413 relations: Abiogenic petroleum origin, Achaemenid Empire, Actinomycetales, Aerobic organism, Ahmadi Governorate, Alaska, Alberta, Aldehyde, Alfreton, Algae, Algeria, Alkane, Alkene, Alternative fuel, Amino acid, Ammonia, Amoco Cadiz, Anaerobic organism, Angola, Anoxic waters, Anthracene, API gravity, Arctic ice pack, Arizona, Aromatic hydrocarbon, Aromaticity, Arthrobacter, Artificial lift, Asia, Asphalt, Asphaltene, Athabasca oil sands, Atmosphere of Earth, Azerbaijan, Babylon, Bactericide, Barrel (unit), Barrel of oil equivalent, Bathgate, Battery electric vehicle, Benchmark (crude oil), Benzene, Biodegradation, Biodiesel, Biofuel, Biomass, Bioplastic, Boring (earth), Branobel, Brazil, ..., Brent Crude, Brent oilfield, BRICS, Bulldozer, Butane, Canada, Cannel coal, Caprock, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Carcinogen, Catagenesis (geology), Celsius, Chemical element, Chemical process, Chemical substance, China, Chromobacterium violaceum, Civilization, Coal mining, Commercial aviation, Commodity, Concise Oxford English Dictionary, Condensation, Consumption function, Cracking (chemistry), Creosote, Crude oil assay, Crust (geology), Cushing, Oklahoma, Cycloalkane, Daqing Oil Field, Day, De Natura Fossilium, Deepwater Horizon oil spill, Degree of unsaturation, Demulsifier, Der Spiegel, Derbyshire, Diesel fuel, Diodorus Siculus, Directional drilling, Distillation, DME Oman Crude Oil Futures Contract, Downstream (petroleum industry), Drake Well, Drill, Dubai Crude, Earth, East Shetland Basin, Ecosystem, Edwin Drake, Elsevier, Endothermic process, Energy density, Energy Information Administration, Enhanced oil recovery, Enzyme, Ethane, Euphrates, Europe, Exothermic process, Export Land Model, Extinction, Extraction of petroleum, Exxon Valdez oil spill, Fat, Fertilizer, Filling station, Flame ionization detector, Flexible-fuel vehicle, Fluid catalytic cracking, Formaldehyde, Fossil, Fossil fuel, Fractional distillation, Fractionating column, France, Frozen food, Fuel, Fuel cell vehicle, Fuel oil, Fulvic acid, Galápagos Islands, Gas, Gas chromatography, Gas flare, Gas oil ratio, Gasoline, Geochemistry, Geological formation, Georgius Agricola, Geothermal gradient, Germany, Global warming, Grease (lubricant), Greenhouse gas, Gulf of Mexico, Hardisty, Heavy crude oil, Heptane, Herodotus, Hexadecane, Hexane, History of ethanol fuel in Brazil, Homogeneity and heterogeneity, Hybrid electric vehicle, Hydraulic fracturing, Hydrocarbon, Hydrocarbon exploration, Hydrodesulfurization, Hydroelectricity, Hydrogen, Hydrogen internal combustion engine vehicle, Hydrogen sulfide, Hydrogen vehicle, Hydrolysis, I Ching, Ignacy Łukasiewicz, Imino acid, India, Indonesia, Internal combustion engine, International Energy Agency, Iran, Iraq, Isotopes of thorium, Issus (river), Italy, James Miller Williams, James Young (chemist), Japan, Jasło, Jet fuel, Kazakhstan, Kerogen, Kerosene, Keto acid, Kilometre, Korňa, Kuwait, Latin, Liana, Light crude oil, Lignin, Lignite, Liquefied petroleum gas, Liquid, List of countries by oil production, List of oil exploration and production companies, List of oil fields, List of oil spills, List of rock formations, Long and short scales, Lubbock, Texas, Lubricant, Lula oil field, M. King Hubbert, Magma, Malaysia, Manure-derived synthetic crude oil, Marine and Petroleum Geology, Mass spectrometry, Mechanization, Medication, Merkwiller-Pechelbronn, Metal, Methane, Metre, Mexico, Micro hydro, Micrococcus, Midstream, Midway-Sunset Oil Field, Molecule, Monosaccharide, Montara oil spill, Motor oil, Mud, MV Erika, Myanmar, Naphtha, Natural gas, Natural gas vehicle, Natural-gas condensate, Nevada, Nigeria, Ninian, Nitrate, Nitrogen, Nitrogen oxide, Non-renewable resource, Nonane, North Sea, Norway, Nuclear power, Ocean acidification, Oceania, Octane, OECD, Oil boom, Oil burden, Oil campaign chronology of World War II, Oil constant, Oil depletion, Oil field, Oil refinery, Oil reserves, Oil sands, Oil shale, Oil spill, Oil Springs, Ontario, Oil tanker, Oil well, Oleum, OPEC, OPEC Reference Basket, Operation Barbarossa, Orders of magnitude (numbers), Oregon, Organic compound, Organic matter, Orinoco Belt, Oxidative deamination, Oxygen, Paraffin wax, Parts-per notation, Peak oil, Pemex, Pentane, Permeability (earth sciences), Persepolis Administrative Archives, Persian Gulf, Pesticide, Petrochemical, Petroleum coke, Petroleum geology, Petroleum industry, Petroleum industry in Azerbaijan, Petroleum product, Petroleum reservoir, Petroleum seep, Petroleum transport, Phase diagram, Phenol, Phenols, Picoline, Pipeline transport, Plankton, Plastic, Ploiești, Plug-in hybrid, Poland, Pollutant, Polysaccharide, Porosity, Potassium-40, Prestige oil spill, Primary energy, Primorsk, Leningrad Oblast, Propane, Protein, Province of Canada, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pump, Pumpjack, Pyridine, Pyrolysis, Qatar, Quinoline, Radical (chemistry), Radioactive decay, Reagent, Rearrangement reaction, Redox, Renewable energy, Rhodococcus, Riddings, Romania, Russia, Saline water, Saturation (chemistry), Saudi Arabia, Scallop, Sediment, Sedimentary rock, Seismology, Sensor, Shetland, Shrub, Silt, Slovakia, Smog, Solar power, Solubility, Solution, Solvent, Sour