164 relations: Actaea racemosa, Activin and inhibin, Aging and Disease, Alternative medicine, Alzheimer's disease, Amnesia, Androgen, Androstenedione, Annual plant, Anxiety, Aromatase, Arthralgia, Atherosclerosis, Atrophic vaginitis, Autoimmune disease, Back pain, Biological life cycle, Bleeding, Blood lipids, Body mass index, Breast pain, Budgerigar, Calque, Canine reproduction, Cardiovascular disease, Centre for Menstrual Cycle and Ovulation Research, Cervix, Cetacea, Chemotherapy, Chimpanzee, Cigarette, Clonidine, Cochrane (organisation), Coeliac disease, Coronary artery disease, Coumestrol, Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, Demotic Greek, Diabetes mellitus, Dizziness, Dysfunctional uterine bleeding, Dysmenorrhea, Dyspareunia, Elephant, Empty nest syndrome, Endometrial ablation, Endometrial cancer, Endometriosis, Endometrium, Estradiol, ..., Estrogen, Estrogen receptor, European Menopause and Andropause Society, Fatigue, Fecal incontinence, Femarelle, Fertility, Follicle-stimulating hormone, Follicular atresia, Folliculogenesis, Food and Drug Administration, Fragile X syndrome, Gabapentin, Gluten-free diet, Grandmother hypothesis, Greene Menopause Index, Guppy, Gynaecology, Headache, Hindu, Homologous recombination, Hormone, Hot flash, Hysterectomy, Idiopathic disease, Igbo culture, India, Irregular menstruation, Irritability, Itch, Joint stiffness, Katharevousa, Killer whale, Lactation, Leuprorelin, Libido, Longevity, Luteinizing hormone, Meiosis, Melatonin, Menarche, Menstrual cycle, Menstruation, Mood swing, Mouse, Myocardial infarction, Night sweats, North American Menopause Society, Nsibidi, Obesity, Oncorhynchus, Oocyte, Oogenesis, Oophorectomy, Opossum, Osteoarthritis, Osteopenia, Osteoporosis, Ovarian reserve, Ovary, Palpitations, Paresthesia, Paroxetine, Patriarchy, Patrilineality, Perspiration, Philippines, Philopatry, Phytoestrogens, Pituitary gland, Placentalia, Platy (fish), Polycystic ovary syndrome, Polyp (medicine), Postmenopausal hormone therapy, Pregnancy over age 50, Premature ovarian failure, Primate, Progesterone, Progestin, Puberty, Radiation therapy, Raloxifene, Rat, Rhesus macaque, Rutgers University Press, Selective estrogen receptor modulator, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Self-actualization, Senescence, Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Short-finned pilot whale, Smoking cessation, Soybean, Stroke, Tamoxifen, Testosterone, Thrombus, Thyroid, Tobacco smoking, Tubal ligation, Twin, Urinary incontinence, Urinary system, Urinary urgency, Uterine artery embolization, Uterus, Vagina, Vaginal lubrication, Vasomotor, Vitamin D, Vulva, Western world, Xeroderma. Expand index (114 more) » « Shrink index
Actaea racemosa (black cohosh, black bugbane, black snakeroot, fairy candle; syn. Cimicifuga racemosa) is a species of flowering plant of the family Ranunculaceae.
Activin and inhibin are two closely related protein complexes that have almost directly opposite biological effects.
Aging and Disease is a bimonthly peer-reviewed open access medical journal published by JKL International on behalf of the International Society on Aging and Disease.
