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Index Pinyin

Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. [1]

201 relations: Acute accent, Adult education, Affricate consonant, All caps, AltGr key, Alveolar consonant, Alveolo-palatal consonant, American Library Association, Apostrophe, Arabic alphabet, Arabic diacritics, ASCII, Aspirated consonant, Ürümqi, Bao Zheng, Beijing, Bilabial nasal, Bopomofo, Breve, Cai Yuanpei, Cantonese, Caron, Character Map (Windows), Chengyu, Chi (kana), China, China Daily, Chinese characters, Chinese input methods for computers, Chinese language romanization in Taiwan, Chinese name, Chinese postal romanization, Circumflex, Combining character, Communist Party of China, Confucius, Cyrillic script, Cyrillization of Chinese, Dead key, December 9th Movement, Democratic Progressive Party, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar lateral approximants, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar nasals, Diacritic, Diaeresis (diacritic), Diphthong, Dongting Lake, Elementary school, Esperanto, Formosan languages, ..., Fricative consonant, Furigana, Golmud, Google Books, Government of China, Government of Singapore, Graphics tablet, Grave accent, Guangdong, Guangdong Romanization, Gwoyeu Romatzyh, Hainanese, Hakka Chinese, Han Chinese, Handwriting recognition, Harbin, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Herbert Giles, Hiragana, Hohhot, Hsinchu, Hyphen, Idiosyncrasy, Input method, Interjection, International Organization for Standardization, International Phonetic Alphabet, International standard, Interrogative, Japanese language, Kana, Kanji, Kinmen, Kuomintang, Labial consonant, Labialized palatal approximant, Latin alpha, Latin alphabet, Latinxua Sin Wenz, Lü (surname), Lhasa (prefecture-level city), Library of Congress, Ligusticum striatum, Liquid consonant, Lord Mengchang, Lu (surname 盧), Lu (surname 路), Lu (surname 陸), Lu (surname 魯), Lu Xun, M. E. Sharpe, Macron (diacritic), Mainland China, Manchu language, Mandarin Phonetic Symbols II, Mao Zedong, Matteo Ricci, May Fourth Movement, Meixian dialect, Microsoft Pinyin IME, Ministry of Public Security (China), Mongolian language, Mount Tai, Nasal consonant, New Taipei City, Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme, Nicolas Trigault, Ordinal number (linguistics), Palatal approximant, Palatal hook, Peking University, Personal digital assistant, Pinyin input method, Pinyin table, Qian, Qiqihar, Retroflex approximant, Retroflex consonant, Romance languages, Romanization, Romanization of Chinese, Romanization of Japanese, Russian Far East, SASM/GNC romanization, Schwa, Scots language, Semantics, Semivowel, Shanghai, Shi (kana), Shigatse, Spoken language, Standard Chinese, Standard Tibetan, Stop consonant, Stylus, Sun Fo, Sun Yat-sen, Syllable, Tablet computer, Taipei, Taipei Times, Taiwan, Taiwan Strait, Taiwanese Hokkien, Tao Xingzhi, Tenuis consonant, Teochew dialect, The China Post, The Straits Times, Thomas Francis Wade, Tibetan pinyin, Tittle, Tokyo, Tone (linguistics), Tone number, Tongyong Pinyin, Transcription into Chinese characters, Triphthong, United Nations, Uyghur language, Varieties of Chinese, Velar consonant, Velar nasal, Voice (phonetics), Voiced labio-velar approximant, Voiceless alveolar affricate, Voiceless alveolar fricative, Voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate, Voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative, Voiceless bilabial stop, Voiceless dental and alveolar stops, Voiceless labiodental fricative, Voiceless retroflex affricate, Voiceless retroflex fricative, Voiceless velar fricative, Voiceless velar stop, Vowel, Wade–Giles, X keyboard extension, Xi Shi, Xi'an, Xinhua News Agency, Yalu River, Yu Yue, Zhang Binglin, Zhou Enlai, Zhou Youguang, Zhu De, 1st National People's Congress. Expand index (151 more) »

Acute accent

The acute accent (´) is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek scripts.

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Adult education

Adult education is a practice in which adults engage in systematic and sustained self-educating activities in order to gain new forms of knowledge, skills, attitudes, or values.

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Affricate consonant

An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).

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All caps

In typography, all caps (short for "all capitals") refers to text or a font in which all letters are capital letters, for example:.

