264 relations: Aëtius of Amida, Abortion, Abortion–breast cancer hypothesis, Adjuvant therapy, Age adjustment, Alcohol and breast cancer, Alcoholic drink, American Cancer Society, American Society of Clinical Oncology, Anastrozole, Androgen receptor, Anesthesia, Anne of Austria, Apoptosis, Aromatase inhibitor, Arsenic, Asepsis, Aspirin, Atypical ductal hyperplasia, Axillary lymph nodes, Barber surgeon, Basal-cell carcinoma, Benjamin Bell, Bernard Peyrilhe, Biopsy, Bioscientifica, Birth control, Birth defect, Bisphosphonate, Bloomberg Businessweek, Bone pain, Bone scintigraphy, Brachytherapy, BRCA mutation, BRCA1, BRCA2, Breast, Breast biopsy, Breast Cancer Action, Breast cancer awareness, Breast cancer screening, Breast disease, Breast lump, Breast pain, Breast prostheses, Breast reconstruction, Breast self-examination, Breast-conserving surgery, Breastfeeding, BT-20 (cell line), ..., Cancer, Cancer staging, Cancer survivor, Cancer vaccine, Cancer-related fatigue, Cardiovascular disease, Case-control study, Cauterization, Cell nucleus, Center for Media and Democracy, Chemotherapy, Choosing Wisely, Cochrane (organisation), Consciousness raising, Correlation does not imply causation, Council of Europe, Cowden syndrome, Cryoablation, CT scan, Cyclophosphamide, Cyst, Cytoplasm, Dermatitis, Developed country, Diabetes mellitus, Dimple, Divine judgment, DNA microarray, Docetaxel, Doxorubicin, Ductal carcinoma in situ, Edwin Smith Papyrus, EMedicine, Endocrine-Related Cancer, Endometrial cancer, Epithelium, Estrogen receptor, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Exercise, External beam radiotherapy, Extracellular signal–regulated kinases, Feminist movement, Fenretinide, Fibroadenoma, Fibroblast, Fibrocystic breast changes, Fine-needle aspiration, Five-year survival rate, Fluorouracil, Frameshift mutation, Fungating lesion, GATA3, Gene polymorphism, Glossary of gene expression terms, Growth factor, Growth medium, Harper's Magazine, Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, HER2/neu, Hereditary breast–ovarian cancer syndrome, Heredity, HIV/AIDS, Hormonal contraception, Hormonal IUDs, Hormonal therapy (oncology), Hormone, Hormone replacement therapy, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, Humorism, Hypercholesterolemia, Hypocrisy, Ian Gibson (politician), Immortalised cell line, In vitro, In vivo, Incidence (epidemiology), Infection, Inflammatory breast cancer, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Invasive carcinoma of no special type, Ionizing radiation, Janet Lane-Claypon, Jaundice, Jean Louis Petit, Jerome Urban, Journal of Women's Health, Klinefelter syndrome, Lactiferous duct, Letrozole, Li–Fraumeni syndrome, List of breast cancer cell lines, Lobbying, Lobe (anatomy), Lobular carcinoma, Lobular carcinoma in situ, Los Angeles Times, Lumpectomy, Lung cancer, Lupus erythematosus, Lymph node, Lymphadenectomy, Magnetic resonance imaging, Mammary tumor, Mammography, Mary Ball Washington, Mastectomy, Mastitis, MCF-7, Medical imaging, Medical ultrasound, MEDLINE, Medroxyprogesterone acetate, Melancholia, Menarche, Menopause, Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, Metastasis, Metastatic breast cancer, Methotrexate, Miscarriage, Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, Monoclonal antibody, Mouse models of breast cancer metastasis, National Cancer Institute, Necrosis, Neoadjuvant therapy, NFAT, Nipple prosthesis, NPR, Nurses' Health Study, Obesity, Objectification, Omega-3 fatty acid, Oncology, P53, Paget's disease of the breast, Patients' rights, Pectoralis major, Peutz–Jeghers syndrome, Phosphoinositide 3-kinase, Phyllodes tumor, Physician, Pink ribbon, Plastic surgery, Pleomorphism (cytology), Pleural effusion, Polychlorinated biphenyl, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Positron emission tomography, Postmenopausal hormone therapy, Precancerous condition, Pregnancy, Preventive mastectomy, Progesterone receptor, Progestogen, Progestogen-only pill, Prognosis, Prolactin receptor, Prostate cancer, Protein kinase B, PTEN (gene), Quadrantectomy, Qubbet el-Hawa, Rachel