126 relations: Acute accent, Albanian language, Alphabet, Americanist phonetic notation, Ancient Greek, Archaic Greek alphabets, ASCII, Association football, Azerbaijani language, Ç, Ć, Ĉ, Ċ, Č, Ƈ, Balto-Slavic languages, Barry B. Powell, Brazilian cruzeiro, Bukawa language, C with bar, Cardinality of the continuum, Celsius, Cent (currency), Ch (digraph), C̈, Claudian letters, Colón (currency), Complex number, Copyright symbol, Crimean Tatar language, Cyrillic script, Diacritic, EBCDIC, Egyptian hieroglyphs, English alphabet, English language, English orthography, Es (Cyrillic), Esperanto, Etruscan language, Etymology, European Currency Unit, Ȼ, Fijian language, French language, Front vowel, Fula language, G, Gamma, German language, ..., Germanic languages, Ghanaian cedi, Gimel, Glottal stop, Greek alphabet, Greek language, Hard and soft C, Hausa language, Homoglyph, Hungarian language, Ido language, Indigenous languages of the Americas, Indonesian language, Insular Celtic languages, Interlingua, International Phonetic Alphabet, Irish language, ISO basic Latin alphabet, Italian language, Latin, Latin alphabet, Latin script, Letter (alphabet), Malay language, Manding languages, Middle Ages, Middle English, Names of the Celts, Norman conquest of England, Norman language, Northern Kurdish, Norwegian language, Old English Latin alphabet, Old Italic script, Palatalization (sound change), Pashto, Phoenician alphabet, Phonation, Phonetics, Pinyin, Portuguese language, Romance languages, Romanian language, Romanization of Macedonian, Romanization of Ukrainian, Sami languages, Scottish Gaelic, Semitic people, Serbian Cyrillic alphabet, Sigma, Sling (weapon), Somali language, Spanish language, Standard Chinese, Stop consonant, Stretched C, Swedish language, Turkish language, Unicode subscripts and superscripts, Uralic Phonetic Alphabet, Voiced dental fricative, Voiced pharyngeal fricative, Voiced postalveolar affricate, Voiceless alveolar affricate, Voiceless dental fricative, Voiceless palatal fricative, Voiceless palatal stop, Vulgar Latin, Welsh language, Writing system, X-SAMPA, Xhosa language, Yabem language, Yoruba language, Yup'ik language, Zulu language. Expand index (76 more) » « Shrink index
The acute accent (´) is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek scripts.
Albanian (shqip, or gjuha shqipe) is a language of the Indo-European family, in which it occupies an independent branch.
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.
Americanist phonetic notation, also known as the North American Phonetic Alphabet or NAPA, is a system of phonetic notation originally developed by European and American anthropologists and language scientists (many of whom were students of Neogrammarians) for the phonetic and phonemic transcription of indigenous languages of the Americas and for languages of Europe.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Many local variants of the Greek alphabet were employed in ancient Greece during the archaic and early classical periods, until they were replaced by the classical 24-letter alphabet that is the standard today, around 400 BC.
ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Azerbaijani or Azeri, also referred to as Azeri Turkic or Azeri Turkish, is a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Azerbaijanis, who are concentrated mainly in Transcaucasia and Iranian Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan).
Ç or ç (c-cedilla) is a Latin script letter, used in the Albanian, Azerbaijani, Manx, Portuguese, Tatar, Turkish, Turkmen, Kurdish and Zazaki alphabets.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
The grapheme Ć (minuscule: ć), formed from C with the addition of an acute accent, is used in various languages.
Ĉ or ĉ (C circumflex) is a consonant in Esperanto orthography, representing the sound.
Ċ (minuscule: ċ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from C with the addition of a dot.
The grapheme Čč (Latin C with caron, also known as háček in Czech and mäkčeň in Slovak) is used in various contexts, usually denoting the voiceless postalveolar affricate consonant like the English ch in the word chocolate.
Ƈ (minuscule: ƈ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, derived from C with the addition of a hook.
The Balto-Slavic languages are a branch of the Indo-European family of languages.
Barry B. Powell is the Halls-Bascom Professor of Classics Emeritus at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, author of the widely used textbook Classical Myth and many other books.
The cruzeiro was the currency of Brazil from 1942 to 1986 (two distinct currencies) and again between 1990 and 1993.