Alternative medicine, fringe medicine, pseudomedicine or simply questionable medicine is the use and promotion of practices which are unproven, disproven, impossible to prove, or excessively harmful in relation to their effect — in the attempt to achieve the healing effects of medicine.--> --> --> They differ from experimental medicine in that the latter employs responsible investigation, and accepts results that show it to be ineffective. The scientific consensus is that alternative therapies either do not, or cannot, work. In some cases laws of nature are violated by their basic claims; in some the treatment is so much worse that its use is unethical. Alternative practices, products, and therapies range from only ineffective to having known harmful and toxic effects.--> Alternative therapies may be credited for perceived improvement through placebo effects, decreased use or effect of medical treatment (and therefore either decreased side effects; or nocebo effects towards standard treatment),--> or the natural course of the condition or disease. Alternative treatment is not the same as experimental treatment or traditional medicine, although both can be misused in ways that are alternative. Alternative or complementary medicine is dangerous because it may discourage people from getting the best possible treatment, and may lead to a false understanding of the body and of science.-->---> Alternative medicine is used by a significant number of people, though its popularity is often overstated.--> Large amounts of funding go to testing alternative medicine, with more than US$2.5 billion spent by the United States government alone.--> Almost none show any effect beyond that of false treatment,--> and most studies showing any effect have been statistical flukes. Alternative medicine is a highly profitable industry, with a strong lobby. This fact is often overlooked by media or intentionally kept hidden, with alternative practice being portrayed positively when compared to "big pharma". --> The lobby has successfully pushed for alternative therapies to be subject to far less regulation than conventional medicine.--> Alternative therapies may even be allowed to promote use when there is demonstrably no effect, only a tradition of use. Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine and health care providers varies between and within countries. Despite laws making it illegal to market or promote alternative therapies for use in cancer treatment, many practitioners promote them.--> Alternative medicine is criticized for taking advantage of the weakest members of society.--! Terminology has shifted over time, reflecting the preferred branding of practitioners.. Science Based Medicine--> For example, the United States National Institutes of Health department studying alternative medicine, currently named National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, was established as the Office of Alternative Medicine and was renamed the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine before obtaining its current name. Therapies are often framed as "natural" or "holistic", in apparent opposition to conventional medicine which is "artificial" and "narrow in scope", statements which are intentionally misleading. --> When used together with functional medical treatment, alternative therapies do not "complement" (improve the effect of, or mitigate the side effects of) treatment.--> Significant drug interactions caused by alternative therapies may instead negatively impact functional treatment, making it less effective, notably in cancer.--> Alternative diagnoses and treatments are not part of medicine, or of science-based curricula in medical schools, nor are they used in any practice based on scientific knowledge or experience.--> Alternative therapies are often based on religious belief, tradition, superstition, belief in supernatural energies, pseudoscience, errors in reasoning, propaganda, fraud, or lies.--> Alternative medicine is based on misleading statements, quackery, pseudoscience, antiscience, fraud, and poor scientific methodology. Promoting alternative medicine has been called dangerous and unethical.--> Testing alternative medicine that has no scientific basis has been called a waste of scarce research resources.--> Critics state that "there is really no such thing as alternative medicine, just medicine that works and medicine that doesn't",--> that the very idea of "alternative" treatments is paradoxical, as any treatment proven to work is by definition "medicine".-->.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
Amnesia is a deficit in memory caused by brain damage, disease, or psychological trauma.
An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone which regulates the development and maintenance of male characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors.
Androstenedione, or 4-androstenedione (abbreviated as A4 or Δ4-dione), also known as androst-4-ene-3,17-dione, is an endogenous weak androgen steroid hormone and intermediate in the biosynthesis of estrone and of testosterone from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).
An annual plant is a plant that completes its life cycle, from germination to the production of seeds, within one year, and then dies.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
Aromatase, also called estrogen synthetase or estrogen synthase, is an enzyme responsible for a key step in the biosynthesis of estrogens.
Arthralgia (from Greek arthro-, joint + -algos, pain) literally means joint pain; it is a symptom of injury, infection, illnesses (in particular arthritis) or an allergic reaction to medication.
Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque.
Atrophic vaginitis is the chronic and progressive inflammation of the vagina (and the lower urinary tract) due to the thinning and shrinking of the vaginal tissues and is often accompanied by vulvar and urinary pathologies.
An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.
Back pain is pain felt in the back of the body.
In biology, a biological life cycle (or just life cycle when the biological context is clear) is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state.
Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.
Blood lipids (or blood fats) are lipids in the blood, either free or bound to other molecules.
The body mass index (BMI) or Quetelet index is a value derived from the mass (weight) and height of an individual.
Breast pain is a medical symptom that is most often associated with a developing disease or condition of the breast.
The budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus), also known as the common parakeet or shell parakeet and usually informally nicknamed the budgie, is a small, long-tailed, seed-eating parrot.
In linguistics, a calque or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation.
Canine reproduction is the process of sexual reproduction in domestic dogs.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
The Centre for Menstrual Cycle and Ovulation Research (CeMCOR) is a health research centre in Vancouver.
The cervix or cervix uteri (neck of the uterus) is the lower part of the uterus in the human female reproductive system.
Cetacea are a widely distributed and diverse clade of aquatic mammals that today consists of the whales, dolphins, and porpoises.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
The taxonomical genus Pan (often referred to as chimpanzees or chimps) consists of two extant species: the common chimpanzee and the bonobo.