crude oil, Source rock, South Korea, Speciality chemicals, Specific gravity, SS Atlantic Empress, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Stoichiometry, Stratum, Streptomycin, Sulfate, Sulfur, Sulfur dioxide, Sulfuric acid, Sullom Voe, Sweet crude oil, Tanker (ship), Tapis crude, Tar, Tar pit, Tectonophysics (journal), Teknisk Ukeblad, Thermal depolymerization, Tiber Oil Field, Tight oil, Torbanite, Torrey Canyon oil spill, Total petroleum hydrocarbon, Tree, Trinidad and Tobago, Tropospheric ozone, Unconventional oil, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Unresolved complex mixture, Upstream (petroleum industry), Uranium-235, Uranium-238, Urea-formaldehyde, Vanadium, Venezuela, Viscosity, Volatility (chemistry), Washington (state), Waste oil, Water associated fraction, Water injection (oil production), Water stagnation, Wax, West Lothian, West Texas Intermediate, Western Canadian Select, Western States Petroleum Association, Whale oil, Whaling, Wietze, Wind power, Woody plant, World War II, Yenangyaung, Zakynthos, Zooplankton, 1980s oil glut, 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane. 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Abiogenic petroleum origin is a term used to describe a number of different hypotheses which propose that petroleum and natural gas are formed by inorganic means rather than by the decomposition of organisms.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
The Actinomycetales are an order of Actinobacteria.
An aerobic organism or aerobe is an organism that can survive and grow in an oxygenated environment.
Ahmadi Governorate (محافظة الأحمدي Muḥāfaẓat al-Aḥmadī) is one of the six governorates of Kuwait.
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
Alberta is a western province of Canada.
An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain.
Alfreton is a town and civil parish in Amber Valley, Derbyshire based in the East Midlands, England, adjoining the Bolsover and North East Derbyshire districts.
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
In organic chemistry, an alkane, or paraffin (a historical name that also has other meanings), is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon.
In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.
Alternative fuels, known as non-conventional and advanced fuels, are any materials or substances that can be used as fuels, other than conventional fuels like; fossil fuels (petroleum (oil), coal, and natural gas), as well as nuclear materials such as uranium and thorium, as well as artificial radioisotope fuels that are made in nuclear reactors.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Amoco Cadiz was a very large crude carrier (VLCC) under the Liberian flag of convenience owned by Amoco and transporting crude oil for Shell.
An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth.
Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola; Kikongo, Kimbundu and Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa.
Anoxic waters are areas of sea water, fresh water, or groundwater that are depleted of dissolved oxygen and are a more severe condition of hypoxia.
Anthracene is a solid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) of formula C14H10, consisting of three fused benzene rings.
The American Petroleum Institute gravity, or API gravity, is a measure of how heavy or light a petroleum liquid is compared to water: if its API gravity is greater than 10, it is lighter and floats on water; if less than 10, it is heavier and sinks.
The Arctic ice pack is the ice cover of the Arctic Ocean and its vicinity.
Arizona (Hoozdo Hahoodzo; Alĭ ṣonak) is a U.S. state in the southwestern region of the United States.
An aromatic hydrocarbon or arene (or sometimes aryl hydrocarbon) is a hydrocarbon with sigma bonds and delocalized pi electrons between carbon atoms forming a circle.
In organic chemistry, the term aromaticity is used to describe a cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat) molecule with a ring of resonance bonds that exhibits more stability than other geometric or connective arrangements with the same set of atoms.
Arthrobacter (from the Greek, "jointed small stick”) is a genus of bacteria that is commonly found in soil.
Artificial lift refers to the use of artificial means to increase the flow of liquids, such as crude oil or water, from a production well.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Asphalt, also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum.
Asphaltenes are molecular substances that are found in crude oil, along with resins, aromatic hydrocarbons, and saturates (i.e. saturated hydrocarbons such as alkanes).
The Athabasca oil sands (or tar sands) are large deposits of bitumen or extremely heavy crude oil, located in northeastern Alberta, Canada – roughly centred on the boomtown of Fort McMurray.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
A bactericide or bacteriocide, sometimes abbreviated Bcidal, is a substance that kills bacteria.
A barrel is one of several units of volume applied in various contexts; there are dry barrels, fluid barrels (such as the UK beer barrel and US beer barrel), oil barrels and so on.
