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Seyyed Abolhassan Banisadr (Seyyed Abolhasan Banisadr; born 22 March 1933) is an Iranian politician and economist.
Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.
Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navies, and in many navies is the highest rank.
Admiral is a senior rank of the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom, which equates to the NATO rank code OF-9, outranked only by the rank admiral of the fleet.
The Admiralty Board is the body established under the Defence Council of the United Kingdom for the administration of the Naval Service of the United Kingdom.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Advice and consent is an English phrase frequently used in enacting formulae of bills and in other legal or constitutional contexts.
The Afghan Armed Forces are the military forces of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.
An aide-de-camp (French expression meaning literally helper in the military camp) is a personal assistant or secretary to a person of high rank, usually a senior military, police or government officer, a member of a royal family, or a head of state.
Air chief marshal (Air Chf Mshl or ACM) is a four-star air officer rank which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force, where it is the most senior peacetime air force rank.
The Air Force Board of the Defence Council is responsible for the management of the Royal Air Force.
Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.
The Albanian Armed Forces (Forcat e Armatosura të Republikës së Shqipërisë (FARSH)) are the military of Albania and were formed after the declaration of independence in 1912.
An allegiance is a duty of fidelity said to be owed, or freely committed, by the people, subjects or citizens to their state or sovereign.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
Muhammad Anwar el-Sadat (محمد أنور السادات, Egyptian muħæmmæd ˈʔɑnwɑɾ essæˈdæːt; 25 December 1918 – 6 October 1981) was the third President of Egypt, serving from 15 October 1970 until his assassination by fundamentalist army officers on 6 October 1981.
The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Iraq Region (حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي في العراق Hizb Al-Baath Al-'Arabi Al-Ishtiraki fi Al-'Iraq), officially the Iraqi Regional Branch, is a regional branch of the Arab Ba'athist political party founded in 1951 by Fuad al-Rikabi.
The Argentine Air Force (Fuerza Aérea Argentina, or simply FAA) is the national aviation branch of the Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic.
The Argentine Army (Ejército Argentino, EA) is the land armed force branch of the Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic and the senior military service of the country.
The Navy of the Argentine Republic or Argentine Navy (Armada de la República Argentina — ARA, also Armada Argentina) is the navy of Argentina.
The Argentine Senate (Honorable Senado de la Nación Argentina; lit. "Honourable Senate of the Argentine Nation") is the upper house of the National Congress of Argentina.
The Armed Forces General Staff (Estado-Maior-General das Forças Armadas), or EMGFA, is the supreme military body of Portugal.
The Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic, in Fuerzas Armadas de la República Argentina, are controlled by the Commander-in-Chief (the President) and a civilian Minister of Defense.
The Ministry of Defense of the Dominican Republic or Ministerio de Defensa de la República Dominicana consists of approximately 44,000 active duty personnel, approximately 60 percent of which are utilized mainly for non-military operations, including security providers for government-owned non-military facilities, toll security, forestry workers and other state enterprises, and personal security for ministers, congressmen, etc.
The Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran (نيروهای مسلح جمهوری اسلامی ايران) include the Army (''Artesh''), the Revolutionary Guard Corps (''Sepāh'') and the Law Enforcement Force (Police).
The Armed forces of the Netherlands consist of the Army, Navy, and Air Force.
The Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) (Sandatahang Lakas ng Pilipinas, Fuerzas Armadas de Filipinas) are the military forces of the Philippines.
The Army Board is the top single-service management committee of the British Army, and has always been staffed by senior politicians and soldiers.
The Army of the Czech Republic (Armáda České republiky, AČR), also known as the Czech Army or Czech Armed Forces, is the military service responsible for the defence of the Czech Republic in compliance with international obligations and treaties on collective defence.
The Army Reserve is the active-duty volunteer reserve force and integrated element of the British Army.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
During the final stage of World War II, the United States detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively.
The Australian Defence Force (ADF) is the military organisation responsible for the defence of Australia.
The Australian Defence Organisation (abbreviated as ADO) is an Australian Government organisation that consists of both the Australian Defence Force (ADF) and the civilian Department of Defence personnel supporting the ADF.
The Austrian Armed Forces (Bundesheer) are the military forces of the Republic of Austria and the main military organisation responsible for the national defense.
Lieutenant-General Sir Aylmer Gould Hunter-Weston KCB DSO GStJ (23 September 1864 – 18 March 1940) was a British Army general who served in World War I at Gallipoli and in the very early stages of the Somme Offensive.
The Bangladesh Liberation War (মুক্তিযুদ্ধ), also known as the Bangladesh War of Independence, or simply the Liberation War in Bangladesh, was a revolution and armed conflict sparked by the rise of the Bengali nationalist and self-determination movement in what was then East Pakistan during the 1971 Bangladesh genocide.
The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany.
The Basic Law of Saudi Arabia (alternative name: Basic System of Governance; Arabic: النظام الأساسي للحكم) is a constitution-like charter divided into nine chapters, consisting of 83 articles.
The Basic Laws of Israel (חוקי היסוד, ħuqey ha-yesod) are the constitutional laws of the State of Israel, and can only be changed by a supermajority vote in the Knesset.
The Basic Laws of Sweden (Sveriges grundlagar) are the four fundamental laws of the Kingdom of Sweden that regulate the Swedish political system, acting in a similar manner to the constitutions of most countries.
The Bastille Day Military Parade (or 14 July Military Parade, translation of the French name of Défilé militaire du 14 Juillet) is a French military parade that has been held on the morning of 14 July each year in Paris since 1880, almost without exception.
The Battle of Antietam, also known as the Battle of Sharpsburg, particularly in the Southern United States, was a battle of the American Civil War, fought on September 17, 1862, between Confederate General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia and Union General George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac, near Sharpsburg, Maryland and Antietam Creek.
The naval Battle of Colberger Heide (also Kolberger Heide or Colberg Heath) took place on 1 July 1644 during the Torstenson War, off the coast of Schleswig-Holstein.
The Battle of Dettingen (Schlacht bei Dettingen) took place on 27 June 1743 at Dettingen on the River Main, Germany, during the War of the Austrian Succession.
The twin battles of Jena and Auerstedt (older name: Auerstädt) were fought on 14 October 1806 on the plateau west of the River Saale in today's Germany, between the forces of Napoleon I of France and Frederick William III of Prussia.
The Bermuda Cadet Corps was a youth organisation in the British Overseas Territory of Bermuda, sponsored originally by the War Office and the British Army.
The Bermuda Garrison was the military establishment maintained on the British Overseas Territory of Bermuda by the regular British Army, and its local militia and voluntary reserves from 1701 to 1957.
The Bermuda Militia Artillery was a unit of part-time soldiers organised in 1895 as a reserve for the Royal Garrison Artillery detachment of the Regular Army garrison in Bermuda.
The Bermuda Militia Infantry was raised in 1939 as a part-time reserve of the British Army's Bermuda Garrison.
The Bermuda Volunteer Engineers was a part-time unit created between the two world wars to replace the Regular Royal Engineers detachment, which was withdrawn from the Bermuda Garrison in 1928.
The Bermuda Volunteer Rifle Corps (BVRC) was created in 1894 as an all-white, racially segregated reserve for the Regular Army infantry component of the Bermuda Garrison.
Bhumibol Adulyadej (ภูมิพลอดุลยเดช;;; see full title below; 5 December 1927 – 13 October 2016), conferred with the title King Bhumibol the Great in 1987, was the ninth monarch of Thailand from the Chakri dynasty as Rama IX.
The Blomberg–Fritsch affair, also known as the Blomberg–Fritsch crisis (German: Blomberg–Fritsch–Krise), was two related scandals in early 1938 that resulted in the subjugation of the German Armed Forces (Wehrmacht) to dictator Adolf Hitler.
The Bourbon Restoration was the period of French history following the fall of Napoleon in 1814 until the July Revolution of 1830.
The Brazilian Armed Forces (Forças Armadas Brasileiras) is the unified military organization comprising the Brazilian Army (including the Brazilian Army Aviation), the Brazilian Navy (including the Brazilian Marine Corps and Brazilian Naval Aviation) and the Brazilian Air Force.
The British Armed Forces, also known as Her/His Majesty's Armed Forces, are the military services responsible for the defence of the United Kingdom, its overseas territories and the Crown dependencies.
British Forces Overseas Hong Kong comprised the elements of the British Army, Royal Navy (including Royal Marines) and Royal Air Force.
The Government of the United Kingdom exercises its executive authority through a number of government departments or departments of state.
British Hong Kong was the period during which Hong Kong was under British Crown rule, from 1841 to 1997 (excluding the Japanese occupation from 1941 to 1945).
The Bundestag ("Federal Diet") is the German federal parliament.
The Bundeswehr (Federal Defence) is the unified armed forces of Germany and their civil administration and procurement authorities.
The Burning of Washington was a British invasion of Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States, during the War of 1812.
The Cabinet of Australia is the Australian Government's council of senior Ministers of the Crown, responsible to Parliament.
The Cabinet of Canada (Cabinet du Canada) is a body of ministers of the Crown that, along with the Canadian monarch, and within the tenets of the Westminster system, forms the government of Canada.
The Cabinet of Denmark (regering) has been the chief executive body and the government of the Kingdom of Denmark since 1848.
The Cabinet of Germany (Bundeskabinett or Bundesregierung) is the chief executive body of the Federal Republic of Germany.
The Government of Israel (officially: ממשלת ישראל Memshelet Yisrael) exercises executive authority in the State of Israel.
The cabinet of the Netherlands (Nederlandse kabinet) is the main executive body of the Netherlands.
The Cabinet of the United Kingdom is the collective decision-making body of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, composed of the Prime Minister and 21 cabinet ministers, the most senior of the government ministers.
The Cabinet of the United States is part of the executive branch of the federal government of the United States that normally acts as an advisory body to the President of the United States.
The Cabinet Room is the meeting room for the cabinet secretaries and advisors serving the President of the United States.
Caesarism has been used in a variety of ways over the centuries.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
A camarilla is a group of courtiers or favourites who surround a king or ruler.
The Canadian Armed Forces (CAF; Forces armées canadiennes, FAC), or Canadian Forces (CF) (Forces canadiennes, FC), are the unified armed forces of Canada, as constituted by the National Defence Act, which states: "The Canadian Forces are the armed forces of Her Majesty raised by Canada and consist of one Service called the Canadian Armed Forces." This unified institution consists of sea, land, and air elements referred to as the Royal Canadian Navy (RCN), Canadian Army, and Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF).
