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A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity. [1]

157 relations: Adaptive immune system, Alpha chain, Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma, Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma, Antigen, Antigen-presenting cell, Apoptosis, Ataxia-telangiectasia, Autoimmune disease, Autoimmune regulator, Autoimmunity, B cell, B vitamins, B7 (protein), BCL10, Bisphosphonate, C-C chemokine receptor type 7, Calcineurin, Calcium in biology, Cancer, Cancer immunotherapy, CARD domain, Cartilage–hair hypoplasia, Cas9, CD134, CD1D, CD278, CD28, CD3 (immunology), CD4, CD44, CD8, CD80, CD86, Cell surface receptor, Cell-mediated immunity, Central tolerance, Chromosome instability syndrome, Clonal anergy, Co-stimulation, Cortex (anatomy), Cutaneous T cell lymphoma, Cytokine, Cytotoxic T cell, DiGeorge syndrome, Diglyceride, Dimethylallyl pyrophosphate, Endoplasmic reticulum, Epigenetics, Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, ..., Follicular B helper T cells, FOXP3, Gamma delta T cell, Genetic disorder, Glycoprotein, Gut-specific homing, Heat shock protein, Hematopoietic stem cell, Herpes simplex virus, HIV/AIDS, Human body, Immune system, Immune tolerance, Immunoblast, Immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif, Immunosenescence, Inflammatory bowel disease, Innate immune system, Inositol trisphosphate, Interleukin 10, Interleukin 2, International Space Station, Intracellular parasite, Intraepithelial lymphocyte, IPEX syndrome, Isopentenyl pyrophosphate, ITK (gene), L-selectin, LAG3, Lck, Linker for Activation of T cells, Listeria, Lymph node, Lymphocyte, Lymphocyte cytosolic protein 2, Lymphocytopenia, Lysis, Macrophage, Major histocompatibility complex, Major histocompatibility complex, class I-related, Memory B cell, Memory T cell, MHC class I, MHC class II, MicroRNA, Mir-181 microRNA precursor, Mucous membrane, Multiple sclerosis, Murinae, Mycobacterium, Mycosis, Mycosis fungoides, Naive T cell, Natural killer cell, Natural killer T cell, Necrosis, NF-κB, NFAT, Non-coding RNA, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Non-peptidic antigen, Omenn syndrome, Organ transplantation, Peptide, Phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate, Phosphoinositide 3-kinase, Phosphoinositide phospholipase C, Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1, Plasma cell, Platelet, Pleckstrin homology domain, Primary immunodeficiency, PRKCQ, Programmed cell death protein 1, PTPRC, Reactive oxygen species, Red blood cell, Regulatory T cell, Ruminant, Sézary disease, Severe combined immunodeficiency, SpaceX CRS-3, Streptamer, T cell, T cell deficiency, T helper 17 cell, T helper 3 cell, T helper cell, T-cell lymphoma, T-cell receptor, Terpenoid, Th 9 cell, Thymocyte, Thymus, Tonsil, Transcription factor, Transforming growth factor beta, Treg17 cells, Type 1 regulatory T cell, Tyrosine, University of California, San Francisco, V(D)J recombination, VAV1, White blood cell, Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome, ZAP70, (E)-4-Hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate. Expand index (107 more) »

Adaptive immune system

The adaptive immune system, also known as the acquired immune system or, more rarely, as the specific immune system, is a subsystem of the overall immune system that is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate pathogens or prevent their growth.

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Alpha chain

The term alpha chain is normally used to indicate one of the subunits of a multi-subunit protein.

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Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma

Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma involving aberrant T cells or null lymphocytes.

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Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma

Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL, sometimes misspelled AILT) (formerly known as "angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy with dysproteinemia") is a mature T-cell lymphoma of blood or lymph vessel immunoblasts characterized by a polymorphous lymph node infiltrate showing a marked increase in follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) and high endothelial venules (HEVs) and systemic involvement.

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Antigen

In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.

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Antigen-presenting cell

An antigen-presenting cell (APC) or accessory cell is a cell that displays antigen complexed with major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs) on their surfaces; this process is known as antigen presentation.