Carson, Radiation, Radiation therapy, Radical mastectomy, Raloxifene, Ras subfamily, Receptor (biochemistry), Rite of passage, Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, Selective estrogen receptor modulator, Sentinel lymph node, Shift work, Shortness of breath, Sitting, Sixth Dynasty of Egypt, Skin cancer, Slacktivism, Solvent, Soybean, Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, Stroke, Stroma (tissue), Stromal cell, Support group, Surgery, Symptom, Syndrome, T-47D, Tamoxifen, Tampa Bay Times, Targeted therapy, Taxane, Teddy bear, The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice, The Guardian, The Independent, Theodora (6th century), Tissue (biology), Tobacco smoking, Trastuzumab, Triple-negative breast cancer, Ulcer (dermatology), United States Preventive Services Task Force, Urokinase, Vacuum-assisted breast biopsy, Vaginal estrogen, Venous thrombosis, William Stewart Halsted, Women's Health Initiative, World War II, X-ray. 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Aëtius of Amida (Ἀέτιος Ἀμιδηνός; Latin: Aëtius Amidenus; fl. mid-5th century to mid-6th century) was a Byzantine Greek physician and medical writer, particularly distinguished by the extent of his erudition.
Abortion is the ending of pregnancy by removing an embryo or fetus before it can survive outside the uterus.
The abortion–breast cancer hypothesis posits that having an induced abortion can increase the risk of getting breast cancer.
Adjuvant therapy, also known as adjunct therapy, add-on therapy, and adjuvant care, is therapy that is given in addition to the primary or initial therapy to maximize its effectiveness.
In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.
The relationship between alcohol and breast cancer is clear: drinking alcoholic beverages, including wine, beer, or liquor, is a risk factor for breast cancer, as well as some other forms of cancer.
An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.
The American Cancer Society (ACS) is a nationwide voluntary health organization dedicated to eliminating cancer.
The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) is a professional organization representing physicians of all oncology sub-specialties who care for people with cancer.
Anastrozole, sold under the brand name Arimidex among others, is a medication used in addition to other treatments for breast cancer.
The androgen receptor (AR), also known as NR3C4 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 4), is a type of nuclear receptor that is activated by binding any of the androgenic hormones, including testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in the cytoplasm and then translocating into the nucleus.
In the practice of medicine (especially surgery and dentistry), anesthesia or anaesthesia (from Greek "without sensation") is a state of temporary induced loss of sensation or awareness.
Anne of Austria (22 September 1601 – 20 January 1666), a Spanish princess of the House of Habsburg, was queen of France as the wife of Louis XIII, and regent of France during the minority of her son, Louis XIV, from 1643 to 1651.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are a class of drugs used in the treatment of breast cancer in postmenopausal women and gynecomastia in men.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
Asepsis is the state of being free from disease-causing micro-organisms (such as pathogenic bacteria, viruses, pathogenic fungi, and parasites).
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.
Atypical ductal hyperplasia, abbreviated ADH, is the term used for a benign lesion of the breast that indicates an increased risk of breast cancer.
The axillary lymph nodes or armpit lymph nodes (20 to 49 in number) drain lymph vessels from the lateral quadrants of the breast, the superficial lymph vessels from thin walls of the chest and the abdomen above the level of the navel, and the vessels from the upper limb.
The barber surgeon, one of the most common European medical practitioners of the Middle Ages, was generally charged with caring for soldiers during and after battle.