A cigarette is a narrow cylinder containing tobacco that is rolled into thin paper for smoking.
Clonidine (trade names Catapres, Kapvay, Nexiclon, Clophelin, and others) is a medication used to treat high blood pressure, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety disorders, tic disorders, withdrawal (from either alcohol, opioids, or smoking), migraine, menopausal flushing, diarrhea, and certain pain conditions.
Cochrane is a non-profit, non-governmental organization formed to organize medical research findings so as to facilitate evidence-based choices about health interventions faced by health professionals, patients, and policy makers.
Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.
Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.
Coumestrol is a natural organic compound in the class of phytochemicals known as coumestans.
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, abbreviated as DHEA sulfate or DHEA-S, also known as androstenolone sulfate, is an endogenous androstane steroid that is produced by the adrenal cortex.
Demotic Greek (δημοτική γλώσσα, "language of the people") or dimotiki is the modern vernacular form of the Greek language.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Dizziness is an impairment in spatial perception and stability.
Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) is abnormal genital tract bleeding based in the uterus and found in the absence of demonstrable structural or organic disease.
Dysmenorrhea, also known as painful periods, or menstrual cramps, is pain during menstruation.
Dyspareunia is painful sexual intercourse due to medical or psychological causes.
Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae and the order Proboscidea.
Empty nest syndrome is a feeling of grief and loneliness parents may feel when their children leave home for the first time, such as to live on their own or to attend a college or university.
Endometrial ablation is an outpatient medical procedure that is used to remove (ablate) or destroy the endometrial lining of the uterus in women who have heavy menstrual bleeding.
Endometrial cancer is a cancer that arises from the endometrium (the lining of the uterus or womb).
Endometriosis is a condition in which the endometrium, the layer of tissue that normally covers the inside of the uterus, grows outside of it.
The endometrium is the inner epithelial layer, along with its mucous membrane, of the mammalian uterus.
Estradiol (E2), also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
Estrogen receptors (ERs) are a group of proteins found inside cells.
The European Menopause and Andropause Society is an institution that promotes the study, and encourages research, of midlife health.
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
Fecal incontinence (FI), also known as anal incontinence, or in some forms encopresis, is a lack of control over defecation, leading to involuntary loss of bowel contents—including flatus (gas), liquid stool elements and mucus, or solid feces.
Femarelle is a dietary supplement that is a mixture of DT56a (a tofu extract) and flaxseed powder, that may act as a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM).
Fertility is the natural capability to produce offspring.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a gonadotropin, a glycoprotein polypeptide hormone.
Follicular atresia is the breakdown of the ovarian follicles, which consist of an oocyte surrounded by granulosa cells and internal and external theca cells.
In biology, folliculogenesis is the maturation of the ovarian follicle, a densely packed shell of somatic cells that contains an immature oocyte.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a genetic disorder.
Gabapentin, sold under the brand name Neurontin among others, is a medication which is used to treat epilepsy (specifically partial seizures), neuropathic pain, hot flashes, and restless legs syndrome.
A gluten-free diet (GFD) is a diet that strictly excludes gluten, a mixture of proteins found in wheat and related grains, including barley, rye, oat, and all their species and hybrids (such as spelt, kamut, and triticale).
The grandmother hypothesis is a hypothesis to explain the existence of menopause in human life history by identifying the adaptive value of extended kin networking.
The Greene Menopause Index, also known as the Greene Climateric Scale, is a questionnaire a tool used by researchers to study the symptoms of menopause.
The guppy (Poecilia reticulata), also known as millionfish and rainbow fish, is one of the world's most widely distributed tropical fish, and one of the most popular freshwater aquarium fish species.
Gynaecology or gynecology (see spelling differences) is the medical practice dealing with the health of the female reproductive systems (vagina, uterus, and ovaries) and the breasts.
Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
Homologous recombination is a type of genetic recombination in which nucleotide sequences are exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Hot flashes (American English) or hot flushes (British English) are a form of flushing due to reduced levels of estradiol.
Hysterectomy is the surgical removal of the uterus.
An idiopathic disease is any disease with an unknown cause or mechanism of apparently spontaneous origin.
Igbo culture are the customs, practices and traditions of the Igbo people of southeastern Nigeria.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Irregular menstruation is a menstrual disorder whose manifestations include irregular cycle lengths as well as metrorrhagia (vaginal bleeding between expected periods).
Irritability is the excitatory ability that living organisms have to respond to changes in their environment.
Itch (also known as pruritus) is a sensation that causes the desire or reflex to scratch.
