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Voiced labiodental fricative

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The voiced labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. [1]

161 relations: Abkhaz alphabet, Abkhaz language, Abkhaz phonology, African reference alphabet, African-American Vernacular English, Afrikaans, Afrikaans phonology, Albanian alphabet, Albanian language, Arabic, Arabic alphabet, Arabic phonology, Areal feature, Armenian alphabet, Armenian language, Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, Auvergnat (language), Bai language, Balearic dialect, Bulgarian alphabet, Bulgarian language, Bulgarian phonology, Cantonese, Catalan language, Catalan orthography, Catalan phonology, Central Asia, Chechen language, Chinese characters, Chinese language, Cockney, Consonant, Cyrillic script, Czech language, Czech orthography, Czech phonology, Danish language, Danish orthography, Danish phonology, Devanagari, Dutch language, Dutch orthography, Dutch phonology, Eastern Armenian, English alphabet, English language, English orthography, English phonology, Esperanto, Esperanto orthography, ..., Esperanto phonology, Ewe language, Faroese language, Faroese orthography, Faroese phonology, Free variation, French language, French orthography, French phonology, Gaj's Latin alphabet, Georgian language, Georgian scripts, German language, German orthography, Greek alphabet, Greek language, Hebrew alphabet, Hebrew language, Hindi, Hindustani phonology, Hungarian alphabet, Hungarian language, Hungarian phonology, Icelandic language, Index of phonetics articles, International Phonetic Alphabet, Irish language, Irish orthography, Irish phonology, Italian language, Italian orthography, Italian phonology, Japanese language, Judaeo-Spanish, Kabardian language, Korean language, Labiodental approximant, Language, Languages of East Asia, Limousin dialect, Macedonian alphabet, Macedonian language, Macedonian phonology, Maltese alphabet, Maltese language, Modern Greek phonology, Modern Hebrew phonology, Norwegian language, Norwegian orthography, Norwegian phonology, Nuosu language, Occitan language, Occitan phonology, Palatalization (phonetics), Persian alphabet, Persian language, Persian phonology, Polish language, Polish orthography, Polish phonology, Portuguese language, Portuguese orthography, Portuguese phonology, Provençal dialect, Romanian alphabet, Romanian language, Romanian phonology, Romanization of Greek, Russian alphabet, Russian language, Russian phonology, Serbian Cyrillic alphabet, Serbo-Croatian, Serbo-Croatian phonology, Siberia, Sichuanese dialects, Siirt, Slovak language, Slovak orthography, Slovak phonology, Slovene language, Slovene phonology, Spanish language, Spanish orthography, Spanish phonology, Speech, Standard Chinese, Standard German phonology, Swedish alphabet, Swedish language, Swedish phonology, Syriac alphabet, Th-fronting, Turkish alphabet, Turkish language, Turkish phonology, Urban East Norwegian, Urmia, Valencian, Vietnamese alphabet, Vietnamese language, Vietnamese phonology, Welsh language, Welsh orthography, Welsh phonology, West Frisian language, West Frisian phonology, Western Persian, Wu Chinese, X-SAMPA, Yi script. Expand index (111 more) »

Abkhaz alphabet

The Abkhaz alphabet uses letters from the Cyrillic script for the Abkhaz language which consists of 62 letters.

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Abkhaz language

Abkhaz (sometimes spelled Abxaz; Аԥсуа бызшәа //), also known as Abkhazian, is a Northwest Caucasian language most closely related to Abaza.

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Abkhaz phonology

Abkhaz is a language of the Northwest Caucasian family which, like the other Northwest Caucasian languages, is very rich in consonants.

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African reference alphabet

An African reference alphabet was first proposed in 1978 by a UNESCO-organized conference held in Niamey, Niger, and the proposed alphabet was revised in 1982.

