113 relations: Alphabet, Ancient Egypt, Anglo-Saxon runes, Antiqua (typeface class), ASCII, Aspirated consonant, Ɓ, Ƃ, B (hieroglyph), B (musical note), B with flourish, B♭ (musical note), Be (Cyrillic), Berkanan, Bet (letter), Beta, Biblical Archaeology Review, Bilabial consonant, Birch, Bitcoin, Blackletter, Boron, Byte, C, Capitalization, Carolingian minuscule, Central Europe, Chemical element, Chinese language, Chromatic scale, Cnut the Great, Consonant, Consonant cluster, Coptic alphabet, Cyrillic script, Decibel, Diacritic, Digraph (orthography), Dot (diacritic), EBCDIC, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Elder Futhark, English alphabet, English orthography, English-speaking world, Estonian language, Etymology, Ƀ, Fijian language, Finnish language, ..., Flat (music), Fraktur, Gemination, Germanic languages, Glyph, Gothic alphabet, Greek alphabet, Gregorian mission, Grimm's law, Hebrew alphabet, Hiberno-Scottish mission, Holy Roman Empire, Humanist minuscule, Icelandic language, Illustrated Hieroglyphics Handbook, Implosive consonant, Indo-European languages, Insular script, International Phonetic Alphabet, ISO basic Latin alphabet, Italian Renaissance, Latin, Latin alphabet, Latin script, Letter (alphabet), Letter case, Letterpress printing, Level (logarithmic quantity), List of Egyptian hieroglyphs, Loanword, Macron below, Medieval Greek, Modern Greek, Musical notation, Musical note, Natural (music), Norman conquest of England, Old English, Old English Latin alphabet, Old Italic script, Phoenician alphabet, Phone (phonetics), Phoneme, Pinyin, Pr (hieroglyph), Prenasalized consonant, Proto-Sinaitic script, Runes, Scandinavia, Silent letter, Slavic languages, Space (punctuation), Thai baht, Uncial script, Uralic Phonetic Alphabet, Ve (Cyrillic), Voiced bilabial affricate, Voiced bilabial stop, Voiced labiodental affricate, Voiced labiodental fricative, Washington, D.C., Xhosa language, Zulu language. Expand index (63 more) »
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Anglo-Saxon runes are runes used by the early Anglo-Saxons as an alphabet in their writing.
Antiqua is a style of typeface used to mimic styles of handwriting or calligraphy common during the 15th and 16th centuries.
ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
This letter, Ɓ (minuscule: ɓ), called "B-hook" or "B with a hook" is a letter of the Latin alphabet and the Africa alphabet.
Ƃ (minuscule: ƃ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet.
The Ancient Egyptian b-hieroglyph (Gardiner D58) represents a foot or lower leg.
B, also known as Si, Ti, or, in some European countries, H, is the seventh note of the fixed-Do solfège.
B with flourish (Ꞗ, ꞗ) is the modern name for the third letter of the Middle Vietnamese alphabet, sorted between B and C. The B with flourish has a rounded hook that starts halfway up the stem (where the top of the bowl meets the ascender) and curves about 180 degrees counterclockwise, ending below the bottom-left corner.
B (B-flat; also called si bémol) is the eleventh step of the Western chromatic scale (starting from C).
Be (Б б italics: Б б б) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Berkanan is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic name of the b rune, meaning "birch".
Bet, Beth, Beh, or Vet is the second letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Bēt, Hebrew Bēt, Aramaic Bēth, Syriac Bēṯ ܒ, and Arabic ب Its sound value is a voiced bilabial stop ⟨b⟩ or a voiced labiodental fricative ⟨v.
Beta (uppercase, lowercase, or cursive; bē̂ta or βήτα) is the second letter of the Greek alphabet.
Biblical Archaeology Review is a bi-monthly magazine that seeks to connect the academic study of archaeology to a broad general audience seeking to understand the world of the Bible and the Near and Middle East (Syro-Palestine and the Levant).
In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.
A birch is a thin-leaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, which also includes alders, hazels, and hornbeams.
Bitcoin (₿) is the world's first cryptocurrency, a form of electronic cash.
Blackletter (sometimes black letter), also known as Gothic script, Gothic minuscule, or Textura, was a script used throughout Western Europe from approximately 1150 to well into the 17th century.
Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.