Cardinal Jules Raymond Mazarin, 1st Duke of Rethel, Mayenne and Nevers (14 July 1602 – 9 March 1661), born Giulio Raimondo Mazzarino or Mazarino, was an Italian cardinal, diplomat, and politician, who served as the Chief Minister to the kings of France Louis XIII and Louis XIV from 1642 until his death.
Cardinal Armand Jean du Plessis, 1st Duke of Richelieu and Fronsac (9 September 15854 December 1642), commonly referred to as Cardinal Richelieu (Cardinal de Richelieu), was a French clergyman, nobleman, and statesman.
The Central Military Commission (CMC) refers to the parallel national defense organizations of the Communist Party of China and the People's Republic of China: the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of China, a Party organ under the CPC Central Committee, and the Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China, a central state organ under the National People's Congress, being the military branch of the national government.
The Central Military Commission (CMC), is the highest party organ in Vietnam on military policy.
Cesar Emilio Aguinaldo Virata (born 12 December 1930) is a Filipino politician and businessman who was the fourth Prime Minister of the Philippines from 1981 to 1986.
The Chairman of the Central Military Commission has overall responsibility for the Central Military Commission, serving as the commander-in-chief of the People's Liberation Army.
The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS) is, by U.S. law, the highest-ranking and senior-most military officer in the United States Armed Forces 10 USC 152.
The Chairman of the State Affairs Commission of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea is the supreme leader of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, according to the country's constitution.
The Chamber of Deputies (Câmara dos Deputados) is a federal legislative body and the lower house of the National Congress of Brazil.
The Avenue des Champs-Élysées is an avenue in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, long and wide, running between the Place de la Concorde and the Place Charles de Gaulle, where the Arc de Triomphe is located.
The Chancellor of Austria, officially the Federal Chancellor of the Republic of Austria (Bundeskanzler der Republik Österreich, sometimes shortened to Kanzler) is the head of government of the Austrian Republic.
The Federal Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (in German called Bundeskanzler(in), meaning "Federal Chancellor", or in) for short) is, under the German 1949 Constitution, the head of government of Germany.
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.
Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.
Charles X Gustav, also Carl Gustav (Karl X Gustav; 8 November 1622 – 13 February 1660), was King of Sweden from 1654 until his death.
Charles XI, also Carl (Karl XI; 24 November 1655old style – 5 April 1697old style), was King of Sweden from 1660 until his death in a period of Swedish history known as the Swedish Empire (1611–1718).
Charles XII, also Carl (Karl XII; 17 June 1682 – 30 November 1718 O.S.), Latinized to Carolus Rex, was the King of Sweden from 1697 to 1718.
Chief of Air Force (CAF) is the most senior appointment in the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF), responsible to the Chief of the Defence Force (CDF) and the Secretary of the Department of Defence.
The Chief of Army is the most senior appointment in the Australian Army, responsible to both the Chief of the Defence Force (CDF) and the Secretary, Department of Defence (SECDEF).
The Chief of Army Staff (سربراہ پاک فوج) (reporting name: COAS), is a military appointment and statutory office held by the four-star rank army general in the Pakistan Army, who is appointed by the Prime Minister of Pakistan and final confirmation by the President of Pakistan.
The chief of defence (or head of defence) is the highest ranked commissioned officer of a nation's armed forces.
The Chief of Defence of Denmark, under responsibility of the Defence minister, is the Chief of Defence and commander of the Royal Danish Army, the Royal Danish Navy and the Royal Danish Air Force.
The Chief of Defence (puolustusvoimain komentaja; lit., kommendören för försvarsmakten) is the Chief of Defence and commander of the Finnish Defence Forces, under the authority of the President of Finland.
The Chief of Defence (Commandant der Strijdkrachten, CHOD) is the highest-ranking military officer in the Armed forces of the Netherlands and is the principal military advisor to the Minister of Defence.
The Chief of Defence Forces (CDF) is the highest-ranking military officer in the Kenya Defence Forces and the principal military adviser to the President of Kenya and the National Security Council.
The Chief of the General Staff, also known as the Commander-in-Chief of the Israel Defense Forces (Rosh HaMateh HaKlali, abbr. Ramatkal—), is the supreme commander and Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces.
The Chief of Navy is the most senior appointment in the Royal Australian Navy, responsible to the Chief of the Defence Force (CDF) and the Secretary of Defence.
The Chief of Staff of the Indonesian Air Force (Kepala Staf TNI Angkatan Udara / KASAU) is the highest position in the Indonesian Air Force.
The Chief of Staff of the Indonesian Army (Kepala Staf TNI Angkatan Darat / KASAD) is the highest position in the Indonesian Army.
The Chief of Staff of the Indonesian Navy (Kepala Staf TNI Angkatan Laut / KASAL) is the highest position in the Indonesian Navy.
Chief of the Air Staff is the professional head and the commander of the Indian Air Force.
The Chief of the Air Staff (CAS) is the professional head of the Royal Air Force and a member of both the Chiefs of Staff Committee and the Air Force Board.
The Chief of the Armed Forces (German: Chef der Armee (CdA); French: Chef de l'armée) commands the Swiss Armed Forces in time of peace and reports directly to the head of the Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sports and to the Swiss Federal Council.
The Chief of the Army Staff is the commander and usually the highest-ranking officer of the Indian Army.
The Chief of the Defence Force (CDF) is the professional head of the Australian Defence Force (ADF) and the most senior uniformed military adviser to the Minister of Defence.
The Chief of the General Staff of the Armies ((C)hef d'(É)tat-(M)ajor des (A)rmées) (acronym: C.E.M.A.) is the chief (Chef) of the general staff headquarters (État-Major) of the Armies (Armées) of France and leading senior military officer responsible for usage of the French Armed Forces, ensuring the commandment of all military operations (under reserve of the particular dispositions relative to nuclear deterrence).
The Chief of the Defence Staff (Jefe del Estado Mayor de la Defensa, JEMAD.) is the head of the Defence Staff and the chief of defence equivalent of the Spanish Armed Forces.
The Chief of the Defence Staff (CDS) is the most senior appointment in the Sri Lankan Armed Forces, and the highest-ranking military officer in service, outranking the heads of each service branch.
The Chief of the Defence Staff (CDS) is the professional head of the British Armed Forces and the most senior uniformed military adviser to the Secretary of State for Defence and the Prime Minister.
The Chief of the General Staff (Начальник Генерального штаба / Nachal'nik General'nogo shtaba) is the chief of staff of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.
Chief of the General Staff (CGS) has been the title of the professional head of the British Army since 1964.
The Chief of the Naval Staff is the commander and the highest-ranking officer in the Indian Navy.
The Chiefs of Staff Committee (CSC) is composed of the most senior military personnel in the British Armed Forces who advise on operational military matters and the preparation and conduct of military operations.
Christian IV (Christian den Fjerde; 12 April 1577 – 28 February 1648), sometimes colloquially referred to as Christian Firtal in Denmark and Christian Kvart or Quart in Norway, was king of Denmark-Norway and Duke of Holstein and Schleswig from 1588 to 1648.
Civilian control of the military is a doctrine in military and political science that places ultimate responsibility for a country's strategic decision-making in the hands of the civilian political leadership, rather than professional military officers.
Below is the American-led coalition against the Iraqi government in the 1990s.
Colonel general is a three or four-star rank in some armies, usually equivalent to that of a full general in other armies.
Combermere Barracks, Windsor, is a British military installation from Windsor Castle.
In current military use, combined operations are operations conducted by forces of two or more allied nations acting together for the accomplishment of a common strategy, a strategic and operational and sometimes tactical cooperation.
A command in military terminology is an organisational unit for which a military commander is responsible.
Command and control or C2 is a "set of organizational and technical attributes and processes...
A command hierarchy is a group of people who carry out orders based on others authority within the group.
Commander Field Army is a senior British Army officer who has responsibility for generating and preparing forces for current and contingency operations.
The Commander of the Air Force is the professional head of the Sri Lanka Air Force.
The Commander of the Army is the title of the professional head of the Sri Lanka Army.
The Commander of the Navy is the professional head of the Sri Lanka Navy.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
The Commander-in-Chief Fleet (CINCFLEET) was the admiral responsible for the operation, resourcing and training of the ships, submarines and aircraft, and personnel, of the British Royal Navy until April 2012.
The Commander-in-Chief of the British Armed Forces is a position vested in the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II, who as Sovereign and head of state is the "Head of the Armed Forces".
The Supreme Commander or Commander-in-Chief (Pemerintah Tertinggi, Jawi: ڤمرينته ترتيڠݢي) of the Malaysian Armed Forces is the highest-ranking office in the command structure of the Malaysian military.
Commander-in-Chief, Land Forces (CINCLAND), was a senior officer in the British Army.
The commanding officer (CO) or, if the incumbent is a general officer, commanding general (CG), is the officer in command of a military unit.
The Committee of Public Safety (Comité de salut public)—created in April 1793 by the National Convention and then restructured in July 1793—formed the de facto executive government in France during the Reign of Terror (1793–94), a stage of the French Revolution.
The Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) is the founding and ruling communist party of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
The Constitution of Afghanistan is the supreme law of the state of Afghanistan, which serves as the legal framework between the Afghan government and the Afghan citizens.
The present Constitution of Albania (Kushtetuta e Shqipërisë) was adopted by the Parliament on 28 November 1998.
The Constitution of Argentina is the basic governing document of Argentina, and the primary source of existing law in Argentina.
The Constitution of Australia is the supreme law under which the government of the Commonwealth of Australia operates, including its relationship to the States of Australia.
The Constitution of Austria (Österreichische Bundesverfassung) is the body of all constitutional law of the Republic of Austria on the federal level.
The Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil (Constituição da República Federativa do Brasil) is the supreme law of Brazil.
The Constitution of the Republic of Croatia (Ustav Republike Hrvatske) is promulgated by the Croatian Parliament.
The Constitutional Act of the Kingdom of Denmark (Danmarks Riges Grundlov), or simply the Constitution (Grundloven), is the constitution of the Kingdom of Denmark, applying equally in Denmark proper, Greenland and the Faroe Islands.
The German Democratic Republic (East Germany) was founded in 1949 and was absorbed into the Federal Republic of Germany on 3 October 1990.
The Constitution of Finland (Suomen perustuslaki or Finlands grundlag) is the supreme source of national law of Finland.
The Constitution of Ghana is the supreme law of the Republic of Ghana.
The current Constitution of Greece (Σύνταγμα Sýntagma), was created by the Fifth Revisional Parliament of the Hellenes and entered into force in 1975.
The Constitution of Indonesia (Undang-Undang Dasar Republik Indonesia 1945, UUD '45) is the basis for the government of Indonesia.