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Apoptosis

Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.

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Ataxia-telangiectasia

Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT or A-T), also referred to as ataxia-telangiectasia syndrome or Louis–Bar syndrome, is a rare, neurodegenerative, autosomal recessive disease causing severe disability.

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Autoimmune disease

An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.

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Autoimmune regulator

The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AIRE gene.

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Autoimmunity

Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues.

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B cell

B cells, also known as B lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell of the lymphocyte subtype.

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B vitamins

B vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism.

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B7 (protein)

B7 is a type of peripheral membrane protein found on activated antigen presenting cells (APC) that, when paired with either a CD28 or CD152 (CTLA-4) surface protein on a T cell, can produce a costimulatory signal or a coinhibitory signal to enhance or decrease the activity of a MHC-TCR signal between the APC and the T cell, respectively.

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BCL10

B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BCL10 gene.

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Bisphosphonate

Bisphosphonates are a class of drugs that prevent the loss of bone density, used to treat osteoporosis and similar diseases.

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C-C chemokine receptor type 7

C-C chemokine receptor type 7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCR7 gene.

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Calcineurin

Calcineurin (CaN) is a calcium and calmodulin dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase (also known as protein phosphatase 3, and calcium-dependent serine-threonine phosphatase).

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Calcium in biology

Calcium ions (Ca2+) play a vital role in the physiology and biochemistry of organisms and the cell.

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Cancer

Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Cancer immunotherapy

Cancer immunotherapy (sometimes called immuno-oncology, abbreviated IO) is the use of the immune system to treat cancer.

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CARD domain

Caspase recruitment domains, or Caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs), are interaction motifs found in a wide array of proteins, typically those involved in processes relating to inflammation and apoptosis.

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Cartilage–hair hypoplasia

Cartilage–hair hypoplasia (CHH), also known as McKusick type metaphyseal chondrodysplasia,James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).

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Cas9

Cas9 (CRISPR associated protein 9) is an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease enzyme associated with the CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) adaptive immunity system in Streptococcus pyogenes, among other bacteria.

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CD134

Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 4 (TNFRSF4), also known as CD134 and OX40 receptor, is a member of the TNFR-superfamily of receptors which is not constitutively expressed on resting naïve T cells, unlike CD28.

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CD1D

CD1D is the human gene that encodes the protein CD1d, a member of the CD1 (cluster of differentiation 1) family of glycoproteins expressed on the surface of various human antigen-presenting cells.

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CD278

Inducible T-cell costimulator is an immune checkpoint protein that in humans is encoded by the ICOS gene.

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CD28

CD28 (Cluster of Differentiation 28) is one of the proteins expressed on T cells that provide co-stimulatory signals required for T cell activation and survival.

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CD3 (immunology)

In immunology, the CD3 (cluster of differentiation 3) T cell co-receptor helps to activate both the cytotoxic T cell (CD8+ naive T cells) and also T helper cells (CD4+ naive T cells).

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CD4

In molecular biology, CD4 (cluster of differentiation 4) is a glycoprotein found on the surface of immune cells such as T helper cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells.

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CD44

The CD44 antigen is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell–cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration.

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CD8

CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that serves as a co-receptor for the T cell receptor (TCR).

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CD80

Cluster of differentiation 80 (also CD80 and B7-1) is a protein found on dendritic cells, activated B cells and monocytes that provides a costimulatory signal necessary for T cell activation and survival.

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CD86

Cluster of Differentiation 86 (also known as CD86 and B7-2) is a protein expressed on antigen-presenting cells that provides costimulatory signals necessary for T cell activation and survival.

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Cell surface receptor

Cell surface receptors (membrane receptors, transmembrane receptors) are receptors that are embedded in the membranes of cells.

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Cell-mediated immunity

Cell-mediated immunity is an immune response that does not involve antibodies, but rather involves the activation of phagocytes, antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen.

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Central tolerance

Central tolerance, also known as negative selection, is the process of eliminating any developing T or B lymphocytes that are reactive to self.

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Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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Chromosome instability syndrome

Chromosome instability syndromes are a group of inherited conditions associated with chromosomal instability and breakage.