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African-American Vernacular English

African-American Vernacular English (AAVE), known less precisely as Black Vernacular, Black English Vernacular (BEV), Black Vernacular English (BVE), or colloquially Ebonics (a controversial term), is the variety (dialect, ethnolect and sociolect) of English natively spoken by most working- and middle-class African Americans and some Black Canadians, particularly in urban communities.

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Afrikaans

Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.

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Afrikaans phonology

Afrikaans has a similar phonology to other West Germanic languages, especially Dutch.

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Albanian alphabet

The Albanian alphabet (alfabeti shqip) is a variant of the Latin alphabet used to write the Albanian language.

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Albanian language

Albanian (shqip, or gjuha shqipe) is a language of the Indo-European family, in which it occupies an independent branch.

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Arabic

Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Arabic alphabet

The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة, or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing Arabic.

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Arabic phonology

While many languages have numerous dialects that differ in phonology, the contemporary spoken Arabic language is more properly described as a continuum of varieties.

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Areal feature

In linguistics, areal features are elements shared by languages or dialects in a geographic area, particularly when the languages are not descended from a common ancestor language.

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Armenian alphabet

The Armenian alphabet (Հայոց գրեր Hayoc' grer or Հայոց այբուբեն Hayoc' aybowben; Eastern Armenian:; Western Armenian) is an alphabetical writing system used to write Armenian.

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Armenian language

The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.

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Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic (ܣܘܪܝܬ, sūrët), or just simply Assyrian, is a Neo-Aramaic language within the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family.

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Auvergnat (language)

Auvergnat or Auvergnat language (endonym: auvernhat) is an idiom spoken in France in part of the Massif Central and in particular, in most of Auvergne, province that gives it its name.

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Bai language

The Bai language (Bai: Baip‧ngvp‧zix) is a language spoken in China, primarily in Yunnan province, by the Bai people.

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Balearic dialect

Balearic (balear) is the collective name for the dialects of Catalan spoken in the Balearic Islands: mallorquí in Majorca, eivissenc in Ibiza, and menorquí in Menorca.

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Bulgarian alphabet

The Bulgarian alphabet is used to write the Bulgarian language.

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Bulgarian language

No description.

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Bulgarian phonology

This article discusses the phonological system of Standard Bulgarian.

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Cantonese

The Cantonese language is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou (historically known as Canton) and its surrounding area in southeastern China.

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Catalan language

Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.

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Catalan orthography

Like those of many other Romance languages, the Catalan alphabet derives from the Latin alphabet and is largely based on the language’s phonology.

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Catalan phonology

The phonology of Catalan, a Romance language, has a certain degree of dialectal variation.

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Central Asia

Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.

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Chechen language

Chechen (нохчийн мотт / noxçiyn mott / نَاخچیین موٓتت / ნახჩიე მუოთთ, Nokhchiin mott) is a Northeast Caucasian language spoken by more than 1.4 million people, mostly in the Chechen Republic and by members of the Chechen diaspora throughout Russia, Jordan, Central Asia (mainly Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan), and Georgia.

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Chinese characters

Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.

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Chinese language

Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.

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Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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Cockney

The term cockney has had several distinct geographical, social, and linguistic associations.

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Consonant

In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.

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Cyrillic script

The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).

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Czech language

Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.

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Czech orthography

Czech orthography is a system of rules for correct writing (orthography) in the Czech language.

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Czech phonology

This article discusses the phonological system of the Czech language.

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Danish language

Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.

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Danish orthography

Danish orthography is the system used to write the Danish language.

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Danish phonology

The phonology of Danish is similar to that of the other Scandinavian languages such as Swedish and Norwegian, but it also has distinct features setting it apart from the phonologies of its most closely related languages.

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Devanagari

Devanagari (देवनागरी,, a compound of "''deva''" देव and "''nāgarī''" नागरी; Hindi pronunciation), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group,, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) used in India and Nepal.

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Dutch language

The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.

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Dutch orthography

Dutch orthography uses the Latin alphabet and has evolved to suit the needs of the Dutch language.