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AltGr key

AltGr (also Alt Graph, or Right Alt) is a modifier key found on some computer keyboards and is primarily used to type characters that are unusual for the locale of the keyboard layout, such as currency symbols and accented letters.

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Alveolar consonant

Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.

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Alveolo-palatal consonant

In phonetics, alveolo-palatal (or alveopalatal) consonants, sometimes synonymous with pre-palatal consonants, are intermediate in articulation between the coronal and dorsal consonants, or which have simultaneous alveolar and palatal articulation.

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American Library Association

The American Library Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization based in the United States that promotes libraries and library education internationally.

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The apostrophe ( ' or) character is a punctuation mark, and sometimes a diacritical mark, in languages that use the Latin alphabet and some other alphabets.

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Arabic alphabet

The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة, or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing Arabic.

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Arabic diacritics

The Arabic script has numerous diacritics, including i'jam -, consonant pointing and tashkil -, supplementary diacritics.

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ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.

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Aspirated consonant

In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.

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Ürümqi (yengi; from Oirat "beautiful pasture") is the capital of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in the far northwest of the People's Republic of China.

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Bao Zheng

Bao Zheng (包拯; 11 April 999 – 20 May 1062), commonly known as Bao Gong (包公, "Lord Bao"), was a government officer during the reign of Emperor Renzong in China's Song Dynasty.

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Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.

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Bilabial nasal

The bilabial nasal is a type of consonantal sound used in almost all spoken languages.

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Zhuyin fuhao, Zhuyin, Bopomofo (ㄅㄆㄇㄈ) or Mandarin Phonetic Symbols is the major Chinese transliteration system for Taiwanese Mandarin.

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A breve (less often;; neuter form of the Latin brevis “short, brief”) is the diacritic mark ˘, shaped like the bottom half of a circle.

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Cai Yuanpei

Cai Yuanpei (11 January 1868 – 5 March 1940) was a Chinese educator, Esperantist, president of Peking University, and founder of the Academia Sinica.

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The Cantonese language is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou (historically known as Canton) and its surrounding area in southeastern China.

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A caron, háček or haček (or; plural háčeks or háčky) also known as a hachek, wedge, check, inverted circumflex, inverted hat, is a diacritic (ˇ) commonly placed over certain letters in the orthography of some Baltic, Slavic, Finnic, Samic, Berber, and other languages to indicate a change in the related letter's pronunciation (c > č; >). The use of the haček differs according to the orthographic rules of a language.

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Character Map (Windows)

Character Map is a utility included with Microsoft Windows operating systems and is used to view the characters in any installed font, to check what keyboard input (Alt code) is used to enter those characters, and to copy characters to the clipboard in lieu of typing them.

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Chengyu are a type of traditional Chinese idiomatic expression, most of which consist of four characters.

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Chi (kana)

ち, in hiragana, or チ in katakana, is one of the Japanese kana, which each represent one mora.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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China Daily

China Daily is an English-language daily newspaper published in the People's Republic of China.

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Chinese characters

Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.

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Chinese input methods for computers

Chinese input methods are methods that allow a computer user to input Chinese characters.

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Chinese language romanization in Taiwan

There are a large number of romanization systems used in Taiwan (officially the Republic of China).

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Chinese name

Chinese personal names are names used by those from mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, and the Chinese diaspora overseas.

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Chinese postal romanization

Postal romanization was a system of transliterating Chinese place names developed by the Imperial Post Office in the early 1900s.

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The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin, Greek and Cyrillic scripts that is used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and transcription schemes.

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Combining character

In digital typography, combining characters are characters that are intended to modify other characters.

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Communist Party of China

The Communist Party of China (CPC), also referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China.

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Confucius (551–479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.

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Cyrillic script

The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).

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Cyrillization of Chinese

The Cyrillization of Chinese is effected using the Palladius system for transcribing Chinese characters into the Cyrillic alphabet.

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Dead key

A dead key is a special kind of a modifier key on a mechanical typewriter, or computer keyboard, that is typically used to attach a specific diacritic to a base letter.

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December 9th Movement

The December 9th Movement was a mass protest led by students in Beiping (present-day Beijing) on December 9, 1935 to demand that the Chinese government actively resist Japanese aggression.

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Democratic Progressive Party

The Democratic Progressive Party (DPP), also known as Minjindang (MJD) is a liberal political party in the Taiwan and the dominant party in the Pan-Green Coalition as it is currently the majority ruling party, controlling both the presidency and the unicameral Legislative Yuan.