The barrel of oil equivalent (BOE) is a unit of energy based on the approximate energy released by burning one barrel (42 U.S. gallons or 158.9873 litres) of crude oil.
Bathgate (Bathket or italic, Both Chèit) is a town in West Lothian, Scotland, on the M8 motorway west of Livingston.
A battery electric vehicle (BEV), or all-electric vehicle is a type of electric vehicle (EV) that uses chemical energy stored in rechargeable battery packs.
A benchmark crude or marker crude is a crude oil that serves as a reference price for buyers and sellers of crude oil.
Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.
Biodegradation is the disintegration of materials by bacteria, fungi, or other biological means.
Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil- or animal fat-based diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl (methyl, ethyl, or propyl) esters.
A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter.
Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter.
Bioplastics are plastics derived from renewable biomass sources, such as vegetable fats and oils, corn starch, or microbiota.
Boring is drilling a hole, tunnel, or well in the earth.
The Petroleum Production Company Nobel Brothers, Limited, or Branobel (short for братьев Нобель "brat'yev Nobel" — "Nobel Brothers" in Russian), was an oil company set up by Ludvig Nobel and Baron Peter von Bilderling, mainly in Baku, Azerbaijan but also in Cheleken, Turkmenistan.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Brent Crude is a major trading classification of sweet light crude oil that serves as a major benchmark price for purchases of oil worldwide.
The Brent field is an oil and gas field located in the East Shetland Basin of the North Sea, north-east of Lerwick, Shetland Islands, Scotland, at the water depth of.
BRICS is the acronym for an association of five major emerging national economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.
A bulldozer is a crawler (continuous tracked tractor) equipped with a substantial metal plate (known as a blade) used to push large quantities of soil, sand, rubble, or other such material during construction or conversion work and typically equipped at the rear with a claw-like device (known as a ripper) to loosen densely compacted materials.
Butane is an organic compound with the formula C4H10 that is an alkane with four carbon atoms.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Cannel coal or candle coal, is a type of bituminous coal, also classified as terrestrial type oil shale.
Caprock or cap rock is a harder or more resistant rock type overlying a weaker or less resistant rock type.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
Catagenesis is a term used in petroleum geology to describe the cracking process which results in the conversion of organic kerogens into hydrocarbons.
The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
In a scientific sense, a chemical process is a method or means of somehow changing one or more chemicals or chemical compounds.
A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chromobacterium violaceum is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, non-sporing coccobacillus.
A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.
Coal mining is the process of extracting coal from the ground.
Commercial aviation is the part of civil aviation (both general aviation and scheduled airline services) that involves operating aircraft for hire to transport passengers or multiple loads of cargo.
In economics, a commodity is an economic good or service that has full or substantial fungibility: that is, the market treats instances of the good as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them.
Henry Watson Fowler The Concise Oxford English Dictionary (officially titled The Concise Oxford Dictionary until 2002, and widely abbreviated COD or COED) is probably the best-known of the 'smaller' Oxford dictionaries.
Condensation is the change of the physical state of matter from gas phase into liquid phase, and is the reverse of vapourisation.
In economics, the consumption function describes a relationship between consumption and disposable income.
In petrochemistry, petroleum geology and organic chemistry, cracking is the process whereby complex organic molecules such as kerogens or long-chain hydrocarbons are broken down into simpler molecules such as light hydrocarbons, by the breaking of carbon-carbon bonds in the precursors.
Creosote is a category of carbonaceous chemicals formed by the distillation of various tars and pyrolysis of plant-derived material, such as wood or fossil fuel.
A crude oil assay is the chemical evaluation of crude oil feedstocks by petroleum testing laboratories.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
Cushing is a city in Payne County, Oklahoma, United States.
In organic chemistry, the cycloalkanes (also called naphthenes, but distinct from naphthalene) are the monocyclic saturated hydrocarbons.
The Daqing Oil Field, formerly romanized as "Taching", is the largest oil field in the People's Republic of China, located between the Songhua river and Nen River in Heilongjiang province.
A day, a unit of time, is approximately the period of time during which the Earth completes one rotation with respect to the Sun (solar day).
De Natura Fossilium is a scientific text written by Georg Bauer also known as Georgius Agricola, first published in 1546.
The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill/leak, the BP oil disaster, the Gulf of Mexico oil spill, and the Macondo blowout) is an industrial disaster that began on 20 April 2010, in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect, considered to be the largest marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry and estimated to be 8% to 31% larger in volume than the previous largest, the Ixtoc I oil spill.
The degree of unsaturation (also known as the index of hydrogen deficiency (IHD) or rings plus double bonds) formula is used in organic chemistry to help draw chemical structures.
Demulsifiers, or emulsion breakers, are a class of specialty chemicals used to separate emulsions, for example, water in oil.
Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.
Derbyshire is a county in the East Midlands of England.
Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel.
Diodorus Siculus (Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης Diodoros Sikeliotes) (1st century BC) or Diodorus of Sicily was a Greek historian.
Directional drilling (or slant drilling) is the practice of drilling non-vertical wells.
Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation.
Launched by the Dubai Mercantile Exchange (DME) on 1 June 2007, the DME Oman Crude Oil Futures Contract (OQD) is the Asian crude oil pricing benchmark.