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Dutch phonology

Dutch phonology is similar to that of other West Germanic languages.

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Eastern Armenian

Eastern Armenian (arevelahayeren) is one of the two standardized forms of Modern Armenian, the other being Western Armenian.

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English alphabet

The modern English alphabet is a Latin alphabet consisting of 26 letters, each having an uppercase and a lowercase form: The same letters constitute the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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English orthography

English orthography is the system of writing conventions used to represent spoken English in written form that allows readers to connect spelling to sound to meaning.

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English phonology

Like many other languages, English has wide variation in pronunciation, both historically and from dialect to dialect.

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Esperanto

Esperanto (or; Esperanto) is a constructed international auxiliary language.

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Esperanto orthography

Esperanto is written in a Latin-script alphabet of twenty-eight letters, with upper and lower case.

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Esperanto phonology

Esperanto is a constructed international auxiliary language.

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Ewe language

Ewe (Èʋe or Èʋegbe) is a Niger–Congo language spoken in southeastern Ghana by approximately 6–7 million people as either the first or second language.

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Faroese language

Faroese (føroyskt mál,; færøsk) is a North Germanic language spoken as a first language by about 66,000 people, 45,000 of whom reside on the Faroe Islands and 21,000 in other areas, mainly Denmark.

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Faroese orthography

Faroese orthography is the method employed to write the Faroese language, using a 29-letter Latin alphabet.

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Faroese phonology

Faroese has a phoneme inventory similar to closely related Icelandic but markedly different processes differentiate the two.

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Free variation

Free variation in linguistics is the phenomenon of two (or more) sounds or forms appearing in the same environment without a change in meaning and without being considered incorrect by native speakers.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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French orthography

French orthography encompasses the spelling and punctuation of the French language.

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French phonology

French phonology is the sound system of French.

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Gaj's Latin alphabet

Gaj's Latin alphabet (gâj); abeceda, latinica, or gajica) is the form of the Latin script used for Serbo-Croatian (Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, and Montenegrin). It was devised by Croatian linguist Ljudevit Gaj in 1835, based on Jan Hus's Czech alphabet. A slightly reduced version is used as the script of the Slovene language, and a slightly expanded version is used as a script of the modern standard Montenegrin language. A modified version is used for the romanization of the Macedonian language. Pavao Ritter Vitezović had proposed an idea for the orthography of the Croatian language, stating that every sound should have only one letter. Gaj's alphabet is currently used in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, and Serbia.

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Georgian language

Georgian (ქართული ენა, translit.) is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians.

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Georgian scripts

The Georgian scripts are the three writing systems used to write the Georgian language: Asomtavruli, Nuskhuri and Mkhedruli.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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German orthography

German orthography is the orthography used in writing the German language, which is largely phonemic.

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Greek alphabet

The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Hebrew alphabet

The Hebrew alphabet (אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי), known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script and block script, is an abjad script used in the writing of the Hebrew language, also adapted as an alphabet script in the writing of other Jewish languages, most notably in Yiddish (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-German), Djudío (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-Spanish), and Judeo-Arabic.

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Hebrew language

No description.

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Hindi

Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.

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Hindustani phonology

Hindustani is the lingua franca of northern India and Pakistan, and through its two standardized registers, Hindi and Urdu, an official language of India and Pakistan.

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Hungarian alphabet

The Hungarian alphabet is an extension of the Latin alphabet used for writing the Hungarian language.

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Hungarian language

Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.

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Hungarian phonology

The phonology of the Hungarian language is notable for its process of vowel harmony, the frequent occurrence of geminate consonants and the presence of otherwise uncommon palatal stops.

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Icelandic language

Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.

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Index of phonetics articles

No description.

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International Phonetic Alphabet

The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.

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Irish language

The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.

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Irish orthography

Irish orthography has evolved over many centuries, since Old Irish was first written down in the Latin alphabet in about the 8th century AD.

