141 relations: Abdomen, Accessory breast, Adipocyte, Adipose tissue, Amphiregulin, Androgen, Androgen receptor, Antithrombin, Apocrine, Apocrine sweat gland, Apoptosis, Areola, Autophagy, Axillary vein, Bacteria, Basement membrane, Birth, Bone morphogenetic protein 4, Breast, Breast cancer, Breastfeeding, Cancer, Carcinogenesis, Cat, Cattle, Cell culture, Cell potency, Collagen, Colostrum, Dayak fruit bat, Dog, Dystroglycan, Elephant, Embryonic, Endothelium, Epidermal growth factor, Epidermal growth factor receptor, Epithelium, Estrogen, Estrogen receptor, Estrous cycle, Eutheria, Exocrine gland, Extracellular matrix, Female, Fibroblast, Fibroblast growth factor, Galactorrhea, Genetically modified organism, Gestation, ..., Glycoprotein, Goat, Groin, Growth factor, Growth hormone, Growth hormone receptor, Guinea pig, Gynecomastia, Hemodynamics, Hepatocyte growth factor, Hormone, Horse, Human, Human skin, Hypothalamic–pituitary–prolactin axis, Insulin-like growth factor 1, Integrin, Intercostal nerves, Internal thoracic artery, Internal thoracic vein, Invagination, Involution (medicine), Keith L. Moore, Lactation, Lactiferous duct, Laminin, Lateral thoracic artery, Liver, Lobe (anatomy), Lumen (anatomy), Lymph node, Male lactation, Mammaglobin, Mammal, Mammary gland, Mammary ridge, Mammary tumor, Marsupial, Matrix metalloproteinase, Menopause, Mesenchyme, Milk, Monoclonal antibody, Monotreme, Morphogenesis, Mouse, Myoepithelial cell, Neurogenic placodes, Nipple, Offspring, Organ (anatomy), Oxytocin, Paracrine signalling, Parathyroid hormone-related protein, Pectoral axillary lymph nodes, Pectoralis major, Pig, Postpartum period, Pregnancy, Primate, Primordium, Proboscidea, Progesterone, Prolactin, Protease, Protein, Puberty, Pulmonary alveolus, Rat, Ruminant, Sebaceous gland, Sex steroid, Sexual maturity, Sheep, Somatostatin, Soybean, Stem-cell niche, Stroma (tissue), Supernumerary nipple, Supraclavicular nerves, Sweat gland, Testosterone, Thoracic wall, Thorax, Tight junction, Transforming growth factor beta, Udder, Virginia opossum, Weaning, Witch's milk, Wnt signaling pathway. Expand index (91 more) » « Shrink index
The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.
Accessory breasts, also known as polymastia, supernumerary breasts, or mammae erraticae, is the condition of having an additional breast.
Adipocytes, also known as lipocytes and fat cells, are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat.
In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.
Amphiregulin, also known as AREG, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AREG gene.
An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone which regulates the development and maintenance of male characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors.
The androgen receptor (AR), also known as NR3C4 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 4), is a type of nuclear receptor that is activated by binding any of the androgenic hormones, including testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in the cytoplasm and then translocating into the nucleus.
Antithrombin (AT) is a small protein molecule that inactivates several enzymes of the coagulation system.
Apocrine is a term used to classify exocrine glands in the study of histology.
An apocrine sweat gland (from Greek apo– "away" and krinein "to separate") is composed of a coiled secretory portion located at the junction of the dermis and subcutaneous fat, from which a straight portion inserts and secretes into the infundibular portion of the hair follicle.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
The human areola (areola mammae, in. or) is the pigmented area on the breast around the nipple.
Autophagy (or autophagocytosis) (from the Ancient Greek αὐτόφαγος autóphagos, meaning "self-devouring" and κύτος kýtos, meaning "hollow") is the natural, regulated, destructive mechanism of the cell that disassembles unnecessary or dysfunctional components.
In human anatomy, the axillary vein is a large blood vessel that conveys blood from the lateral aspect of the thorax, axilla (armpit) and upper limb toward the heart.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
The basement membrane is a thin, fibrous, extracellular matrix of tissue that separates the lining of an internal or external body surface from underlying connective tissue in metazoans.