The oil and gas industry is usually divided into three major sectors: upstream, midstream, and downstream. The downstream sector is the refining of petroleum crude oil and the processing and purifying of raw natural gas, as well as the marketing and distribution of products derived from crude oil and natural gas.
The Drake Well is a oil well in Cherrytree Township, Venango County in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania, the success of which sparked the first oil boom in the United States.
A drill is a tool fitted with a cutting tool attachment or driving tool attachment, usually a drill bit or driver bit, used for boring holes in various materials or fastening various materials together.
Dubai Crude is a medium sour crude oil extracted from Dubai.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
The East Shetland Basin is a major oil-producing area of the North Sea between Scotland and Norway.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
Edwin Laurentine Drake (March 29, 1819 – November 9, 1880), also known as Colonel Drake, was an American businessman and the first American to successfully drill for oil.
Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.
The term endothermic process describes the process or reaction in which the system absorbs energy from its surroundings, usually in the form of heat.
Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume.
The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System responsible for collecting, analyzing, and disseminating energy information to promote sound policymaking, efficient markets, and public understanding of energy and its interaction with the economy and the environment.
Enhanced oil recovery (abbreviated EOR) is the implementation of various techniques for increasing the amount of crude oil that can be extracted from an oil field.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Ethane is an organic chemical compound with chemical formula.
The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
In thermodynamics, the term exothermic process (exo-: "outside") describes a process or reaction that releases energy from the system to its surroundings, usually in the form of heat, but also in a form of light (e.g. a spark, flame, or flash), electricity (e.g. a battery), or sound (e.g. explosion heard when burning hydrogen).
The Export Land Model, or Export-Land Model, refers to work done by Dallas geologist Jeffrey Brown, building on the work of others, and discussed widely on The Oil Drum.
In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.
The extraction of petroleum is the process by which usable petroleum is drawn out from beneath the earth's surface location.
The Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred in Prince William Sound, Alaska, March 24, 1989, when Exxon Valdez, an oil tanker owned by Exxon Shipping Company, bound for Long Beach, California, struck Prince William Sound's Bligh Reef at 12:04 am local time and spilled of crude oil over the next few days.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
A filling station is a facility that sells fuel and engine lubricants for motor vehicles.
A flame ionization detector (FID) is a scientific instrument that measures analyte in a gas stream.
A flexible-fuel vehicle (FFV) or dual-fuel vehicle (colloquially called a flex-fuel vehicle) is an alternative fuel vehicle with an internal combustion engine designed to run on more than one fuel, usually gasoline blended with either ethanol or methanol fuel, and both fuels are stored in the same common tank.
Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is one of the most important conversion processes used in petroleum refineries.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions.
A fractionating column is an essential item used in distillation of liquid mixtures so as to separate the mixture into its component parts, or fractions, based on the differences in volatilities.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Freezing food preserves it from the time it is prepared to the time it is eaten.
A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work.
A fuel cell vehicle (FCV) or fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) is a type of electric vehicle which uses a fuel cell, instead of a battery, or in combination with a battery or supercapacitor, to power its on-board electric motor.
Fuel oil (also known as heavy oil, marine fuel or furnace oil) is a fraction obtained from petroleum distillation, either as a distillate or a residue.
Fulvic acids are a family of organic acids, natural compounds, and components of the humus (which is a fraction of soil organic matter).
The Galápagos Islands (official name: Archipiélago de Colón, other Spanish name: Las Islas Galápagos), part of the Republic of Ecuador, are an archipelago of volcanic islands distributed on either side of the equator in the Pacific Ocean surrounding the centre of the Western Hemisphere, west of continental Ecuador.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
Gas chromatography (GC) is a common type of chromatography used in analytical chemistry for separating and analyzing compounds that can be vaporized without decomposition.
A gas flare, alternatively known as a flare stack, is a gas combustion device used in industrial plants such as petroleum refineries, chemical plants, natural gas processing plants as well as at oil or gas production sites having oil wells, gas wells, offshore oil and gas rigs and landfills.
When oil is brought to surface conditions it is usual for some natural gas to come out of solution.
Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.
Geochemistry is the science that uses the tools and principles of chemistry to explain the mechanisms behind major geological systems such as the Earth's crust and its oceans.
A formation or geological formation is the fundamental unit of lithostratigraphy.
Georgius Agricola (24 March 1494 – 21 November 1555) was a German mineralogist and metallurgist.
Geothermal gradient is the rate of increasing temperature with respect to increasing depth in the Earth's interior.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
Grease is a semisolid lubricant.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
The Gulf of Mexico (Golfo de México) is an ocean basin and a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, largely surrounded by the North American continent.
Hardisty is a town in Flagstaff County in Alberta, Canada.
Heavy crude oil (or extra heavy crude oil) is highly-viscous oil that cannot easily flow to production wells under normal reservoir conditions.
n-Heptane is the straight-chain alkane with the chemical formula H3C(CH2)5CH3 or C7H16.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
Hexadecane (also called cetane) is an alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula C16H34.
Hexane is an alkane of six carbon atoms, with the chemical formula C6H14.
The history of ethanol fuel in Brazil dates from the 1970s and relates to Brazil's sugarcane-based ethanol fuel program, which allowed the country to become the world's second largest producer of ethanol, and the world's largest exporter.
