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T cells or T lymphocytes are a type of lymphocyte (in turn, a type of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity. [1]

133 relations: Adaptive immune system, Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma, Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma, Antigen, Antigen-presenting cell, Apoptosis, Ataxia telangiectasia, Autoimmune disease, Autoimmunity, B cell, B7 (protein), BCL10, Bisphosphonate, Calcineurin, Calcium in biology, Cancer, Cancer immunotherapy, CARD domain, Cartilage–hair hypoplasia, Cas9, CD134, CD1D, CD278, CD28, CD3 (immunology), CD4, CD8, CD80, CD86, Cell-mediated immunity, Central tolerance, Chromosome instability syndrome, Clonal anergy, Co-stimulation, Cortex (anatomy), Cutaneous T cell lymphoma, Cytokine, Cytotoxic T cell, DiGeorge syndrome, Diglyceride, Dimethylallyl pyrophosphate, Endoplasmic reticulum, Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, Follicular B Helper T cells, FOXP3, Gamma delta T cell, Genetic disorder, Glycoprotein, Gut-specific homing, Heat shock protein, ..., Hematopoietic stem cell, Herpes simplex virus, HIV/AIDS, Immune tolerance, Immunoblast, Immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif, Innate immune system, Inositol trisphosphate, Interleukin 2, International Space Station, Intracellular parasite, Intraepithelial lymphocyte, IPEX syndrome, Isopentenyl pyrophosphate, ITK (gene), Lck, Linker of activated T cells, Listeria, Lymphocyte, Lymphocyte cytosolic protein 2, Lymphocytopenia, Macrophage, Major histocompatibility complex, Memory B cell, Memory T cell, MHC class I, MHC class II, MicroRNA, Mir-181 microRNA precursor, Mucosal associated invariant T cell, Mucous membrane, Mycobacterium, Mycosis, Mycosis fungoides, Naive T cell, Natural killer cell, Natural killer T cell, Necrosis, NF-κB, NFAT, Non-coding RNA, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Non-peptidic antigen, Omenn syndrome, Organ transplantation, Peptide, Phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate, Phosphoinositide 3-kinase, Phosphoinositide phospholipase C, Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1, Plasma cell, Platelet, Pleckstrin homology domain, Primary immunodeficiency, PRKCQ, PTPRC, Red blood cell, Regulatory T cell, Sézary disease, Severe combined immunodeficiency, SpaceX CRS-3, T cell, T cell deficiency, T cell receptor, T helper 17 cell, T helper 3 cell, T helper cell, T-cell lymphoma, Terpenoid, Thymocyte, Thymus, Tonsil, Transcription factor, Transforming growth factor beta, Treg17 cells, Tyrosine, University of California, San Francisco, V(D)J recombination, VAV1, White blood cell, Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome, ZAP70, (E)-4-Hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate. Expand index (83 more) »

Adaptive immune system

The adaptive immune system, also known as the acquired immune or, more rarely, as the specific immune system, is a subsystem of the overall immune system that is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate or prevent pathogen growth.

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Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma

Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma involving aberrant T-cells.

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Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma

Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL, sometimes misspelled AILT) (formerly known as "Angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy with dysproteinemia") is a mature T-cell lymphoma of blood or lymph vessel immunoblasts characterized by a polymorphous lymph node infiltrate showing a marked increase in follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) and high endothelial venules (HEVs) and systemic involvement.

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In immunology, an antigen (Ag) is any structural substance that serves as a target for the receptors of an adaptive immune response, TCR or BCR or its secreted form antibody.

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Antigen-presenting cell

An antigen-presenting cell (APC) or accessory cell is a cell that displays foreign antigens complexed with major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs) on their surfaces; this process is known as antigen presentation.

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Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπό apo, "by, from, of, since, than" and πτῶσις ptōsis, "fall") is the process of programmed cell death that may occur in multicellular organisms.

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Ataxia telangiectasia

Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) (also referred to as Louis–Bar syndrome) is a rare, neurodegenerative, inherited disease causing severe disability.

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Autoimmune disease

Autoimmune diseases arise from an abnormal immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body (autoimmunity).

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Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own cells and tissues.

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B cell

B cells, also known as B lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell of the lymphocyte subtype.

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B7 (protein)

B7 is a type of peripheral membrane protein found on activated antigen presenting cells (APC) that, when paired with either a CD28 or CD152 (CTLA-4) surface protein on a T cell, can produce a costimulatory signal or a coinhibitory signal to enhance or decrease the activity of a MHC-TCR signal between the APC and the T cell, respectively.

