christian Worship: A Lutheran Hymnal (CW) is the newest official hymnal of the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod (WELS).

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ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Church of England

The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.

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Church of Sweden

The Church of Sweden (Svenska kyrkan) is an Evangelical Lutheran national church in Sweden.

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Church of the Lutheran Brethren of America

The Church of the Lutheran Brethren of America (CLBA) is a Lutheran denomination of Christians rooted in a spiritual awakening at the turn of the 20th century.

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Church of the Lutheran Confession

The Church of the Lutheran Confession (CLC) is a conservative Christian religious body theologically adhering to confessional Lutheran doctrine.

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Church Order (Lutheran)

The Church Order or Church Ordinance (Kirchenordnung) means the general ecclesiastical constitution of a State Church.

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Clarity of scripture

The doctrine of the clarity of Scripture (often called the perspicuity of Scripture) is a Protestant Christian position teaching that "...those things which are necessary to be known, believed, and observed, for salvation, are so clearly propounded and opened in some place of Scripture or other, that not only the learned, but the unlearned, in a due use of the ordinary means, may attain unto a sufficient understanding of them".

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Closed communion

Closed communion is the practice of restricting the serving of the elements of Holy Communion (also called Eucharist, The Lord's Supper) to those who are members in good standing of a particular church, denomination, sect, or congregation.

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Common table prayer

The Common Table Prayer is probably the best known mealtime prayer among North American Lutherans.

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Compline, also known as Complin, Night Prayer, or the Prayers at the End of the Day, is the final church service (or office) of the day in the Christian tradition of canonical hours.

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Concordia Publishing House

Concordia Publishing House (CPH), founded in 1869, is the official publishing arm of the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod.

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Concupiscence (from Late Latin noun concupiscentia, from the Latin verb concupiscere, from con-, "with", here an intensifier, + cupi(d)-, "desiring" + -escere, a verb-forming suffix denoting beginning of a process or state) is an ardent, usually sensual, longing.

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Confession (Lutheran Church)

In the Lutheran Church, Confession (also called Holy Absolution) is the method given by Christ to the Church by which individual men and women may receive the forgiveness of sins; according to the Large Catechism, the "third sacrament" of Holy Absolution is properly viewed as an extension of Holy Baptism.

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Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference

The Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference (CELC) is an international conference of Confessional Lutheran national churches.

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Confessional Lutheranism

Confessional Lutheranism is a name used by Lutherans to designate those who accept the doctrines taught in the Book of Concord of 1580 (the Lutheran confessional documents) in their entirety because (quia) they are completely faithful to the teachings of the Bible.

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Consubstantiation is a Christian theological doctrine that (like Transubstantiation) describes the Real Presence in the Eucharist.

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Contemporary worship

Contemporary worship is a form of Christian worship that emerged within Western evangelical Protestantism in the 20th century.

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Contemporary worship music

Contemporary worship music (CWM), also known as praise and worship music, is a defined genre of Christian music used in contemporary worship.

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A conventicle is a small, unofficial and unofficiated religious meeting of laypeople.

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Copenhagen (København; Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark.

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Council of Trent

The Council of Trent (Concilium Tridentinum), held between 1545 and 1563 in Trent (or Trento, in northern Italy), was an ecumenical council of the Catholic Church.

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A creed (also known as a confession, symbol, or statement of faith) is a statement of the shared beliefs of a religious community in the form of a fixed formula summarizing core tenets.

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Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.

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Crypto-Calvinism is a pejorative term describing a segment of German members of the Lutheran Church accused of secretly subscribing to Calvinist doctrine of the Eucharist in the decades immediately after the death of Martin Luther in 1546.

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Cuius regio, eius religio

Cuius regio, eius religio is a Latin phrase which literally means "Whose realm, his religion", meaning that the religion of the ruler was to dictate the religion of those ruled.

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Czech Republic

The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.

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Daily devotional

Daily devotionals are publications which provide a specific spiritual reading for each calendar day.

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Damnation (from Latin damnatio) is the concept of divine punishment and torment in an afterlife for actions that were committed on Earth.

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Danish language

Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.

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David Hollatz (dogmatician)

David Hollatz, Lutheran dogmatician; born at Wulkow, near Stargard (34 km ESE of Stettin), in Pomerania, 1648; died at Jakobshagen (24 km E of Stargard) 17 April 1713.

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Decision theology

Decision theology is the belief by some fundamentalist and evangelical sects of Christianity that individuals must make a conscious decision to "accept" and follow Christ (be "born again").

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Declaratio Ferdinandei

The Declaratio Ferdinandei (Declaration of Ferdinand) was a clause in the Peace of Augsburg, signed in 1555 to end conflicts between Catholics and Protestants within the Holy Roman Empire.

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Democratic Republic of the Congo

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.

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Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.

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Denmark–Norway (Danish and Norwegian: Danmark–Norge or Danmark–Noreg; also known as the Oldenburg Monarchy or the Oldenburg realms) was an early modern multi-national and multi-lingual real unionFeldbæk 1998:11 consisting of the Kingdom of Denmark, the Kingdom of Norway (including Norwegian overseas possessions the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Greenland, et cetera), the Duchy of Schleswig, and the Duchy of Holstein.

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Development of doctrine

Development of doctrine is a term used by John Henry Newman and other theologians influenced by him to describe the way Catholic teaching has become more detailed and explicit over the centuries, while later statements of doctrine remain consistent with earlier statements.

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Didacticism is a philosophy that emphasizes instructional and informative qualities in literature and other types of art.

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Diet of Worms

The Diet of Worms 1521 (Reichstag zu Worms) was an imperial diet (assembly) of the Holy Roman Empire held at the Heylshof Garden in Worms, then an Imperial Free City of the Empire.

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Divine right of kings

The divine right of kings, divine right, or God's mandate is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy.

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Ecumenical council

An ecumenical council (or oecumenical council; also general council) is a conference of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological experts convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice in which those entitled to vote are convoked from the whole world (oikoumene) and which secures the approbation of the whole Church.