Basal-cell carcinoma (BCC), also known as basal-cell cancer, is the most common type of skin cancer.
Benjamin Bell of Hunthill FRSE FRCSEd (6 September 1749 – 5 April 1806) is considered to be the first Scottish scientific surgeon.
Bernard Peyrilhe (1737–1804) was a French surgeon, known as one of the founders of experimental cancer research.
A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease.
Established in 1996, Bioscientifica Ltd is the commercial subsidiary of the Society for Endocrinology, and provides publishing, events, and association management services to biomedical societies, and to the pharmaceutical industry.
Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.
A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.
Bisphosphonates are a class of drugs that prevent the loss of bone density, used to treat osteoporosis and similar diseases.
Bloomberg Businessweek is an American weekly business magazine published by Bloomberg L.P. Businessweek was founded in 1929.
Bone pain (also known medically by several other names) is pain coming from a bone.
A bone scan or bone scintigraphy is a nuclear medicine imaging technique of the bone.
Brachytherapy is a form of radiotherapy where a sealed radiation source is placed inside or next to the area requiring treatment.
A BRCA mutation is a mutation in either of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, which are tumour suppressor genes.
BRCA1 and BRCA1 are a human gene and its protein product, respectively.
BRCA2 and BRCA2 are a human gene and its protein product, respectively.
The breast is one of two prominences located on the upper ventral region of the torso of primates.
Several methods for a breast biopsy now exist.
Breast Cancer Action (BCAction) is a U.S.-based grassroots education and activist organization driven by and supporting people living with breast cancer.
Breast cancer awareness is an effort to raise awareness and reduce the stigma of breast cancer through education on symptoms and treatment.
Breast cancer screening is the medical screening of asymptomatic, apparently healthy women for breast cancer in an attempt to achieve an earlier diagnosis.
Breast diseases can be classified either with disorders of the integument, or disorders of the reproductive system.
Breast lumps are localized swellings that feel different from the surrounding breast tissue.
Breast pain is a medical symptom that is most often associated with a developing disease or condition of the breast.
Breast prostheses are breast forms intended to simulate breasts.
Breast reconstruction is the rebuilding of a breast, usually in women.
Breast self-examination (BSE) is a screening method used in an attempt to detect early breast cancer.
Breast-conserving surgery (BCS, also known as breast conservation surgery and segmental mastectomy) is a less radical cancer surgery than mastectomy.
Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.
BT-20 is a breast cancer cell line derived from a 74-year-old human female in 1958 by E.Y. Lasfargues and L. Ozzello.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Cancer staging is the process of determining the extent to which a cancer has developed by growing and spreading.
A cancer survivor is a person with cancer of any type who is still living.
A cancer vaccine is a vaccine that either treats existing cancer or prevents development of a cancer.
Cancer-related fatigue is a subjective symptom of fatigue that is experienced by nearly all cancer patients.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
A case-control study is a type of observational study in which two existing groups differing in outcome are identified and compared on the basis of some supposed causal attribute.
Cauterization (or cauterisation, or cautery) is a medical practice or technique of burning a part of a body to remove or close off a part of it.
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
The Center for Media and Democracy (CMD) is a progressive nonprofit watchdog and advocacy organization based in Madison, Wisconsin.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
Choosing Wisely is a United States-based health educational campaign, led by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM).
Cochrane is a non-profit, non-governmental organization formed to organize medical research findings so as to facilitate evidence-based choices about health interventions faced by health professionals, patients, and policy makers.
Consciousness raising (also called awareness raising) is a form of activism, popularized by United States feminists in the late 1960s.
In statistics, many statistical tests calculate correlations between variables and when two variables are found to be correlated, it is tempting to assume that this shows that one variable causes the other.
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
Cowden syndrome (also known as Cowden's disease and multiple hamartoma syndrome) is an autosomal dominant inherited condition characterized by benign overgrowths called hamartomas as well as an increased lifetime risk of breast, thyroid, uterine, and other cancers.
Cryoablation is a process that uses extreme cold to destroy tissue.