Homogeneity and heterogeneity are concepts often used in the sciences and statistics relating to the uniformity in a substance or organism.
A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is a type of hybrid vehicle that combines a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) system with an electric propulsion system (hybrid vehicle drivetrain).
Hydraulic fracturing (also fracking, fraccing, frac'ing, hydrofracturing or hydrofracking) is a well stimulation technique in which rock is fractured by a pressurized liquid.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrocarbon exploration (or oil and gas exploration) is the search by petroleum geologists and geophysicists for hydrocarbon deposits beneath the Earth's surface, such as oil and natural gas.
Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) is a catalytic chemical process widely used to remove sulfur (S) from natural gas and from refined petroleum products, such as gasoline or petrol, jet fuel, kerosene, diesel fuel, and fuel oils.
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
A hydrogen internal combustion engine vehicle (HICEV) is a type of hydrogen vehicle using an internal combustion engine.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
A hydrogen vehicle is a vehicle that uses hydrogen as its onboard fuel for motive power.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
The I Ching,.
Jan Józef Ignacy Łukasiewicz (8 March 1822 – 7 January 1882) was a Polish pharmacist, engineer, businessman, inventor, and philanthropist.
In chemistry, an imino acid is any molecule that contains both imino (>C.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.
The International Energy Agency (IEA) (Agence internationale de l'énergie) is a Paris-based autonomous intergovernmental organization established in the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1974 in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Although thorium (90Th) has 6 naturally occurring isotopes, none of these isotopes are stable; however, one isotope, 232Th, is relatively stable, with a half-life of 1.405×1010 years, considerably longer than the age of the Earth, and even slightly longer than the generally accepted age of the universe.
Issus, a river in Cilicia, Asia Minor, where Alexander the Great defeated Darius in 333 BC.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
James Miller Williams (September 14, 1818 – November 25, 1890) was an American businessman and politician.
James Young (13 July 1811 – 13 May 1883) was a Scottish chemist best known for his method of distilling paraffin from coal and oil shales.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Jasło is a county town in south-eastern Poland with 36,641 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2012.
Jet fuel, aviation turbine fuel (ATF), or avtur, is a type of aviation fuel designed for use in aircraft powered by gas-turbine engines.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Kerogen is a solid organic matter in sedimentary rocks.
Kerosene, also known as paraffin, lamp oil, and coal oil (an obsolete term), is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum.
Keto acids or ketoacids (also called oxo acids or oxoacids) are organic compounds that contain a carboxylic acid group and a ketone group.
The kilometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: km; or) or kilometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousand metres (kilo- being the SI prefix for). It is now the measurement unit used officially for expressing distances between geographical places on land in most of the world; notable exceptions are the United States and the road network of the United Kingdom where the statute mile is the official unit used.
Korňa is a village and municipality in Čadca District in the Žilina Region of northern Slovakia.
Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
A liana is any of various long-stemmed, woody vines that are rooted in the soil at ground level and use trees, as well as other means of vertical support, to climb up to the canopy to get access to well-lit areas of the forest.
Light crude oil is liquid petroleum that has a low density and flows freely at room temperature.
Lignin is a class of complex organic polymers that form important structural materials in the support tissues of vascular plants and some algae. Lignins are particularly important in the formation of cell walls, especially in wood and bark, because they lend rigidity and do not rot easily. Chemically, lignins are cross-linked phenolic polymers.
Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is a soft, brown, combustible, sedimentary rock formed from naturally compressed peat.
Liquefied petroleum gas or liquid petroleum gas (LPG or LP gas), also referred to as simply propane or butane, are flammable mixtures of hydrocarbon gases used as fuel in heating appliances, cooking equipment, and vehicles.
A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.
This is a list of countries by oil production, as compiled from the U.S. Energy Information Administration database for calendar year 2016, tabulating all countries on a comparable best-estimate basis.
The following is a list of notable companies in the petroleum industry that are engaged in petroleum exploration and production.
This list of oil fields includes some major oil fields of the past and present.
This is a reverse-chronological list of oil spills that have occurred throughout the world and spill(s) that are currently ongoing.
A rock formation is an isolated, scenic, or spectacular surface rock outcrop.
The long and short scales are two of several large-number naming systems for integer powers of ten that use the same words with different meanings.
Lubbock is a city in and the county seat of Lubbock County, Texas, United States.
A lubricant is a substance, usually organic, introduced to reduce friction between surfaces in mutual contact, which ultimately reduces the heat generated when the surfaces move.
The Lula oil field (formerly Tupi oil field) is a large oil field located in the Santos Basin, off the coast of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Marion King Hubbert (October 5, 1903 – October 11, 1989) was an American geologist and geophysicist.
Magma (from Ancient Greek μάγμα (mágma) meaning "thick unguent") is a mixture of molten or semi-molten rock, volatiles and solids that is found beneath the surface of the Earth, and is expected to exist on other terrestrial planets and some natural satellites.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Manure-derived synthetic crude oil is a synthetic bio-oil chemically engineered (converted) from animal or human manure.
Marine and Petroleum Geology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering marine and petroleum geology.
Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio.