Bukawa (also known as Bukaua, Kawac, Bugawac, Gawac) is an Austronesian language spoken by about 12,000 people (in 2011) on the coast of the Huon Gulf, Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea.
The C with bar (majuscule: Ꞓ, minuscule: ꞓ), also known as barred C, is a modified letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from C with the addition of a bar.
In set theory, the cardinality of the continuum is the cardinality or “size” of the set of real numbers \mathbb R, sometimes called the continuum.
The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).
In many national currencies, the cent, commonly represented by the cent sign (a minuscule letter "c" crossed by a diagonal stroke or a vertical line: ¢; or a simple "c") is a monetary unit that equals of the basic monetary unit.
Ch is a digraph in the Latin script.
C̈, c̈ in lower case, also called C with diaeresis, is a letter in the Chechen language.
The Claudian letters were developed by, and named after, the Roman Emperor Claudius (reigned 41–54).
The colón (₡) refers to two Central American currencies.
A complex number is a number that can be expressed in the form, where and are real numbers, and is a solution of the equation.
The copyright symbol, or copyright sign, © (a circled capital letter C for copyright), is the symbol used in copyright notices for works other than sound recordings (which are indicated with the ℗ symbol).
Crimean Tatar (Къырымтатарджа, Qırımtatarca; Къырымтатар тили, Qırımtatar tili), also called Crimean Turkish or simply Crimean, is a Kipchak Turkic language spoken in Crimea and the Crimean Tatar diasporas of Uzbekistan, Turkey, Romania and Bulgaria, as well as small communities in the United States and Canada.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC) is an eight-bit character encoding used mainly on IBM mainframe and IBM midrange computer operating systems.
Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt.
The modern English alphabet is a Latin alphabet consisting of 26 letters, each having an uppercase and a lowercase form: The same letters constitute the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
English orthography is the system of writing conventions used to represent spoken English in written form that allows readers to connect spelling to sound to meaning.
Es (С с; italics: С с) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Esperanto (or; Esperanto) is a constructed international auxiliary language.
The Etruscan language was the spoken and written language of the Etruscan civilization, in Italy, in the ancient region of Etruria (modern Tuscany plus western Umbria and northern Latium) and in parts of Corsica, Campania, Veneto, Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna.
EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".
The European Currency Unit (₠ or ECU) was a basket of the currencies of the European Community member states, used as the unit of account of the European Community before being replaced by the euro on 1 January 1999, at parity.
Ȼ (minuscule: ȼ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from C with the addition of a stroke through the letter.
Fijian (Na Vosa Vakaviti) is an Austronesian language of the Malayo-Polynesian family spoken by some 350,000–450,000 ethnic Fijians as a native language.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
Fula Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh, also known as Fulani or Fulah (Fula: Fulfulde, Pulaar, Pular; Peul), is a language spoken as a set of various dialects in a continuum that stretches across some 20 countries in West and Central Africa.
G (named gee) is the 7th letter in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Gamma (uppercase, lowercase; gámma) is the third letter of the Greek alphabet.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
The Ghanaian cedi (currency sign: GH₵; currency code: GHS) is the unit of currency of Ghana.
Gimel is the third letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Gīml, Hebrew ˈGimel ג, Aramaic Gāmal, Syriac Gāmal ܓ, and Arabic ج (in alphabetical order; fifth in spelling order).
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
In the Latin-based orthographies of many European languages (including English), a distinction between hard and soft occurs in which represents two distinct phonemes.
Hausa (Yaren Hausa or Harshen Hausa) is the Chadic language (a branch of the Afroasiatic language family) with the largest number of speakers, spoken as a first language by some 27 million people, and as a second language by another 20 million.
In orthography and typography, a homoglyph is one of two or more graphemes, characters, or glyphs with shapes that appear identical or very similar.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
Ido is a constructed language, derived from Reformed Esperanto, created to be a universal second language for speakers of diverse backgrounds.
Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas.
Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia.
Insular Celtic languages are a group of Celtic languages that originated in Britain and Ireland, in contrast to the Continental Celtic languages of mainland Europe and Anatolia.
Interlingua (ISO 639 language codes ia, ina) is an Italic international auxiliary language (IAL), developed between 1937 and 1951 by the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA).