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Clonal anergy

Anergy is a term in immunobiology that describes a lack of reaction by the body's defense mechanisms to foreign substances, and consists of a direct induction of peripheral lymphocyte tolerance.

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Co-stimulation

During the activation of lymphocytes, co-stimulation is often crucial to the development of an effective immune response.

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Cortex (anatomy)

In anatomy and zoology, the cortex (Latin for bark, rind, shell or husk) is the outermost (or superficial) layer of an organ.

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Cutaneous T cell lymphoma

Cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a class of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which is a type of cancer of the immune system.

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Cytokine

Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.

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Cytotoxic T cell

A cytotoxic T cell (also known as TC, cytotoxic T lymphocyte, CTL, T-killer cell, cytolytic T cell, CD8+ T-cell or killer T cell) is a T lymphocyte (a type of white blood cell) that kills cancer cells, cells that are infected (particularly with viruses), or cells that are damaged in other ways.

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DiGeorge syndrome

DiGeorge syndrome, also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, is a syndrome caused by the deletion of a small segment of chromosome 22.

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Diglyceride

A diglyceride, or diacylglycerol (DAG), is a glyceride consisting of two fatty acid chains covalently bonded to a glycerol molecule through ester linkages.

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Dimethylallyl pyrophosphate

Dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP; or alternatively, dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP); also isoprenyl pyrophosphate) is an isoprenoid precursor.

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Endoplasmic reticulum

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.

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Epigenetics

Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence.

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Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type

Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type which was known as angiocentric lymphoma in the REAL classification, and also as nasal-type NK lymphoma, NK/T-cell lymphoma, and polymorphic/malignant midline reticulosis is a cutaneous condition which in Korea is reported to be the most common form of cutaneous lymphoma after mycosis fungoides.

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Follicular B helper T cells

Follicular B helper T cells (also known as just follicular helper T cells or TFH), are antigen-experienced CD4+ T cells found in the periphery within B cell follicles of secondary lymphoid organs such as lymph nodes, spleens and Peyer's patches, and are identified by their constitutive expression of the B cell follicle homing receptor CXCR5.

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FOXP3

FOXP3 (forkhead box P3), also known as scurfin, is a protein involved in immune system responses.

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Gamma delta T cell

Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) are T cells that have a distinctive T-cell receptor (TCR) on their surface.

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Genetic disorder

A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.

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Glycoprotein

Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains.

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Gut-specific homing

Gut-specific homing is the mechanism by which activated T cells and antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) are targeted to both inflamed and non-inflamed regions of the gut in order to provide an effective immune response.

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Heat shock protein

Heat shock proteins (HSP) are a family of proteins that are produced by cells in response to exposure to stressful conditions.

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Hematopoietic stem cell

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are the stem cells that give rise to other blood cells.

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Herpes simplex virus

Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), also known as human herpesvirus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and HHV-2), are two members of the herpesvirus family, Herpesviridae, that infect humans.

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HIV/AIDS

Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

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Human body

The human body is the entire structure of a human being.

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Immune system

The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.

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Immune tolerance

Immune tolerance, or immunological tolerance, or immunotolerance, is a state of unresponsiveness of the immune system to substances or tissue that have the capacity to elicit an immune response in given organism.It is induced by prior exposure to that specific antigen.

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Immunoblast

An immunoblast is a lymphocyte that has been activated by an antigen, which will further undergo clonal expansion to increase the number of lymphocytes capable of binding to that antigen.

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Immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif

An immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) (in the antagonistic case ITIM, I for inhibition) is a conserved sequence of four amino acids that is repeated twice in the cytoplasmic tails of certain cell surface proteins of the immune system.

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Immunosenescence

Immunosenescence refers to the gradual deterioration of the immune system brought on by natural age advancement.

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Inflammatory bowel disease

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine.

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Innate immune system

The innate immune system, also known as the non-specific immune system or in-born immunity system, is an important subsystem of the overall immune system that comprises the cells and mechanisms involved in the defense of the host from infection by other organisms.

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Inositol trisphosphate

Inositol trisphosphate or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (also commonly known as triphosphoinositol; abbreviated InsP3 or Ins3P or IP3), together with diacylglycerol (DAG), is a secondary messenger molecule used in signal transduction and lipid signaling in biological cells.