Mechanization or mechanisation (British English) is the process of changing from working largely or exclusively by hand or with animals to doing that work with machinery.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Merkwiller-Pechelbronn is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
The metre (British spelling and BIPM spelling) or meter (American spelling) (from the French unit mètre, from the Greek noun μέτρον, "measure") is the base unit of length in some metric systems, including the International System of Units (SI).
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Micro hydro is a type of hydroelectric power that typically produces from 5 kW to 100 kW of electricity using the natural flow of water.
Micrococcus (mi’ krō kŏk’ Əs) is a genus of bacteria in the Micrococcaceae family.
The oil and gas industry is usually divided into three major components: upstream, midstream and downstream.
The Midway-Sunset Oil Field is a large oil field in Kern County, San Joaquin Valley, California in the United States.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar), also called simple sugars, are the most basic units of carbohydrates.
The Montara oil spill was an oil and gas leak and subsequent slick that took place in the Montara oil field in the Timor Sea, off the northern coast of Western Australia.
Motor oil, engine oil, or engine lubricant is any of various substances comprising base oils enhanced with additives, particularly antiwear additive plus detergents, dispersants and, for multi-grade oils viscosity index improvers.
Mud is a liquid or semi-liquid mixture of water and any combination of different kinds of soil (loam, silt, and clay).
Erika was the name of a tanker built in 1975 and last chartered by Total-Fina-Elf.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Naphtha is a flammable liquid hydrocarbon mixture.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
A natural gas vehicle (NGV) is an alternative fuel vehicle that uses compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG).
Natural-gas condensate is a low-density mixture of hydrocarbon liquids that are present as gaseous components in the raw natural gas produced from many natural gas fields.
Nevada (see pronunciations) is a state in the Western, Mountain West, and Southwestern regions of the United States of America.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
Ninian is a Christian saint first mentioned in the 8th century as being an early missionary among the Pictish peoples of what is now Scotland.
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Nitrogen oxide may refer to a binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen, or a mixture of such compounds.
A non-renewable resource (also called a finite resource) is a resource that does not renew itself at a sufficient rate for sustainable economic extraction in meaningful human time-frames.
Nonane is a linear alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula C9H20.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.
Ocean acidification is the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans, caused by the uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
Oceania is a geographic region comprising Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia and Australasia.
Octane is a hydrocarbon and an alkane with the chemical formula C8H18, and the condensed structural formula CH3(CH2)6CH3.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
An oil boom is a period of large inflow of income as a result of high global oil prices or large oil production in an economy.
Oil burden is the volume of petroleum consumed, multiplied by the average price, and divided by nominal gross domestic product.
The oil campaign chronology of World War II lists bombing missions and related events regarding the petroleum/oil/lubrication (POL) facilities that supplied Nazi Germany.
Ölkonstante (Oil constant in German) is a term describing various outdated material properties of (vegetable and mineral) oils.
Oil Depletion is the decline in oil production of a well, oil field, or geographic area.
An "oil field" or "oilfield" is a region with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (crude oil) from below ground.
Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils.
Oil reserves denote the amount of crude oil that can be technically recovered at a cost that is financially feasible at the present price of oil.
Oil sands, also known as tar sands or crude bitumen, or more technically bituminous sands, are a type of unconventional petroleum deposit.
Oil shale is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock containing kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) from which liquid hydrocarbons, called shale oil (not to be confused with tight oil—crude oil occurring naturally in shales), can be produced.
An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment, especially the marine ecosystem, due to human activity, and is a form of pollution.
Oil Springs is a village in Lambton County, Ontario, Canada, located along Former Provincial Highway 21 south of Oil City.
An oil tanker, also known as a petroleum tanker, is a ship designed for the bulk transport of oil or its products.
An oil well is a boring in the Earth that is designed to bring petroleum oil hydrocarbons to the surface.
Oleum (Latin oleum, meaning oil), or fuming sulfuric acid, is a solution of various compositions of sulfur trioxide in sulfuric acid, or sometimes more specifically to disulfuric acid (also known as pyrosulfuric acid).
The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC,, or OPEP in several other languages) is an intergovernmental organization of nations, founded in 1960 in Baghdad by the first five members (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela), and headquartered since 1965 in Vienna, Austria.
The OPEC Reference Basket (ORB), also referred to as the OPEC Basket, is a weighted average of prices for petroleum blends produced by OPEC members.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
This list contains selected positive numbers in increasing order, including counts of things, dimensionless quantity and probabilities.
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Organic matter, organic material, or natural organic matter (NOM) refers to the large pool of carbon-based compounds found within natural and engineered, terrestrial and aquatic environments.
The Orinoco Belt is a territory in the southern strip of the eastern Orinoco River Basin in Venezuela which overlies the world's largest deposits of petroleum.
Oxidative deamination is a form of deamination that generates α-keto acids and other oxidized products from amine-containing compounds, and occurs largely in the liver and kidney.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Paraffin wax is a white or colourless soft solid, derived from petroleum, coal or oil shale, that consists of a mixture of hydrocarbon molecules containing between twenty and forty carbon atoms.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
Peak oil is the theorized point in time when the maximum rate of extraction of petroleum is reached, after which it is expected to enter terminal decline.
Petróleos Mexicanos, which translates to Mexican Petroleum, but is trademarked and better known as Pemex, is the Mexican state-owned petroleum company, created in 1938 by nationalization or expropriation of all private, foreign, and domestic oil companies at that time.