The Constitution of the Italian Republic (Costituzione della Repubblica Italiana) was enacted by the Constituent Assembly on 22 December 1947, with 453 votes in favour and 62 against.
The is the fundamental law of Japan.
The Constitution of Kenya is the supreme law of the Republic of Kenya.
The Federal Constitution of Malaya, which came into force in 1957, is the supreme law of Malaya.
The Constitution of the Republic of Mauritius (La Constitution de Maurice) is the supreme law of Mauritius, according to Chapter I, Section 2 of the constitution, if any other law is inconsistent with this Constitution, that other law shall, to the extent of the inconsistency, be void.
The Constitution of Nigeria is the supreme law of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.
The Socialist Constitution of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea is the constitution of North Korea.
The Constitution of Prussia (Verfassung für den Preußischen Staat) was adopted on 31 January 1850, and amended in the following years.
The current Constitution of the Russian Federation (Конституция Российской Федерации, Konstitutsiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii) was adopted by national referendum on.
The Spanish Constitution (Constitución Española; Espainiako Konstituzioa; Constitució Espanyola; Constitución Española; Constitucion espanhòla) is the democratic law that is supreme in the Kingdom of Spain.
The Constitution of the Czech Republic (Ústava České republiky) is the supreme law of the Czech Republic.
The Dominican Republic has gone through 39 constitutions, more than any other country, since its independence in 1844.
The Constitution of the German Empire (Verfassung des Deutschen Reiches) was the basic law of the German Empire of 1871-1918, from 16 April 1871, coming into effect on 4 May 1871.
The Constitution for the Kingdom of the Netherlands (Grondwet voor het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden) is one of two fundamental documents governing the Kingdom of the Netherlands as well as the fundamental law of the European territory of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
The Constitution of the People's Republic of China is nominally the supreme law within the People's Republic of China.
The Constitution of the Philippines (Filipino: Saligang Batas ng Pilipinas or Konstitusyon ng Pilipinas) is the constitution or supreme law of the Republic of the Philippines.
During the National Constituent Assembly session on 25 December 1946 in Nanking, the fifth and current Chinese constitution was officially adopted on 25 December 1947, at a time when the ROC still had nominal control of Mainland China and to which this constitution applied.
The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Anayasası), also known as the Constitution of 1982, is Turkey's fundamental law.
The Cortes Generales (General Courts) are the bicameral legislature of the Kingdom of Spain, consisting of two chambers: the Congress of Deputies (the lower house) and the Senate (the upper house).
The Council of Ministers (Ministerraad) is the executive council of Dutch government, formed by all the ministers including the Deputy Prime Ministers.
The Council of Ministers (Consejo de Ministros) is a collegiate body composed of the President of the Government (Prime Minister), Vice presidents when existing and the Ministers, and any other member required by law, and in some cases Secretaries of State (Junior Ministers).
Countersigning means writing a second signature onto a document.
The were powerful Japanese feudal lords who, until their decline in the early Meiji period, ruled most of Japan from their vast, hereditary land holdings.
The Danish Defence (Forsvaret, Danska verjan, Illersuisut) is the unified armed forces of the Kingdom of Denmark, charged with the defence of Denmark and its constituent, self-governing nations Greenland and the Faroe Islands.
The Defence Command (Værnsfælles Forsvarskommando, VFK) is the Danish joint military command and the top coordination and controlling authority of the Danish military.
The Defence Council of the United Kingdom is the body legally entrusted with the defence of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories and with control over the British armed forces, and is part of the Ministry of Defence.
The Defence Forces (Fórsaí Cosanta, officially styled Óglaigh na hÉireann),Óglaigh na hÉireann derives its origins from the Irish Volunteers.
The title Defence Minister, Minister for Defence, Minister of National Defense, Secretary of Defence, Secretary of State for Defense or some similar variation, is assigned to the person in a cabinet position in charge of a Ministry of Defence, which regulates the armed forces in sovereign states.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
The Department of Defence (DoD) (An Roinn Cosanta) is the department of the Government of Ireland that is responsible for preserving peace and security in Ireland.
Deputy minister is a title borne by politicians or officials in certain countries governed under a parliamentary system.
The Distinguished Service Cross is the second highest military award that can be given to a member of the United States Army (and previously the United States Air Force), for extreme gallantry and risk of life in actual combat with an armed enemy force.
DoD News Channel was a television channel broadcasting military news and information for the 2.6 million members of the U.S. Armed Forces.
The Dominican Republic National Police (Spanish: Policía Nacional Dominicana) is the national police force of the Dominican Republic.
Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a retired American political figure and businessman.
Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current President of the United States, in office since January 20, 2017.
Douglas MacArthur (26 January 18805 April 1964) was an American five-star general and Field Marshal of the Philippine Army.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
The Ebert–Groener pact, sometimes called the Ebert-Groener deal, was an agreement between the Social Democrat Friedrich Ebert, at the time the head of government of Germany, and Wilhelm Groener, Quartermaster General of the German Army, on November 10, 1918.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Egyptian Air Force (EAF) (القوات الجوية المصرية), is the aviation branch of the Egyptian Armed Forces, is responsible for all airborne defence missions and operates all military aircraft, including those used in support of the Egyptian Army, Egyptian Navy and the Egyptian Air Defense Forces, created as a separate command in the 1970s, coordinates with the Air Force to integrate air and ground-based air defense operations.
The Egyptian Armed Forces are the state military organisation responsible for the defence of Egypt.
The Egyptian Army is the largest service branch within the Egyptian Armed Forces.
The Egyptian Navy is the maritime branch of the Egyptian Armed Forces.
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
The Emperor of Japan is the head of the Imperial Family and the head of state of Japan.
Emperor of the French (French: Empereur des Français) was the title used by the House of Bonaparte starting when Napoleon Bonaparte was given the title of Emperor on 18 May 1804 by the French Senate and was crowned emperor of the French on 2 December 1804 at the cathedral of Notre-Dame de Paris, in Paris, with the Crown of Napoleon.
The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance.
The official designation of Eternal Leaders of Juche Korea (주체조선의 영원한 수령) was established by a line in the preamble to the Socialist Constitution of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, as amended on 30 June 2016, and in subsequent revisions.
The Ethiopian National Defense Force (ENDF) is the military of Ethiopia.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
The Faroe Islands (Føroyar; Færøerne), sometimes called the Faeroe Islands, is an archipelago between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic, about halfway between Norway and Iceland, north-northwest of Scotland.
Führer (These are also cognates of the Latin peritus ("experienced"), Sanskrit piparti "brings over" and the Greek poros "passage, way".-->, spelled Fuehrer when the umlaut is not available) is a German word meaning "leader" or "guide".
The Federal Assembly (Bundesversammlung, Assemblée fédérale, Assemblea federale, Assamblea federala) is Switzerland's federal legislature.
The Federal Council is the seven-member executive council which constitutes the federal government of the Swiss Confederation and serves as the collective executive head of government and state of Switzerland.
The Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sport (DDPS, Eidgenössisches Departement für Verteidigung, Bevölkerungsschutz und Sport, Département fédéral de la défense, de la protection de la population et des sports, Dipartimento federale della difesa, della protezione della popolazione e dello sport, Departament federal da defensiun, protecziun da la populaziun e sport) is one of the seven departments of the Swiss federal government.
The Federal Register of Legislation (formerly ComLaw), also known as the Legislation Register, is an Australian government web site run by the Office of Parliamentary Counsel since October 2012 that provides online copies of Commonwealth legislation and related documents.
Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos Sr. (September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was a Filipino politician and kleptocrat who was President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986.
Field marshal (or field-marshal, abbreviated as FM) is a very senior military rank, ordinarily senior to the general officer ranks.
In politics, a figurehead is a person who holds de jure (in name or by law) an important title or office (often supremely powerful), yet de facto (in reality) executes little actual power.
The Finnish Border Guard is the national security agency responsible for enforcing the security of Finland's borders.
The Finnish Defence Forces (Puolustusvoimat, Försvarsmakten) are responsible for the defence of Finland.
The First French Empire (Empire Français) was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.
The First Sea Lord and Chief of Naval Staff (1SL/CNS) is the professional head of the United Kingdom's Royal Navy and the whole Naval Service.
A five-star rank is a very senior military rank, first established in the United States in 1944, with a five-star general insignia, and corresponding ranks in other countries.
The flag of Denmark (Dannebrog) is red with a white Scandinavian cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side.
The Fleet Commander is a senior Royal Navy post, responsible for the operation, resourcing and training of the ships, submarines and aircraft, and personnel, of the Naval Service.
Flight Lieutenant (Flt Lt in the RAF and IAF; FLTLT in the RAAF and RNZAF—formerly sometimes F/L in all services) is a junior commissioned air force rank that originated in the Royal Naval Air Service and is still used in the Royal Air Force and many other countries, especially in the Commonwealth.
The Folketing (Folketinget,; lit. the people's thing), also known as the Danish Parliament in English, is the unicameral national parliament (legislature) of the Kingdom of Denmark.
A four-star rank is the rank of any four-star officer described by the NATO OF-9 code.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, Guerre franco-allemande), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871) or in Germany as 70/71, was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
Free France and its Free French Forces (French: France Libre and Forces françaises libres) were the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle during the Second World War and its military forces, that continued to fight against the Axis powers as one of the Allies after the fall of France.
The Consulate (French: Le Consulat) was the government of France from the fall of the Directory in the coup of Brumaire in November 1799 until the start of the Napoleonic Empire in May 1804.
The Directory or Directorate was a five-member committee which governed France from 1795, when it replaced the Committee of Public Safety.
The Fifth Republic, France's current republican system of government, was established by Charles de Gaulle under the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on 4 October 1958.
The French Fourth Republic was the republican government of France between 1946 and 1958, governed by the fourth republican constitution.
The French Second Republic was a short-lived republican government of France between the 1848 Revolution and the 1851 coup by Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte that initiated the Second Empire.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
The Gallipoli Campaign, also known as the Dardanelles Campaign, the Battle of Gallipoli, or the Battle of Çanakkale (Çanakkale Savaşı), was a campaign of the First World War that took place on the Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu in modern Turkey) in the Ottoman Empire between 17 February 1915 and 9 January 1916.
The General (Der General, le général, il generale, il general) is an office and rank in the armed forces of Switzerland.
General (or full general to distinguish it from the lower general officer ranks) is the highest rank currently achievable by serving officers of the British Army.
A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.
The General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China is head of the Communist Party of China and the highest-ranking official within the People's Republic of China.
The General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam (Tổng Bí thư Ban Chấp hành Trung ương Đảng Cộng sản Việt Nam), known as First Secretary (Bí thư Thứ nhất) from 1951 to 1976, is the highest office within the Communist Party of Vietnam.