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Interleukin 10

Interleukin 10 (IL-10), also known as human cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF), is an anti-inflammatory cytokine.

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Interleukin 2

Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an interleukin, a type of cytokine signaling molecule in the immune system.

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International Space Station

The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.

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Intracellular parasite

Intracellular parasites are microparasites that are capable of growing and reproducing inside the cells of a host.

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Intraepithelial lymphocyte

Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) are lymphocytes found in the epithelial layer of mammalian mucosal linings, such as the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and reproductive tract.

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IPEX syndrome

IPEX (immunodysregulation polyendocrinopathy enteropathy X-linked) syndrome is a rare disease linked to the dysfunction of the transcription factor FOXP3, widely considered to be the master regulator of the regulatory T cell lineage.

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Isopentenyl pyrophosphate

Isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP, isopentenyl diphosphate, or IDP) is an isoprenoid precursor.

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ITK (gene)

Tyrosine-protein kinase ITK/TSK also known as interleukin-2-inducible T-cell kinase or simply ITK, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ITK gene.

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L-selectin

L-selectin, also known as CD62L, is a cell adhesion molecule found on lymphocytes and the preimplantation embryo.

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LAG3

Lymphocyte-activation gene 3, also known as LAG-3, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the LAG3 gene.

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Lck

Lck (or lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase) is a 56 kDa protein that is found inside specialized cells of the immune system called lymphocytes.

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Linker for Activation of T cells

The Linker for Activation of T cells, also known as Linker of Activated T cells or LAT, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the LAT gene.

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Listeria

Listeria is a genus of bacteria that, until 1992, contained 10 known species, each containing two subspecies.

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Lymph node

A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.

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Lymphocyte

A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.

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Lymphocyte cytosolic protein 2

Lymphocyte cytosolic protein 2 (SH2 domain containing leukocyte protein of 76kDa), also known as LCP2 or SLP-76, is a gene that encodes a signal-transducing adaptor protein.

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Lymphocytopenia

Lymphocytopenia, or lymphopenia, is the condition of having an abnormally low level of lymphocytes in the blood.

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Lysis

Lysis (Greek λύσις lýsis, "a loosing" from λύειν lýein, "to unbind") refers to the breaking down of the membrane of a cell, often by viral, enzymic, or osmotic (that is, "lytic") mechanisms that compromise its integrity.

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Macrophage

Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).

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Major histocompatibility complex

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a set of cell surface proteins essential for the acquired immune system to recognize foreign molecules in vertebrates, which in turn determines histocompatibility.

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Major histocompatibility complex, class I-related

Major histocompatibility complex class I-related gene protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MR1 gene.

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Memory B cell

Memory B cells are a B cell sub-type that are formed within germinal centers following primary infection and are important in generating an accelerated and more robust antibody-mediated immune response in the case of re-infection (also known as a secondary immune response).

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Memory T cell

Memory T cells are a subset of infection- and cancer-fighting T cells (also known as a T lymphocyte) that have previously encountered and responded to their cognate antigen; thus, the term antigen-experienced T cell is often applied.

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MHC class I

MHC class I molecules are one of two primary classes of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules (the other being MHC class II) and are found on the cell surface of all nucleated cells in the bodies of jawed vertebrates.

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MHC class II

MHC class II molecules are a class of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules normally found only on antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells, mononuclear phagocytes, some endothelial cells, thymic epithelial cells, and B cells.

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MicroRNA

A microRNA (abbreviated miRNA) is a small non-coding RNA molecule (containing about 22 nucleotides) found in plants, animals and some viruses, that functions in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression.

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Mir-181 microRNA precursor

In molecular biology miR-181 microRNA precursor is a small non-coding RNA molecule.

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Mucous membrane

A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.

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Multiple sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.

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Murinae

The Old World rats and mice, part of the subfamily Murinae in the family Muridae, comprise at least 519 species.

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Mycobacterium

Mycobacterium is a genus of Actinobacteria, given its own family, the Mycobacteriaceae.

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Mycosis

Mycosis is a fungal infection of animals, including humans.