Pentane is an organic compound with the formula C5H12—that is, an alkane with five carbon atoms.
Permeability in fluid mechanics and the earth sciences (commonly symbolized as κ, or k) is a measure of the ability of a porous material (often, a rock or an unconsolidated material) to allow fluids to pass through it.
The Persepolis Fortification Archive and Persepolis Treasury Archive are two groups of clay administrative archives — sets of records physically stored together – found in Persepolis dating to the Achaemenid Persian Empire.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
Petrochemicals (also known as petroleum distillates) are chemical products derived from petroleum.
Petroleum coke, abbreviated coke or petcoke, is a final carbon-rich solid material that derives from oil refining, and is one type of the group of fuels referred to as cokes.
Petroleum geology is the study of origin, occurrence, movement, accumulation, and exploration of hydrocarbon fuels.
The petroleum industry, also known as the oil industry or the oil patch, includes the global processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transporting (often by oil tankers and pipelines), and marketing of petroleum products.
The petroleum industry in Azerbaijan produces about of oil per day and 29 billion cubic meters of gas per year as of 2013.
Petroleum products are materials derived from crude oil (petroleum) as it is processed in oil refineries.
A petroleum reservoir or oil and gas reservoir is a subsurface pool of hydrocarbons contained in porous or fractured rock formations.
A petroleum seep is a place where natural liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons escape to the earth's atmosphere and surface, normally under low pressure or flow.
Petroleum transport is the transportation of petroleum and derivatives such as gasoline (petrol).
A phase diagram in physical chemistry, engineering, mineralogy, and materials science is a type of chart used to show conditions (pressure, temperature, volume, etc.) at which thermodynamically distinct phases occur and coexist at equilibrium.
Phenol, also known as phenolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.
In organic chemistry, phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (—OH) bonded directly to an aromatic hydrocarbon group.
Picoline refers to three different methylpyridine isomers, all with the chemical formula C6H7N and a molar mass of 93.13 g mol−1.
Pipeline transport is the transportation of goods or material through a pipe.
Plankton (singular plankter) are the diverse collection of organisms that live in large bodies of water and are unable to swim against a current.
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.
Ploiești (older spelling: Ploești) is a city and county seat in Prahova County, Romania.
A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is a hybrid electric vehicle whose battery can be recharged by plugging it in to an external source of electric power as well by its on-board engine and generator.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
A pollutant is a substance or energy introduced into the environment that has undesired effects, or adversely affects the usefulness of a resource.
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
Porosity or void fraction is a measure of the void (i.e. "empty") spaces in a material, and is a fraction of the volume of voids over the total volume, between 0 and 1, or as a percentage between 0% and 100%.
Potassium-40 (40K) is a radioactive isotope of potassium which has a very long half-life of 1.251 years.
The Prestige oil spill was an oil spill in Galicia, Spain, caused by the sinking of the 26 year old structurally deficient oil tanker MV Prestige in November 2002, carrying 77,000 tonnes of heavy fuel oil.
Primary energy (PE) is an energy form found in nature that has not been subjected to any human engineered conversion process.
Primorsk (Примо́рск; Koivisto; Björkö) is a coastal town in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia and is the second largest Russian port on the Baltic, after St. Petersburg.
Propane is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
The Province of Canada (or the United Province of Canada or the United Canadas) was a British colony in North America from 1841 to 1867.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that can cause disease in plants and animals, including humans.
A pump is a device that moves fluids (liquids or gases), or sometimes slurries, by mechanical action.
A pumpjack is the overground drive for a reciprocating piston pump in an oil well.
Pyridine is a basic heterocyclic organic compound with the chemical formula C5H5N.
Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of materials at elevated temperatures in an inert atmosphere.
Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
Quinoline is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound with the chemical formula C9H7N.
In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
A reagent is a substance or compound added to a system to cause a chemical reaction, or added to test if a reaction occurs.
A rearrangement reaction is a broad class of organic reactions where the carbon skeleton of a molecule is rearranged to give a structural isomer of the original molecule.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.
Rhodococcus is a genus of aerobic, nonsporulating, nonmotile Gram-positive bacteria closely related to Mycobacterium and Corynebacterium.
Riddings is a village in Derbyshire, England.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Saline water (more commonly known as salt water) is water that contains a high concentration of dissolved salts (mainly NaCl).
In chemistry, saturation (from the Latin word saturare, meaning 'to fill') has diverse meanings, all based on the idea of reaching a maximum capacity.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Scallop is a common name that is primarily applied to any one of numerous species of saltwater clams or marine bivalve mollusks in the taxonomic family Pectinidae, the scallops.
Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles.
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.
Seismology (from Ancient Greek σεισμός (seismós) meaning "earthquake" and -λογία (-logía) meaning "study of") is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies.
In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor.
Shetland (Old Norse: Hjaltland), also called the Shetland Islands, is a subarctic archipelago of Scotland that lies northeast of Great Britain.
A shrub or bush is a small to medium-sized woody plant.
Silt is granular material of a size between sand and clay, whose mineral origin is quartz and feldspar.
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
Smog is a type of air pollutant.
Solar power is the conversion of energy from sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaics (PV), indirectly using concentrated solar power, or a combination.
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
Sour crude oil is crude oil containing a high amount of the impurity sulfur.