The byte is a unit of digital information that most commonly consists of eight bits, representing a binary number.
C is the third letter in the English alphabet and a letter of the alphabets of many other writing systems which inherited it from the Latin alphabet.
Capitalisation, or capitalization,see spelling differences is writing a word with its first letter as a capital letter (upper-case letter) and the remaining letters in lower case in writing systems with a case distinction.
Carolingian minuscule or Caroline minuscule is a script which developed as a calligraphic standard in Europe so that the Latin alphabet could be easily recognized by the literate class from one region to another.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
The chromatic scale is a musical scale with twelve pitches, each a semitone above or below its adjacent pitches.
Cnut the GreatBolton, The Empire of Cnut the Great: Conquest and the Consolidation of Power in Northern Europe in the Early Eleventh Century (Leiden, 2009) (Cnut se Micela, Knútr inn ríki. Retrieved 21 January 2016. – 12 November 1035), also known as Canute—whose father was Sweyn Forkbeard (which gave him the patronym Sweynsson, Sveinsson)—was King of Denmark, England and Norway; together often referred to as the North Sea Empire.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
In linguistics, a consonant cluster, consonant sequence or consonant compound is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel.
The Coptic alphabet is the script used for writing the Coptic language.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
The decibel (symbol: dB) is a unit of measurement used to express the ratio of one value of a physical property to another on a logarithmic scale.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the Interpunct (·), or to the glyphs 'combining dot above' (◌̇) and 'combining dot below' (◌̣) which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Central European languages and Vietnamese.
Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC) is an eight-bit character encoding used mainly on IBM mainframe and IBM midrange computer operating systems.
Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt.
The Elder Futhark (also called Elder Fuþark, Older Futhark, Old Futhark or Germanic Futhark) is the oldest form of the runic alphabets.
The modern English alphabet is a Latin alphabet consisting of 26 letters, each having an uppercase and a lowercase form: The same letters constitute the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
English orthography is the system of writing conventions used to represent spoken English in written form that allows readers to connect spelling to sound to meaning.
Approximately 330 to 360 million people speak English as their first language.
Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.
EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".
B with stroke (majuscule: Ƀ, minuscule: ƀ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from B with the addition of a bar, which can be through either the ascender or the bowl.
Fijian (Na Vosa Vakaviti) is an Austronesian language of the Malayo-Polynesian family spoken by some 350,000–450,000 ethnic Fijians as a native language.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
In music, flat or bemolle (Italian: "soft B") means "lower in pitch".
Fraktur is a calligraphic hand of the Latin alphabet and any of several blackletter typefaces derived from this hand.
Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
In typography, a glyph is an elemental symbol within an agreed set of symbols, intended to represent a readable character for the purposes of writing.
The Gothic alphabet is an alphabet for writing the Gothic language, created in the 4th century by Ulfilas (or Wulfila) for the purpose of translating the Bible.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
The Gregorian missionJones "Gregorian Mission" Speculum p. 335 or Augustinian missionMcGowan "Introduction to the Corpus" Companion to Anglo-Saxon Literature p. 17 was a Christian mission sent by Pope Gregory the Great in 596 to convert Britain's Anglo-Saxons.
Grimm's law (also known as the First Germanic Sound Shift or Rask's rule) is a set of statements named after Jacob Grimm and Rasmus Rask describing the inherited Proto-Indo-European (PIE) stop consonants as they developed in Proto-Germanic (the common ancestor of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family) in the 1st millennium BC.
The Hebrew alphabet (אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי), known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script and block script, is an abjad script used in the writing of the Hebrew language, also adapted as an alphabet script in the writing of other Jewish languages, most notably in Yiddish (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-German), Djudío (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-Spanish), and Judeo-Arabic.
The Hiberno-Scottish mission was a series of missions and expeditions initiated by various Irish clerics and cleric-scholars who, for the most part, are not known to have acted in concert.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
Humanist minuscule is a handwriting or style of script that was invented in secular circles in Italy, at the beginning of the fifteenth century.
Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.
The Illustrated Hieroglyphics Handbook is part of a new genre of books focused on Egyptian hieroglyphs.