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
Cyclophosphamide (CP), also known as cytophosphane among other, is a medication used as chemotherapy and to suppress the immune system.
A cyst is a closed sac, having a distinct membrane and division compared with the nearby tissue.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
Dermatitis, also known as eczema, is a group of diseases that results in inflammation of the skin.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
A dimple (also known as a gelasin) is a small natural indentation in the flesh on a part of the human body, most notably in the cheek or on the chin.
Divine judgment means the judgment of God or other supreme beings within a religion.
A DNA microarray (also commonly known as DNA chip or biochip) is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface.
Docetaxel (DTX), sold under the brand name Taxotere among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer.
Doxorubicin, sold under the trade names Adriamycin among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat cancer.
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), also known as intraductal carcinoma, is a pre-cancerous or non-invasive cancerous lesion of the breast.
The Edwin Smith Papyrus is an ancient Egyptian medical text, named after the dealer who bought it in 1862, and the oldest known surgical treatise on trauma.
eMedicine.com, Incorporated is an online clinical medical knowledge base founded in 1996 by two medical doctors, Scott Plantz and Jonathan Adler, and by Jeffrey Berezin, a computer engineer.
Endocrine-Related Cancer is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering cancers in endocrine organs — such as the breast, prostate, pituitary, testes, ovaries, and neuroendocrine system — and hormone-dependent cancers occurring elsewhere in the body.
Endometrial cancer is a cancer that arises from the endometrium (the lining of the uterus or womb).
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
Estrogen receptors (ERs) are a group of proteins found inside cells.
The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) is one of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States Department of Health and Human Services.
Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.
External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or teletherapy is the most common form of radiotherapy (radiation therapy).
In molecular biology, extracellular signal–regulated kinases (ERKs) or classical MAP kinases are widely expressed protein kinase intracellular signalling molecules that are involved in functions including the regulation of meiosis, mitosis, and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells.
The feminist movement (also known as the women's movement, or simply feminism) refers to a series of political campaigns for reforms on issues such as reproductive rights, domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, women's suffrage, sexual harassment, and sexual violence, all of which fall under the label of feminism and the feminist movement.
Fenretinide (4-hydroxy(phenyl)retinamide; 4-HPR) (INN) is a synthetic retinoid derivative.
Fibroadenomas, are benign breast tumours characterized by an admixture of stromal and epithelial tissue.
A fibroblast is a type of biological cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen, the structural framework (stroma) for animal tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing.
Fibrocystic breasts or fibrocystic breast disease or fibrocystic breast condition commonly referred to as "FBC" is a condition of breast tissue affecting an estimated 30-60% of women and at least 50% of women of childbearing age.
Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a diagnostic procedure used to investigate lumps or masses.
The five-year survival rate is a type of survival rate for estimating the prognosis of a particular disease, normally calculated from the point of diagnosis.
Fluorouracil (5-FU), sold under the brand name Adrucil among others, is a medication used to treat cancer.
A frameshift mutation (also called a framing error or a reading frame shift) is a genetic mutation caused by indels (insertions or deletions) of a number of nucleotides in a DNA sequence that is not divisible by three.
A fungating lesion is a skin lesion that fungates, that is, becomes like a fungus in its appearance or growth rate.
GATA3 is a transcription factor that in humans is encoded by the GATA3 gene.
A gene is said to be polymorphic if more than one allele occupies that gene’s locus within a population.
A growth factor is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cellular growth, proliferation, healing, and cellular differentiation.
A growth medium or culture medium is a solid, liquid or semi-solid designed to support the growth of microorganisms or cells, or small plants like the moss Physcomitrella patens.
Harper's Magazine (also called Harper's) is a monthly magazine of literature, politics, culture, finance, and the arts.
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the transplantation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells, usually derived from bone marrow, peripheral blood, or umbilical cord blood.
Receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2, also known as CD340 (cluster of differentiation 340), proto-oncogene Neu, Erbb2 (rodent), or ERBB2 (human), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ERBB2 gene.