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Irish phonology

The phonology of the Irish language varies from dialect to dialect; there is no standard pronunciation of Irish.

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Italian language

Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.

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Italian orthography

Italian orthography uses a variant of the Latin alphabet consisting of 21 letters to write the Italian language.

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Italian phonology

The phonology of Italian describes the sound system—the phonology and phonetics—of Standard Italian and its geographical variants.

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Japanese language

is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.

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Judaeo-Spanish

Judaeo-Spanish or Judeo-Spanish (judeo-español, Hebrew script: גֿודֿיאו-איספאנייול, Cyrillic: Ђудео-Еспањол), commonly referred to as Ladino, is a Romance language derived from Old Spanish.

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Kabardian language

Kabardian (адыгэбзэ, къэбэрдей адыгэбзэ, къэбэрдейбзэ; Adyghe: адыгэбзэ, къэбэртай адыгабзэ, къэбэртайбзэ), also known as Kabardino-Cherkess (къэбэрдей-черкесыбзэ) or, is a Northwest Caucasian language closely related to the Adyghe language.

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Korean language

The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.

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Labiodental approximant

The labiodental approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Language

Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.

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Languages of East Asia

The languages of East Asia belong to several distinct language families, with many common features attributed to interaction.

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Limousin dialect

Limousin (Lemosin) is a dialect of the Occitan language, spoken in the three departments of Limousin, parts of Charente and the Dordogne in the southwest of France.

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Macedonian alphabet

The orthography of Macedonian includes an alphabet (Македонска азбука, Makedonska azbuka), which is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script, as well as language-specific conventions of spelling and punctuation.

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Macedonian language

Macedonian (македонски, tr. makedonski) is a South Slavic language spoken as a first language by around two million people, principally in the Republic of Macedonia and the Macedonian diaspora, with a smaller number of speakers throughout the transnational region of Macedonia.

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Macedonian phonology

This article discusses the phonological system of Standard Macedonian (unless otherwise noted) based on the Prilep-Bitola dialect.

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Maltese alphabet

The Maltese alphabet is based on the Latin alphabet with the addition of some letters with diacritic marks and digraphs.

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Maltese language

Maltese (Malti) is the national language of Malta and a co-official language of the country alongside English, while also serving as an official language of the European Union, the only Semitic language so distinguished.

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Modern Greek phonology

This article deals with the phonology and phonetics of Standard Modern Greek.

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Modern Hebrew phonology

Modern Hebrew is phonetically simpler than Biblical Hebrew and has fewer phonemes, but it is phonologically more complex.

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New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

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New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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Norwegian language

Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.

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Norwegian orthography

Norwegian orthography is the method of writing the Norwegian language, of which there are two written standards: Bokmål and Nynorsk.

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Norwegian phonology

The sound system of Norwegian resembles that of Swedish.

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Nuosu language

Nuosu or Nosu (pronunciation: Nuosuhxop), also known as Northern Yi, Liangshan Yi, and Sichuan Yi, is the prestige language of the Yi people; it has been chosen by the Chinese government as the standard Yi language (in Mandarin: Yí yǔ, 彝語/彝语) and, as such, is the only one taught in schools, both in its oral and written forms.

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Occitan language

Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.

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Occitan phonology

This article describes the phonology of the Occitan language.

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Palatalization (phonetics)

In phonetics, palatalization (also) or palatization refers to a way of pronouncing a consonant in which part of the tongue is moved close to the hard palate.

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Persian alphabet

The Persian alphabet (الفبای فارسی), or Perso-Arabic alphabet, is a writing system used for the Persian language.

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Persian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Persian phonology

The Persian language has six vowel phonemes and twenty-three consonant phonemes.

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Polish language

Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.

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Polish orthography

Polish orthography is the system of writing the Polish language.

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Polish phonology

The phonological system of the Polish language is similar in many ways to those of other Slavic languages, although there are some characteristic features found in only a few other languages of the family, such as contrasting retroflex and palatal fricatives and affricates, and nasal vowels.