Joint stiffness may be either the symptom of pain on moving a joint, the symptom of loss of range of motion or the physical sign of reduced range of motion.
Katharevousa (Καθαρεύουσα,, literally "purifying ") is a conservative form of the Modern Greek language conceived in the early 19th century as a compromise between Ancient Greek and the Demotic Greek of the time.
Lactation describes the secretion of milk from the mammary glands and the period of time that a mother lactates to feed her young.
Leuprorelin, also known as leuprolide, is a manufactured version of a hormone used to treat prostate cancer, breast cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and early puberty.
Libido, colloquially known as sex drive, is a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity.
The word "longevity" is sometimes used as a synonym for "life expectancy" in demography.
Luteinizing hormone (LH, also known as lutropin and sometimes lutrophin) is a hormone produced by gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland.
Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.
Melatonin, also known as N-acetyl-5-methoxy tryptamine, is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in animals and regulates sleep and wakefulness.
Menarche (Greek: μήν mēn "month" + ἀρχή arkhē "beginning") is the first menstrual cycle, or first menstrual bleeding, in female humans.
The menstrual cycle is the regular natural change that occurs in the female reproductive system (specifically the uterus and ovaries) that makes pregnancy possible.
Menstruation, also known as a period or monthly, is the regular discharge of blood and mucosal tissue (known as menses) from the inner lining of the uterus through the vagina.
A mood swing is an extreme or rapid change in mood.
A mouse (Mus), plural mice, is a small rodent characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, a body-length scaly tail and a high breeding rate.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
Night sweats, also known as nocturnal hyperhidrosis, is the occurrence of excessive sweating during sleep.
The North American Menopause Society (NAMS), founded in 1989, is a nonprofit, multidisciplinary organization with the mission of promoting the health and quality of life of women during midlife and beyond through an understanding of menopause and healthy aging.
Nsibidi (also known as nsibiri, nchibiddi or nchibiddy) is a system of symbols indigenous to what is now southeastern Nigeria that is apparently an ideographic script, though there have been suggestions that it includes logographic elements.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
Oncorhynchus is a genus of fish in the family Salmonidae; it contains the Pacific salmon and Pacific trout.
An oocyte, oöcyte, ovocyte, or rarely ocyte, is a female gametocyte or germ cell involved in reproduction.
Oogenesis, ovogenesis, or oögenesis is the differentiation of the ovum (egg cell) into a cell competent to further development when fertilized.
Oophorectomy (from Greek ᾠοφόρος, ōophóros, 'egg-bearing' + ἐκτομή, ektomḗ, 'a cutting out of') is the surgical removal of an ovary or ovaries.
The opossum is a marsupial of the order Didelphimorphia endemic to the Americas.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a type of joint disease that results from breakdown of joint cartilage and underlying bone.
Osteopenia is a condition in which bone mineral density is lower than normal.
Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone.
Ovarian reserve is a term that is used to determine the capacity of the ovary to provide egg cells that are capable of fertilization resulting in a healthy and successful pregnancy.
The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum.
Palpitations are the perceived abnormality of the heartbeat characterized by awareness of cardiac muscle contractions in the chest: hard, fast and/or irregular beats.
Paresthesia is an abnormal sensation such as tingling, tickling, pricking, numbness or burning of a person's skin with no apparent physical cause.
Paroxetine, also known by trade names including Paxil and Seroxat among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class. It is used to treat major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. It has also been used in the treatment of hot flashes and night sweats associated with menopause. It has a similar tolerability profile to other SSRIs. The common side effects include drowsiness, dry mouth, loss of appetite, sweating, trouble sleeping and delayed ejaculation. It may also be associated with a slightly increased risk of birth defects. The rate of withdrawal symptoms in young people may be higher with paroxetine and venlafaxine than other SSRIs and SNRIs. Several studies have associated paroxetine with suicidal thinking and behavior in children and adolescents. Marketing of the drug began in 1992 by the pharmaceutical company SmithKline Beecham, known since 2000 as GlaxoSmithKline. Generic formulations have been available since 2003 when the patent expired. The United States Department of Justice fined GlaxoSmithKline $3 billion in 2012, including a sum for withholding data on paroxetine, unlawfully promoting it for under-18s and preparing an article, following one of its clinical trials, study 329, that misleadingly reported the drug was effective in treating adolescent depression.
Patriarchy is a social system in which males hold primary power and predominate in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property.