Hereditary breast–ovarian cancer syndromes (HBOC) are cancer syndromes that produce higher than normal levels of breast cancer and ovarian cancer in genetically related families (either one individual had both, or several individuals in the pedigree had one or the other disease).
Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Hormonal contraception refers to birth control methods that act on the endocrine system.
Intrauterine device (IUD) with progestogen, sold under the brand name Mirena among others, is a intrauterine device that releases the hormone levonorgestrel.
Hormonal therapy in oncology is hormone therapy for cancer and is one of the major modalities of medical oncology (pharmacotherapy for cancer), others being cytotoxic chemotherapy and targeted therapy (biotherapeutics).
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is any form of hormone therapy wherein the patient, in the course of medical treatment, receives hormones, either to supplement a lack of naturally occurring hormones or to substitute other hormones for naturally occurring hormones.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Humorism, or humoralism, was a system of medicine detailing the makeup and workings of the human body, adopted by Ancient Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers, positing that an excess or deficiency of any of four distinct bodily fluids in a person—known as humors or humours—directly influences their temperament and health.
Hypercholesterolemia, also called high cholesterol, is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood.
Hypocrisy is the contrivance of a false appearance of virtue or goodness, while concealing real character or inclinations, especially with respect to religious and moral beliefs; hence in a general sense, hypocrisy may involve dissimulation, pretense, or a sham.
Ian Gibson (born 26 September 1938) is a British Labour Party politician who was Member of Parliament (MP) for Norwich North from 1997 to 2009.
An immortalized cell line is a population of cells from a multicellular organism which would normally not proliferate indefinitely but, due to mutation, have evaded normal cellular senescence and instead can keep undergoing division.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.
Incidence in epidemiology is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Inflammatory breast cancer is one of the most aggressive types of breast cancer that can occur in women of any age (and, extremely rarely, in men).
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC; Centre International de Recherche sur le Cancer, CIRC) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organization of the United Nations.
Invasive carcinoma of no special type (NST) also known as invasive ductal carcinoma or ductal NOS and previously known as invasive ductal carcinoma, not otherwise specified (NOS) is a group of breast cancers that do not have the "specific differentiating features".
Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.
Janet Elizabeth Lane-Claypon, Lady Forber (3 February 1877 – 17 July 1967) was an English physician.
Jaundice, also known as icterus, is a yellowish or greenish pigmentation of the skin and whites of the eyes due to high bilirubin levels.
Jean-Louis Petit (13 March 1674 – 20 April 1750) was a French surgeon and the inventor of a screw-type tourniquet.
Jerome Urban (1914-1991) was an American surgical oncologist who promoted superradical mastectomies until 1963, when the lack of difference in ten-year survival rates convinced him that it worked no better than the less-mutilating radical mastectomy.
The Journal of Women's Health is a monthly peer-reviewed healthcare journal focusing on women's health care, including advancements in diagnostic procedures, therapeutic protocols for the management of diseases, and research in gender-based biology that impacts patient care and treatment.
Klinefelter syndrome (KS) also known as 47,XXY or XXY, is the set of symptoms that result from two or more X chromosomes in males.
Lactiferous ducts are those ducts that converge and form a branched system connecting the nipple to the lobules of the mammary gland.
Letrozole, sold under the brand name Femara among others, is an aromatase inhibitor which is used in the treatment of hormonally-responsive breast cancer after surgery.
Li–Fraumeni syndrome is a rare, autosomal dominant, hereditary disorder that pre-disposes carriers to cancer development.
Scientists study the behaviour of isolated cells grown in the laboratory for insights into how cells function in the body in health and disease.
Lobbying, persuasion, or interest representation is the act of attempting to influence the actions, policies, or decisions of officials in their daily life, most often legislators or members of regulatory agencies.
In anatomy, a lobe is a clear anatomical division or extension of an organ (as seen for example in the brain, the lung, liver or the kidney) that can be determined without the use of a microscope at the gross anatomy level.
