157 relations: Adaptive immune system, Alpha chain, Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma, Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma, Antigen, Antigen-presenting cell, Apoptosis, Ataxia-telangiectasia, Autoimmune disease, Autoimmune regulator, Autoimmunity, B cell, B vitamins, B7 (protein), BCL10, Bisphosphonate, C-C chemokine receptor type 7, Calcineurin, Calcium in biology, Cancer, Cancer immunotherapy, CARD domain, Cartilage–hair hypoplasia, Cas9, CD134, CD1D, CD278, CD28, CD3 (immunology), CD4, CD44, CD8, CD80, CD86, Cell surface receptor, Cell-mediated immunity, Central tolerance, Chromosome instability syndrome, Clonal anergy, Co-stimulation, Cortex (anatomy), Cutaneous T cell lymphoma, Cytokine, Cytotoxic T cell, DiGeorge syndrome, Diglyceride, Dimethylallyl pyrophosphate, Endoplasmic reticulum, Epigenetics, Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, ..., Follicular B helper T cells, FOXP3, Gamma delta T cell, Genetic disorder, Glycoprotein, Gut-specific homing, Heat shock protein, Hematopoietic stem cell, Herpes simplex virus, HIV/AIDS, Human body, Immune system, Immune tolerance, Immunoblast, Immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif, Immunosenescence, Inflammatory bowel disease, Innate immune system, Inositol trisphosphate, Interleukin 10, Interleukin 2, International Space Station, Intracellular parasite, Intraepithelial lymphocyte, IPEX syndrome, Isopentenyl pyrophosphate, ITK (gene), L-selectin, LAG3, Lck, Linker for Activation of T cells, Listeria, Lymph node, Lymphocyte, Lymphocyte cytosolic protein 2, Lymphocytopenia, Lysis, Macrophage, Major histocompatibility complex, Major histocompatibility complex, class I-related, Memory B cell, Memory T cell, MHC class I, MHC class II, MicroRNA, Mir-181 microRNA precursor, Mucous membrane, Multiple sclerosis, Murinae, Mycobacterium, Mycosis, Mycosis fungoides, Naive T cell, Natural killer cell, Natural killer T cell, Necrosis, NF-κB, NFAT, Non-coding RNA, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Non-peptidic antigen, Omenn syndrome, Organ transplantation, Peptide, Phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate, Phosphoinositide 3-kinase, Phosphoinositide phospholipase C, Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1, Plasma cell, Platelet, Pleckstrin homology domain, Primary immunodeficiency, PRKCQ, Programmed cell death protein 1, PTPRC, Reactive oxygen species, Red blood cell, Regulatory T cell, Ruminant, Sézary disease, Severe combined immunodeficiency, SpaceX CRS-3, Streptamer, T cell, T cell deficiency, T helper 17 cell, T helper 3 cell, T helper cell, T-cell lymphoma, T-cell receptor, Terpenoid, Th 9 cell, Thymocyte, Thymus, Tonsil, Transcription factor, Transforming growth factor beta, Treg17 cells, Type 1 regulatory T cell, Tyrosine, University of California, San Francisco, V(D)J recombination, VAV1, White blood cell, Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome, ZAP70, (E)-4-Hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate. Expand index (107 more) » « Shrink index
The adaptive immune system, also known as the acquired immune system or, more rarely, as the specific immune system, is a subsystem of the overall immune system that is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate pathogens or prevent their growth.
The term alpha chain is normally used to indicate one of the subunits of a multi-subunit protein.
Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma involving aberrant T cells or null lymphocytes.
Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL, sometimes misspelled AILT) (formerly known as "angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy with dysproteinemia") is a mature T-cell lymphoma of blood or lymph vessel immunoblasts characterized by a polymorphous lymph node infiltrate showing a marked increase in follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) and high endothelial venules (HEVs) and systemic involvement.
In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.
An antigen-presenting cell (APC) or accessory cell is a cell that displays antigen complexed with major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs) on their surfaces; this process is known as antigen presentation.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT or A-T), also referred to as ataxia-telangiectasia syndrome or Louis–Bar syndrome, is a rare, neurodegenerative, autosomal recessive disease causing severe disability.