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B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BCL10 gene.

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Bisphosphonates are a class of drugs that prevent the loss of bone mass, used to treat osteoporosis and similar diseases.

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Calcineurin (CN) is a calcium and calmodulin dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase (also known as protein phosphatase 3, and calcium-dependent serine-threonine phosphatase).

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Calcium in biology

Calcium ions (Ca2+) play a pivotal role in the physiology and biochemistry of organisms and the cell.

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Cancer, also known as a malignant tumor or malignant neoplasm, is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Cancer immunotherapy

Cancer immunotherapy (immuno-oncology) is the use of the immune system to treat cancer.

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CARD domain

Caspase recruitment domains, or Caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs), are interaction motifs found in a wide array of proteins, typically those involved in processes relating to inflammation and apoptosis.

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Cartilage–hair hypoplasia

Cartilage–hair hypoplasia (CHH), also known as McKusick type metaphyseal chondrodysplasia,James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).

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Cas9 (CRISPR associated protein 9) is an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease enzyme associated with the CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspersed Palindromic Repeats) adaptive immunity system in Streptococcus pyogenes, among other bacteria.

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Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 4 (TNFRSF4), also known as CD134 and OX40, is a member of the TNFR-superfamily of receptors which is not constitutively expressed on resting naïve T cells, unlike CD28.

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CD1D is the human gene that encodes the protein CD1d, a member of the CD1 (cluster of differentiation 1) family of glycoproteins expressed on the surface of various human antigen-presenting cells.

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Inducible T-cell costimulator is an immune checkpoint protein that in humans is encoded by the ICOS gene.

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CD28 (Cluster of Differentiation 28) is one of the proteins expressed on T cells that provide co-stimulatory signals required for T cell activation and survival.

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CD3 (immunology)

In immunology, the CD3 (cluster of differentiation 3) T-cell co-receptor is a protein complex and is composed of four distinct chains.

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In molecular biology, CD4 (cluster of differentiation 4) is a glycoprotein found on the surface of immune cells such as T helper cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells.

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CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that serves as a co-receptor for the T cell receptor (TCR).

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Cluster of Differentiation 80 (also CD80 and B7-1) is a protein found on activated B cells and monocytes that provides a costimulatory signal necessary for T cell activation and survival.

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Cluster of Differentiation 86 (also known as CD86 and B7-2) is a protein expressed on antigen-presenting cells that provides costimulatory signals necessary for T cell activation and survival.

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Cell-mediated immunity

Cell mediated immunity is an immune response that does not involve antibodies, but rather involves the activation of phagocytes, antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen.

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Central tolerance

Central tolerance is the mechanism by which newly developing T cells and B cells are rendered non-reactive to self.

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Chromosome instability syndrome

Chromosome instability syndromes are a group of inherited conditions associated with chromosomal instability and breakage.

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Clonal anergy

Anergy is a term in immunobiology that describes a lack of reaction by the body's defense mechanisms to foreign substances, and consists of a direct induction of peripheral lymphocyte tolerance.

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During the activation of lymphocytes, co-stimulation is often crucial to the development of an effective immune response.

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Cortex (anatomy)

In anatomy and zoology the cortex (Latin: "bark", "rind", "shell" or "husk") is the outermost (or "superficial") layer of an organ.

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Cutaneous T cell lymphoma

Cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a class of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which is a type of cancer of the immune system.

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Cytokines (Greek:Cyto from Greek "κύτταρο" kyttaro "cell" + Kines from Greek "κίνηση" kinisi "movement") are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.

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Cytotoxic T cell

A cytotoxic T cell (also known as TC, cytotoxic T lymphocyte, CTL, T-killer cell, cytolytic T cell, CD8+ T-cells or killer T cell) is a T lymphocyte (a type of white blood cell) that kills cancer cells, cells that are infected (particularly with viruses), or cells that are damaged in other ways.

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DiGeorge syndrome

DiGeorge syndrome is also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome,DiGeorge anomaly, velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), Shprintzen syndrome, conotruncal anomaly face syndrome (CTAF) or Takao syndrome, Sedlackova syndrome, Cayler cardiofacial syndrome, Strong syndrome, congenital thymic aplasia, and thymic hypoplasia.

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A di-glyceride, or a diacyl-glycerol (DAG), is a glyceride consisting of two fatty acid chains covalently bonded to a glycerol molecule through ester linkages.