Birth is the act or process of bearing or bringing forth offspring.
Bone morphogenetic protein 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by BMP4 gene.
The breast is one of two prominences located on the upper ventral region of the torso of primates.
Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.
Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Carcinogenesis, also called oncogenesis or tumorigenesis, is the formation of a cancer, whereby normal cells are transformed into cancer cells.
The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus or Felis catus) is a small, typically furry, carnivorous mammal.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
Cell culture is the process by which cells are grown under controlled conditions, generally outside their natural environment.
Cell potency is a cell's ability to differentiate into other cell types The more cell types a cell can differentiate into, the greater its potency.
Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.
Colostrum (known colloquially as beestings, bisnings or first milk) is the first form of milk produced by the mammary glands of mammals (including many humans) immediately following delivery of the newborn.
The dayak fruit bat or dyak fruit bat (Dyacopterus spadiceus) is a relatively rare frugivorous megabat species found only on the Sunda Shelf of southeast Asia, specifically the Malay Peninsula south of the Isthmus of Kra, and the islands of Borneo and Sumatra.
The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris when considered a subspecies of the gray wolf or Canis familiaris when considered a distinct species) is a member of the genus Canis (canines), which forms part of the wolf-like canids, and is the most widely abundant terrestrial carnivore.
Dystroglycan is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DAG1 gene.
Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae and the order Proboscidea.
Embryonic is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band The Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009 on Warner Bros.
Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates cell growth and differentiation by binding to its receptor, EGFR.
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR; ErbB-1; HER1 in humans) is a transmembrane protein that is a receptor for members of the epidermal growth factor family (EGF family) of extracellular protein ligands.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
Estrogen receptors (ERs) are a group of proteins found inside cells.
The estrous cycle or oestrus cycle (derived from Latin oestrus 'frenzy', originally from Greek οἶστρος oîstros 'gadfly') is the recurring physiological changes that are induced by reproductive hormones in most mammalian therian females.
Eutheria (from Greek εὐ-, eu- "good" or "right" and θηρίον, thēríon "beast" hence "true beasts") is one of two mammalian clades with extant members that diverged in the Early Cretaceous or perhaps the Late Jurassic.
Exocrine glands are glands that produce and secrete substances onto an epithelial surface by way of a duct.
In biology, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a collection of extracellular molecules secreted by support cells that provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells.
Female (♀) is the sex of an organism, or a part of an organism, that produces non-mobile ova (egg cells).
A fibroblast is a type of biological cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen, the structural framework (stroma) for animal tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing.
The fibroblast growth factors are a family of cell signalling proteins that are involved in a wide variety of processes, most notably as crucial elements for normal development.
Galactorrhea (also spelled galactorrhoea) (galacto- + -rrhea) or lactorrhea (lacto- + -rrhea) is the spontaneous flow of milk from the breast, unassociated with childbirth or nursing.
A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques (i.e., a genetically engineered organism).
Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside viviparous animals.
Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains.
The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.
In human anatomy, the groin (the adjective is inguinal, as in inguinal canal) is the junctional area (also known as the inguinal region) between the abdomen and the thigh on either side of the pubic bone.
A growth factor is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cellular growth, proliferation, healing, and cellular differentiation.
Growth hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin (or as human growth hormone in its human form), is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction, and cell regeneration in humans and other animals.
Growth hormone receptor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GHR gene.
The guinea pig or domestic guinea pig (Cavia porcellus), also known as cavy or domestic cavy, is a species of rodent belonging to the family Caviidae and the genus Cavia.
Gynecomastia is an endocrine system disorder in which a noncancerous increase in the size of male breast tissue occurs.
Hemodynamics or hæmodynamics is the dynamics of blood flow.
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) (or scatter factor (SF) is a paracrine cellular growth, motility and morphogenic factor. It is secreted by mesenchymal cells and targets and acts primarily upon epithelial cells and endothelial cells, but also acts on haemopoietic progenitor cells and T cells. It has been shown to have a major role in embryonic organ development, specifically in myogenesis, in adult organ regeneration, and in wound healing.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
The human skin is the outer covering of the body.