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Ecumenical creeds

Ecumenical creeds is an umbrella term used in the Western Church to refer to the Nicene Creed, the Apostles' Creed and, less commonly, the Athanasian Creed.

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Ecumenism refers to efforts by Christians of different Church traditions to develop closer relationships and better understandings.

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Episcopal Church (United States)

The Episcopal Church is the United States-based member church of the worldwide Anglican Communion.

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Episcopal polity

An episcopal polity is a hierarchical form of church governance ("ecclesiastical polity") in which the chief local authorities are called bishops.

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Ernst Wilhelm Hengstenberg

Ernst Wilhelm Theodor Herrmann Hengstenberg (20 October 1802, in Fröndenberg – 28 May 1869, in Berlin), was a German Lutheran churchman and neo-Lutheran theologian from an old and important Dortmund family.

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Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.

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Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.

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The Eucharist (also called Holy Communion or the Lord's Supper, among other names) is a Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches and an ordinance in others.

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Eucharist in Lutheranism

The Eucharist in the Lutheran Church (also called the Mass, the Sacrament of the Altar, the Lord's Supper, the Lord's Table, Holy Communion, the Breaking of the Bread and the Blessed SacramentAn Explanation of Luther's Small Catechism, (LCMS), question 285") Retrieved 2009-08-18.

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Evangelical Church in Germany

The Evangelical Church in Germany (Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland, abbreviated EKD) is a federation of twenty Lutheran, Reformed (Calvinist) and United (Prussian Union) Protestant regional churches and denominations in Germany, which collectively encompasses the vast majority of Protestants in that country.

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Evangelical Lutheran Church in America

The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) is a mainline Protestant denomination headquartered in Chicago, Illinois.

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Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland

The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland (Suomen evankelis-luterilainen kirkko; Evangelisk-lutherska kyrkan i Finland) is a national church of Finland.

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Evangelical Lutheran General Synod of the United States of America

The Evangelical Lutheran General Synod of the United States of America, commonly known as the General Synod, was a historical Lutheran denomination in the United States.

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Evangelical Lutheran Synod

The Evangelical Lutheran Synod (ELS) is a US-based Protestant Christian denomination based in Mankato, Minnesota.

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Evangelical Lutheran Synodical Conference of North America

The Evangelical Lutheran Synodical Conference of North America (Die Evangelisch-lutherischen Synodal-Conferenz von Nord-Amerika), often known as the Synodical Conference, was an association of Lutheran synods that professed a complete adherence to the Lutheran Confessions and doctrinal unity with each other.

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Evangelical Lutheran Worship

Evangelical Lutheran Worship (ELW) is the current primary liturgical and worship guidebook and hymnal for use in the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada, replacing its predecessor, the Lutheran Book of Worship (LBW) of 1978, and its supplements, Hymnal Supplement 1991 (published by GIA Publications, a Roman Catholic publishing house) and With One Voice (WOV) (published in 1995 by Augsburg Fortress, the ELCA's publishing house).

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Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.

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Evangelisch-Lutherische Gebetsbruderschaft

Evangelisch-Lutherische Gebetsbruderschaft (Evangelical Lutheran Prayer Brotherhood) is a German Lutheran religious society for men and women, based on the doctrines of the Holy Bible and Book of Concord, with regular prayer for the renewal and unity of the Church.

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Ex opere operato

Ex opere operato is a Latin phrase meaning "from the work worked" referring to sacraments deriving their power from Christ's work (ex opere operato Christi) rather than the role of humans.

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Examination of the Council of Trent

Examination of the Council of Trent (Latin: Examen Concilii Tridentini, 1565–73) is a large theological work of Lutheran Reformer Martin Chemnitz.

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Excommunication is an institutional act of religious censure used to deprive, suspend, or limit membership in a religious community or to restrict certain rights within it, in particular receiving of the sacraments.

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Faroe Islands

The Faroe Islands (Føroyar; Færøerne), sometimes called the Faeroe Islands, is an archipelago between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic, about halfway between Norway and Iceland, north-northwest of Scotland.

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Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.

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Finnish language

Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.

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First Communion

First Communion is a ceremony in some Christian traditions during which a person first receives the Eucharist.

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Folk high school

Folk high schools (Danish: Folkehøjskole; Dutch: Volkshogeschool; Finnish: kansanopisto and työväenopisto or kansalaisopisto; German: Volkshochschule and (a few) Heimvolkshochschule; Norwegian: Folkehøgskole; Swedish: Folkhögskola; Hungarian: népfőiskola) are institutions for adult education that generally do not grant academic degrees, though certain courses might exist leading to that goal.

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Formal and material principles of theology

Formal principle and material principle are two categories in Christian theology to identify and distinguish the authoritative source of theology (formal principle) from the theology itself, especially the central doctrine of that theology (material principle), of a religion, religious movement, tradition, body, denomination, or organization.

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Formula of Concord

Formula of Concord (1577) (German, Konkordienformel; Latin, Formula concordiae; also the "Bergic Book" or the "Bergen Book") is an authoritative Lutheran statement of faith (called a confession, creed, or "symbol") that, in its two parts (Epitome and Solid Declaration), makes up the final section of the Lutheran Corpus Doctrinae or Body of Doctrine, known as the Book of Concord (most references to these texts are to the original edition of 1580).

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Fort Apache Indian Reservation

The Fort Apache Indian Reservation is an Indian reservation in Arizona, United States, encompassing parts of Navajo, Gila, and Apache counties.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Franz Pieper

Franz August Otto Pieper (June 27, 1852 – June 3, 1931) was a Confessional Lutheran theologian.

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Frederick I of Denmark

Frederick I (7 October 1471 – 10 April 1533) was the King of Denmark and Norway.

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Frederick William III of Prussia

Frederick William III (Friedrich Wilhelm III) (3 August 1770 – 7 June 1840) was king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840.

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Free church

A "free church" is a Christian denomination or independent church that is intrinsically separate from government (as opposed to a theocracy, or an "established" or state church).

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Free will in theology

Free will in theology is an important part of the debate on free will in general.