Lobular carcinoma is a form of tumor which primarily affects the lobules of a gland.
Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is an incidental microscopic finding with characteristic cellular morphology and multifocal tissue patterns.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
Lumpectomy (sometimes known as a tylectomy) is a surgical removal of a discrete portion or "lump" of breast, usually in the treatment of malignant tumor or breast cancer.
Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.
Lupus erythematosus is a collection of autoimmune diseases in which the human immune system becomes hyperactive and attacks healthy tissues.
A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.
Lymphadenectomy or lymph node dissection is the surgical removal of one or more groups of lymph nodes.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
A mammary tumor is a neoplasm originating in the mammary gland.
Mammography (also called mastography) is the process of using low-energy X-rays (usually around 30 kVp) to examine the human breast for diagnosis and screening.
Mary Ball Washington, born Mary Ball (November 30, 1708 – August 26, 1789), was the second wife of Augustine Washington, a planter in Virginia, and the mother of George Washington, the first President of the United States, and five other children.
Mastectomy (from Greek μαστός "breast" and ἐκτομή ektomia "cutting out") is the medical term for the surgical removal of one or both breasts, partially or completely.
Mastitis is inflammation of the breast or udder, usually associated with breastfeeding.
MCF-7 is a breast cancer cell line isolated in 1970 from a 69-year-old Caucasian woman.
Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).
Medical ultrasound (also known as diagnostic sonography or ultrasonography) is a diagnostic imaging technique based on the application of ultrasound.
MEDLINE (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, or MEDLARS Online) is a bibliographic database of life sciences and biomedical information.
Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), sold under the brand name Depo-Provera among others, is a hormonal medication of the progestin type.
Melancholia (from µέλαινα χολή),Burton, Bk.
Menarche (Greek: μήν mēn "month" + ἀρχή arkhē "beginning") is the first menstrual cycle, or first menstrual bleeding, in female humans.
Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.
The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, referred to as The Merck Manual, is the world's best-selling medical textbook, and the oldest continuously published English language medical textbook.
Metastasis is a pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body; it is typically spoken of as such spread by a cancerous tumor.
Metastatic breast cancer, also referred to as metastases, advanced breast cancer, secondary tumours, secondaries or stage 4 breast cancer, is a stage of breast cancer where the disease has spread to distant sites beyond the axillary lymph nodes.
Methotrexate (MTX), formerly known as amethopterin, is a chemotherapy agent and immune system suppressant.
Miscarriage, also known as spontaneous abortion and pregnancy loss, is the natural death of an embryo or fetus before it is able to survive independently.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (also known as MAP2K, MEK, MAPKK) is a kinase enzyme which phosphorylates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK).
Monoclonal antibodies (mAb or moAb) are antibodies that are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell.
Breast cancer metastatic mouse models are experimental approaches in which mice are genetically manipulated to develop a mammary tumor leading to distant focal lesions of mammary epithelium.
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is one of eleven agencies that are part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Necrosis (from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.
Neoadjuvant therapy is the administration of therapeutic agents before a main treatment.
Nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) is a family of transcription factors shown to be important in immune response.
Nipple/Areola prostheses (prostheses is the plural of prosthesis) are made of silicone by breast prosthesis manufacturers and anaplastologists for breast cancer survivors who were treated for breast cancer with a mastectomy.
National Public Radio (usually shortened to NPR, stylized as npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization based in Washington, D.C. It serves as a national syndicator to a network of over 1,000 public radio stations in the United States.
The Nurses Health Study (NHS), is a series of prospective studies that examine epidemiology and the long-term effects of nutrition, hormones, environment, and nurses' work-life on health and disease development.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
In social philosophy, objectification is the act of treating a person, or sometimes an animal, as an object or a thing.
Omega−3 fatty acids, also called ω−3 fatty acids or n−3 fatty acids, are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).
Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer.