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Dental, alveolar and postalveolar lateral approximants

The alveolar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.

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Dental, alveolar and postalveolar nasals

The alveolar nasal is a type of consonantal sound used in numerous spoken languages.

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A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.

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Diaeresis (diacritic)

The diaeresis (plural: diaereses), also spelled diæresis or dieresis and also known as the tréma (also: trema) or the umlaut, is a diacritical mark that consists of two dots placed over a letter, usually a vowel.

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A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.

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Dongting Lake

Dongting Lake is a large, shallow lake in northeastern Hunan province, China.

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Elementary school

Elementary school is a school for students in their first school years, where they get primary education before they enter secondary education.

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Esperanto (or; Esperanto) is a constructed international auxiliary language.

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Formosan languages

"Formosan languages" is a cover term for the languages of the indigenous peoples of Taiwan, all of which belong to the Austronesian language family.

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Fricative consonant

Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.

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is a Japanese reading aid, consisting of smaller kana, or syllabic characters, printed next to a kanji (ideographic character) or other character to indicate its pronunciation.

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Golmud, also transliterated as Ge'ermu, Geermu or Nagormo, is a county-level city in Qinghai Province, China, bordering Xinjiang to the northwest and the Tibet Autonomous Region to the southwest.

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Google Books

Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print and by its codename Project Ocean) is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition (OCR), and stored in its digital database.

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Government of China

The central government of the People's Republic of China is divided among several state organs.

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Government of Singapore

The Government of Singapore is defined by the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore to mean the Executive branch of government, which is made up of the President and the Cabinet of Singapore.

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Graphics tablet

A graphic tablet (also known as a digitizer, drawing tablet, digital drawing tablet, pen tablet, or digital art board) is a computer input device that enables a user to hand-draw images, animations and graphics, with a special pen-like stylus, similar to the way a person draws images with a pencil and paper.

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Grave accent

The grave accent (`) is a diacritical mark in many written languages, including Breton, Catalan, Corsican, Dutch, Emilian-Romagnol, French, West Frisian, Greek (until 1982; see polytonic orthography), Haitian Creole, Italian, Mohawk, Occitan, Portuguese, Ligurian, Scottish Gaelic, Vietnamese, Welsh, Romansh, and Yoruba.

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Guangdong is a province in South China, located on the South China Sea coast.

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Guangdong Romanization

Guangdong Romanization refers to the four romanization schemes published by the Guangdong Provincial Education Department in 1960 for transliterating Cantonese, Teochew, Hakka, and Hainanese.

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Gwoyeu Romatzyh

Gwoyeu Romatzyh (pinyin: Guóyǔ luómǎzì, literally "National Language Romanization"), abbreviated GR, is a system for writing Mandarin Chinese in the Latin alphabet.

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Hainanese (Hainan Romanised), also known as Qióng Wén or Qióng yǔ (瓊語/琼语), is a group of Min Chinese varieties spoken in the southern Chinese island province of Hainan.

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Hakka Chinese

Hakka, also rendered Kejia, is one of the major groups of varieties of Chinese, spoken natively by the Hakka people throughout southern China, Taiwan, Hong Kong and throughout the diaspora areas of East Asia, Southeast Asia, and in overseas Chinese communities around the world.

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Han Chinese

The Han Chinese,.

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Handwriting recognition

Handwriting recognition (HWR) is the ability of a computer to receive and interpret intelligible handwritten input from sources such as paper documents, photographs, touch-screens and other devices.

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Harbin is the capital of Heilongjiang province, and largest city in the northeastern region of the People's Republic of China.

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Hebei (postal: Hopeh) is a province of China in the North China region.

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Heilongjiang (Wade-Giles: Heilungkiang) is a province of the People's Republic of China.

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Herbert Giles

Herbert Allen Giles (8 December 184513 February 1935) was a British diplomat and sinologist who was the professor of Chinese at Cambridge University for 35 years.

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is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system, along with katakana, kanji, and in some cases rōmaji (Latin script).

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Hohhot, abbreviated in Chinese as Hushi, formerly known as Kweisui, is the capital of Inner Mongolia in the north of the People's Republic of China, serving as the region's administrative, economic and cultural center.

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Hsinchu officially known as Hsinchu City, is a provincial city in northern Taiwan.

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The hyphen (‐) is a punctuation mark used to join words and to separate syllables of a single word.