General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Croatia is a joint body organized within the Ministry of Defence.
The General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (Генеральный штаб Вооружённых сил Российской Федерации, Генштаб – Genshtab) is the military staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.
The General Staff (Bộ Tổng tham mưu) is the commanding and managing organisation of the Vietnam People's Army, the paramilitary forces, militia and other activities relating to defence of Vietnam.
Generalfeldmarschall (general field marshal, field marshal general, or field marshal;; abbreviated to Feldmarschall) was a rank in the armies of several German states and the Holy Roman Empire; in the Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary, the rank Feldmarschall was used.
Generalissimo is a military rank of the highest degree, superior to field marshal and other five-star ranks in the countries where they are used.
George Brinton McClellan (December 3, 1826October 29, 1885) was an American soldier, civil engineer, railroad executive, and politician.
George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993.
George II (George Augustus; Georg II.; 30 October / 9 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 (O.S.) until his death in 1760.
George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death in 1936.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.
Georges Benjamin Clemenceau (28 September 1841 – 24 November 1929) was a French politician, physician, and journalist who was Prime Minister of France during the First World War.
The German Emperor (Deutscher Kaiser) was the official title of the head of state and hereditary ruler of the German Empire.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
The German Instrument of Surrender ended World War II in Europe.
Presidential elections were held in Germany on 29 March 1925, with a second round run-off on 26 April.
The Day of German Unity (Tag der Deutschen Einheit) is the national day of Germany, celebrated on 3 October as a public holiday.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Ghana Armed Forces (GAF) is the unified armed force of Ghana, consisting of the Army (GA), Navy (GN), and Ghana Air Force.
The Gold Codes are the launch codes for nuclear weapons provided to the Presidents of the United States in their role as Commander-in-Chief of the United States armed forces.
The Goldwater–Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act of October 4, 1986, (signed by President Ronald Reagan), made the most sweeping changes to the United States Department of Defense since the department was established in the National Security Act of 1947 by reworking the command structure of the United States military.
The Austrian Federal Government (Österreichische Bundesregierung) is a collective body that exercises supreme executive power in the Republic of Austria.
The central government of the People's Republic of China is divided among several state organs.
Government of Greece (officially: Government of the Hellenic Republic; also Greek Government or Hellenic Government) mfa.gr is the government of the Third Hellenic Republic, reformed to its present form in 1974.
The Government of Ireland (Rialtas na hÉireann) is the cabinet that exercises executive authority in the Republic of Ireland.
The Government of Spain (Gobierno de España) is the central government which leads the executive branch and the General State Administration of Spain.
The Government of the Kingdom of Sweden (Konungariket Sveriges regering) is the national cabinet and the supreme executive authority in Sweden.
The Government of the Czech Republic (Vláda České republiky) exercises executive power in the Czech Republic.
A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the head of state.
In the United States, a governor serves as the chief executive officer and commander-in-chief in each of the fifty states and in the five permanently inhabited territories, functioning as both head of state and head of government therein.
The Governor General of Canada (Gouverneure générale du Canada) is the federal viceregal representative of the.
The Governor of Bermuda is the representative of the British monarch in the British overseas territory of Bermuda.
The Governor of Hong Kong was the representative in Hong Kong of the British Crown from 1843 to 1997.
Governor-general (plural governors-general) or governor general (plural governors general), in modern usage, is the title of an office-holder appointed to represent the monarch of a sovereign state in the governing of an independent realm.
The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia is the representative of the Australian monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II.
The Governor-General of Mauritius (Gouverneur Général de Maurice) was the acting head of state of Mauritius from 12 March 1968 when the country gained independence from the United Kingdom.
Grand admiral is a historic naval rank, the highest rank in the several European navies that used it.
The Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi), usually referred to simply as the TBMM or Parliament (Meclis or Parlamento), is the unicameral Turkish legislature.
Guillaume Henri Dufour (15 September 1787 – 14 July 1875) was a Swiss army officer, bridge engineer and topographer.
The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
Gustav II Adolf (9 December 1594 – 6 November 1632, O.S.), widely known in English by his Latinised name Gustavus Adolphus or as Gustav II Adolph, was the King of Sweden from 1611 to 1632 who is credited for the founding of Sweden as a great power (Stormaktstiden).
Habeas corpus (Medieval Latin meaning literally "that you have the body") is a recourse in law through which a person can report an unlawful detention or imprisonment to a court and request that the court order the custodian of the person, usually a prison official, to bring the prisoner to court, to determine whether the detention is lawful.
Hans Herzog (28 October 1819 2 February 1894) was a Swiss army officer, and was elected Switzerland's General during the Franco-Prussian War.
Harald V (born 21 February 1937) is the King of Norway, having ascended the throne following the death of his father on 17 January 1991.
Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was an American statesman who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), taking office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Two Danish royal yachts have borne the name Dannebrog.
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
The Hellenic Armed Forces (Eλληνικές Ένοπλες Δυνάμεις) are combined military forces of Greece.
The Hellenic National Defence General Staff (Γενικό Επιτελείο Εθνικής Άμυνας, abbr. ΓΕΕΘΑ) is the senior staff of the Hellenic Armed Forces.
Henri Guisan (21 October 1874 – 7 April 1960) was a Swiss army officer who held the office of the General of the Swiss Armed Forces during the Second World War.
The history of the Philippines, from 1965–1986, covers the presidency of Ferdinand Marcos, also known as Ferdinand Marcos Administration.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Émile Jean-Horace Vernet (30 June 1789 – 17 January 1863) was a French painter of battles, portraits, and Orientalist subjects.
Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak (محمد حسني السيد مبارك,,; born 4 May 1928) is a former Egyptian military and political leader who served as the fourth President of Egypt from 1981 to 2011.
The House of Commons of Canada (Chambre des communes du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The House of Federation (Amharic language የፌዴሬሽን ምክር ቤት Yefedereshn Mekir Bet) is the upper house of the bicameral Federal Parliamentary Assembly, the parliament of Ethiopia.
The Household Cavalry (HCav) is made up of the two most senior regiments of the British Army, the Life Guards and the Blues and Royals (Royal Horse Guards and 1st Dragoons).
Ilir Meta (born 24 March 1969) is an Albanian diplomat and politician who has served as President of Albania since 24 July 2017.
The Latin word imperator derives from the stem of the verb imperare, meaning ‘to order, to command’.
The Imperial Guard (French: Garde Impériale) was originally a small group of elite soldiers of the French Army under the direct command of Napoleon I, but grew considerably over time.
The Indian Armed Forces (Hindi (in IAST): Bhāratīya Saśastra Senāeṃ) are the military forces of the Republic of India.
The Indonesian Air Force (Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Udara, TNI AU) is the air force branch of the Indonesian National Armed Forces.
The Indonesian Army (Tentara Nasional Indonesia-Angkatan Darat, TNI–AD), the land component of the Indonesian National Armed Forces, has an estimated strength of 300,000 active personnel.
The Indonesian Marine Corps (Korps Marinir) previously known as KKO (Korps Komando Operasi), officially known as KORMAR or simply "Marinir", Tentara Nasional Indonesia – Angkatan Laut, ("KORMAR", TNI-AL); officially translated as: Marine Corps, Indonesian Navy is currently an integral part of the Navy (TNI-AL) and sized at the military corps level unit as the naval infantry and main amphibious warfare force of Indonesia.
The Indonesian National Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI; literally "Indonesian National Military") are the military forces of the Republic of Indonesia.
The Indonesian Navy (Tentara Nasional Indonesia-Angkatan Laut, TNI-AL) was founded on 10 September 1945.
The Instrument of Government (1809 års regeringsform) adopted on 6 June 1809 by the Riksdag of the Estates and King Charles XIII was one of the fundamental laws that made up the constitution of Sweden from 1809 to the end of 1974.
The Invasion of Kuwait on 2 August 1990 was a 2-day operation conducted by Iraq against the neighboring state of Kuwait, which resulted in the seven-month-long Iraqi occupation of the country.
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
The Air Corps (An tAerchór) is the air component of the Defence Forces of Ireland.
The Irish Army, known simply as the Army (an tArm), is the land component of the Defence Forces of Ireland.
The Naval Service (an tSeirbhís Chabhlaigh) is the maritime component of the Defence Forces of Ireland and is one of the three branches of the Irish Defence Forces.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Israel Defense Forces (IDF; צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, lit. "The Army of Defense for Israel"; جيش الدفاع الإسرائيلي), commonly known in Israel by the Hebrew acronym Tzahal, are the military forces of the State of Israel.
The Italian Armed Forces (italian: Forze armate italiane) encompass the Italian Army, the Italian Navy and the Italian Air Force.
The Italian Parliament (Parlamento Italiano) is the national parliament of the Italian Republic.
James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fourth President of the United States from 1809 to 1817.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
The (JSDF), occasionally referred to as the Japan Defense Forces (JDF), Self-Defense Forces (SDF), or Japanese Armed Forces, are the unified military forces of Japan that were established in 1954, and are controlled by the Ministry of Defense.
Jean-Louis Georgelin (born 30 August 1948 in Aspet, Haute-Garonne) is a French Army General who was Chief of the Defence Staff ("Chef d'état-major des armées", CEMA) between 4 October 2006 and 25 February 2010.
Jerry John Rawlings (born 22 June 1947) is a former head of state and president of Ghana.
Jiang Zemin (born 17 August 1926) is a retired Chinese politician who served as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China from 1989 to 2002, as Chairman of the Central Military Commission from 1989 to 2004, and as President of the People's Republic of China from 1993 to 2003.
General of the Armies John Joseph "Black Jack" Pershing (September 13, 1860 – July 15, 1948) was a senior United States Army officer.
John Dramani Mahama (born 29 November 1958) is a Ghanaian politician who served as President of Ghana from 24 July 2012 to 7 January 2017.
John Wootton (c. 1682– 13 November 1764)Deuchar, S. (2003).
The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is a body of senior uniformed leaders in the United States Department of Defense who advise the President of the United States, the Secretary of Defense, the Homeland Security Council and the National Security Council on military matters.
Joseph Francis Dunford Jr. (born December 8, 1955) is a United States Marine Corps General and the 19th Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
Joseph John Ellis (born July 18, 1943) is an American historian whose work focuses on the lives and times of the founders of the United States of America.
Joseph Leonard Votel (born February 14, 1958) is a four-star general in the United States Army who has been commander of United States Central Command since March 2016.
The July Monarchy (Monarchie de Juillet) was a liberal constitutional monarchy in France under Louis Philippe I, starting with the July Revolution of 1830 and ending with the Revolution of 1848.