An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.
The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AIRE gene.
Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues.
B cells, also known as B lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell of the lymphocyte subtype.
B vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism.
B7 is a type of peripheral membrane protein found on activated antigen presenting cells (APC) that, when paired with either a CD28 or CD152 (CTLA-4) surface protein on a T cell, can produce a costimulatory signal or a coinhibitory signal to enhance or decrease the activity of a MHC-TCR signal between the APC and the T cell, respectively.
B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BCL10 gene.
Bisphosphonates are a class of drugs that prevent the loss of bone density, used to treat osteoporosis and similar diseases.
C-C chemokine receptor type 7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCR7 gene.
Calcineurin (CaN) is a calcium and calmodulin dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase (also known as protein phosphatase 3, and calcium-dependent serine-threonine phosphatase).
Calcium ions (Ca2+) play a vital role in the physiology and biochemistry of organisms and the cell.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Cancer immunotherapy (sometimes called immuno-oncology, abbreviated IO) is the use of the immune system to treat cancer.
Caspase recruitment domains, or Caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs), are interaction motifs found in a wide array of proteins, typically those involved in processes relating to inflammation and apoptosis.
Cartilage–hair hypoplasia (CHH), also known as McKusick type metaphyseal chondrodysplasia,James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).
Cas9 (CRISPR associated protein 9) is an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease enzyme associated with the CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) adaptive immunity system in Streptococcus pyogenes, among other bacteria.
Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 4 (TNFRSF4), also known as CD134 and OX40 receptor, is a member of the TNFR-superfamily of receptors which is not constitutively expressed on resting naïve T cells, unlike CD28.
CD1D is the human gene that encodes the protein CD1d, a member of the CD1 (cluster of differentiation 1) family of glycoproteins expressed on the surface of various human antigen-presenting cells.
Inducible T-cell costimulator is an immune checkpoint protein that in humans is encoded by the ICOS gene.
CD28 (Cluster of Differentiation 28) is one of the proteins expressed on T cells that provide co-stimulatory signals required for T cell activation and survival.
In immunology, the CD3 (cluster of differentiation 3) T cell co-receptor helps to activate both the cytotoxic T cell (CD8+ naive T cells) and also T helper cells (CD4+ naive T cells).
In molecular biology, CD4 (cluster of differentiation 4) is a glycoprotein found on the surface of immune cells such as T helper cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells.
The CD44 antigen is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell–cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration.
CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that serves as a co-receptor for the T cell receptor (TCR).
Cluster of differentiation 80 (also CD80 and B7-1) is a protein found on dendritic cells, activated B cells and monocytes that provides a costimulatory signal necessary for T cell activation and survival.
Cluster of Differentiation 86 (also known as CD86 and B7-2) is a protein expressed on antigen-presenting cells that provides costimulatory signals necessary for T cell activation and survival.
Cell surface receptors (membrane receptors, transmembrane receptors) are receptors that are embedded in the membranes of cells.
Cell-mediated immunity is an immune response that does not involve antibodies, but rather involves the activation of phagocytes, antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen.
Central tolerance, also known as negative selection, is the process of eliminating any developing T or B lymphocytes that are reactive to self.
Chromosome instability syndromes are a group of inherited conditions associated with chromosomal instability and breakage.
Anergy is a term in immunobiology that describes a lack of reaction by the body's defense mechanisms to foreign substances, and consists of a direct induction of peripheral lymphocyte tolerance.
During the activation of lymphocytes, co-stimulation is often crucial to the development of an effective immune response.
In anatomy and zoology, the cortex (Latin for bark, rind, shell or husk) is the outermost (or superficial) layer of an organ.
Cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a class of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which is a type of cancer of the immune system.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
A cytotoxic T cell (also known as TC, cytotoxic T lymphocyte, CTL, T-killer cell, cytolytic T cell, CD8+ T-cell or killer T cell) is a T lymphocyte (a type of white blood cell) that kills cancer cells, cells that are infected (particularly with viruses), or cells that are damaged in other ways.