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
The ISO basic Latin alphabet is a Latin-script alphabet and consists of two sets of 26 letters, codified in various national and international standards and used widely in international communication.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
A letter is a grapheme (written character) in an alphabetic system of writing.
Malay (Bahasa Melayu بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.
The Manding languages (sometimes spelt Manden) are mutually intelligible dialects or languages in West Africa of the Mande family.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
The various names used since classical times for the people known today as the Celts are of disparate origins.
The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.
Northern Kurdish (Kurdiya jorîn, rtl), also called Kurmanji (Kurmancî, rtl), is a Kurdish language spoken in southeast Turkey, northwest and northeast Iran, northern Iraq and northern Syria.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.
The Old English Latin alphabet—though it had no standard orthography—generally consisted of 24 letters, and was used for writing Old English from the 9th to the 12th centuries.
Old Italic is one of several now extinct alphabet systems used on the Italian Peninsula in ancient times for various Indo-European languages (predominantly Italic) and non-Indo-European (e.g. Etruscan) languages.
In linguistics, palatalization is a sound change that either results in a palatal or palatalized consonant or a front vowel, or is triggered by one of them.
Pashto (پښتو Pax̌tō), sometimes spelled Pukhto, is the language of the Pashtuns.
The Phoenician alphabet, called by convention the Proto-Canaanite alphabet for inscriptions older than around 1050 BC, is the oldest verified alphabet.
The term phonation has slightly different meanings depending on the subfield of phonetics.
Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.
Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
The Romanization of Macedonian is the transliteration of text in the Macedonian language from the Macedonian Cyrillic alphabet into the Latin alphabet.
The romanization or Latinization of Ukrainian is the representation of the Ukrainian language using Latin letters.
Sami languages is a group of Uralic languages spoken by the Sami people in Northern Europe (in parts of northern Finland, Norway, Sweden and extreme northwestern Russia).
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland.
Semites, Semitic people or Semitic cultures (from the biblical "Shem", שם) was a term for an ethnic, cultural or racial group who speak or spoke the Semitic languages.
The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet (српска ћирилица/srpska ćirilica, pronounced) is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script for the Serbian language, developed in 1818 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić.
Sigma (upper-case Σ, lower-case σ, lower-case in word-final position ς; σίγμα) is the eighteenth letter of the Greek alphabet.
A sling is a projectile weapon typically used to throw a blunt projectile such as a stone, clay, or lead "sling-bullet".
Somali Retrieved on 21 September 2013 (Af-Soomaali) is an Afroasiatic language belonging to the Cushitic branch.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
Stretched C (ʗ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet used to represent a kind of click consonant.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
Unicode has subscripted and superscripted versions of a number of characters including a full set of Arabic numerals.
The Uralic Phonetic Alphabet (UPA) or Finno-Ugric transcription system is a phonetic transcription or notational system used predominantly for the transcription and reconstruction of Uralic languages.
The voiced dental fricative is a consonant sound used in some spoken languages.
The voiced pharyngeal approximant or fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced palato-alveolar sibilant affricate, voiced post-alveolar affricate or voiced domed postalveolar sibilant affricate, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
A voiceless alveolar affricate is a type of affricate consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth.
The voiceless dental non-sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless palatal stop or voiceless palatal plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in some vocal languages.
Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris ("common speech") was a nonstandard form of Latin (as opposed to Classical Latin, the standard and literary version of the language) spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication.
The Extended Speech Assessment Methods Phonetic Alphabet (X-SAMPA;, /%Eks"s.
Xhosa (Xhosa: isiXhosa) is a Nguni Bantu language with click consonants ("Xhosa" begins with a click) and one of the official languages of South Africa.
Yabem or Jabêm is an Austronesian language and a division of the Melanesian languages spoken natively (in 1978) by about 2,000 people at Finschhafen, which is on the southern tip of the Huon Peninsula in Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea, despite historical evidence that shows the language originating in the northern coast.
Yoruba (Yor. èdè Yorùbá) is a language spoken in West Africa.
Central Alaskan Yup'ik or just Yup'ik (also called Yupik, Central Yupik, or indigenously Yugtun) is one of the languages of the Yupik family, in turn a member of the Eskimo–Aleut language group, spoken in western and southwestern Alaska.
Zulu (Zulu: isiZulu) is the language of the Zulu people, with about 10 million speakers, the vast majority (over 95%) of whom live in South Africa.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.