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Freemasonry or Masonry consists of fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients.

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A friar is a brother member of one of the mendicant orders founded since the twelfth or thirteenth century; the term distinguishes the mendicants' itinerant apostolic character, exercised broadly under the jurisdiction of a superior general, from the older monastic orders' allegiance to a single monastery formalized by their vow of stability.

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Friedrich Julius Stahl

Friedrich Julius Stahl (16 January 1802 – 10 August 1861), German constitutional lawyer, political philosopher and politician.

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Full communion

Full communion is a communion or relationship of full understanding among different Christian denominations that they share certain essential principles of Christian theology.

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Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft

Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft, generally translated as "community and society", are categories which were used by the German sociologist Ferdinand Tönnies in order to categorize social ties into two dichotomous sociological types which define each other.

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General Council of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in North America

The General Council of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in North America, or, in brief, the General Council was a conservative Lutheran church body, formed as a reaction against the new "Americanized Lutheranism" of Samuel Simon Schmucker and the Evangelical Lutheran General Synod of the United States of North America.

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Georg Calixtus

Georg Calixtus, Kallisøn/Kallisön, or Callisen (14 December 1586 – 19 March 1656) was a German Lutheran theologian who looked to reconcile all Christendom by removing all unimportant differences.

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George Forell

George Wolfgang Forell (September 19, 1919 – April 29, 2011) was the Carver Distinguished Chair of Religion in the Department of Religious Studies at the University of Iowa.

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German Americans

German Americans (Deutschamerikaner) are Americans who have full or partial German ancestry.

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German Christians

German Christians (Deutsche Christen) was a pressure group and a movement within the German Evangelical Church that existed between 1932 and 1945, aligned towards the antisemitic, racist and Führerprinzip ideological principles of Nazism with the goal to align German Protestantism as a whole towards those principles.

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German Evangelical Church

The German Evangelical Church (Deutsche Evangelische Kirche) was a successor to the German Evangelical Church Confederation from 1933 until 1945.

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German Evangelical Church Confederation

The German Evangelical Church Confederation (Deutscher Evangelischer Kirchenbund, abbreviated DEK) was a formal federation of 28 regional Protestant churches (Landeskirchen) of Lutheran, Reformed or United Protestant administration or confession.

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German idealism

German idealism (also known as post-Kantian idealism, post-Kantian philosophy, or simply post-Kantianism) was a philosophical movement that emerged in Germany in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Gnesio-Lutherans (from Greek γνήσιος: genuine, authentic) is a modern name for a theological party in the Lutheran churches, in opposition to the Philippists after the death of Martin Luther and before the Formula of Concord.

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God the Father

God the Father is a title given to God in various religions, most prominently in Christianity.

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God the Son

God the Son (Θεός ὁ υἱός) is the second person of the Trinity in Christian theology.

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God's Word Is Our Great Heritage

God's Word Is Our Great Heritage, is the title of a popular hymn sung in many churches, especially the Lutheran Church.

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Good works

In Christian theology, good works, or simply works, are a person's (exterior) actions or deeds, in contrast to inner qualities such as grace or faith.

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Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (or; Leibnitz; – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.

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Gottlieb Christoph Adolf von Harless

Gottlieb Christoph Adolf von Harless (von Harleß; 21 November 1806 – 5 September 1879), was a German Lutheran theologian.

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Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

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Gustav I of Sweden

Gustav I, born Gustav Eriksson of the Vasa noble family and later known as Gustav Vasa (12 May 1496 – 29 September 1560), was King of Sweden from 1523 until his death in 1560, previously self-recognised Protector of the Realm (Riksföreståndare) from 1521, during the ongoing Swedish War of Liberation against King Christian II of Denmark, Norway and Sweden.

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Hans Nielsen Hauge

Hans Nielsen Hauge (3 April 1771 – 29 March 1824) was a 19th-century Norwegian Lutheran lay minister, spiritual leader, business entrepreneur, social reformer and author.

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Hans Tausen

Hans Tausen (Tavsen) (1494 – 11 November 1561) was the leading Lutheran theologian of the Danish Reformation in Denmark.

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Harper (publisher)

Harper is an American publishing house, currently the flagship imprint of global publisher HarperCollins.

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Haugean movement

The Haugean movement or Haugeanism (haugianere) was a Pietistic state church reform movement intended to bring new life and vitality into the Church of Norway which had been often characterized by formalism and lethargy.

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Heinrich Müller (theologian)

Heinrich Müller (18 October 1631 – 13/23 September 1675) was a German devotional author, Protestant author of hymns and Lutheran theologian.

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Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization.

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High Church Lutheranism

High Church Lutheranism is a movement which began in 20th-century Europe that emphasizes worship practices and doctrines that are similar to those found within both Roman Catholicism and the Anglo-Catholic wing of Anglicanism.

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Historical criticism

Historical criticism, also known as the historical-critical method or higher criticism, is a branch of criticism that investigates the origins of ancient texts in order to understand "the world behind the text".

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Historical-grammatical method

The historical-grammatical method is a Christian hermeneutical method that strives to discover the biblical authors' original intended meaning in the text.

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Holy Roman Emperor

The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).

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Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.

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Holy Spirit

Holy Spirit (also called Holy Ghost) is a term found in English translations of the Bible that is understood differently among the Abrahamic religions.

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Huldrych Zwingli

Huldrych Zwingli or Ulrich Zwingli (1 January 1484 – 11 October 1531) was a leader of the Reformation in Switzerland.

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Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.

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A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification.

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Hypostatic union

Hypostatic union (from the Greek: ὑπόστασις hypóstasis, "sediment, foundation, substance, subsistence") is a technical term in Christian theology employed in mainstream Christology to describe the union of Christ's humanity and divinity in one hypostasis, or individual existence.

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Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.

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Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.

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Imputed righteousness

Imputed righteousness is a concept in Christian theology proposing that the "righteousness of Christ...