DiGeorge syndrome, also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, is a syndrome caused by the deletion of a small segment of chromosome 22.
A diglyceride, or diacylglycerol (DAG), is a glyceride consisting of two fatty acid chains covalently bonded to a glycerol molecule through ester linkages.
Dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP; or alternatively, dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP); also isoprenyl pyrophosphate) is an isoprenoid precursor.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.
Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence.
Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type which was known as angiocentric lymphoma in the REAL classification, and also as nasal-type NK lymphoma, NK/T-cell lymphoma, and polymorphic/malignant midline reticulosis is a cutaneous condition which in Korea is reported to be the most common form of cutaneous lymphoma after mycosis fungoides.
Follicular B helper T cells (also known as just follicular helper T cells or TFH), are antigen-experienced CD4+ T cells found in the periphery within B cell follicles of secondary lymphoid organs such as lymph nodes, spleens and Peyer's patches, and are identified by their constitutive expression of the B cell follicle homing receptor CXCR5.
FOXP3 (forkhead box P3), also known as scurfin, is a protein involved in immune system responses.
Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) are T cells that have a distinctive T-cell receptor (TCR) on their surface.
A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.
Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains.
Gut-specific homing is the mechanism by which activated T cells and antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) are targeted to both inflamed and non-inflamed regions of the gut in order to provide an effective immune response.
Heat shock proteins (HSP) are a family of proteins that are produced by cells in response to exposure to stressful conditions.
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are the stem cells that give rise to other blood cells.
Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), also known as human herpesvirus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and HHV-2), are two members of the herpesvirus family, Herpesviridae, that infect humans.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
The human body is the entire structure of a human being.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Immune tolerance, or immunological tolerance, or immunotolerance, is a state of unresponsiveness of the immune system to substances or tissue that have the capacity to elicit an immune response in given organism.It is induced by prior exposure to that specific antigen.
An immunoblast is a lymphocyte that has been activated by an antigen, which will further undergo clonal expansion to increase the number of lymphocytes capable of binding to that antigen.
An immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) (in the antagonistic case ITIM, I for inhibition) is a conserved sequence of four amino acids that is repeated twice in the cytoplasmic tails of certain cell surface proteins of the immune system.
Immunosenescence refers to the gradual deterioration of the immune system brought on by natural age advancement.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine.
The innate immune system, also known as the non-specific immune system or in-born immunity system, is an important subsystem of the overall immune system that comprises the cells and mechanisms involved in the defense of the host from infection by other organisms.
Inositol trisphosphate or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (also commonly known as triphosphoinositol; abbreviated InsP3 or Ins3P or IP3), together with diacylglycerol (DAG), is a secondary messenger molecule used in signal transduction and lipid signaling in biological cells.
Interleukin 10 (IL-10), also known as human cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF), is an anti-inflammatory cytokine.
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an interleukin, a type of cytokine signaling molecule in the immune system.
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.
Intracellular parasites are microparasites that are capable of growing and reproducing inside the cells of a host.
Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) are lymphocytes found in the epithelial layer of mammalian mucosal linings, such as the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and reproductive tract.
IPEX (immunodysregulation polyendocrinopathy enteropathy X-linked) syndrome is a rare disease linked to the dysfunction of the transcription factor FOXP3, widely considered to be the master regulator of the regulatory T cell lineage.
Isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP, isopentenyl diphosphate, or IDP) is an isoprenoid precursor.
Tyrosine-protein kinase ITK/TSK also known as interleukin-2-inducible T-cell kinase or simply ITK, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ITK gene.
L-selectin, also known as CD62L, is a cell adhesion molecule found on lymphocytes and the preimplantation embryo.
Lymphocyte-activation gene 3, also known as LAG-3, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the LAG3 gene.
Lck (or lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase) is a 56 kDa protein that is found inside specialized cells of the immune system called lymphocytes.
The Linker for Activation of T cells, also known as Linker of Activated T cells or LAT, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the LAT gene.
Listeria is a genus of bacteria that, until 1992, contained 10 known species, each containing two subspecies.
A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.
A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.