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An idiosyncrasy is an unusual feature of a person (though there are also other uses, see below).

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Input method

An input method (or input method editor, commonly abbreviated IME) is an operating system component or program that allows any data, such as keyboard strokes or mouse movements, to be received as input.

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In linguistics, an interjection is a word or expression that occurs as an utterance on its own and expresses a spontaneous feeling or reaction.

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International Organization for Standardization

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.

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International Phonetic Alphabet

The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.

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International standard

International standards are standards developed by international standards organizations.

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Interrogative is a term used in grammar to refer to features that form questions.

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Japanese language

is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.

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are syllabic Japanese scripts, a part of the Japanese writing system contrasted with the logographic Chinese characters known in Japan as kanji (漢字).

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Kanji (漢字) are the adopted logographic Chinese characters that are used in the Japanese writing system.

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Kinmen or Quemoy (see also "Names" section below), officially Kinmen County, is a group of islands, governed by the Republic of China (ROC), which is located just off the southeastern coast of mainland China, including Great Kinmen, Lesser Kinmen, Wuqiu and several surrounding islets.

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The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.

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Labial consonant

Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.

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Labialized palatal approximant

The labialized palatal approximant, also called the labial–palatal or labio-palatal approximant, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Latin alpha

Latin alpha (majuscule: Ɑ, minuscule: ɑ) or script a is a letter of the Latin alphabet, based on one lowercase form of a, or on the Greek lowercase alpha (α).

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Latin alphabet

The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.

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Latinxua Sin Wenz

Latinxua Sin Wenz (also known as Sin Wenz, Latinxua Sinwenz, Zhongguo Latinxua Sin Wenz, Beifangxua Latinxua Sin Wenz or Latinxua) is a little-used romanization system for Mandarin Chinese.

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Lü (surname)

Lü is the pinyin (Lǚ with the tone diacritic) and Wade–Giles romanisation of the Chinese surname written in simplified character and in traditional character.

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Lhasa (prefecture-level city)

Lhasa is a prefecture-level city, formerly a prefecture until 7 January 1960, one of the main administrative divisions of the Tibet Autonomous Region of China.

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Library of Congress

The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.

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Ligusticum striatum

Ligusticum striatum is a flowering plant in the carrot family best known for its use in traditional Chinese medicine where it is considered one of the 50 fundamental herbs.

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Liquid consonant

In phonetics, liquids or liquid consonants are a class of consonants consisting of lateral consonants like 'l' together with rhotics like 'r'.

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Lord Mengchang

Lord Mengchang (died 279 BC), born Tian Wen, was an aristocrat and statesman of the Qi Kingdom of ancient China, one of the famed Four Lords of the Warring States period.

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Lu (surname 盧)

Lú is the pinyin romanization of the Chinese surname written in simplified character and in traditional character.

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Lu (surname 路)

Lu is a Chinese surname.

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Lu (surname 陸)

Lu is the pinyin and Wade–Giles romanization of the Chinese surname written in simplified character and in traditional character.

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Lu (surname 魯)

Lǔ is the pinyin romanization of the Chinese surname written in simplified character and in traditional character.

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Lu Xun

Lu Xun (Wade–Giles romanisation: Lu Hsün) was the pen name of Zhou Shuren (25 September 1881 – 19 October 1936), a leading figure of modern Chinese literature.

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M. E. Sharpe

M.E. Sharpe, Inc., an academic publisher, was founded by Myron Sharpe in 1958 with the original purpose of publishing translations from Russian in the social sciences and humanities.

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Macron (diacritic)

A macron is a diacritical mark: it is a straight bar placed above a letter, usually a vowel.

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Mainland China

Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC).

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Manchu language

Manchu (Manchu: manju gisun) is a critically endangered Tungusic language spoken in Manchuria; it was the native language of the Manchus and one of the official languages of the Qing dynasty (1636–1911) of China.

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Mandarin Phonetic Symbols II

Mandarin Phonetic Symbols II (國語注音符號第二式), abbreviated MPS II, is a romanization system formerly used in the Republic of China (Taiwan).

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Mao Zedong

Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.

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Matteo Ricci

Matteo Ricci, S.J. (Mattheus Riccius Maceratensis; 6 October 1552 – 11 May 1610), was an Italian Jesuit priest and one of the founding figures of the Jesuit China missions.