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Incarnation (Christianity)

In Christian theology, the doctrine of the Incarnation holds that Jesus, the preexistent divine Logos (Koine Greek for "Word") and the second hypostasis of the Trinity, God the Son and Son of the Father, taking on a human body and human nature, "was made flesh" and conceived in the womb of Mary the Theotokos (Greek for "God-bearer"). The doctrine of the Incarnation, then, entails that Jesus Christ is fully God and fully human, his two natures joined in hypostatic union.

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Incurvatus in se

Incurvatus in se (Latin for Turned/curved inward on oneself) is a theological phrase describing a life lived "inward" for oneself rather than "outward" for God and others.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indifferentism, in the Roman Catholic faith, is the belief held by some that no one religion or philosophy is superior to another.

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Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.

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Industrialisation or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.

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Infant baptism

Infant baptism is the practice of baptising infants or young children.

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Inner mission

The Inner Mission (Innere Mission, also translated as Home Mission) was and is a movement of German evangelists, set up by Johann Hinrich Wichern in Wittenberg in 1848 based on a model of Theodor Fliedner.

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International Lutheran Council

The International Lutheran Council is a worldwide association of confessional Lutheran denominations.

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Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Jesper Brochmand

Jesper Rasmussen Brochmand (5 August 1585 - 19 April 1652) was a Danish Lutheran clergyman, theologian and professor who served as Bishop of the Diocese of Zealand.

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Jesper Swedberg

Jesper Swedberg (28 August 1653 (O.S)–26 July 1735 (N.S)) was a bishop of Skara, Sweden.

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Joachim Lütkemann

Joachim Lütkemann (15 December 1608, Demmin - 18 October 1655, Wolfenbüttel) was a German Lutheran theologian and writer of devotional literature.

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Johann Arndt

Johann Arndt (or Arnd; 27 December 155511 May 1621) was a German Lutheran theologian who wrote several influential books of devotional Christianity.

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Johann Conrad Dannhauer

Johann Conrad Dannhauer (b. at Köndringen (10 m. n. of Freiburg) 24 March 1603; d. at Strasburg 7 November 1666) was an Orthodox Lutheran theologian and teacher of Spener.

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Johann Eck

Johann Maier von Eck (13 November 1486 – 13 February 1543), often Anglicized as John Eck, was a German Scholastic theologian, Catholic prelate, and early counterreformer who was among Martin Luther's most important interlocutors and theological opponents.

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Johann Friedrich König

Johann Friedrich König (also: Köning; * 16 October 1619 in Dresden; † 15 September 1664 in Rostock) was a German Lutheran theologian, since 1656 he was professor at the university of Rostock.

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Johann Georg Hamann

Johann Georg Hamann (27 August 1730 – 21 June 1788) was a German philosopher, whose work was used by his student J. G. Herder as a main support of the Sturm und Drang movement, and associated by historian of ideas Isaiah Berlin with the Counter-Enlightenment.

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Johann Gerhard

Johannes Gerhard (17 October 1582 – 17 August 1637) was a Lutheran church leader and Lutheran Scholastic theologian during the period of Orthodoxy.

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Johann Gottfried Herder

Johann Gottfried (after 1802, von) Herder (25 August 174418 December 1803) was a German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic.

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Johann Hülsemann

Johann Hülsemann (4 December 1602 – 13 June 1661) was a German Lutheran theologian.

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Johann Konrad Wilhelm Löhe

Johann Konrad Wilhelm Löhe (21 February 1808 – 2 January 1872) (often rendered 'Loehe') was a pastor of the Lutheran Church, Neo-Lutheran writer, and is often regarded as being a founder of the deaconess movement in Lutheranism and a founding sponsor of the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod (LCMS).

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Johann Melchior Goeze

Johann Melchior Goeze (born October 16, 1717 in Halberstadt, †May 19, 1786 in Hamburg, epithet: Zionswächter, i.e. Zion's Guardian) was a Lutheran pastor and theologian during the period of Late Orthodoxy.

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Johann Sebastian Bach

Johann Sebastian Bach (28 July 1750) was a composer and musician of the Baroque period, born in the Duchy of Saxe-Eisenach.

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Johann Wilhelm Baier

Johann Wilhelm Baier (11 November 1647 – 19 October 1695) was Lutheran theologian of the seventeenth century in the Lutheran scholastic tradition.

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Johannes Andreas Quenstedt

Johannes Andreas Quenstedt (13 August 1617 – 22 May 1688) was a German Lutheran dogmatician in the Lutheran scholastic tradition.

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Johannes Gezelius the younger

Johannes Gezelius the younger (AD 1647 in Dorpat – AD 1718 in Uppland), was a theologian, professor in The Royal Academy of Åbo and also superintendent of Livonia as his father had been.

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John Calvin

John Calvin (Jean Calvin; born Jehan Cauvin; 10 July 150927 May 1564) was a French theologian, pastor and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation.

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John Robinson (bishop of London)

John Robinson (7 November 1650 – 11 April 1723) was an English diplomat and prelate.

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Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification

The Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification (JDDJ) is a document created, and agreed to, by the Catholic Church's Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity (PCPCU) and the Lutheran World Federation in 1999, as a result of extensive ecumenical dialogue.

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Josquin des Prez

Josquin des Prez (– 27 August 1521), often referred to simply as Josquin, was a French composer of the Renaissance.

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Junker (Junker, Scandinavian: Junker, Jonkheer, Yunker) is a noble honorific, derived from Middle High German Juncherre, meaning "young nobleman"Duden; Meaning of Junker, in German.

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Justification (theology)

In Christian theology, justification is God's act of removing the guilt and penalty of sin while at the same time making a sinner righteous through Christ's atoning sacrifice.

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Karl Graul

Karl Graul (6 February 1814, in Wörlitz – 10 November 1864, in Erlangen) was a leader of Leipzig Lutheran mission and a Tamil scholar.

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Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.

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Kenneth Scott Latourette

Kenneth Scott Latourette (August 6, 1884 – December 26, 1968) was an American historian of China, Japan, and world Christianity.

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Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.

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Koine Greek

Koine Greek,.