Tumor protein p53, also known as p53, cellular tumor antigen p53 (UniProt name), phosphoprotein p53, tumor suppressor p53, antigen NY-CO-13, or transformation-related protein 53 (TRP53), is any isoform of a protein encoded by homologous genes in various organisms, such as TP53 (humans) and Trp53 (mice).
Paget's disease of the breast is a type of cancer that outwardly may have the appearance of eczema, with skin changes involving the nipple of the breast.
A patient's bill of rights is a list of guarantees for those receiving medical care.
The pectoralis major is a thick, fan-shaped muscle, situated at the chest (anterior) of the human body.
Peutz–Jeghers syndrome (often abbreviated PJS) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by the development of benign hamartomatous polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and hyperpigmented macules on the lips and oral mucosa (melanosis).
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (also called phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases, PI 3-kinases, PI(3)Ks, PI-3Ks or by the HUGO official stem symbol for the gene family, PI3K(s)) are a family of enzymes involved in cellular functions such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, motility, survival and intracellular trafficking, which in turn are involved in cancer.
Phyllodes tumors (from Greek: phullon leaf), also cystosarcoma phyllodes, cystosarcoma phylloides and phylloides tumor, are typically large, fast-growing masses that from form the periductal stromal cells of the breast.
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.
The pink ribbon is an international symbol of breast cancer awareness.
Plastic surgery is a surgical specialty involving the restoration, reconstruction, or alteration of the human body.
Pleomorphism is a term used in histology and cytopathology to describe variability in the size, shape and staining of cells and/or their nuclei.
A pleural effusion is excess fluid that accumulates in the pleural cavity, the fluid-filled space that surrounds the lungs.
A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is an organic chlorine compound with the formula C12H10−xClx.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, also polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) are hydrocarbons—organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen—that are composed of multiple aromatic rings (organic rings in which the electrons are delocalized).
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.
Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), or postmenopausal hormone therapy (PHT, PMHT), also known as hormone replacement therapy in menopause, is a form of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) which is used in postmenopausal, perimenopausal, and surgically menopausal women.
A precancerous condition or premalignant condition, sometimes called a potentially precancerous condition or potentially premalignant condition, is a term used to describe certain conditions or lesions involving abnormal cells which are associated with an increased risk of developing into cancer.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
A preventive mastectomy or prophylactic mastectomy is an elective operation to remove the breasts so that the risk of breast cancer is reduced.
The progesterone receptor (PR), also known as NR3C3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3, is a protein found inside cells.
Progestogens, also sometimes spelled progestagens or gestagens, are a class of steroid hormones that bind to and activate the progesterone receptor (PR).
Progestogen-only pills or progestin-only pills (POP) are contraceptive pills that contain only synthetic progestogens (progestins) and do not contain estrogen.
Prognosis (Greek: πρόγνωσις "fore-knowing, foreseeing") is a medical term for predicting the likely or expected development of a disease, including whether the signs and symptoms will improve or worsen (and how quickly) or remain stable over time; expectations of quality of life, such as the ability to carry out daily activities; the potential for complications and associated health issues; and the likelihood of survival (including life expectancy).
The prolactin receptor (PRLR)—encoded by a gene on chromosome 5p13-14—interacts with prolactin as a transmembrane receptor.
Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.
Protein kinase B (PKB), also known as Akt, is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that plays a key role in multiple cellular processes such as glucose metabolism, apoptosis, cell proliferation, transcription and cell migration.
Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the PTEN gene.
A quadrantectomy, also referred to as a segmental or partial mastectomy, is a surgical procedure for breast cancer in which one quarter of breast tissue is removed along with muscles of the chest wall within a 2 to 3 centimeter radius of a tumor.
Qubbet el-Hawa is a site on the western bank of the Nile, opposite Aswan.
Rachel Louise Carson (May 27, 1907 – April 14, 1964) was an American marine biologist, author, and conservationist whose book Silent Spring and other writings are credited with advancing the global environmental movement.
In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
Radical mastectomy is a surgical procedure involving the removal of breast, underlying chest muscle (including pectoralis major and pectoralis minor), and lymph nodes of the axilla as a treatment for breast cancer.