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Mycosis fungoides

Mycosis fungoides, also known as Alibert-Bazin syndrome or granuloma fungoides, is the most common form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

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Naive T cell

A naïve T cell (Th0 cell) is a T cell that has differentiated in bone marrow, and successfully undergone the positive and negative processes of central selection in the thymus.

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Natural killer cell

Natural killer cells or NK cells are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical to the innate immune system.

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Natural killer T cell

Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a heterogeneous group of T cells that share properties of both T cells and natural killer cells.

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Necrosis

Necrosis (from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.

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NF-κB

NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) is a protein complex that controls transcription of DNA, cytokine production and cell survival.

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NFAT

Nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) is a family of transcription factors shown to be important in immune response.

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New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

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New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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Non-coding RNA

A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is an RNA molecule that is not translated into a protein.

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Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a group of blood cancers that includes all types of lymphoma except Hodgkin's lymphomas.

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Non-peptidic antigen

Non-peptidic antigens are low-molecular-weight compounds that stimulate human Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells.

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Omenn syndrome

Omenn syndrome is an autosomal recessive severe combined immunodeficiency associated with hypomorphic missense mutations in immunologically relevant genes of T-cells (and B-cells) such as recombination activating genes (RAG1 and RAG2), IL-7 Receptor α gene (IL7Rα), DCLRE1C-Artemis, RMRP-CHH, DNA-Ligase IV, common gamma chain, WHN-FOXN1, ZAP-70 and complete DiGeorge anomaly (DiGeorge Syndrome; CHARGE).

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Organ transplantation

Organ transplantation is a medical procedure in which an organ is removed from one body and placed in the body of a recipient, to replace a damaged or missing organ.

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Peptide

Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.

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Phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate

Phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3), abbreviated PIP3, is the product of the class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI 3-kinases) phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP2).

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Phosphoinositide 3-kinase

Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (also called phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases, PI 3-kinases, PI(3)Ks, PI-3Ks or by the HUGO official stem symbol for the gene family, PI3K(s)) are a family of enzymes involved in cellular functions such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, motility, survival and intracellular trafficking, which in turn are involved in cancer.

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Phosphoinositide phospholipase C

Phosphoinositide phospholipase C (PLC) (triphosphoinositide phosphodiesterase, phosphoinositidase C, 1-phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase, monophosphatidylinositol phosphodiesterase, phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C, PI-PLC, 1-phosphatidyl-D-myo-inositol-4,5-bisphosphate inositoltrisphosphohydrolase) is a family of eukaryotic intracellular enzymes that play an important role in signal transduction processes.

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Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1

In the field of biochemistry, PDPK1 refers to the protein 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1, an enzyme which is encoded by the PDPK1 gene in humans.

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Plasma cell

Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete large volumes of antibodies.

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Platelet

Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.

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Pleckstrin homology domain

Pleckstrin homology domain (PH domain) is a protein domain of approximately 120 amino acids that occurs in a wide range of proteins involved in intracellular signaling or as constituents of the cytoskeleton.

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Primary immunodeficiency

Primary immunodeficiencies are disorders in which part of the body's immune system is missing or does not function normally.

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PRKCQ

Protein kinase C theta (PKC-θ) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKCQ gene.

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Programmed cell death protein 1

Programmed cell death protein 1, also known as PD-1 and CD279 (cluster of differentiation 279), is a protein found on the surface of cells that has a role in regulating the immune system's response to the cells of the human body by down-regulating the immune system and promoting self tolerance by suppressing T cell inflammatory activity.

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PTPRC

Protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, C also known as PTPRC is an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the PTPRC gene.

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Reactive oxygen species

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen.

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Red blood cell

Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.

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Regulatory T cell

The regulatory T cells (Tregs), formerly known as suppressor T cells, are a subpopulation of T cells that modulate the immune system, maintain tolerance to self-antigens, and prevent autoimmune disease.

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Ruminant

Ruminants are mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach prior to digestion, principally through microbial actions.

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Sézary disease

Sézary disease is a type of cutaneous lymphoma that was first described by Albert Sézary.