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Dimethylallyl pyrophosphate

Dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (or alternatively, -diphosphate) (DMAPP) is an intermediate product of both mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway and DOXP/MEP pathway.

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Endoplasmic reticulum

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle in the cells of eukaryotic organisms that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tubes known as cisternae.

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Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type

Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type which was known as angiocentric lymphoma in the REAL classification, and also as nasal-type NK lymphoma, NK/T-cell lymphoma, and polymorphic/malignant midline reticulosis is a cutaneous condition which in Korea is reported to be the most common form of cutaneous lymphoma after mycosis fungoides.

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Follicular B Helper T cells

Follicular B helper T cells (also known as just Follicular helper T cells or TFH), are antigen-experienced CD4+ T cells found in the periphery within B cell follicles of secondary lymphoid organs such as lymph nodes, spleens and Peyer's patches, and are identified by their constitutive expression of the B cell follicle homing receptor CXCR5.

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FOXP3 (forkhead box P3), also known as scurfin, is a protein involved in immune system responses.

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Gamma delta T cell

Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells), represent a small subset of T cells that possess a distinct T-cell receptor (TCR) on their surface.

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Genetic disorder

A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome, especially a condition that is present from birth (congenital).

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Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to polypeptide side-chains.

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Gut-specific homing

Gut-specific homing is the mechanism by which activated T cells and antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) are targeted to both inflamed and non-inflamed regions of the gut in order to provide an effective immune response.

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Heat shock protein

Heat shock proteins (HSP) are a family of proteins that are produced by cells in response to exposure to stressful conditions.

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Hematopoietic stem cell

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are the blood cells that give rise to all the other blood cells and are derived from mesoderm.

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Herpes simplex virus

Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), also known as human herpesvirus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and HHV-2), are two members of the herpesvirus family, Herpesviridae, that infect humans.

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Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

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Immune tolerance

Immune tolerance or immunological tolerance describes a state of unresponsiveness of the immune system to substances or tissue that have the capacity to elicit an immune response.

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An immunoblast is a lymphocyte that has been activated by an antigen, which will further undergo clonal expansion to increase the number of lymphocytes capable of binding to that antigen.

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Immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif

An immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) (in the antagonistic case ITIM, I for inhibition) is a conserved sequence of four amino acids that is repeated twice in the cytoplasmic tails of certain cell surface proteins of the immune system.

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Innate immune system

The innate immune system, also known as the nonspecific immune system, is an important subsystem of the overall immune system that comprises the cells and mechanisms that defend the host from infection by other organisms.

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Inositol trisphosphate

Inositol trisphosphate or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (also commonly known as triphosphoinositol; abbreviated InsP3 or Ins3P or IP3), together with diacylglycerol (DAG), is a secondary messenger molecule used in signal transduction and lipid signaling in biological cells.

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Interleukin 2

Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is an interleukin, a type of cytokine signaling molecule in the immune system.

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International Space Station

The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.

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Intracellular parasite

Intracellular parasites are parasitic microorganisms - microparasites that are capable of growing and reproducing inside the cells of a host.

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Intraepithelial lymphocyte

Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) are lymphocytes found in the epithelial layer of mammalian mucosal linings, such as the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and reproductive tract.

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IPEX syndrome

IPEX (immunodysregulation polyendocrinopathy enteropathy X-linked syndrome) is a rare disease linked to the dysfunction of the transcription factor FOXP3, widely considered to be the master regulator of the regulatory T cell lineage.

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Isopentenyl pyrophosphate

Isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP, isopentenyl diphosphate, or IDP) is an intermediate in the classical, HMG-CoA reductase pathway (commonly called the mevalonate pathway), and is used by organisms in the biosynthesis of terpenes and terpenoids.

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ITK (gene)

Tyrosine-protein kinase ITK/TSK also known as interleukin-2-inducible T-cell kinase or simply ITK, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ITK gene.

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Lck (or lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase) is a 56 kDa protein that is found inside specialized cells of the immune system called lymphocytes.

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Linker of activated T cells

The Linker for Activation of T cells, also known as LAT, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the LAT gene.

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Listeria is a genus of bacteria that contains 10 species, each containing two subspecies.

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A lymphocyte is one of the three subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.

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Lymphocyte cytosolic protein 2

Lymphocyte cytosolic protein 2 (SH2 domain containing leukocyte protein of 76kDa), also known as LCP2 or SLP-76, is a gene that encodes a signal-transducing adaptor protein.