The hypothalamic–pituitary–prolactin axis (HPP axis), also known as the hypothalamic–pituitary–mammary axis or hypothalamic–pituitary–breast axis, is a hypothalamic–pituitary axis which includes the secretion of prolactin (PRL; luteotropin) from the lactotrophs of the pituitary gland into the circulation and the subsequent action of prolactin on tissues such as, particularly, the mammary glands or breasts.
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), also called somatomedin C, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGF1 gene.
Integrins are transmembrane receptors that facilitate cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion.
The intercostal nerves are part of the somatic nervous system, and arise from the anterior rami of the thoracic spinal nerves from T1 to T11.
In human anatomy, the internal thoracic artery (ITA), previously known as the internal mammary artery (a name still common among surgeons), is an artery that supplies the anterior chest wall and the breasts.
In human anatomy, the internal thoracic vein (previously known as the internal mammary vein) is a vessel that drains the chest wall and breasts.
In developmental biology, invagination is a mechanism that takes place during gastrulation.
Involution refers to the shrinking or return of an organ to a former size.
Keith Leon Moore (born 5 October 1925 in Brantford, Ontario) is a professor emeritus in the division of anatomy, in the faculty of Surgery, at the University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Lactation describes the secretion of milk from the mammary glands and the period of time that a mother lactates to feed her young.
Lactiferous ducts are those ducts that converge and form a branched system connecting the nipple to the lobules of the mammary gland.
Laminins are high-molecular weight (~400 to ~900 kDa) proteins of the extracellular matrix.
In human anatomy, the lateral thoracic artery (or external mammary artery) is a blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the lateral structures of the thorax and breast.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
In anatomy, a lobe is a clear anatomical division or extension of an organ (as seen for example in the brain, the lung, liver or the kidney) that can be determined without the use of a microscope at the gross anatomy level.
In biology, a lumen (plural lumina) is the inside space of a tubular structure, such as an artery or intestine.
A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.
In zoology, male lactation is the production of milk from a male mammal's mammary glands in the presence of physiological stimuli connected with nursing infants.
Mammaglobin is a gene that encodes a 10-kilodalton glycoprotein.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
A mammary gland is an exocrine gland in mammals that produces milk to feed young offspring.
The mammary ridge or mammary crest, is a primordium specific for the development of the mammary gland.
A mammary tumor is a neoplasm originating in the mammary gland.
Marsupials are any members of the mammalian infraclass Marsupialia.
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), also known as matrixins, are calcium-dependent zinc-containing endopeptidases; other family members are adamalysins, serralysins, and astacins.
Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.
Mesenchyme, in vertebrate embryology, is a type of connective tissue found mostly during the development of the embryo.
Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals.
Monoclonal antibodies (mAb or moAb) are antibodies that are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell.
Monotremes are one of the three main groups of living mammals, along with placentals (Eutheria) and marsupials (Metatheria).
Morphogenesis (from the Greek morphê shape and genesis creation, literally, "beginning of the shape") is the biological process that causes an organism to develop its shape.
A mouse (Mus), plural mice, is a small rodent characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, a body-length scaly tail and a high breeding rate.
Myoepithelial cells (sometimes referred to as myoepithelium) are cells usually found in glandular epithelium as a thin layer above the basement membrane but generally beneath the luminal cells.
A neurogenic placode is an area of thickening of the epithelium in the embryonic head ectoderm layer that gives rise to neurons and other structures of the sensory nervous system.
The nipple is a raised region of tissue on the surface of the breast from which milk leaves the breast through the lactiferous ducts.
In biology, offspring are the young born of living organisms, produced either by a single organism or, in the case of sexual reproduction, two organisms.
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
Oxytocin (Oxt) is a peptide hormone and neuropeptide.
Paracrine signaling is a form of cell-to-cell communication in which a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells, altering the behavior of those cells.
Parathyroid hormone-related protein (or PTHrP) is a protein member of the parathyroid hormone family.
An anterior or pectoral group consists of four or five glands along the lower border of the Pectoralis minor, in relation with the lateral thoracic artery.