Lymphocyte cytosolic protein 2 (SH2 domain containing leukocyte protein of 76kDa), also known as LCP2 or SLP-76, is a gene that encodes a signal-transducing adaptor protein.
Lymphocytopenia, or lymphopenia, is the condition of having an abnormally low level of lymphocytes in the blood.
Lysis (Greek λύσις lýsis, "a loosing" from λύειν lýein, "to unbind") refers to the breaking down of the membrane of a cell, often by viral, enzymic, or osmotic (that is, "lytic") mechanisms that compromise its integrity.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a set of cell surface proteins essential for the acquired immune system to recognize foreign molecules in vertebrates, which in turn determines histocompatibility.
Major histocompatibility complex class I-related gene protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MR1 gene.
Memory B cells are a B cell sub-type that are formed within germinal centers following primary infection and are important in generating an accelerated and more robust antibody-mediated immune response in the case of re-infection (also known as a secondary immune response).
Memory T cells are a subset of infection- and cancer-fighting T cells (also known as a T lymphocyte) that have previously encountered and responded to their cognate antigen; thus, the term antigen-experienced T cell is often applied.
MHC class I molecules are one of two primary classes of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules (the other being MHC class II) and are found on the cell surface of all nucleated cells in the bodies of jawed vertebrates.
MHC class II molecules are a class of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules normally found only on antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells, mononuclear phagocytes, some endothelial cells, thymic epithelial cells, and B cells.
A microRNA (abbreviated miRNA) is a small non-coding RNA molecule (containing about 22 nucleotides) found in plants, animals and some viruses, that functions in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression.
In molecular biology miR-181 microRNA precursor is a small non-coding RNA molecule.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.
The Old World rats and mice, part of the subfamily Murinae in the family Muridae, comprise at least 519 species.
Mycobacterium is a genus of Actinobacteria, given its own family, the Mycobacteriaceae.
Mycosis is a fungal infection of animals, including humans.
Mycosis fungoides, also known as Alibert-Bazin syndrome or granuloma fungoides, is the most common form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
A naïve T cell (Th0 cell) is a T cell that has differentiated in bone marrow, and successfully undergone the positive and negative processes of central selection in the thymus.
Natural killer cells or NK cells are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical to the innate immune system.
Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a heterogeneous group of T cells that share properties of both T cells and natural killer cells.
Necrosis (from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.
NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) is a protein complex that controls transcription of DNA, cytokine production and cell survival.
Nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) is a family of transcription factors shown to be important in immune response.
A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is an RNA molecule that is not translated into a protein.
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a group of blood cancers that includes all types of lymphoma except Hodgkin's lymphomas.
Non-peptidic antigens are low-molecular-weight compounds that stimulate human Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells.
Omenn syndrome is an autosomal recessive severe combined immunodeficiency associated with hypomorphic missense mutations in immunologically relevant genes of T-cells (and B-cells) such as recombination activating genes (RAG1 and RAG2), IL-7 Receptor α gene (IL7Rα), DCLRE1C-Artemis, RMRP-CHH, DNA-Ligase IV, common gamma chain, WHN-FOXN1, ZAP-70 and complete DiGeorge anomaly (DiGeorge Syndrome; CHARGE).
Organ transplantation is a medical procedure in which an organ is removed from one body and placed in the body of a recipient, to replace a damaged or missing organ.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
Phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3), abbreviated PIP3, is the product of the class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI 3-kinases) phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP2).
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (also called phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases, PI 3-kinases, PI(3)Ks, PI-3Ks or by the HUGO official stem symbol for the gene family, PI3K(s)) are a family of enzymes involved in cellular functions such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, motility, survival and intracellular trafficking, which in turn are involved in cancer.
Phosphoinositide phospholipase C (PLC) (triphosphoinositide phosphodiesterase, phosphoinositidase C, 1-phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase, monophosphatidylinositol phosphodiesterase, phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C, PI-PLC, 1-phosphatidyl-D-myo-inositol-4,5-bisphosphate inositoltrisphosphohydrolase) is a family of eukaryotic intracellular enzymes that play an important role in signal transduction processes.