Patrilineality, also known as the male line, the spear side or agnatic kinship, is a common kinship system in which an individual's family membership derives from and is recorded through his or her father's lineage.
Perspiration, also known as sweating, is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Philopatry is the tendency of an organism to stay in or habitually return to a particular area.
Phytoestrogens are plant-derived xenoestrogens (see estrogen) not generated within the endocrine system, but consumed by eating phytoestrogenic plants.
An explanation of the development of the pituitary gland (Hypophysis cerebri) & the congenital anomalies. In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing in humans.
Placentalia ("Placentals") is one of the three extant subdivisions of the class of animals Mammalia; the other two are Monotremata and Marsupialia.
Platy is a common name of freshwater fish in the genus Xiphophorus that lacks a "sword" at the bottom of their tails.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a set of symptoms due to elevated androgens (male hormones) in females.
A polyp is an abnormal growth of tissue projecting from a mucous membrane.
Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), or postmenopausal hormone therapy (PHT, PMHT), also known as hormone replacement therapy in menopause, is a form of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) which is used in postmenopausal, perimenopausal, and surgically menopausal women.
Pregnancy over age 50 has, over recent years, become possible for more women, and more easily achieved for many, due to recent advances in assisted reproductive technology, in particular egg donation.
Premature ovarian failure (POF) is the loss of function of the ovaries before age 40.
A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").
Progesterone (P4) is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species.
A progestin is a type of medication which is used most commonly in hormonal birth control and menopausal hormone therapy.
Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction.
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
Raloxifene, developed by Eli Lilly in 1997 and sold under the brand name Evista among others, is a medication which is used in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and to reduce the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or at high risk for breast cancer.
Rats are various medium-sized, long-tailed rodents in the superfamily Muroidea.
The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is one of the best-known species of Old World monkeys.
Rutgers University Press is a nonprofit academic publishing house, operating in New Brunswick, New Jersey under the auspices of Rutgers University.
Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are a class of drugs that act on the estrogen receptor (ER).
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.
Self-actualization is a term that has been used in various psychology theories, often in slightly different ways.
Senescence or biological ageing is the gradual deterioration of function characteristic of most complex lifeforms, arguably found in all biological kingdoms, that on the level of the organism increases mortality after maturation.
Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs that treat major depressive disorder (MDD) and can also treat anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), chronic neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), and menopausal symptoms.
The short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus) is one of the two species of cetaceans in the genus Globicephala.
Smoking cessation (also known as quitting smoking or simply quitting) is the process of discontinuing tobacco smoking.
The soybean (Glycine max), or soya bean, is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Tamoxifen (TMX), sold under the brand name Nolvadex among others, is a medication that is used to prevent breast cancer in women and treat breast cancer in women and men.
Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.
A thrombus, colloquially called a blood clot, is the final product of the blood coagulation step in hemostasis.
The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus.
Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).
Tubal ligation or tubectomy (also known as having one's "tubes tied") is a surgical procedure for sterilization in which a woman's fallopian tubes are clamped and block and sealed, either of which prevents eggs from reaching the uterus for implantation.
Twins are two offspring produced by the same pregnancy.
Urinary incontinence (UI), also known as involuntary urination, is any uncontrolled leakage of urine.
The urinary system, also known as the renal system or urinary tract, consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and the urethra.
Urinary urgency is a sudden, compelling urge to urinate.
Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is a procedure where an interventional radiologist uses a catheter to deliver small particles that block the blood supply to the uterine body.
The uterus (from Latin "uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals.
In mammals, the vagina is the elastic, muscular part of the female genital tract.
Vaginal lubrication is a naturally produced fluid that lubricates a woman's vagina.
Vasomotor refers to actions upon a blood vessel which alter its diameter.
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.
The vulva (wrapper, covering, plural vulvae or vulvas) consists of the external female sex organs.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
Xeroderma or xerodermia (also known as xerosis cutis), derived from the Greek words for "dry skin", is a condition involving the integumentary system, which in most cases can safely be treated with emollients or moisturizers.
Change of Life, Climacteric (human), Climacterium, Induced menopause, Male and Female Reproductive Aging, Menopausal, Menopausal symptom, Menopausal symptoms, Menopausal syndrome, Menopause, premature, Menopausia, Perimenopausal, Perimenopause, Post menopausal, Post menopausal symptoms, Post-menopausal, Postmenopausal, Postmenopausal estrogen deficiency, Postmenopausal women, Postmenopause, Pre-menopausal, Premenopausal, Premenopause, Surgical menopause, The change.