Implosive consonants are a group of stop consonants (and possibly also some affricates) with a mixed glottalic ingressive and pulmonic egressive airstream mechanism.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
Insular script was a medieval script system invented in Ireland that spread to Anglo-Saxon England and continental Europe under the influence of Irish Christianity.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
The ISO basic Latin alphabet is a Latin-script alphabet and consists of two sets of 26 letters, codified in various national and international standards and used widely in international communication.
The Italian Renaissance (Rinascimento) was the earliest manifestation of the general European Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy during the 14th century (Trecento) and lasted until the 17th century (Seicento), marking the transition between Medieval and Modern Europe.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
A letter is a grapheme (written character) in an alphabetic system of writing.
Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages.
Letterpress printing is a technique of relief printing using a printing press, a process by which many copies are produced by repeated direct impression of an inked, raised surface against sheets or a continuous roll of paper.
In the International System of Quantities, the level of a quantity is the logarithm of the ratio of the value of that quantity to a reference value of the same quantity.
The following is a list of Egyptian hieroglyphs.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
Macron below,, is a combining diacritical mark used in various orthographies.
Medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek, is the stage of the Greek language between the end of Classical antiquity in the 5th–6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453.
Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική Γλώσσα "Neo-Hellenic", historically and colloquially also known as Ρωμαίικα "Romaic" or "Roman", and Γραικικά "Greek") refers to the dialects and varieties of the Greek language spoken in the modern era.
Music notation or musical notation is any system used to visually represent aurally perceived music played with instruments or sung by the human voice through the use of written, printed, or otherwise-produced symbols.
In music, a note is the pitch and duration of a sound, and also its representation in musical notation (♪, ♩).
In music theory, a natural is an accidental which cancels previous accidentals and represents the unaltered pitch of a note.
The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
The Old English Latin alphabet—though it had no standard orthography—generally consisted of 24 letters, and was used for writing Old English from the 9th to the 12th centuries.
Old Italic is one of several now extinct alphabet systems used on the Italian Peninsula in ancient times for various Indo-European languages (predominantly Italic) and non-Indo-European (e.g. Etruscan) languages.
The Phoenician alphabet, called by convention the Proto-Canaanite alphabet for inscriptions older than around 1050 BC, is the oldest verified alphabet.
In phonetics and linguistics, a phone is any distinct speech sound or gesture, regardless of whether the exact sound is critical to the meanings of words.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.
Pr (𓉐 Gardiner sign listed no. O1) is the hieroglyph for 'house', the floor-plan of a walled building with an open doorway.
Prenasalized consonants are phonetic sequences of a nasal and an obstruent (or occasionally a non-nasal sonorant such as) that behave phonologically like single consonants.
Proto-Sinaitic, also referred to as Sinaitic, Proto-Canaanite, Old Canaanite, or Canaanite, is a term for both a Middle Bronze Age (Middle Kingdom) script attested in a small corpus of inscriptions found at Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt, and the reconstructed common ancestor of the Paleo-Hebrew, Phoenician and South Arabian scripts (and, by extension, of most historical and modern alphabets).
Runes are the letters in a set of related alphabets known as runic alphabets, which were used to write various Germanic languages before the adoption of the Latin alphabet and for specialised purposes thereafter.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
In an alphabetic writing system, a silent letter is a letter that, in a particular word, does not correspond to any sound in the word's pronunciation.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
In writing, a space ( ) is a blank area that separates words, sentences, syllables (in syllabification) and other written or printed glyphs (characters).
The baht (บาท,; sign: ฿; code: THB) is the currency of Thailand.
Uncial is a majusculeGlaister, Geoffrey Ashall.
The Uralic Phonetic Alphabet (UPA) or Finno-Ugric transcription system is a phonetic transcription or notational system used predominantly for the transcription and reconstruction of Uralic languages.
Ve (В в; italics: В в) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
A voiced bilabial affricate (in IPA) is a rare affricate consonant that is initiated as a bilabial stop and released as a voiced bilabial fricative.
The voiced bilabial stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
A voiced labiodental affricate (in IPA) is a rare affricate consonant that is initiated as a voiced labiodental stop and released as a voiced labiodental fricative.
The voiced labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Xhosa (Xhosa: isiXhosa) is a Nguni Bantu language with click consonants ("Xhosa" begins with a click) and one of the official languages of South Africa.
Zulu (Zulu: isiZulu) is the language of the Zulu people, with about 10 million speakers, the vast majority (over 95%) of whom live in South Africa.