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Portuguese language

Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.

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Portuguese orthography

Portuguese orthography is based on the Latin alphabet and makes use of the acute accent, the circumflex accent, the grave accent, the tilde, and the cedilla to denote stress, vowel height, nasalization, and other sound changes.

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Portuguese phonology

The phonology of Portuguese can vary between dialects, in extreme cases leading to some difficulties in intelligibility.

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Provençal dialect

Provençal (Provençau or Prouvençau) is a variety of Occitan spoken by a minority of people in southern France, mostly in Provence.

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Romanian alphabet

The Romanian alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used by the Romanian language.

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Romanian language

Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.

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Romanian phonology

In the phonology of the Romanian language, the phoneme inventory consists of seven vowels, two or four semivowels (different views exist), and twenty consonants.

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Romanization of Greek

Romanization of Greek is the transliteration (letter-mapping) or transcription (sound-mapping) of text from the Greek alphabet into the Latin alphabet.

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Russian alphabet

The Russian alphabet (ˈruskʲɪj ɐɫfɐˈvʲit̪) uses letters from the Cyrillic script.

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Russian language

Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.

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Russian phonology

This article discusses the phonological system of standard Russian based on the Moscow dialect (unless otherwise noted).

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Serbian Cyrillic alphabet

The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet (српска ћирилица/srpska ćirilica, pronounced) is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script for the Serbian language, developed in 1818 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić.

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Serbo-Croatian

Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.

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Serbo-Croatian phonology

Serbo-Croatian is a South Slavic language with four national standards.

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Siberia

Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.

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Sichuanese dialects

Sichuanese (Sichuanese Pinyin: Si4cuan1hua4), or Sichuanese/Szechwanese Mandarin, commonly known as Sichuanese, or Szechwanese is a branch of Southwestern Mandarin, spoken mainly in Sichuan and Chongqing, which was part of Sichuan Province until 1997, and the adjacent regions of their neighboring provinces, such as Hubei, Guizhou, Yunnan, Hunan and Shaanxi.

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Siirt

Siirt (سِعِرْد Siʿird, Սղերդ Sġerd, ܣܥܪܬ siʿreth, Sêrt, سعرد Σύρτη) is a city in southeastern Turkey and the seat of Siirt Province). The population of the city according to the 2009 census was 129,188. The majority of the city's population is Arabic and Kurdish.

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Slovak language

Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).

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Slovak orthography

The first Slovak orthography was proposed by Anton Bernolák (1762–1813) in his Dissertatio philologico-critica de litteris Slavorum, used in the six-volume Slovak-Czech-Latin-German-Hungarian Dictionary (1825–1927) and used pmarily by Slovak Catholics.

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Slovak phonology

This article is about the phonology and phonetics of the Slovak language.

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Slovene language

Slovene or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) belongs to the group of South Slavic languages.

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Slovene phonology

This article is about the phonology and phonetics of the Slovene language.

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Spanish language

Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.

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Spanish orthography

Spanish orthography is the orthography used in the Spanish language.

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Spanish phonology

This article is about the phonology and phonetics of the Spanish language.

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Speech

Speech is the vocalized form of communication used by humans and some animals, which is based upon the syntactic combination of items drawn from the lexicon.

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Standard Chinese

Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.

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Standard German phonology

The phonology of Standard German is the standard pronunciation or accent of the German language.

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Swedish alphabet

The Swedish alphabet is the writing system used for the Swedish language.

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Swedish language

Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.

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Swedish phonology

Swedish has a large vowel inventory, with nine vowels distinguished in quality and to some degree quantity, making 17 vowel phonemes in most dialects.

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Syriac alphabet

The Syriac alphabet is a writing system primarily used to write the Syriac language since the 1st century AD.

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Th-fronting

Th-fronting refers to the pronunciation of the English "th" as "f" or "v".