In the field of biochemistry, PDPK1 refers to the protein 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1, an enzyme which is encoded by the PDPK1 gene in humans.
Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete large volumes of antibodies.
Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.
Pleckstrin homology domain (PH domain) is a protein domain of approximately 120 amino acids that occurs in a wide range of proteins involved in intracellular signaling or as constituents of the cytoskeleton.
Primary immunodeficiencies are disorders in which part of the body's immune system is missing or does not function normally.
Protein kinase C theta (PKC-θ) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKCQ gene.
Programmed cell death protein 1, also known as PD-1 and CD279 (cluster of differentiation 279), is a protein found on the surface of cells that has a role in regulating the immune system's response to the cells of the human body by down-regulating the immune system and promoting self tolerance by suppressing T cell inflammatory activity.
Protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, C also known as PTPRC is an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the PTPRC gene.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
The regulatory T cells (Tregs), formerly known as suppressor T cells, are a subpopulation of T cells that modulate the immune system, maintain tolerance to self-antigens, and prevent autoimmune disease.
Ruminants are mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach prior to digestion, principally through microbial actions.
Sézary disease is a type of cutaneous lymphoma that was first described by Albert Sézary.
Severe combined immunodeficiency, SCID, also known as alymphocytosis, Glanzmann–Riniker syndrome, severe mixed immunodeficiency syndrome, and thymic alymphoplasia, is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the disturbed development of functional T cells and B cells caused by numerous genetic mutations that result in heterogeneous clinical presentations.
SpaceX CRS-3, also known as SpX-3, was a Commercial Resupply Service mission to the International Space Station, contracted to NASA, which was launched on 18 April 2014.
The Streptamer technology allows the reversible isolation and staining of antigen-specific T cells.
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.
T cell deficiency is a deficiency of T cells, caused by decreased function of individual T cells, it causes an immunodeficiency of cell-mediated immunity.
T helper 17 cells (Th17) are a subset of pro-inflammatory T helper cells defined by their production of interleukin 17 (IL-17).
T helper 3 cells (Th3) are white blood cells of the lymphocyte type.
The T helper cells (Th cells) are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in the adaptive immune system.
The T-cell lymphomas are four types of lymphoma that affect T cells.
The T-cell receptor, or TCR, is a molecule found on the surface of T cells, or T lymphocytes, that is responsible for recognizing fragments of antigen as peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules.
The terpenoids, sometimes called isoprenoids, are a large and diverse class of naturally occurring organic chemicals derived from terpenes.
In cell biology, TH9 cells (T helper type 9 cells, CD4+IL-9+IL-13−IFNγ −) are a sub-population of CD4+T cells that produce interleukin-9 (IL-9).
Thymocytes are hematopoietic progenitor cells present in the thymus.
The thymus is a specialized primary lymphoid organ of the immune system.
Tonsils are collections of lymphoid tissue facing into the aerodigestive tract.
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine belonging to the transforming growth factor superfamily that includes four different isoforms (TGF-β 1 to 4, HGNC symbols TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3, TGFB4) and many other signaling proteins produced by all white blood cell lineages.
Helper T cells are essential part of body's immune system.
Type 1 regulatory cells or Tr1 (TR1) cells are a class of regulatory T cells participating in peripheral immunity as a subsets of CD4+ T cells.
Tyrosine (symbol Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine is one of the 20 standard amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins.
The University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), is a research university located in San Francisco, California and part of the University of California system.
V(D)J recombination is the unique mechanism of genetic recombination that occurs only in developing lymphocytes during the early stages of T and B cell maturation.
Proto-oncogene vav is a protein that in humans is encoded by the VAV1 gene.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a rare X-linked recessive disease characterized by eczema, thrombocytopenia (low platelet count), immune deficiency, and bloody diarrhea (secondary to the thrombocytopenia).
ZAP-70 (Zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70) is a protein normally expressed near the surface membrane of T cells and natural killer cells.
(E)-4-Hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMBPP or HMB-PP) is an intermediate of the MEP pathway (non-mevalonate pathway) of isoprenoid biosynthesis.
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