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Severe combined immunodeficiency

Severe combined immunodeficiency, SCID, also known as alymphocytosis, Glanzmann–Riniker syndrome, severe mixed immunodeficiency syndrome, and thymic alymphoplasia, is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the disturbed development of functional T cells and B cells caused by numerous genetic mutations that result in heterogeneous clinical presentations.

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SpaceX CRS-3

SpaceX CRS-3, also known as SpX-3, was a Commercial Resupply Service mission to the International Space Station, contracted to NASA, which was launched on 18 April 2014.

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Streptamer

The Streptamer technology allows the reversible isolation and staining of antigen-specific T cells.

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T cell

A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.

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T cell deficiency

T cell deficiency is a deficiency of T cells, caused by decreased function of individual T cells, it causes an immunodeficiency of cell-mediated immunity.

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T helper 17 cell

T helper 17 cells (Th17) are a subset of pro-inflammatory T helper cells defined by their production of interleukin 17 (IL-17).

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T helper 3 cell

T helper 3 cells (Th3) are white blood cells of the lymphocyte type.

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T helper cell

The T helper cells (Th cells) are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in the adaptive immune system.

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T-cell lymphoma

The T-cell lymphomas are four types of lymphoma that affect T cells.

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T-cell receptor

The T-cell receptor, or TCR, is a molecule found on the surface of T cells, or T lymphocytes, that is responsible for recognizing fragments of antigen as peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules.

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Terpenoid

The terpenoids, sometimes called isoprenoids, are a large and diverse class of naturally occurring organic chemicals derived from terpenes.

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Th 9 cell

In cell biology, TH9 cells (T helper type 9 cells, CD4+IL-9+IL-13−IFNγ −) are a sub-population of CD4+T cells that produce interleukin-9 (IL-9).

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Thymocyte

Thymocytes are hematopoietic progenitor cells present in the thymus.

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Thymus

The thymus is a specialized primary lymphoid organ of the immune system.

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Tonsil

Tonsils are collections of lymphoid tissue facing into the aerodigestive tract.

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Transcription factor

In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.

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Transforming growth factor beta

Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine belonging to the transforming growth factor superfamily that includes four different isoforms (TGF-β 1 to 4, HGNC symbols TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3, TGFB4) and many other signaling proteins produced by all white blood cell lineages.

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Treg17 cells

Helper T cells are essential part of body's immune system.

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Type 1 regulatory T cell

Type 1 regulatory cells or Tr1 (TR1) cells are a class of regulatory T cells participating in peripheral immunity as a subsets of CD4+ T cells.

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Tyrosine

Tyrosine (symbol Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine is one of the 20 standard amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins.

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University of California, San Francisco

The University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), is a research university located in San Francisco, California and part of the University of California system.

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V(D)J recombination

V(D)J recombination is the unique mechanism of genetic recombination that occurs only in developing lymphocytes during the early stages of T and B cell maturation.

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VAV1

Proto-oncogene vav is a protein that in humans is encoded by the VAV1 gene.

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White blood cell

White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.

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Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome

Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a rare X-linked recessive disease characterized by eczema, thrombocytopenia (low platelet count), immune deficiency, and bloody diarrhea (secondary to the thrombocytopenia).

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ZAP70

ZAP-70 (Zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70) is a protein normally expressed near the surface membrane of T cells and natural killer cells.

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(E)-4-Hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate

(E)-4-Hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMBPP or HMB-PP) is an intermediate of the MEP pathway (non-mevalonate pathway) of isoprenoid biosynthesis.

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2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

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2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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Avidity hypothesis, Differential Avidity Hypothesis, Differential Signaling Hypothesis, Differential avidity hypothesis, Differential signaling hypothesis, Double-negative T cell, Effector T cell, Exhausted T cell, Lymphocyte T, T Cell, T Cells, T Lymphocyte, T Lymphocytes, T cell activation, T cell tolerance, T cells, T lymphocyte, T lymphocytes, T-Cell, T-Cell Activation in Space, T-Cells, T-cell, T-cell activation, T-cell exhaustion, T-cells, T-lymphocyte, T-lymphocyte subsets, T-lymphocytes.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T_cell

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