The pectoralis major is a thick, fan-shaped muscle, situated at the chest (anterior) of the human body.
A pig is any of the animals in the genus Sus, within the even-toed ungulate family Suidae.
A postpartum (or postnatal) period begins immediately after the birth of a child as the mother's body, including hormone levels and uterus size, returns to a non-pregnant state.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").
A primordium (plural: primordia; synonym: anlage) in embryology, is defined as an organ or tissue in its earliest recognizable stage of development.
The Proboscidea (from the Greek προβοσκίς and the Latin proboscis) are a taxonomic order of afrotherian mammals containing one living family, Elephantidae, and several extinct families.
Progesterone (P4) is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species.
Prolactin (PRL), also known as luteotropic hormone or luteotropin, is a protein that is best known for its role in enabling mammals, usually females, to produce milk.
A protease (also called a peptidase or proteinase) is an enzyme that performs proteolysis: protein catabolism by hydrolysis of peptide bonds.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction.
A pulmonary alveolus (plural: alveoli, from Latin alveolus, "little cavity") is a hollow cavity found in the lung parenchyma, and is the basic unit of ventilation.
Rats are various medium-sized, long-tailed rodents in the superfamily Muroidea.
Ruminants are mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach prior to digestion, principally through microbial actions.
Sebaceous glands are microscopic exocrine glands in the skin that secrete an oily or waxy matter, called sebum, to lubricate and waterproof the skin and hair of mammals.
Sex steroids, also known as gonadocorticoids and gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors.
Sexual maturity is the capability of an organism to reproduce.
Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock.
Somatostatin, also known as growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH) or by several other names, is a peptide hormone that regulates the endocrine system and affects neurotransmission and cell proliferation via interaction with G protein-coupled somatostatin receptors and inhibition of the release of numerous secondary hormones.
The soybean (Glycine max), or soya bean, is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses.
Stem-cell niche refers to a microenvironment, within the specific anatomic location where stem cells are found, which interacts with stem cells to regulate cell fate.
Stroma is the part of a tissue or organ with a structural or connective role.
A supernumerary nipple (also known as a third nipple, triple nipple, accessory nipple, polythelia or the related condition: polymastia) is an additional nipple occurring in mammals, including humans.
The supraclavicular nerves (descending branches) arise from the third and fourth cervical nerves; they emerge beneath the posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoideus, and descend in the posterior triangle of the neck beneath the platysma and deep cervical fascia.
Sweat glands, also known as sudoriferous or sudoriparous glands,, are small tubular structures of the skin that produce sweat.
Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.
The thoracic wall or chest wall is the boundary of the thoracic cavity.
The thorax or chest (from the Greek θώραξ thorax "breastplate, cuirass, corslet" via thorax) is a part of the anatomy of humans and various other animals located between the neck and the abdomen.
Tight junctions, also known as occluding junctions or zonulae occludentes (singular, zonula occludens) are multiprotein junctional complex whose general function is to prevent leakage of transported solutes and water and seals the paracellular pathway.
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine belonging to the transforming growth factor superfamily that includes four different isoforms (TGF-β 1 to 4, HGNC symbols TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3, TGFB4) and many other signaling proteins produced by all white blood cell lineages.
An udder is an organ formed of the mammary glands of female four-legged mammals, particularly ruminants such as cattle, goats, sheep and deer.
The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), commonly known as the North American opossum, is a marsupial found in North America.
Weaning is the process of gradually introducing an infant mammal to what will be its adult diet and withdrawing the supply of its mother's milk.
Witch's milk or neonatal milk is milk secreted from the breasts of some newborn human infants of either sex.
The Wnt signaling pathways are a group of signal transduction pathways made of proteins that pass signals into a cell through cell surface receptors.
Alveolobular, Alveolobule, Breast gland, Breast glands, Dugs, Evolution of mammary glands, Glandula mammaria, Lactogenesis, Lobuloalveolar, Lobuloalveoli, Mammae, Mammaries, Mammary, Mammary Glands, Mammary glands, Mammary glands, human, Mammary tissue, Mammory, Mammory gland, Mammæ.