In petroleum geology, source rock refers to rocks from which hydrocarbons have been generated or are capable of being generated.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
Speciality chemicals (also called specialties or effect chemicals) are particular chemical products which provide a wide variety of effects on which many other industry sectors rely.
Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a reference substance; equivalently, it is the ratio of the mass of a substance to the mass of a reference substance for the same given volume.
SS Atlantic Empress was a Greek oil tanker that in 1979 collided with the oil tanker Aegean Captain in the Caribbean, and eventually sank, having created the fifth largest oil spill on record and the largest ship-based spill.
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.
Stoichiometry is the calculation of reactants and products in chemical reactions.
In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil, or igneous rock that were formed at the Earth's surface, with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers.
Streptomycin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
Sullom Voe is an inlet between North Mainland and Northmavine on Shetland in Scotland.
Sweet crude oil is a type of petroleum.
A tanker (or tank ship or tankship) is a ship designed to transport or store liquids or gases in bulk.
Tapis crude is a Malaysian crude oil used as a pricing benchmark in Singapore.
Tar is a dark brown or black viscous liquid of hydrocarbons and free carbon, obtained from a wide variety of organic materials through destructive distillation.
A tar pit, or more accurately an asphalt pit or asphalt lake, is the result of a type of petroleum seep where subterranean bitumen leaks to the surface, creating a large area of natural asphalt.
Tectonophysics, The International Journal of Geotectonics and the Geology and Physics of the Interior of the Earth is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier.
Teknisk Ukeblad (TU, Technical Weekly Magazine) is Norwegian engineering magazine.
Thermal depolymerization (TDP) is a depolymerization process using hydrous pyrolysis for the reduction of complex organic materials (usually waste products of various sorts, often biomass and plastic) into light crude oil.
Tight oil (also known as shale oil, shale-hosted oil or light tight oil, abbreviated LTO) is light crude oil contained in petroleum-bearing formations of low permeability, often shale or tight sandstone.
Torbanite, also known as boghead coal, is a variety of fine-grained black oil shale.
The Torrey Canyon oil spill was one of the world's most serious oil spills.
Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) is a term used for any mixture of hydrocarbons that are found in crude oil.
In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species.
Trinidad and Tobago, officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is a twin island sovereign state that is the southernmost nation of the West Indies in the Caribbean.
Ozone (O3) is a constituent of the troposphere (it is also an important constituent of some regions of the stratosphere commonly known as the ozone layer).
Unconventional oil is petroleum produced or extracted using techniques other than the conventional (oil well) method.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Unresolved complex mixture (also UCM or hump) is a feature frequently observed in gas chromatographic (GC) data of crude oils and extracts from organisms exposed to oil.
The oil and gas industry is usually divided into three major sectors: upstream (or exploration and production- E&P), midstream and downstream.
Uranium-235 (235U) is an isotope of uranium making up about 0.72% of natural uranium.
Uranium-238 (238U or U-238) is the most common isotope of uranium found in nature, with a relative abundance of 99%.
Urea-formaldehyde, also known as urea-methanal, so named for its common synthesis pathway and overall structure, is a non-transparent thermosetting resin or polymer.
Vanadium is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
In chemistry and physics, volatility is quantified by the tendency of a substance to vaporize.
Washington, officially the State of Washington, is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.
Waste oil is defined as any petroleum-based or synthetic oil that, through contamination, has become unsuitable for its original purpose due to the presence of impurities or loss of original properties.
The water associated fraction (WAF), sometimes termed the water-soluble fraction (W.S.F.), is the solution of low molecular mass hydrocarbons naturally released from petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures in contact with water.
In the oil industry, waterflooding or water injection is where water is injected into the oil field, usually to increase pressure and thereby stimulate production.
Water stagnation occurs when water stops flowing.
Waxes are a diverse class of organic compounds that are lipophilic, malleable solids near ambient temperatures.
West Lothian (Wast Lowden, Lodainn an Iar) is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland, and one of its historic counties.
West Texas Intermediate (WTI), also known as Texas light sweet, is a grade of crude oil used as a benchmark in oil pricing.
Western Canadian Select is one of North America’s largest heavy crude oil streams.
Western States Petroleum Association (WSPA) is a non-profit trade association that represents companies that account for the bulk of petroleum exploration, production, refining, transportation and marketing in the six western states of Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada, Oregon and Washington.
Whale oil is oil obtained from the blubber of whales.
Whaling is the hunting of whales for scientific research and their usable products like meat, oil and blubber.
Wietze is a municipality in the district of Celle, in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Wind power is the use of air flow through wind turbines to mechanically power generators for electricity.
A woody plant is a plant that produces wood as its structural tissue.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yenangyaung (ရေနံချောင်း; literally "stream of oil") is a city in Myanmar, Magway Division.
Zakynthos (Ζάκυνθος, Zákynthos, Zacìnto) or Zante (Τζάντε, Tzánte, Zante; from Venetian), is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea.
Zooplankton are heterotrophic (sometimes detritivorous) plankton.
The 1980s oil glut was a serious surplus of crude oil caused by falling demand following the 1970s energy crisis.
2,2,4-Trimethylpentane, also known as isooctane or iso-octane, is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)3CCH2CH(CH3)2.
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