The Kalmar Union or Union of Kalmaris (Danish, Norwegian and Kalmarunionen; Unio Calmariensis) was a personal union that from 1397 to 1523 joined under a single monarch the three kingdoms of Denmark, Sweden (then including most of Finland's populated areas), and Norway, together with Norway's overseas dependencies (then including Iceland, Greenland,Nominal possession, there was no European contact with the island during the Kalmar Union period the Faroe Islands and the Northern Isles).
Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States.
The Kenya Air Force (KAF) is the national aerial warfare service branch of the Republic of Kenya.
The Kenya Army is the land arm of the Kenya Defence Forces.
The Kenya Defence Forces are the armed forces of the Republic of Kenya.
Kenya Navy is the naval branch of Kenyan military forces.
The Kim dynasty, referred to in North Korea as the Mount Paektu Bloodline, is a three-generation lineage of North Korean leadership descended from the country's first leader, Kim Il-sung, in 1948.
Kim Il-sung (or Kim Il Sung) (born Kim Sŏng-ju; 15 April 1912 – 8 July 1994) was the first leader of North Korea, from its establishment in 1948 until his death in 1994.
Kim Jong-il (or Kim Jong Il) (16 February 1941 – 17 December 2011) was the second Supreme Leader of North Korea, from the death of his father Kim Il-sung, the first Supreme Leader of North Korea, in 1994 until his own death in 2011.
Kim Jong-un (born 8 January 1983) is a North Korean politician serving as leader of North Korea since 2011 and Leader of the Workers' Party of Korea since 2012.
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
The Knesset (הַכְּנֶסֶת; lit. "the gathering" or "assembly"; الكنيست) is the unicameral national legislature of Israel.
Kong Christian stod ved højen mast ("King Christian stood by the lofty mast"), commonly shortened to Kong Christian, is the royal anthem of the Kingdom of Denmark.
The Korean People's Army (KPA) is an institution of the Workers' Party of Korea, and constitutes the de facto military force of North Korea.
The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).
Kurt Ferdinand Friedrich Hermann von Schleicher (7 April 1882 – 30 June 1934) was a German general and the last Chancellor of Germany during the Weimar Republic.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
Johan Lennart Geijer (14 September 1909 – 16 June 1999), was a Swedish politician and lawyer.
This is a list of British Army commands and army groups.
The professional head of the Royal Navy is known as the First Sea Lord (1SL) as well as the Chief of Naval Staff (CNS).
The Federal Minister of Defence (Bundesminister der Verteidigung) is the head of the Federal Ministry of Defence and a member of the Federal Cabinet.
This is a list of heads of state of Albania who have served since the Declaration of Independence of 1912.
This is a list of the heads of state of Ghana, from the independence of Ghana in 1957 to the present day.
Marshal of France (Maréchal de France, plural Maréchaux de France) is a French military distinction, rather than a military rank, that is awarded to generals for exceptional achievements.
The monarchs of Prussia were members of the House of Hohenzollern who were the hereditary rulers of the former German state of Prussia from its founding in 1525 as the Duchy of Prussia.
This is a list of Royal Air Force commands, both past and present.
The Sultan of Brunei is the head of state and absolute monarch of Brunei.
Louis Philippe I (6 October 1773 – 26 August 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 as the leader of the Orléanist party.
Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
Muhammad Ataul Gani Osmani (মহম্মদ আতাউল গণি ওসমানী; 1 September 1918 – 16 February 1984), also known as Bangabir (the Hero of Bengal), was the commander-in-chief of the Bangladesh Forces during the 1971 Bangladesh War of Independence.
MacDill Air Force Base (MacDill AFB) is an active United States Air Force installation located 4 miles (6.4 km) south-southwest of downtown Tampa, Florida.
Magister militum (Latin for "Master of the Soldiers", plural magistri militum) was a top-level military command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine the Great.
Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
The Malaysian Armed Forces Council is a Malaysian military body established under Article 137 of the Constitution of Malaysia and is the constitutional body responsible (under the general authority of the King as Supreme Commander) for the command, discipline and administration of Malaysia's armed forces.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
Martial law in the Philippines (Batas Militar sa Pilipinas) refers to several intermittent periods in Philippine history wherein the Philippine head of state (such as the President) places an area under the control of the Armed Forces of the Philippines and its predecessor bodies.
Mauritius (or; Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.
The, also known as the Meiji Ishin, Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was an event that restored practical imperial rule to the Empire of Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji.
Michael Glenn Mullen, AO, MSC (born October 4, 1946) is a retired United States Navy admiral, who served as the 17th Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff from October 1, 2007, to September 30, 2011.
Militarism is the belief or the desire of a government or a people that a state should maintain a strong military capability and to use it aggressively to expand national interests and/or values; examples of modern militarist states include the United States, Russia and Turkey.
A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
Military branch (also service branch or armed service) is according to common standard the subdivision of the national armed forces of a sovereign nation or state.
A military dictatorship (also known as a military junta) is a form of government where in a military force exerts complete or substantial control over political authority.
The military doctrine of the Russian Federation is a strategic planning document of the Russian Federation and represents a system of officially state adopted views of preparation for the armed protection of Russia.
Military ranks are a system of hierarchical relationships in armed forces, police, intelligence agencies or other institutions organized along military lines.
A militia is generally an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a nation, or subjects of a state, who can be called upon for military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or historically, members of a warrior nobility class (e.g., knights or samurai).
The Australian Minister for Defence is currently Senator Marise Payne, who took office on 21 September 2015 as a member of the Turnbull Government.
The Minister for Defence (An tAire Cosanta) is the senior minister at the Department of Defence in the Government of Ireland.
The Minister for Justice (justitieminister) is the justice minister of Sweden and head of the Ministry of Justice.
The Minister for National Defence of Greece (Υπουργός Εθνικής Άμυνας) is a government minister responsible for the running of the Ministry of National Defence.
The Minister of Defence of Denmark (Forsvarsminister) is the politically appointed head of the Danish Ministry of Defence.
The Minister of Defence (puolustusministeri, försvarsminister) is a member of the Finnish Council of State.
The Minister of Defence is the head of the Ministry of Defence of the Government of India.
The Minister for Defence of Sweden (försvarsminister; formal title: statsråd och chef för försvarsdepartementet) is a member of the Government of Sweden (Regeringen).
The Minister of Defense of Austria heads the Ministry of Defense and is the supreme military commander of the Austrian Armed Forces.
The, or, is the Cabinet of Japan member in charge of the Ministry of Defense, known as the Defense Agency before 2007.
The Minister of National Defence (Ministre de la Défense nationale) is a Minister of the Crown and is the politician within the Cabinet of Canada responsible for the management and direction of all matters relating to the national defence of Canada.
Minister of State is a title borne by politicians or officials in certain countries governed under a parliamentary system.
The Minister of State for the Armed Forces is a high-ranking ministerial position, subordinate only to the Secretary of State for Defence, at the Ministry of Defence in Her Majesty's Government.
The Ministry of Defence of the Republic of Croatia (Ministarstvo obrane Republike Hrvatske or MORH) is the ministry in the Government of Croatia which is in charge of the nation's military.
Ministry of Defence of the Czech Republic (Ministerstvo obrany České republiky, MO ČR) is the primary agency of the Czech Republic responsible for the planning and carrying-out of defense policy.
The Danish Ministry of Defence (Forsvarsministeriet, short FMN) is a ministry in the Danish government.
The Ministry of Defence (puolustusministeriö, försvarsministeriet) is one of the 12 ministries which comprise the Finnish Government.
The Ministry of Defence (IAST) (abbreviated as MoD) is charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the Indian armed forces.
The Ministry of Defence (Indonesian: Kementerian Pertahanan abbreviated Kemhan) of the Republic of Indonesia, formerly the Department of Defence of the Republic of Indonesia is a government ministry responsible for the defence affairs of Indonesia.
The Ministry of Defence (Ministerie van Defensie; MinDef) is the Dutch Ministry responsible for the armed forces of the Netherlands and Veterans Affairs.
The Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation (Министерство обороны Российской Федерации, Минобороны России, informally abbreviated as МО, МО РФ or Minoboron) exercises administrative and operational leadership of the Russian Armed Forces.
The Ministry of Defence (Ministerio de Defensa) is a department of the Government of Spain.
The Ministry of Defence (Sinhala: රාජ්ය ආරක්ෂක අමාත්යාංශය Rājya Ārakshaka Amathyanshaya; Tamil: பாதுகாப்பு அமைச்சகம்) is the cabinet ministry of the Government of Sri Lanka responsible for implementation of government defence policy and acts as the overall headquarters of the Sri Lankan Armed Forces.
The Ministry of Defence (MoD or MOD) is the British government department responsible for implementing the defence policy set by Her Majesty's Government and is the headquarters of the British Armed Forces.
The Ministry of Defence (Bộ Quốc phòng) is the governmental ministry of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam that manages, coordinates and supervises military affairs, including all military units, paramilitary units, and similar agencies in the country.
The Ministry of Defense of Argentina is a ministry of the national executive power that deals with everything related to the country's national defense.
The Ministry of Defense (מִשְׂרַד הַבִּטָּחוֹן, Misrad HaBitahon) of the government of Israel, is the governmental department responsible for defending the State of Israel from internal and external military threats.
The is a cabinet-level ministry of the Government of Japan.
The Ministry of Justice (MOJ) is a ministerial department of the British Government headed by the Secretary of State for Justice and Lord Chancellor (a combined position).
Mobilization, in military terminology, is the act of assembling and readying troops and supplies for war.
Mohamed MorsiThe spellings of his first and last names vary.
The monarchy of Canada is at the core of both Canada's federal structure and Westminster-style of parliamentary and constitutional democracy.
The Monarchy of Denmark, colloquially known as the Danish Monarchy, is a constitutional institution and a historic office of the Kingdom of Denmark.
The monarchy of Spain (Monarquía de España), constitutionally referred to as the Crown (La Corona), is a constitutional institution and historic office of Spain.
The Monarchy of Sweden concerns the monarchical head of state of Sweden,See the Instrument of Government, Chapter 1, Article 5.
The monarchy of Thailand (whose monarch is referred to as the King of Thailand or historically as the King of Siam; พระมหากษัตริย์ไทย) refers to the constitutional monarchy and monarch of the Kingdom of Thailand (formerly Siam). The King of Thailand is the head of state and head of the ruling Royal House of Chakri. Although the current Chakri Dynasty was created in 1782, the existence of the institution of monarchy in Thailand is traditionally considered to have its roots from the founding of the Sukhothai Kingdom in 1238, with a brief interregnum from the death of Ekkathat to the accession of Taksin in the 18th century. The institution was transformed into a constitutional monarchy in 1932 after the bloodless Siamese Revolution of 1932. The monarchy's official ceremonial residence is the Grand Palace in Bangkok, while the private residence has been at the Dusit Palace. The King of Thailand's titles include Head of State, Head of the Royal Thai Armed Forces, Adherent of Buddhism and Upholder of religions.