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May Fourth Movement

The May Fourth Movement was an anti-imperialist, cultural, and political movement growing out of student participants in Beijing on 4 May 1919, protesting against the Chinese government's weak response to the Treaty of Versailles, especially allowing Japan to receive territories in Shandong which had been surrendered by Germany after the Siege of Tsingtao.

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Meixian dialect

Meixian dialect (Pha̍k-fa-sṳ: Mòi-yen-fa; IPA), also known as Meizhou (梅州話), Moiyen, and Yue-Tai, is the prestige dialect of Hakka Chinese and the basis for the Hakka dialects in Taiwan.

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Microsoft Pinyin IME

Microsoft Pinyin IME is the pinyin input method implementation developed by Microsoft and Harbin Institute of Technology.

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Ministry of Public Security (China)

The Ministry of Public Security (MPS) is the principal police and security authority of the People's Republic of China and the government ministry that exercises oversight over and is ultimately responsible for day-to-day law enforcement.

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Mongolian language

The Mongolian language (in Mongolian script: Moŋɣol kele; in Mongolian Cyrillic: монгол хэл, mongol khel.) is the official language of Mongolia and both the most widely-spoken and best-known member of the Mongolic language family.

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Mount Tai

Mount Tai is a mountain of historical and cultural significance located north of the city of Tai'an, in Shandong province, China.

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Nasal consonant

In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.

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New Taipei City

New Taipei City is a special municipality and the most populous city in Taiwan.

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Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme

Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme (February 1, 1910 – December 23, 2009) was a Tibetan senior official who assumed various military and political responsibilities both before and after 1951.

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Nicolas Trigault

Nicolas Trigault (1577–1628) was a Walloon Jesuit, and a missionary in China.

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Ordinal number (linguistics)

In linguistics, ordinal numbers (or ordinal numerals) are words representing position or rank in a sequential order; the order may be of size, importance, chronology, and so on (e.g., "third", "tertiary").

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Palatal approximant

The voiced palatal approximant is a type of consonant used in many spoken languages.

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Palatal hook

The palatal hook is a type of hook diacritic formerly used in the International Phonetic Alphabet to represent palatalized consonants.

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Peking University

Peking University (abbreviated PKU or Beida; Chinese: 北京大学, pinyin: běi jīng dà xué) is a major Chinese research university located in Beijing and a member of the C9 League.

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Personal digital assistant

A personal digital assistant (PDA), also known as a handheld PC, is a variety mobile device which functions as a personal information manager.

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Pinyin input method

The pinyin method refers to a family of input methods based on the pinyin method of romanization.

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Pinyin table

This pinyin table is a complete listing of all Hanyu Pinyin syllables used in Standard Chinese.

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Qian may refer to.

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Qiqihar is the second largest city in the Heilongjiang province of China, located in the west central part of the province.

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Retroflex approximant

The retroflex approximant is a type of consonant used in some languages.

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Retroflex consonant

A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.

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Romance languages

The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.

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Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so.

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Romanization of Chinese

The Romanization of Chinese is the use of the Latin alphabet to write Chinese.

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Romanization of Japanese

The romanization of Japanese is the use of Latin script to write the Japanese language.

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Russian Far East

The Russian Far East (p) comprises the Russian part of the Far East - the extreme eastern territory of Russia, between Lake Baikal in Eastern Siberia and the Pacific Ocean.

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SASM/GNC romanization

The former State Administration of Surveying and Mapping, Geographical Names Committee and former Script Reform Committee of the People's Republic of China have adopted several romanizations for Chinese, Mongolian, Tibetan, and Uyghur, officially known as pinyin, Regulation of Phonetic Transcription in Hanyu Pinyin Letters of Place Names in Minority Nationality Languages and Orthography of Chinese Personal Name in Hanyu Pinyin Letters.

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In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa (rarely or; sometimes spelled shwa) is the mid central vowel sound (rounded or unrounded) in the middle of the vowel chart, denoted by the IPA symbol ə, or another vowel sound close to that position.

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Scots language

Scots is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster (where the local dialect is known as Ulster Scots).

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Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.

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In phonetics and phonology, a semivowel or glide, also known as a non-syllabic vocoid, is a sound that is phonetically similar to a vowel sound but functions as the syllable boundary, rather than as the nucleus of a syllable.

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Shanghai (Wu Chinese) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China and the most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million.

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Shi (kana)

し, in hiragana, or シ in katakana, is one of the Japanese kana, which each represent one mora.

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Shigatse, officially known as Xigazê (Nepali: सिगात्से), is a prefecture-level city of the Tibet Autonomous Region of China, with an area of.