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Laestadianism, also known as Laestadian Lutheranism and Apostolic Lutheranism, is a conservative Lutheran revival movement started in Lapland in the middle of the 19th century.

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A layperson (also layman or laywoman) is a person who is not qualified in a given profession and/or does not have specific knowledge of a certain subject.

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Lars Levi Laestadius

Lars Levi Laestadius (10 January 1800 – 21 February 1861) was a Swedish Sami pastor and administrator of the Swedish state Lutheran church in Lapland who founded the Laestadian pietist revival movement to help his largely Sami congregations, who were being ravaged by alcoholism.

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Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.

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Laurentius Petri

Laurentius Petri Nericius (1499 – 27 October 1573) was a Swedish clergyman and the first Evangelical Lutheran Archbishop of Sweden.

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Law and Gospel

In Protestant Christianity, the relationship between Law and Gospel—God's Law and the Gospel of Jesus Christ—is a major topic in Lutheran and Reformed theology.

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Lay confession

Lay confession is confession in the religious sense, made to a lay person.

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Leipzig Debate

The Leipzig Debate (Leipziger Disputation) was a theological disputation originally between Andreas Karlstadt, Martin Luther, Philipp Melanchthon, and Johann Eck.

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Leonhard Hutter

Leonhard Hutter (also Hütter, Latinized as Hutterus; 19 January 1563 – 23 October 1616) was a German Lutheran theologian.

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Liberal Christianity

Liberal Christianity, also known as liberal theology, covers diverse philosophically and biblically informed religious movements and ideas within Christianity from the late 18th century onward.

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List of Lutheran churches

This is a list of Lutheran churches that are notable either as congregations or as buildings.

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List of Lutheran clergy

This is a listing of the major offices within the Lutheran churches, as well as significant individual Lutheran clergy.

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List of Lutheran colleges and universities in the United States

This is a list of higher education Lutheran colleges and universities in the US.

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List of Lutheran denominations

Lutheran denominations are Protestant church bodies that identify, to a greater or lesser extent, with the theology of Martin Luther and with the writings contained in the Book of Concord.

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List of Lutheran denominations in North America

Over 40 different Lutheran denominations currently exist in North America.

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List of Lutheran dioceses and archdioceses

This is a List of Lutheran dioceses and archdioceses currently active, grouped by national (or regional) church, and showing the titles of the bishops of those dioceses.

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List of Lutheran schools in Australia

Lutheran schools in Australia are educational institutions set up under or affiliated to the Lutheran Church of Australia.

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Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group, according to its beliefs, customs and traditions.

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Ludwig Senfl

Ludwig Senfl (born around 1486, died between December 2, 1542 and August 10, 1543) was a Swiss composer of the Renaissance, active in Germany.

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Luther Bible

The Luther Bible (Lutherbibel) is a German language Bible translation from Hebrew and ancient Greek by Martin Luther.

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Luther's Large Catechism

Luther's Large Catechism (Der Große Katechismus) is a catechism by Martin Luther.

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Luther's Small Catechism

Luther's Small Catechism (Der Kleine Katechismus) is a catechism written by Martin Luther and published in 1529 for the training of children.

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Lutheran Book of Worship

The Lutheran Book of Worship (LBW) is a worship book and hymnal used by several Lutheran denominations in North America.

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Lutheran Church of Australia

The Lutheran Church of Australia (LCA) is the major Lutheran denomination in Australia and New Zealand.

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Lutheran Church of China

The Lutheran Church of China (LCC) was a Lutheran church body in China from 1920 to 1951.

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Lutheran Church–Canada

Lutheran Church–Canada (LCC) is a confessional Lutheran denomination in Canada.

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Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod

The Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod (LCMS), often referred to simply as the Missouri Synod, is a traditional, confessional Lutheran denomination in the United States.

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Lutheran Council in the United States of America

The Lutheran Council in the United States of America was an ecumenical organization of American Lutherans that existed from 1967 to 1988.

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Lutheran orthodoxy

Lutheran orthodoxy was an era in the history of Lutheranism, which began in 1580 from the writing of the Book of Concord and ended at the Age of Enlightenment.

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Lutheran scholasticism

Lutheran scholasticism was a theological method that gradually developed during the era of Lutheran Orthodoxy.

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Lutheran school

Lutheran schools and education were a priority for Lutherans who migrated to the United States and Australia from Germany and Scandinavia.

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Lutheran Service Book

Lutheran Service Book (LSB) is the newest official hymnal of the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod (LCMS) and the Lutheran Church–Canada (LCC).

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Lutheran World Federation

The Lutheran World Federation (LWF; Lutherischer Weltbund) is a global communion of national and regional Lutheran churches headquartered in the Ecumenical Centre in Geneva, Switzerland.

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Lutheran World Relief

Lutheran World Relief (LWR) is an international non-governmental organization that focuses on sustainable development projects and disaster relief and recovery.

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Lutheran Worship

Lutheran Worship (LW) is one of the official hymnals of The Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod.

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Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.

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The magisterium of the Catholic Church is the church's authority or office to establish teachings.

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Malawi (or; or maláwi), officially the Republic of Malawi, is a landlocked country in southeast Africa that was formerly known as Nyasaland.

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Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.

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Martin Chemnitz

Martin Chemnitz (9 November 1522 – 8 April 1586) was an eminent second-generation German Lutheran theologian, reformer, churchman, and confessor.

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Martin Luther

Martin Luther, (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.

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Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg

The Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg (Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg), also referred to as MLU, is a public, research-oriented university in the cities of Halle and Wittenberg in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.

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Martin Moller

Martin Moller (10 November 1547, Ließnitz – 2 March 1606, Görlitz) was a German poet and mystic.

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Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.

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Mary, mother of Jesus

Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.

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Matins in Lutheranism

In the Lutheran Church, Matins is a morning-time liturgical order combining features that were found in the Medieval orders of Matins, Lauds, and Prime.

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Matthias Flacius

Matthias Flacius Illyricus (Latin; Matija Vlačić Ilirik) (3 March 1520 – 11 March 1575) was a Lutheran reformer from Istria, present day Croatia.