Raloxifene, developed by Eli Lilly in 1997 and sold under the brand name Evista among others, is a medication which is used in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and to reduce the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or at high risk for breast cancer.
Ras is a family of related proteins which is expressed in all animal cell lineages and organs.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
A rite of passage is a ceremony of the passage which occurs when an individual leaves one group to enter another.
The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RANZCOG) is the body responsible for training and examining obstetricians and gynaecologists in New Zealand and Australia.
Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are a class of drugs that act on the estrogen receptor (ER).
The sentinel lymph node is the hypothetical first lymph node or group of nodes draining a cancer.
Shift work is an employment practice designed to make use of, or provide service across, all 24 hours of the clock each day of the week (often abbreviated as 24/7).
Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is the feeling that one cannot breathe well enough.
Sitting is a basic human resting position.
The Sixth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty VI) along with Dynasties III, IV and V constitute the Old Kingdom of Dynastic Egypt.
Skin cancers are cancers that arise from the skin.
Slacktivism (slactivism or slackervism, a portmanteau of slacker and activism) is a pejorative term for "feel-good" measures in support of an issue or social cause.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
The soybean (Glycine max), or soya bean, is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses.
Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (Δ-9-desaturase) is an endoplasmic reticulum enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the formation of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), specifically oleate and palmitoleate from stearoyl-CoA and palmitoyl-CoA.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Stroma is the part of a tissue or organ with a structural or connective role.
Stromal cells are connective tissue cells of any organ, for example in the uterine mucosa (endometrium), prostate, bone marrow, lymph node and the ovary.
In a support group, members provide each other with various types of help, usually nonprofessional and nonmaterial, for a particular shared, usually burdensome, characteristic.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.
A syndrome is a set of medical signs and symptoms that are correlated with each other and, often, with a particular disease or disorder.
T-47D is a human breast cancer cell line commonly used in biomedical research involving the hormonal expression of cancer cells.
Tamoxifen (TMX), sold under the brand name Nolvadex among others, is a medication that is used to prevent breast cancer in women and treat breast cancer in women and men.
The Tampa Bay Times, previously named the St.
Targeted therapy or molecularly targeted therapy is one of the major modalities of medical treatment (pharmacotherapy) for cancer, others being hormonal therapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy.
Taxanes are a class of diterpenes.
A teddy bear is a soft toy in the form of a bear.
The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice (TDI) is an organization within Dartmouth College "dedicated to improving health care through education, research, policy reform, leadership improvement, and communication with patients and the public." It was founded in 1988 by John Wennberg as the Center for the Evaluative Clinical Sciences (CECS); a reorganization in 2007 led to TDI's current structure.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
Theodora (Greek: Θεοδώρα; c. 500 – 28 June 548) was empress of the Eastern Roman Empire by marriage to Emperor Justinian I.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).
Trastuzumab, sold under the brand name Herceptin among others, is a monoclonal antibody used to treat breast cancer.
Triple-negative breast cancer (sometimes abbreviated TNBC) refers to any breast cancer that does not express the genes for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and Her2/neu.
An ulcer is a sore on the skin or a mucous membrane, accompanied by the disintegration of tissue.
The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) is "an independent panel of experts in primary care and prevention that systematically reviews the evidence of effectiveness and develops recommendations for clinical preventive services".
Urokinase, also known as urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), is a serine protease present in humans and other animals.
Vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (VAB) is a minimally invasive procedure (Biopsy) to help in the diagnosis of breast cancer.
Vaginal estrogen is a form of estrogen that is delivered by intravaginal administration.
A venous thrombus is a blood clot (thrombus) that forms within a vein.
William Stewart Halsted, M.D. (September 23, 1852 – September 7, 1922) was an American surgeon who emphasized strict aseptic technique during surgical procedures, was an early champion of newly discovered anesthetics, and introduced several new operations, including the radical mastectomy for breast cancer.
The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) was initiated by the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) in 1991.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
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