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Turkish alphabet

The Turkish alphabet (Türk alfabesi) is a Latin-script alphabet used for writing the Turkish language, consisting of 29 letters, seven of which (Ç, Ş, Ğ, I, İ, Ö, Ü) have been modified from their Latin originals for the phonetic requirements of the language.

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Turkish language

Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).

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Turkish phonology

A notable feature of Turkish phonology is a system of vowel harmony that causes vowels in most words to be either front or back and either rounded or unrounded.

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Urban East Norwegian

Urban East Norwegian (UEN) or Standard East Norwegian (Bokmål: standard østnorsk, Nynorsk: standard austnorsk) is the de facto standard variety of East Norwegian and an unofficial spoken standard of Bokmål.

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Urmia

Urmia (Urmiya, اورمیه; ܐܘܪܡܝܐ; ارومیه (Variously transliterated as Oroumieh, Oroumiyeh, Orūmīyeh and Urūmiyeh); Ûrmiye, ورمێ) is the largest city in West Azerbaijan Province of Iran and the capital of Urmia County.

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Valencian

Valencian (or; endonym: valencià, llengua valenciana, or idioma valencià) is a linguistic variety spoken in the Valencian Community, Spain. In the Valencian Community, Valencian is the traditional language and is co-official with Spanish. It is considered different from Catalan by a slight majority of the people of the Valencian Community (including non-speakers), but this is at odds with the broad academic view, which considers it a dialect of Catalan. A standardized form exists, based on the Southern Valencian dialect. Valencian belongs to the Western group of Catalan dialects. Under the Valencian Statute of Autonomy, the Valencian Academy of the Language (Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua, AVL) has been established as its regulator. The AVL considers Catalan and Valencian to be simply two names for the same language. Some of the most important works of Valencian literature experienced a golden age during the Late Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Important works include Joanot Martorell's chivalric romance Tirant lo Blanch, and Ausiàs March's poetry. The first book produced with movable type in the Iberian Peninsula was printed in the Valencian variety. The earliest recorded chess game with modern rules for moves of the queen and bishop was in the Valencian poem Scachs d'amor (1475).

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Vietnamese alphabet

The Vietnamese alphabet (chữ Quốc ngữ; literally "national language script") is the modern writing system for the Vietnamese language.

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Vietnamese language

Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.

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Vietnamese phonology

This article is a technical description of the sound system of the Vietnamese language, including phonetics and phonology.

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Welsh language

Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.

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Welsh orthography

Welsh orthography uses 29 letters (including eight digraphs) of the Latin script to write native Welsh words as well as established loanwords.

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Welsh phonology

The phonology of Welsh is characterised by a number of sounds that do not occur in English and are rare in European languages, such as the voiceless alveolar lateral fricative and several voiceless sonorants (nasals and liquids), some of which result from consonant mutation.

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West Frisian language

West Frisian, or simply Frisian (Frysk; Fries) is a West Germanic language spoken mostly in the province of Friesland (Fryslân) in the north of the Netherlands, mostly by those of Frisian ancestry.

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West Frisian phonology

This article is about the phonology and phonetics of the West Frisian language.

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Western Persian

Western Persian or Iranian Persian is the most widely spoken dialect of Persian.

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Wu Chinese

Wu (Shanghainese:; Suzhou dialect:; Wuxi dialect) is a group of linguistically similar and historically related varieties of Chinese primarily spoken in the whole Zhejiang province, city of Shanghai, and the southern half of Jiangsu province, as well as bordering areas.

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X-SAMPA

The Extended Speech Assessment Methods Phonetic Alphabet (X-SAMPA;, /%Eks"s.

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Yi script

The Yi script (Yi: ꆈꌠꁱꂷ nuosu bburma) is an umbrella term for two scripts used to write the Yi languages; Classical Yi (an ideogram script), and the later Yi Syllabary.

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2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

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2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiced_labiodental_fricative

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