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A megachurch is a Christian church having 2,000 or more people in average weekend attendance.

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Memorialism is the belief held by some Christian denominations that the elements of bread and wine (or juice) in the Eucharist (more often referred to as The Lord's Supper by memorialists) are purely symbolic representations of the body and blood of Jesus, the feast being established only or primarily as a commemorative ceremony.

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Metal Mass

Metal Mass (in Finnish, Metallimessu) is a heavy metal music service of worship.

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Middle Colonies

The Middle Colonies were four of the thirteen colonies in British America, located between the New England Colonies and the Southern Colonies.

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Mikael Agricola

Mikael Agricola (c. 1510 – 9 April 1557) was a Lutheran clergyman who became the de facto founder of literary Finnish and a prominent proponent of the Protestant Reformation in Sweden, including Finland, which was a Swedish territory at the time.

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Millennialism (from millennium, Latin for "a thousand years"), or chiliasm (from the Greek equivalent), is a belief advanced by some Christian denominations that a Golden Age or Paradise will occur on Earth in which Christ will reign for 1000 years prior to the final judgment and future eternal state (the "World to Come") of the New Heavens and New Earth.

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Monergism is the view within Christian theology which holds that God works through the Holy Spirit to bring about the salvation of an individual through spiritual regeneration, regardless of the individual's cooperation.

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Moravian Church in North America

The Moravian Church in North America is part of the worldwide Moravian Church Unity.

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N. F. S. Grundtvig

Nikolaj Frederik Severin Grundtvig (8 September 1783 – 2 September 1872), most often referred to as N. F. S. Grundtvig, was a Danish pastor, author, poet, philosopher, historian, teacher and politician.

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Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.

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National church

A national church is a Christian church associated with a specific ethnic group or nation state.

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Neo-feudalism or new feudalism refers to a theorized contemporary rebirth of policies of governance, economy, and public life reminiscent of those present in many feudal societies, such as unequal rights and legal protections for common people and for nobility.

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Neo-Lutheranism was a 19th-century revival movement within Lutheranism which began with the Pietist driven Erweckung, or Awakening, and developed in reaction against theological rationalism and pietism.

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Neology is the coining of new words, from the Greek root (Neo-: new, and Logos-: the word).

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The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.

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New Testament

The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.

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Nicene Creed

The Nicene Creed (Greek: or,, Latin: Symbolum Nicaenum) is a statement of belief widely used in Christian liturgy.

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Nicolaus Hunnius

Nicolaus Hunnius (11 July 1585 – 12 April 1643) was an orthodox Lutheran theologian of the Lutheran scholastic tradition.

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Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.

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Ninety-five Theses

The Ninety-five Theses or Disputation on the Power of Indulgences is a list of propositions for an academic disputation written in 1517 by Martin Luther, professor of moral theology at the University of Wittenberg, Germany, that started the Reformation, a schism in the Catholic Church which profoundly changed Europe.

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North Dakota District (LCMS)

The North Dakota District is one of the 35 districts of the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod (LCMS), and consists of congregations throughout the state of North Dakota as well as including one congregation in South Dakota.

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Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.

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Norwegian language

Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.

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Obsequium religiosum

Obsequium religiosum is a Latin phrase meaning religious submission or religious assent, particularly in the theology of the Catholic Church.

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Olaus Petri

Olof Persson, sometimes Petersson (6 January 1493 – 19 April 1552), better known under the Latin form of his name, Olaus Petri (or less commonly, Olavus Petri), was a clergyman, writer, judge and major contributor to the Protestant Reformation in Sweden.

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Old Lutherans

Old Lutherans were originally German Lutherans in the Kingdom of Prussia, notably in the Province of Silesia, who refused to join the Prussian Union of churches in the 1830s and 1840s.

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Old Testament

The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.

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Open communion

Open communion is the practice of Protestant churches that allow individuals other than members of that church to receive the Eucharist (also called Holy Communion or the Lord's Supper).

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Paavo Ruotsalainen

Paavo Ruotsalainen (9 July 1777 – 27 January 1852) was a Finnish farmer and lay preacher who became the leader of the revivalist Awakening religious movement in Finland.

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Papua New Guinea

Papua New Guinea (PNG;,; Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia.

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Patriotism or national pride is the ideology of love and devotion to a homeland, and a sense of alliance with other citizens who share the same values.

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Peace of Augsburg

The Peace of Augsburg, also called the Augsburg Settlement, was a treaty between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (the predecessor of Ferdinand I) and the Schmalkaldic League, signed in September 1555 at the imperial city of Augsburg.

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Peace of Passau

Holy Roman Emperor Charles V had won a victory against Protestant forces in the Schmalkaldic War of 1547.

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Pentecostalism or Classical Pentecostalism is a renewal movement"Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals",.

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Pew Research Center

The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.

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Philip Melanchthon

Philip Melanchthon (born Philipp Schwartzerdt; 16 February 1497 – 19 April 1560) was a German Lutheran reformer, collaborator with Martin Luther, the first systematic theologian of the Protestant Reformation, intellectual leader of the Lutheran Reformation, and an influential designer of educational systems.

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Philipp Spener

Philipp Jakob Spener (13 January 1635 – 5 February 1705), was a German Lutheran theologian who essentially founded what would become to be known as Pietism.

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Philippine Independent Church

The Philippine Independent Church (Iglesia Filipina Independiente; Malayang Simbahan ng Pilipinas; Libera Ecclesia Philippina, colloquially called the Aglipayan Church) is an independent Christian denomination in the form of a national church in the Philippines.

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The Philippists formed a party in early Lutheranism.

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Pietism (from the word piety) was an influential movement in Lutheranism that combined its emphasis on Biblical doctrine with the Reformed emphasis on individual piety and living a vigorous Christian life.

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Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.

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Portals of Prayer

Portals of Prayer is a quarterly publication of the Concordia Publishing House of St. Louis, Missouri, the denominational publisher for the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod, with a printed circulation of almost 900,000 copies each quarter.