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Spoken language

A spoken language is a language produced by articulate sounds, as opposed to a written language.

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Standard Chinese

Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.

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Standard Tibetan

Standard Tibetan is the most widely spoken form of the Tibetic languages.

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Stop consonant

In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

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A stylus, plural styli or styluses, is a writing utensil or a small tool for some other form of marking or shaping, for example, in pottery.

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Sun Fo

Sun Fo or Sun Ke (October 21, 1891 – September 13, 1973), courtesy name Zhesheng (哲生), was a high-ranking official in the government of the Republic of China.

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Sun Yat-sen

Sun Yat-sen (12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925)Singtao daily.

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A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.

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Tablet computer

A tablet computer, commonly shortened to tablet, is a portable personal computer, typically with a mobile operating system and LCD touchscreen display processing circuitry, and a rechargeable battery in a single thin, flat package.

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Taipei, officially known as Taipei City, is the capital and a special municipality of Taiwan (officially known as the Republic of China, "ROC").

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Taipei Times

The Taipei Times is the only printed daily English-language newspaper in Taiwan and the third to be established in the nation.

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Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.

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Taiwan Strait

The Taiwan Strait, or Formosa Strait, is a -wide strait separating the island of Taiwan from mainland China.

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Taiwanese Hokkien

Taiwanese Hokkien (translated as Taiwanese Min Nan), also known as Taiwanese/Taiwanese language in Taiwan (/), is a branched-off variant of Hokkien spoken natively by about 70% of the population of Taiwan.

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Tao Xingzhi

Tao Xingzhi (1891–1946), was a renowned Chinese educator and reformer in the Republic of China mainland era.

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Tenuis consonant

In linguistics, a tenuis consonant is an obstruent that is unvoiced, unaspirated, unpalatalized, and unglottalized.

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Teochew dialect

Teochew (Chaozhou dialect: Diê⁵ziu¹ uê⁷; Shantou dialect: Dio⁵ziu¹ uê⁷) is a variant of Southern Min spoken mainly by the Teochew people in the Chaoshan region of eastern Guangdong and by their diaspora around the world.

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The China Post

The China Post was one of three English-language newspapers published in Taiwan, alongside the Taipei Times and the Taiwan News, which ceased printing in 2010.

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The Straits Times

The Straits Times is an English-language daily broadsheet newspaper based in Singapore currently owned by Singapore Press Holdings (SPH).

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Thomas Francis Wade

Sir Thomas Francis Wade (25August 181831July 1895), was a British diplomat and sinologist who produced an early Chinese textbook in English, in 1867, that was later amended, extended and converted into the Wade-Giles romanization system for Mandarin Chinese by Herbert Giles in 1892.

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Tibetan pinyin

Pö yig Kigajor--> The SASM/GNC/SRC romanization of Tibetan, commonly known as Tibetan pinyin, is the official transcription system for the Tibetan language in the People's Republic of China for personal names and place names.

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A tittle or superscript dot is a small distinguishing mark, such as a diacritic or the dot on a lowercase i or j. The tittle is an integral part of the glyph of i and j, but diacritic dots can appear over other letters in various languages.

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, officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and has been the capital since 1869.

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Tone (linguistics)

Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.

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Tone number

Tone numbers are numerical digits used like letters to mark the tones of a language.

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Tongyong Pinyin

Tongyong Pinyin was the official romanization of Mandarin Chinese in Taiwan between 2002 and 2008.

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Transcription into Chinese characters

Transcription into Chinese is the use of traditional or simplified characters to transcribe phonetically the sound of terms and names foreign to the Chinese language.

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In phonetics, a triphthong (from Greek τρίφθογγος, "triphthongos", literally "with three sounds," or "with three tones") is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement of the articulator from one vowel quality to another that passes over a third.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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Uyghur language

The Uyghur or Uighur language (Уйғур тили, Uyghur tili, Uyƣur tili or, Уйғурчә, Uyghurche, Uyƣurqə), formerly known as Eastern Turki, is a Turkic language with 10 to 25 million speakers, spoken primarily by the Uyghur people in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of Western China.

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Varieties of Chinese

Chinese, also known as Sinitic, is a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family consisting of hundreds of local language varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible.

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Velar consonant

Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).

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Velar nasal

The velar nasal, also known as agma, from the Greek word for fragment, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Voice (phonetics)

Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).