The monarchy of the Netherlands is constitutional and as such, the role and position of the monarch are defined and limited by the Constitution of the Netherlands.
The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories.
The Mukti Bahini (মুক্তি বাহিনী translates as 'Freedom Fighters', or Liberation Forces; also known as the Bangladesh Forces) is a popular Bengali term which refers to the guerrilla resistance movement formed by the Bangladeshi military, paramilitary and civilians during the War of Liberation that transformed East Pakistan into Bangladesh in 1971.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the President of France from 1848 to 1852 and as Napoleon III the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870.
A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.
The National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic, the upper house being the Senate (Sénat).
The National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) is Mauritius's unicameral legislature, which was called the Legislative Assembly until 1992, when the country became a republic.
The Congress of the Argentine Nation (Congreso de la Nación Argentina) is the legislative branch of the government of Argentina.
The National Convention (Convention nationale) was the first government of the French Revolution, following the two-year National Constituent Assembly and the one-year Legislative Assembly.
The National Defence Act (NDA; French: Loi sur la défense nationale; LDN) is the primary enabling legislation for organizing and funding Canada's military.
The National Defence Commission of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (NDC) was the highest state institution for military and national defence leadership in North Korea, which also served as the highest governing institution of the country from 1998 until 2016 when it was replaced by the State Affairs Commission.
The National Defense Council of the German Democratic Republic (GDR - East Germany) (German: Nationaler Verteidigungsrat der DDR - NVR) was created in 1960 as the supreme state body of the GDR in charge of national defense matters, including mobilization planning.
The National Guard of the United States, part of the reserve components of the United States Armed Forces, is a reserve military force, composed of National Guard military members or units of each state and the territories of Guam, the Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia, for a total of 54 separate organizations.
The National People's Army (NPA) (German: Nationale Volksarmee – NVA) was the name used for the armed forces of the German Democratic Republic.
The National People's Congress (usually abbreviated NPC) is the national legislature of the People's Republic of China. With 2,980 members in 2018, it is the largest parliamentary body in the world. Under China's Constitution, the NPC is structured as a unicameral legislature, with the power to legislate, the power to oversee the operations of the government, and the power to elect the major officers of state. However, the NPC has been described as a "rubber stamp," having "never rejected a government proposal" in its history. The NPC is elected for a term of five years. It holds annual sessions every spring, usually lasting from 10 to 14 days, in the Great Hall of the People on the west side of Tiananmen Square in Beijing. The NPC's sessions are usually timed to occur with the meetings of the National Committee of the People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), a consultative body whose members represent various social groups. As the NPC and the CPPCC are the main deliberative bodies of China, they are often referred to as the Lianghui (Two Assemblies). According to the NPC, its annual meetings provide an opportunity for the officers of state to review past policies and present future plans to the nation.
The National Security Act of 1947 was a major restructuring of the United States government's military and intelligence agencies following World War II.
The National Security Council of Sri Lanka is the executive body of the Sri Lankan government that is charged with the maintenance of national security with authority to direct the Sri Lankan military and Police.
The National Security Council (Milli Güvenlik Kurulu, MGK) comprises the Chief of Staff, select members of the Council of Ministers, and the President of the Republic (who is also the Commander-in-chief).
The National Space Organization (NSPO; formerly known as the National Space Program Office) is the national civilian space agency of Taiwan under the auspices of the ROC (Taiwan) Ministry of Science and Technology.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sarközy de Nagy-Bocsa KOGF GCB (born 28 January 1955) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 16 May 2007 until 15 May 2012.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
The Nigerian Armed Forces are the Armed Forces of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
The Norwegian Armed Forces (Forsvaret, "The Defence") is the military organisation responsible for the defence of Norway.
The Norwegian Royal Family is the family of the Norwegian monarch.
The nuclear football (also known as the atomic football, the President's emergency satchel, the Presidential Emergency Satchel, the button, the black box, or just the football) is a briefcase, the contents of which are to be used by the President of the United States to authorize a nuclear attack while away from fixed command centers, such as the White House Situation Room.
The Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW, "High Command of the Armed Forces") was the High Command of the Wehrmacht (armed forces) of Nazi Germany during World War II.
An official is someone who holds an office (function or mandate, regardless whether it carries an actual working space with it) in an organization or government and participates in the exercise of authority (either their own or that of their superior and/or employer, public or legally private).
The Official Gazette is the public journal and main publication of the government of the Republic of the Philippines.
The Ordinance of Alsnö was an act by king Magnus Ladulås of Sweden, probably produced in Alsnö hus in September 1280, giving exemption from land taxation to those nobles who committed to produce a heavy cavalryman to the king's service.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
In modern Chinese politics, the paramount leader of the Communist Party of China and the State is an informal term that refers to the most prominent political leader in the People's Republic of China.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
The Parliament of Canada (Parlement du Canada) is the federal legislature of Canada, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, the national capital.
The Parliament of Finland, is the unicameral supreme legislature of Finland, founded on 9 May 1906.
The Parliament of the Czech Republic (Parlament České republiky) or just Parliament (Parlament) is the legislative body of the Czech Republic, seated in Malá Strana, Prague.
A parliamentary secretary is a member of a Parliament in the Westminster system who assists a more senior minister with his or her duties.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known generally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a Generalfeldmarschall and statesman who commanded the German military during the second half of World War I before later being elected President of the Weimar republic in 1925.
The People Power Revolution (also known as the EDSA Revolution and the Philippine Revolution of 1986 or simply EDSA 1986) was a series of popular demonstrations in the Philippines, mostly in the capital city of Manila from February 22–25, 1986.
The People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN; Quân Đội Nhân Dân Việt Nam), also known as the Vietnamese People's Army (VPA), is the military force of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
The Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Communist Party of China (CPC).
The People's Liberation Army Hong Kong Garrison is a garrison of the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA), responsible for defense duties in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region since the sovereignty of Hong Kong was transferred to the PRC in 1997.
The People's Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat, DPR), alternatively translatable as the House of Representatives or as the House of People's Representatives, is one of two elected national legislative assemblies in Indonesia.
The Permanent Secretary, in most departments officially titled the Permanent Under-secretary of State or PUS (although the full title is rarely used), is the most senior civil servant of a British Government ministry, charged with running the department on a day-to-day basis.
Peter Keith Levene, Baron Levene of Portsoken (born 8 December 1941) is chairman of Starr Underwriting Agents Limited and was Lord Mayor of London 1998 to 1999.
Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain (Maréchal Pétain), was a French general officer who attained the position of Marshal of France at the end of World War I, during which he became known as The Lion of Verdun, and in World War II served as the Chief of State of Vichy France from 1940 to 1944.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
The Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland (Polish:Siły Zbrojne Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, abbreviated SZ RP; popularly called Wojsko Polskie in Poland, abbreviated WP—roughly, the "Polish Military") are the national armed forces of the Republic of Poland.
Polish General Staff, also the General Staff of the Polish Armed Forces (Polish: Sztab Generalny Wojska Polskiego) is the highest professional body within the Polish Armed Forces.
The politics of Australia takes place within the framework of a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy.
The politics of the Netherlands take place within the framework of a parliamentary representative democracy, a constitutional monarchy and a decentralised unitary state.
The Portuguese Armed Forces (Forças Armadas) are the military of Portugal.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Praetorianism means excessive or abusive political influence of the Armed Forces in a country.
A preamble is an introductory and expressionary statement in a document that explains the document's purpose and underlying philosophy.
The president is a common title for the head of state in most republics.
The President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is Ashraf Ghani.
The President of the Argentine Nation (Presidente de la Nación Argentina), usually known as the President of Argentina, is both head of state and head of government of Argentina.
The President of Austria, officially the Federal President of the Republic of Austria (Bundespräsident der Republik Österreich) is the head of state of the Austrian Republic.
The President of Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশের রাষ্ট্রপতি —) is the Head of State of Bangladesh.
The President of Brazil, officially the President of the Federative Republic of Brazil (Presidente da República Federativa do Brasil) or simply the President of the Republic, is both the head of state and the head of government of the Federative Republic of Brazil.
The President of Croatia (Predsjednik Hrvatske), officially styled the President of the Republic (Predsjednik Republike), is the head of state, commander in-chief of the military and chief representative of the Republic of Croatia both within the country and abroad.
The President of the Arab Republic of Egypt (رئيس جمهورية مصر العربية) is the head of state of Egypt.
The President of the Republic of Finland (Suomen tasavallan presidentti, Republiken Finlands president) is the head of state of Finland.
The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française) is the executive head of state of France in the French Fifth Republic.
The President of Germany, officially the Federal President of the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundespräsident der Bundesrepublik Deutschland),The official title within Germany is Bundespräsident, with der Bundesrepublik Deutschland being added in international correspondence; the official English title is President of the Federal Republic of Germany is the head of state of Germany.
The Reichspräsident was the German head of state under the Weimar constitution, which was officially in force from 1919 to 1945.
The President of the Republic of Ghana is the elected head of state and head of government of Ghana, as well as Commander-in-Chief of the Ghana Armed Forces.
The President of the Republic of India is the head of state of India and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces.
The President of the Republic of Indonesia (Presiden Republik Indonesia) is the head of state and also head of government of the Republic of Indonesia.
The President of Iran (Persian: رییسجمهور ایران Rayis Jomhur-e Irān) is the head of state of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
The President of Ireland (Uachtarán na hÉireann) is the head of state of the Republic of Ireland and the Supreme Commander of the Irish Defence Forces.
The President of the Italian Republic (Presidente della Repubblica Italiana) is the head of state of Italy and in that role represents national unity and guarantees that Italian politics comply with the Constitution.
The President of the Republic of Kenya (Rais wa Jamhuri ya Kenya) is the head of state and head of government of Kenya.
The President of Malta (President ta' Malta) is the constitutional head of state of Malta.
The President of Mauritius (Président de la République de Maurice) is the Head of State of the Republic of Mauritius.
The President of the Republic of Poland (Prezydent Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, shorter form: Prezydent RP) is the head of state of Poland.
The President of the Portuguese Republic (Presidente da República Portuguesa) is the executive head of state of Portugal.
The President of the Russian Federation (Prezident Rossiyskoy Federatsii) is the elected head of state of the Russian Federation, as well as holder of the highest office in Russia and commander-in-chief of the Russian Armed Forces.