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Porvoo Communion

The Porvoo Communion is a communion of 15 predominantly northern European, with a couple of far-southwestern European (in the Iberian Peninsula) Anglican and Evangelical Lutheran church bodies.

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A postil or postill (postilla; Postille) was originally a term for Bible commentaries.

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Predestination, in theology, is the doctrine that all events have been willed by God, usually with reference to the eventual fate of the individual soul.

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Presbyterian Church (USA)

The Presbyterian Church (USA), or PC (USA), is a mainline Protestant Christian denomination in the United States.

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Protestant Church in the Netherlands

The Protestant Church in the Netherlands (Protestantse Kerk in Nederland, abbreviated PKN) is the largest Protestant denomination in the Netherlands, being both Reformed (Calvinist) and Lutheran.

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Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.

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Prussian Union of Churches

The Prussian Union of Churches (known under multiple other names) was a major Protestant church body which emerged in 1817 from a series of decrees by Frederick William III of Prussia that united both Lutheran and Reformed denominations in Prussia.

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In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".

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Real presence of Christ in the Eucharist

The real presence of Christ in the Eucharist is a term used in Christian theology to express the doctrine that Jesus is really or substantially present in the Eucharist, not merely symbolically or metaphorically.

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The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.

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Reformation in Denmark–Norway and Holstein

The Reformation in Denmark–Norway and Holstein was the transition from Roman Catholicism to Lutheranism in the realms ruled by the Danish-based House of Oldenburg in the first half of the sixteenth century.

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Reformed Church in America

The Reformed Church in America (RCA) is a mainline Reformed Protestant denomination in Canada and the United States.

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Roman Curia

The Roman Curia is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See and the central body through which the Roman Pontiff conducts the affairs of the universal Catholic Church.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.

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Rule of Faith

The rule of faith (regula fidei) is the name given to the ultimate authority or standard in religious belief.

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A sacrament is a Christian rite recognized as of particular importance and significance.

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Sacramental bread

Sacramental bread (Latin: hostia, Italian: ostia), sometimes called altar bread, Communion bread, the Lamb or simply the host, is the bread or wafer used in the Christian ritual of the Eucharist.

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Sacramental union

Sacramental union (Latin, unio sacramentalis; Luther's German, Sacramentliche Einigkeit;Weimar Ausgabe 26, 442.23; Luther's Works 37, 299-300. German, sakramentalische Vereinigung) is the Lutheran theological doctrine of the Real Presence of the body and blood of Christ in the Christian Eucharist (see Eucharist in Lutheranism).

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The Sacramentarians were Christians during the Protestant Reformation who denied not only the Roman Catholic transubstantiation but also the Lutheran sacramental union.

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Sacred tradition

Sacred Tradition, or Holy Tradition, is a theological term used in some Christian traditions, primarily those claiming apostolic succession such as the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Assyrian, and Anglican traditions, to refer to the foundation of the doctrinal and spiritual authority of the Christian Church and of the Bible.

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Salomo Glassius

Salomo Glassius (Salomon Glaß; 20 May 1593 – 27 July 1656) was a German theologian and biblical critic born at Sondershausen, in the principality of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen.

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Samuel Simon Schmucker

Samuel Simon Schmucker (February 28, 1799 – July 26, 1873) was a German-American Lutheran pastor and theologian.

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San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation

The San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation, in southeastern Arizona, United States, was established in 1872 as a reservation for the Chiricahua Apache tribe as well as surrounding Yavapai and Apache bands forcibly removed from their original homelands under a strategy devised by General Crook of using an Apache to catch an Apache.

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Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.

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Scandinavian Americans

Scandinavian Americans or Nordic Americans are Americans of Scandinavian (in the broad sense), or part-Scandinavian ancestry, defined in this article to include Danish Americans (estimate: 1,453,897), Faroese Americans (no estimates), Finnish Americans (estimate: 677,272), Greenlandic Americans (estimate: 352), Icelandic Americans (estimate: 51,234), Norwegian Americans (estimate: 4,602,337), Sami Americans (estimate: 30,000), Swedish Americans (estimate: 4,293,208).

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Schmalkaldic League

The Schmalkaldic League; was a military alliance of Lutheran princes within the Holy Roman Empire during the mid-16th century.

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Schmalkaldic War

The Schmalkaldic War (Schmalkaldischer Krieg) refers to the short period of violence from 1546 until 1547 between the forces of Emperor Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire (simultaneously King Charles I of Spain), commanded by Don Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alba, and the Lutheran Schmalkaldic League within the domains of the Holy Roman Empire.

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Scholastic Lutheran Christology

Scholastic Lutheran Christology is the orthodox Lutheran theology of Jesus Christ, developed using the methodology of Lutheran scholasticism.

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Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics ("scholastics", or "schoolmen") of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700, and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending dogma in an increasingly pluralistic context.

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Se Wsi Testamenti

Se Wsi Testamenti (Uusi testamentti in modern Finnish) is the first translation of the New Testament to Finnish, by Mikael Agricola, the Bishop of Turku.

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Seal of the Confessional (Lutheran Church)

The Seal of the Confessional is a Christian doctrine which affirms the special protection and privilege of the words spoken during confession between a penitent (church member) and his or her pastor.

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Second Vatican Council

The Second Vatican Council, fully the Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican and informally known as addressed relations between the Catholic Church and the modern world.

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Secularization (or secularisation) is the transformation of a society from close identification and affiliation with religious values and institutions toward nonreligious values and secular institutions.

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Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.

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Silesia (Śląsk; Slezsko;; Silesian German: Schläsing; Silesian: Ślůnsk; Šlazyńska; Šleska; Silesia) is a region of Central Europe located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany.

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Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.

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Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.

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Smalcald Articles

The Smalcald Articles or Schmalkald Articles (Schmalkaldische Artikel) are a summary of Lutheran doctrine, written by Martin Luther in 1537 for a meeting of the Schmalkaldic League in preparation for an intended ecumenical Council of the Church.

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Society of Jesus

The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.

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Sola fide

Sola fide (Latin: by faith alone), also known as justification by faith alone, is a Christian theological doctrine commonly held to distinguish many Protestant churches from the Catholic Church, as well as the Eastern Orthodox Churches and Oriental Orthodox Churches.

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Sola gratia

Sola gratia (Latin: by grace alone) is one of the Five solae propounded to summarise the Lutheran and Reformed leaders' basic beliefs during the Protestant Reformation.

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Sola scriptura

Sola Scriptura (Latin: by scripture alone) is a theological doctrine held by some Christian denominations that the Christian scriptures are the sole infallible rule of faith and practice.

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South Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.

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South Wisconsin District (LCMS)

The South Wisconsin District is one of the 35 districts of the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod (LCMS), and covers the southern third of the state of Wisconsin.

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Spiritual death

The concept of spiritual death has varying meanings in various uses and contexts.

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St. Catherine's Church, Hamburg


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State religion

A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.

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Stephan Praetorius

Stephan Praetorius (or Prætorius) (Stephan Prätorius) (May 3, 1536, Salzwedel – May 4, 1603, Salzwedel) was a German Lutheran theologian and pastor.

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Stockholm Bloodbath

The Stockholm Bloodbath (Swedish: Stockholms blodbad, Danish: Det Stockholmske Blodbad) was a trial that led to a series of executions in Stockholm between the 7th and 9th of November, 1520.

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Stole (vestment)

The stole is a liturgical vestment of various Christian denominations.

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Sunday school

A Sunday School is an educational institution, usually (but not always) Christian, which catered to children and other young people who would be working on weekdays.

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Superintendent (ecclesiastical)

Superintendent is the head of an administrative division of a Protestant church, largely historical but still in use in Germany.

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Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Swedish language

Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.

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Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.

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Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.

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Ten Commandments

The Ten Commandments (עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדִּבְּרוֹת, Aseret ha'Dibrot), also known as the Decalogue, are a set of biblical principles relating to ethics and worship, which play a fundamental role in Judaism and Christianity.

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In law and in religion, testimony is a solemn attestation as to the truth of a matter.

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The gospel

In Christianity, the gospel (euangélion; gospel), or the Good News, is the news of the coming of the Kingdom of God.

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The Lutheran Hymnal

The Lutheran Hymnal (TLH) is one of the official hymnals of the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod.

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Theodor Kliefoth

Theodor Friedrich Dethlof Kliefoth was a German Neo-Lutheran.

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Theology of Martin Luther

The theology of Martin Luther was instrumental in influencing the Protestant Reformation, specifically topics dealing with Justification by Faith, the relationship between the Law and the Gospel (also an instrumental component of Reformed theology), and various other theological ideas.

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Thirty Years' War

The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.

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Total depravity

Total depravity (also called radical corruption or pervasive depravity) is a Christian theological doctrine derived from the Augustinian concept of original sin.

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Transubstantiation (Latin: transsubstantiatio; Greek: μετουσίωσις metousiosis) is, according to the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church, the change of substance or essence by which the bread and wine offered in the sacrifice of the sacrament of the Eucharist during the Mass, become, in reality, the body and blood of Jesus Christ.

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The Christian doctrine of the Trinity (from Greek τριάς and τριάδα, from "threefold") holds that God is one but three coeternal consubstantial persons or hypostases—the Father, the Son (Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit—as "one God in three Divine Persons".

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The Ubiquitarians, also called Ubiquists, were a Protestant sect that held that body of Christ was everywhere, including the Eucharist. The sect was started at the Lutheran synod of Stuttgart, 19 December 1559, by Johannes Brenz (1499–1570), a Swabian. Its profession, made under the name of Duke Christopher of Württemberg and entitled the "Württemberg Confession," was sent to the Council of Trent in 1552, but had not been formally accepted as the Ubiquitarian creed until the synod at Stuttgart.

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Unitarianism (from Latin unitas "unity, oneness", from unus "one") is historically a Christian theological movement named for its belief that the God in Christianity is one entity, as opposed to the Trinity (tri- from Latin tres "three") which defines God as three persons in one being; the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.

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United and uniting churches

A united church, also called a uniting church, is a church formed from the merger or other form of union of two or more different Protestant denominations.

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United Church of Christ

The United Church of Christ (UCC) is a mainline Protestant Christian denomination based in the United States, with historical confessional roots in the Reformed, Lutheran, Congregational and evangelical Protestant traditions, and "with over 5,000 churches and nearly one million members".

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United Evangelical Lutheran Church of Germany

The United Evangelical Lutheran Church of Germany (German: Vereinigte Evangelisch-Lutherische Kirche Deutschlands) (VELKD) was founded on July 8, 1948, in Eisenach, Germany.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United Methodist Church

The United Methodist Church (UMC) is a mainline Protestant denomination and a major part of Methodism.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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University of Erlangen-Nuremberg

Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg (Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, FAU) is a public research university in the cities of Erlangen and Nuremberg in Bavaria, Germany.

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University of Helmstedt

The University of Helmstedt (Universität Helmstedt; official Latin name: Academia Julia, "Julius University"), was a university in Helmstedt in the Duchy of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel that existed from 1576 until 1810.

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University of Jena

Friedrich Schiller University Jena (FSU; Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, shortened form Uni Jena) is a public research university located in Jena, Thuringia, Germany.

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Upper Midwest

The Upper Midwest is a region in the northern portion of the U.S. Census Bureau's Midwestern United States.

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Uppsala Synod

The Uppsala Synod in 1593 was the most important synod of the Lutheran Church of Sweden.

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Valentin Ernst Löscher

Valentin Ernst Löscher (born at Sondershausen 29 December 1673; died at Dresden 12 December 1749) was a German orthodox Lutheran theologian.

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Vespers in Lutheranism

Vespers is the evening prayer service in the liturgies of the canonical hours.

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War of the Fourth Coalition

The Fourth Coalition fought against Napoleon's French Empire and was defeated in a war spanning 1806–1807.

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Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod

The Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod (WELS) is an American Confessional Lutheran denomination of Christianity.

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Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lutheranism

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