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Voiced labio-velar approximant

The voiced labio-velar approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in certain spoken languages, including English.

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Voiceless alveolar affricate

A voiceless alveolar affricate is a type of affricate consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth.

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Voiceless alveolar fricative

A voiceless alveolar fricative is a type of fricative consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth.

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Voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate

The voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative

The voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some oral languages.

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Voiceless bilabial stop

The voiceless bilabial stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages.

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Voiceless dental and alveolar stops

The voiceless alveolar stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages.

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Voiceless labiodental fricative

The voiceless labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in a number of spoken languages.

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Voiceless retroflex affricate

The voiceless retroflex sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Voiceless retroflex fricative

The voiceless retroflex sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.

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Voiceless velar fricative

The voiceless velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.

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Voiceless velar stop

The voiceless velar stop or voiceless velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages.

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A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.

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Wade–Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization system for Mandarin Chinese.

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X keyboard extension

In human-computer interfaces, the X keyboard extension or XKB is a part of the X Window System that extends the ability to control the keyboard over what is offered by the X Window System core protocol.

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Xi Shi

Xi Shi (Hsi Shih;, literally "(Lady) Shi of the West", 506 BC – ?) was one of the renowned Four Beauties of ancient China.

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Xi'an is the capital of Shaanxi Province, China.

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Xinhua News Agency

Xinhua News Agency (English pronunciation: J. C. Wells: Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, 3rd ed., for both British and American English) or New China News Agency is the official state-run press agency of the People's Republic of China.

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Yalu River

The Yalu River, also called the Amrok River or Amnok River, is a river on the border between North Korea and China.

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Yu Yue

Yu Yue (18211907), courtesy name Yinfu, hao Quyuan, was a prominent scholar and official of Qing Dynasty China.

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Zhang Binglin

Zhang Binglin (December 25, 1868 – June 14, 1936), also known as Zhang Taiyan, was a Chinese philologist, textual critic, philosopher, and revolutionary.

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Zhou Enlai

Zhou Enlai (5 March 1898 – 8 January 1976) was the first Premier of the People's Republic of China, serving from October 1949 until his death in January 1976.

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Zhou Youguang

Zhou Youguang (13 January 1906 – 14 January 2017) was a Chinese economist, banker, linguist, sinologist, publisher, and supercentenarian, known as the "father of Pinyin", a system for the writing of Mandarin Chinese in Roman script, or romanization, which was officially adopted by the government of the People's Republic of China in 1958, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1982, and the United Nations in 1986.

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Zhu De

Zhu De ((also Chu Teh; 1 December 1886 – 6 July 1976) was a Chinese general, warlord, politician, revolutionary and one of the pioneers of the Communist Party of China. Born poor in 1886 in Sichuan, he was adopted by a wealthy uncle at age nine; this prosperity provided him a superior early education that led to his admission into a military academy. After his time at the academy, he joined a rebel army and soon became a warlord. It was after this period that he adopted communism. He ascended through the ranks of the Chinese Red Army as it closed in on securing the nation. By the time China was under Mao's control, Zhu was a high-ranking official within the Communist Party of China. He served as Commander-in-Chief of the Eighth Route Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War. In 1955 he became one of the Ten Marshals of the People's Liberation Army, of which he is regarded as the principal founder. Zhu remained a prominent political figure until his death in 1976. As the chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress from 1975-76, Zhu was the head of state of the People's Republic of China.

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1st National People's Congress

The 1st National People's Congress was in session from 1954 to 1959.

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BGN-PCGN romanization of Chinese characters, BGN/PCGN romanization of Chinese characters, BGN–PCGN romanization of Chinese characters, Chinese Phonetic Alphabet, Chinese phonetic alphabet, HYPY, Han-yu P'in-yin, Han-yu Pin-yin, Han-yue P'in-yin, Han-yü P'in-yin, Han-yü Pin-yin, Hanyu Pinyin, Hanyu pinyin, Hanyupinyin, Hànyǔ Pīnyīn, ISO 7098, Mandarin pinyin, P'in-yin, Pin Yin, Pin yin, Pin-yin, PinYin, Pinyin Romanization, Pinyin alphabet, Pinyin phonetic system, Pinyin reading material, Pinyin romanization, Pinyin tones, Pinyin transliteration system, Pinying, Pinyn, Pīnyīn, 拼音, 汉语拼音, 漢語拼音.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pinyin

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