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Lymphocytopenia, or lymphopenia, is the condition of having an abnormally low level of lymphocytes in the blood.

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Macrophages (big eaters, from makros "large" + phagein "eat"; abbr. MΦ) are a type of white blood cell that engulfs and digests cellular debris, foreign substances, microbes, cancer cells, and anything else that does not have the types of proteins specific to the surface of healthy body cells on its surface in a process called phagocytosis.

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Major histocompatibility complex

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a set of cell surface molecules encoded by a large gene family which controls a major part of the immune system in all vertebrates.

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Memory B cell

Memory B cells are a B cell sub-type that are formed within germinal centers following primary infection and are important in generating an accelerated and more robust antibody-mediated immune response in the case of re-infection (also known as a secondary immune response).

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Memory T cell

Memory T cells are a subset of infection- as well as potentially cancer-fighting T cells (also known as a T lymphocyte) that have previously encountered and responded to their cognate antigen; thus, the term antigen-experienced T cell is often applied.

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MHC class I

MHC class I molecules are one of two primary classes of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules (the other being MHC class II) and are found on the cell surface of all nucleated cells in the body.

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MHC class II

MHC (major histocompatibility complex) class II molecules are a family of molecules normally found only on antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells, mononuclear phagocytes, some endothelial cells, thymic epithelial cells, and B cells.

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A micro RNA (abbreviated miRNA) is a small non-coding RNA molecule (containing about 22 nucleotides) found in plants, animals, and some viruses, which functions in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression.

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Mir-181 microRNA precursor

In molecular biology miR-181 microRNA precursor is a small non-coding RNA molecule.

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Mucosal associated invariant T cell

Mucosal associated invariant T cells (MAITs) are a special type of T cell, which have a canonical T cell receptor (Vα19-Jα33 in mice and Vα7.2-Jα33 in humans), and which appear to play a regulatory role in immunity.

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Mucous membrane

A mucous membrane or mucosa (plural, mucosae or mucosas; Latin tunica mucosa) is a lining of mostly endodermal origin.

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Mycobacterium is a genus of Actinobacteria, given its own family, the Mycobacteriaceae.

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Mycosis (plural: mycoses) is a fungal infection of animals, including humans.

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Mycosis fungoides

Mycosis fungoides, also known as Alibert-Bazin syndrome or granuloma fungoides, is the most common form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

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Naive T cell

A naïve T cell is a T cell that has differentiated in bone marrow, and successfully undergone the positive and negative processes of central selection in the thymus.

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Natural killer cell

Natural killer cells or NK cells are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical to the innate immune system.

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Natural killer T cell

Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a heterogeneous group of T cells that share properties of both T cells and natural killer cells.

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Necrosis (from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.

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NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) is a protein complex that controls transcription of DNA, cytokine production and cell survival.

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Nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) is a general name applied to a family of transcription factors shown to be important in immune response.

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Non-coding RNA

A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is an RNA molecule that is not translated into a protein.

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Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs), also known as non-Hodgkin disease are diverse group of blood cancers that include any kind of lymphoma except Hodgkin's lymphomas.

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Non-peptidic antigen

Non-peptidic antigens are low-molecular-weight compounds that stimulate human Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells.

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Omenn syndrome

Omenn syndrome is an autosomal recessive severe combined immunodeficiency associated with hypomorphic missense mutations in the recombination activating genes (RAG1 and RAG2), affecting circulating levels of both B-cells and T-cells.

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Organ transplantation

Organ transplantation is the moving of an organ from one body to another or from a donor site to another location on the person's own body, to replace the recipient's damaged or absent organ.

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Peptides (from Gr. πεπτός, "digested", derived from πέσσειν, "to digest") are biologically occurring short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.

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Phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate

Phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3), abbreviated PIP3, is the product of the class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI 3-kinases) phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP2).

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Phosphoinositide 3-kinase

Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (also called phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases, PI 3-kinases, PI(3)Ks, PI-3Ks or by the HUGO official stem symbol for the gene family, PI3K(s)) are a family of enzymes involved in cellular functions such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, motility, survival and intracellular trafficking, which in turn are involved in cancer.

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Phosphoinositide phospholipase C

Phosphoinositide phospholipase C (PLC) (triphosphoinositide phosphodiesterase, phosphoinositidase C, 1-phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase, monophosphatidylinositol phosphodiesterase, phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C, PI-PLC, 1-phosphatidyl-D-myo-inositol-4,5-bisphosphate inositoltrisphosphohydrolase) is a family of eukaryotic intracellular enzymes that play an important role in signal transduction processes.