The President of Serbia (Председник Србије / Predsednik Srbije), officially styled as the President of the Republic, is the head of state of Serbia.
The office of President of Slovenia, officially President of the Republic of Slovenia (Predsednik Republike Slovenije), was established on 23 December 1991 when the National Assembly passed a new Constitution as a result of independence from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
The President of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (ශ්රී ලංකා ජනාධිපති Śrī Laṃkā Janādhipathi; இலங்கை சனாதிபதி Ilankai janātipati) is the executive head of state and head of government of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka and commander-in-chief of the Sri Lankan Armed Forces.
The President of the Republic of Suriname (President van de Republiek Suriname) is, in accordance with the Constitution of 1987, the head of state and head of government of Suriname, and commander-in-chief of Suriname National Army.
The President of the Czech Republic is the elected formal head of state of the Czech Republic and the commander-in-chief of the Military of the Czech Republic.
The President of the Dominican Republic (Presidente de la República Dominicana) is both the head of state and head of government of the Dominican Republic.
The President of the People's Republic of China is the head of state of the People's Republic of China.
The President of the Philippines (Pangulo ng Pilipinas, informally referred to as Presidente ng Pilipinas; or in Presidente de Filipinas) is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines.
The President of Taiwan, officially the President of the Republic of China, is the head of state and the head of government of Taiwan.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
The President of the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Cumhurbaşkanı) is the head of state of the Republic of Turkey.
The President of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Chủ tịch nước Cộng hoà Xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam) is, according to the constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, the elected head of state of Vietnam, holds the second highest office in Vietnam after General Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam.
On 11 April 1951, U.S. President Harry S. Truman relieved General of the Army Douglas MacArthur of his commands after MacArthur made public statements which contradicted the administration's policies.
The Presidential Administration of Russia (also known as Staff of Russia’s president, Presidential Executive Office, in Russian: Администрация Президента Российской Федерации) is the executive office of Russia's president created by a decree of Boris Yeltsin on 19 July 1991 as an institution supporting the activity of the president (then Yeltsin) and vice-president (then Aleksandr Rutskoy, in 1993 the position was abolished) of Russian SFSR (now Russian Federation), as well as deliberative bodies attached to the president, including the Security Council.
The Prime Minister of Australia (sometimes informally abbreviated to PM) is the head of government of Australia.
The Prime Minister of the People's Republic of Bangladesh (translit) is the Head of the Government of Bangladesh.
The Prime Minister of Canada (Premier ministre du Canada) is the primary minister of the Crown, chairman of the Cabinet, and thus Canada's head of government, charged with advising the Canadian monarch or Governor General of Canada on the exercise of the executive powers vested in them by the constitution.
The Prime Minister of Denmark (Danmarks statsminister; literally "Minister of the State") is the head of government in the Kingdom of Denmark.
The Prime Minister of Ethiopia is the head of the Ethiopian government and the most powerful figure in Ethiopian politics.
The Prime Minister of Finland (Suomen pääministeri) is the head of the Finnish Government.
The French Prime Minister (Premier ministre français) in the Fifth Republic is the head of government.
The Prime Minister of the Hellenic Republic (Πρωθυπουργός της Ελληνικής Δημοκρατίας, Pro̱thypourgós ti̱s Elli̱nikí̱s Di̱mokratías), colloquially referred to as the Prime Minister of Greece (Πρωθυπουργός της Ελλάδας, Pro̱thypourgós ti̱s Elládas), is the head of government of the Hellenic Republic and the leader of the Greek cabinet.
The Prime Minister of India is the leader of the executive of the Government of India.
The Prime Minister of Israel (רֹאשׁ הַמֶּמְשָׁלָה, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. Head of the Government, Hebrew acronym: רה״מ; رئيس الحكومة, Ra'īs al-Ḥukūma) is the head of government of Israel and the most powerful figure in Israeli politics.
The is the head of government of Japan.
The Prime Minister of Pakistan (وزِیرِ اعظم —,; lit. "Grand Vizier") is the head of government of Pakistan and designated as the "chief executive of the Republic".
The Prime Minister of Spain, officially the President of the Government of Spain (Presidente del Gobierno de España), is the head of the government of Spain.
The Prime Minister of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (ශ්රී ලංකා අග්රාමාත්ය; இலங்கை பிரதமர்) is the most senior member of parliament in the cabinet of ministers in Sri Lanka which is collectively accountable for their policies and actions to parliament.
The Prime Minister (statsminister, literally "Minister of the State") is the head of government in Sweden.
The Chairman of the Government of the Czech Republic (Czech: Předseda vlády České republiky), normally referred to in English as the Prime Minister, is the head of the Government of the Czech Republic.
The Prime Minister of the Netherlands (Minister-president van Nederland) is the head of the executive branch of the Government of the Netherlands in his quality of chair of the Council of Ministers.
The Prime Minister of the Philippines (Punong Ministro ng Pilipinas) was the official designation of the head of the government (whereas the President of the Philippines was the head of state) of the Philippines from 1978 until the People Power Revolution in 1986.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
Proclamation № 1081 was the proclamation of Martial Law in the Philippines by President Ferdinand E. Marcos.
Elizabeth II was Queen of Mauritius from 1968 to 1992.
Headquarters Air Command is the only Command currently active in the Royal Air Force.
Commissioned officers' rank comparison chart of all land forces of NATO member states.
Ratification is a principal's approval of an act of its agent that lacked the authority to bind the principal legally.
The Reichsmarine (Navy of the Realm) was the name of the German Navy during the Weimar Republic and first two years of Nazi Germany.
The Reichswehr (English: Realm Defence) formed the military organisation of Germany from 1919 until 1935, when it was united with the new Wehrmacht (Defence Force).
The Republic of China Armed Forces, also known as the Chinese National Armed Forces (CNAF) or Armed Forces of Taiwan are the armed forces of the Republic of China now on Taiwan, encompassing the Army, Navy (including the Republic of China Marine Corps), Air Force and Military Police Force.
The Republic of China Military Police (ROCMP) is a military police body under the Ministry of National Defense of Taiwan (Republic of China).
The Republic of Croatia Armed Forces (Oružane snage Republike Hrvatske - OSRH) is the military service of Croatia.
The republics in the Commonwealth of Nations are the sovereign states in the Commonwealth of Nations with a republican form of government.
The Riksdag (riksdagen or Sveriges riksdag) is the national legislature and the supreme decision-making body of Sweden.
Robert Michael Gates (born September 25, 1943) is an American statesman, scholar, intelligence analyst, and university president who served as the 22nd United States Secretary of Defense from 2006 to 2011.
Rodrigo Roa Duterte (born March 28, 1945), also known as Digong and Rody, is a Filipino politician who is the 16th and current President of the Philippines and the first from Mindanao, the southernmost island of the country to hold the office.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Roman Kingdom, or regal period, was the period of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a monarchical form of government of the city of Rome and its territories.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
The Royal Bermuda Regiment (RBR), formerly the Bermuda Regiment, is the home defence unit of the British Overseas Territory of Bermuda.
The Royal Brunei Armed Forces was formed on 31 May 1961.
The Royal Court of Sweden (Kungliga Hovstaterna) is the official name for the organisation (royal households) that supports the monarch, and the royal house.
The Royal Danish Air Force (lit) (RDAF) is the aerial warfare force of Denmark and one of the four branches of the Danish Defence.
The Royal Danish Army (Hæren) is the land-based branch of the Danish Defence, together with the Danish Home Guard.
The Royal Danish Navy (Søværnet) is the sea-based branch of the Danish Defence force.
A royal household or imperial household in ancient and medieval monarchies, and papal household for popes, formed the basis for the general government of the country as well as providing for the needs of the sovereign and his relations.
The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognised in the United Kingdom as the sole prerogative of the Sovereign and the source of many of the executive powers of the British government.
The Royal Thai Armed Forces (กองทัพไทย) is the name of the military of the Kingdom of Thailand.
A royal yacht is a ship used by a monarch or a royal family.
The Aerospace Defence Forces Branch, short: ASDFB (Voyska vozdushno-kosmicheskoy oborony (VVKO) was a branch of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation responsible for aerospace defence, and the operation of Russian military satellites and the Plesetsk Cosmodrome. It was established on the 1 December 2011 and replaced the Russian Space Forces. The ASDFB was first commanded by former Space Forces commander Colonel General Oleg Ostapenko, who was promoted to Deputy Minister of Defence in November 2012. On 24 December 2012, Aleksandr Golovko was appointed the new commander. Although it is officially translated as aerospace in English, it covers both attacks from the air and from (outer) space, and some Russian writers translate it as "air and space" instead. On the 1 August 2015, the Russian Air Force and the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces were merged to form the Russian Aerospace Forces. The Russian Aerospace Defence Forces duties for space defense are now with the Russian Space Forces under the umbrella of the new Russian Aerospace Forces. The RADF today only provides air defense responsibilities.
The Russian Air Force (r, literally "military air forces of Russia") is a branch of the Russian Aerospace Forces, the latter being formed on 1 August 2015 with the merger of the Russian Air Force and the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces.
The Russian Airborne Troops or VDV (from "Vozdushno-desantnye voyska Rossii", Russian: Воздушно-десантные войска России, ВДВ; Air-landing Forces) is a military branch of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.
The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (r) are the military service of the Russian Federation, established after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The Ground Forces of the Russian Federation (r) are the land forces of the Russian Armed Forces, formed from parts of the collapsing Soviet Army in 1992.
The Russian Navy (r, lit. Military-Maritime Fleet of the Russian Federation) is the naval arm of the Russian Armed Forces.
Salvador Roman Hidalgo Laurel (November 18, 1928 – January 27, 2004), also known as Doy Laurel, was a Filipino lawyer and politician who served as Vice-President of the Philippines from 1986 to 1992 under President Corazon Aquino and briefly served as Prime Minister from 25 February to 25 March 1986, when the position was abolished.
were the military nobility and officer caste of medieval and early-modern Japan.
The French Second Empire (Second Empire) was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France.
The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).
The Second Sea Lord (2SL) is one of the most senior admirals of the British Royal Navy, responsible for personnel and naval shore establishments.
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Defence (Defence Secretary) is an official within Her Majesty's Government and head of the Ministry of Defence.
Sedki Sobhy Sayyid Ahmad (صدقى صبحى سيد أحمد) (born 12 December 1955) is an Egyptian General who has been Minister of Defence of Egypt since 2014.
A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible for the legislature of a state.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
The Serbian Armed Forces (Војска Србије / Vojska Srbije) are the armed forces of Serbia.
Shah (Šāh, pronounced, "king") is a title given to the emperors, kings, princes and lords of Iran (historically also known as Persia).