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Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1

In the field of biochemistry, 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase-1, also known as PDPK1 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the PDPK1 gene.

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Plasma cell

Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete large volumes of antibodies.

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Platelets, also called thrombocytes, are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to stop bleeding by clumping and clogging blood vessel injuries.

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Pleckstrin homology domain

Pleckstrin homology domain (PH domain) is a protein domain of approximately 120 amino acids that occurs in a wide range of proteins involved in intracellular signaling or as constituents of the cytoskeleton.

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Primary immunodeficiency

Primary immunodeficiencies are disorders in which part of the body's immune system is missing or does not function normally.

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Protein kinase C theta (PKC-θ) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKCQ gene.

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Protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, C also known as PTPRC is an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the PTPRC gene.

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Red blood cell

Red blood cells (RBCs), also called erythrocytes, are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate organism's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.

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Regulatory T cell

The regulatory T cells (Tregs), formerly known as suppressor T cells, are a subpopulation of T cells which modulate the immune system, maintain tolerance to self-antigens, and abrogate autoimmune disease.

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Sézary disease

Sézary disease (also known as Sézary's disease or Sézary('s) syndrome) is a type of cutaneous lymphoma that was first described by Albert Sézary.

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Severe combined immunodeficiency

Severe combined immunodeficiency, SCID, also known as alymphocytosis, Glanzmann–Riniker syndrome, severe mixed immunodeficiency syndrome, and thymic alymphoplasia, is a genetic disorder characterized by the disturbed development of functional T cells and B cells caused by numerous genetic mutations that result in heterogeneous clinical presentations.

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SpaceX CRS-3

SpaceX CRS-3, also known as SpX-3, was a cargo resupply mission to the International Space Station, contracted to NASA, which was launched on 18 April 2014.

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T cell

T cells or T lymphocytes are a type of lymphocyte (in turn, a type of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.

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T cell deficiency

T cell deficiency is a deficiency of T cells, either caused by lymphocytopenia of T cells or by decreased function of individual T cells.

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T cell receptor

The T cell receptor or TCR is a molecule found on the surface of T lymphocytes (or T cells) that is responsible for recognizing antigens bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules.

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T helper 17 cell

T helper 17 cells (Th17) Th17 helper cells are a subset of T helper cells developmentally distinct from Th1 and Th2 lineages producing interleukin 17 (IL-17).

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T helper 3 cell

T helper 3 cells are a type of T helper cell, lymphocytes involved in regulating the immune response.

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T helper cell

The T helper cells (Th cells) are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in the adaptive immune system.

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T-cell lymphoma

The T-cell lymphomas are four types of lymphoma that affect T cells.

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The terpenoids, sometimes called isoprenoids, are a large and diverse class of naturally occurring organic chemicals similar to terpenes, derived from five-carbon isoprene units assembled and modified in thousands of ways.

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Thymocytes are hematopoietic progenitor cells present in the thymus.

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The thymus is a specialized primary lymphoid organ of the immune system.

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Tonsils are collections of lymphoid tissue facing into the aerodigestive tract.

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Transcription factor

In molecular biology and genetics, a transcription factor (sometimes called a sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that binds to specific DNA sequences, thereby controlling the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA.

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Transforming growth factor beta

Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a secreted protein that controls proliferation, cellular differentiation, and other functions in most cells.

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Treg17 cells

Helper T cells are essential part of body's immune system.

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Tyrosine (abbreviated as Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, is one of the 22 amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins.

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University of California, San Francisco

The University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), is a center of health sciences research, patient care, and education; located in San Francisco, California, and is widely regarded as one of the world's leading universities in health sciences.

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V(D)J recombination

V(D)J recombination, less commonly known as somatic recombination, is the unique mechanism of genetic recombination that occurs only in developing lymphocytes during the early stages of T and B cell maturation.

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Proto-oncogene vav is a protein that in humans is encoded by the VAV1 gene.

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White blood cell

White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.

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Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome

Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a rare X-linked recessive disease characterized by eczema, thrombocytopenia (low platelet count), immune deficiency, and bloody diarrhea (secondary to the thrombocytopenia).

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ZAP-70 (Zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70) is a protein normally expressed near the surface membrane of T cells and natural killer cells.

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(E)-4-Hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate

(E)-4-Hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMBPP or HMB-PP) is an intermediate of the MEP pathway (non-mevalonate pathway) of isoprenoid biosynthesis.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T_cell

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