The was the military dictator of Japan during the period from 1185 to 1868 (with exceptions).
The Socialist Unity Party of Germany (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands, SED), established in April 1946, was the governing Marxist–Leninist political party of the German Democratic Republic from the country's foundation in October 1949 until it was dissolved after the Peaceful Revolution in 1989.
The Sonderbund War (Sonderbundskrieg) of November 1847 was a civil war in Switzerland, then still a relatively loose confederacy of cantons (states).
The Soviet Air Defence Forces (войска ПВО, voyska protivovozdushnoy oborony, voyska PVO, V-PVO, lit. Anti-Air Defence Troops; and formerly protivovozdushnaya oborona strany, PVO strany, lit. Anti-Air Defence of the Nation) was the air defence branch of the Soviet Armed Forces.
The Spanish Armed Forces are in charge of guaranteeing the sovereignty and independence of Spain, defender of its territorial integrity and the constitutional order, according to the functions entrusted in the Constitution of 1978.
Special Branch is a label customarily used to identify units responsible for matters of national security and intelligence in British and Commonwealth police forces, as well as in Ireland and the Royal Malaysian Police.
Special forces and special operations forces are military units trained to conduct special operations.
A military staff (often referred to as general staff, army staff, navy staff, or air staff within the individual services) is a group of officers, enlisted and civilian personnel that are responsible for the administrative, operational and logistical needs of its unit.
The Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPCSC) is a committee of about 150 members of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China (PRC), which is convened between plenary sessions of the NPC.
State defense forces (SDF; also known as state military, state guards, or state military reserves) in the United States are military units that operate under the sole authority of a state government.
The state of defence (in German: Verteidigungsfall or V-Fall) is the constitutional state of emergency in Germany if the country is "under attack by armed force or imminently threatened with such an attack".
A state of emergency is a situation in which a government is empowered to perform actions that it would normally not be permitted.
A state within a state or a deep state is a political situation in a country when an internal organ ("deep state"), such as the armed forces or public authorities (intelligence agencies, police, secret police, administrative agencies, and branches of government bureaucracy), does not respond to the civilian political leadership.
The Strategic Missile Troops or Strategic Rocket Forces of the Russian Federation or RVSN RF are a military branch of the Russian Armed Forces that controls Russia's land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs).
A strongman is a political leader who rules by force and runs an authoritarian regime or totalitarian regime.
Supreme Commander may refer to.
The Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army is the highest post in command of the Korean People's Army (KPA), the armed forces of North Korea, and is in charge of one of the largest standing armed forces in the world with around 1.8 million active duty military personnel and military reserves.
The Supreme Commander (Överbefälhavaren; acronym: ÖB) is the highest ranked professional military officer in the Swedish Armed Forces, and is by NATO terminology the Swedish chief of defence equivalent.
The Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Armed Forces (Верховный главнокомандующий Вооружёнными силами Российской Федерации) is the overall commanding authority of the Russian Armed Forces, a position vested in the President of the Russian Federation in accordance with Article 87 of the Russian Constitution.
The Supreme Leader of Iran (rahbar-e mo'azzam-e irān), also called the Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution (رهبر معظم انقلاب اسلامی), officially in Iran, called the Supreme Leadership Authority (مقام معظم رهبری), is the head of state and highest ranking political and religious authority in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
The Supreme People's Assembly (Chosongul: 최고 인민 회의) is the unicameral legislature of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), commonly known as North Korea.
Suriname (also spelled Surinam), officially known as the Republic of Suriname (Republiek Suriname), is a sovereign state on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America.
The Svea Life Guards (Svea livgarde), also I 1, was a Swedish Army infantry regiment that was active in various forms 1521–2000.
The Swedish Air Force (Svenska flygvapnet) is the air force branch of the Swedish Armed Forces.
The Swedish Armed Forces (Försvarsmakten, literally “Defense Force”) is the government agency that forms the military forces of Sweden, and which is tasked with defence of the country, as well as promoting Sweden's wider interests, supporting international peacekeeping efforts, and providing humanitarian aid.
The Swedish Army (Armén) is a branch of the Swedish Armed Forces in which its main responsibility is land operations.
The Swedish Empire (Stormaktstiden, "Great Power Era") was a European great power that exercised territorial control over much of the Baltic region during the 17th and early 18th centuries.
The Swedish Royal Navy (Svenska marinen) is the naval branch of the Swedish Armed Forces.
The Swedish nobility (Adeln) has historically been a legally and/or socially privileged class in Sweden, and part of the so-called frälse (a derivation from Old Swedish meaning free neck).
The Swedish War of Liberation (1521–23; Befrielsekriget, "The Liberation War"), also known as Gustav Vasa's Rebellion and the Swedish War of Secession, was a rebellion and a civil war in which the Swedish nobleman Gustav Vasa successfully deposed the Danish-Norwegian king Christian II as regent of the Kalmar Union in Sweden.
The Swiss Armed Forces (German: Schweizer Armee, French: Armée suisse, Italian: Esercito svizzero, Romanisch: Armada svizra) operates on land, in the air, and in international waters.
The Federal Constitution of the Swiss Confederation (SR 10, Bundesverfassung der Schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft (BV), Constitution fédérale de la Confédération suisse (Cst.), Costituzione federale della Confederazione Svizzera (Cost.), Constituziun federala da la Confederaziun svizra) of 18 April 1999 (SR 101) is the third and current federal constitution of Switzerland.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
The Taliban (طالبان "students"), alternatively spelled Taleban, which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), is a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurgency, or jihad) within that country.
The Tatmadaw is the official name of the armed forces of Myanmar (Burma).
The Judge Advocate General’s Legal Center and School educates military, civilian, and international personnel in legal and leadership skills.
In warfare, a theater or theatre (see spelling differences) is an area or place in which important military events occur or are progressing.
An officer of three-star rank is a senior commander in many of the armed services holding a rank described by the NATO code of OF-8.
The Tokugawa shogunate, also known as the and the, was the last feudal Japanese military government, which existed between 1600 and 1868.
The transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong from the United Kingdom to China, referred to as "the Handover" internationally or "the Return" in Mainland China, took place on 1 July 1997.
The Turkish Armed Forces (TAF; Türk Silahlı Kuvvetleri, TSK) are the military forces of the Republic of Turkey.
Conrad Ulrich Sigmund Wille (April 5, 1848 – January 31, 1925) was the General of the Swiss Army during the First World War.
Ulysses Simpson Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant; April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American soldier and statesman who served as Commanding General of the Army and the 18th President of the United States, the highest positions in the military and the government of the United States.
A unified combatant command (UCC) is a United States Department of Defense command that is composed of forces from at least two Military Departments and has a broad and continuing mission.
The Union Council of Ministers exercises executive authority in the Republic of India.
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.
The United States Central Command (USCENTCOM or CENTCOM) is a theater-level Unified Combatant Command of the U.S. Department of Defense.
The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Department of the Navy (DoN) was established by an Act of Congress on April 30, 1798 (initiated by the recommendation of James McHenry),Bernard C. Steiner and James McHenry, (Cleveland: Burrows Brothers Co., 1907).
The Secretary of Defense (SecDef) is the leader and chief executive officer of the Department of Defense, the executive department of the Armed Forces of the United States of America.
The Secretary of the Navy (or SECNAV) is a statutory officer and the head (chief executive officer) of the Department of the Navy, a military department (component organization) within the Department of Defense of the United States of America.
The Secretary of War was a member of the United States President's Cabinet, beginning with George Washington's administration.
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.
Vichy France (Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
The People's Chamber (German: Volkskammer) was the unicameral legislature of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany).
The War in Afghanistan (or the U.S. War in Afghanistan; code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–2014) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present)) followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of October 7, 2001.
The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, and their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815.
The War on Terror, also known as the Global War on Terrorism, is an international military campaign that was launched by the United States government after the September 11 attacks in the United States in 2001.
A warlord is a leader able to exercise military, economic, and political control over a subnational territory within a sovereign state due to their ability to mobilize loyal armed forces.
The Constitution of the German Reich (Die Verfassung des Deutschen Reichs), usually known as the Weimar Constitution (Weimarer Verfassung) was the constitution that governed Germany during the Weimar Republic era (1919–1933).
The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933.
Werner Eduard Fritz von Blomberg (2 September 1878 – 14 March 1946) was a German ''Generalfeldmarschall'', Minister of War, and Commander-in-Chief of the German Armed Forces until January 1938, as he was forced to resign due to his marriage with a former prostitute.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
The Whiskey Rebellion (also known as the Whiskey Insurrection) was a tax protest in the United States beginning in 1791 during the presidency of George Washington.
Wilhelm Keitel (22 September 1882 – 16 October 1946) was a German field marshal who served as Chief of the Armed Forces High Command (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht or OKW) in Nazi Germany during World War II.
Nicolai Wilhelm Marstrand (24 December 1810 – 25 March 1873), painter and illustrator, was born in Copenhagen, Denmark, to Nicolai Jacob Marstrand, instrument maker and inventor, and Petra Othilia Smith.
Fleet Admiral William Daniel Leahy (May 6, 1875 – July 20, 1959) was an American naval officer who served as the senior-most United States military officer on active duty during World War II.
Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was an American statesman and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921.
The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is one of the 15 specialized agencies of the United Nations (UN).
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Yang di-Pertuan Agong (literally "He Who Was Made Lord", Jawi: يڠ دڤرتوان اݢوڠ), also known as the King, is the monarch and head of state of Malaysia.
The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War, or October War (or מלחמת יום כיפור,;,, or حرب تشرين), also known as the 1973 Arab–Israeli War, was a war fought from October 6 to 25, 1973, by a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel.
The current Constitution of Ethiopia, which is the supreme law of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, came into force on 21 August 1995.
The 2003 invasion of Iraq was the first stage of the Iraq War (also called Operation Iraqi Freedom).
The 29th Division, known as the Incomparable Division, was an infantry division of the British Army, formed in early 1915 by combining various Regular Army units that had been acting as garrisons around the British Empire.
AOC in C, AOC-in-C, AOCinC, Acting Commander in Chief, Air Officer Commander-in-Chief, Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief, C in C, C-i-C, C-in-C, CINC, Capo principale, CinC, Comandante en Jefe, Commander In Chief, Commander and Chief, Commander and cheif, Commander and chief, Commander in Cheif, Commander in Chief, Commander in chief, Commander in-chief, Commander-In-Chief, Commander-in Chief, Commander-in-Chief, Commander-in-Chief (Royal Navy), Commanders in Chief, Commanders-in-Chief, Commanders-in-chief, Deputy Commander-in-Chief, Général en chef, Sarnoubat, Senakarta, Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces.