107 relations: ACE inhibitor, Acetate, Acetic acid, Acne, Agonist, ALOX15, Anabolic steroid, Anabolism, Androgen, Androgen deficiency, Androgen ester, Androgen receptor, Anemia, Antigonadotropin, Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase, Aromatase, Athlete, Australia, Benzyl benzoate, Biological half-life, Biological target, Black market, Bodybuilding, Bradykinin, Cachexia, Carbon, Carboxylic acid, Cartilage, Cattle, Central nervous system, Clitoromegaly, Controlled substance, Cortisol, Cyclooxygenase, Derivative (chemistry), Dihydrotestosterone, Doping in sport, Endurance, Ester, Estradiol, Estradiol benzoate, Estrane, Estrogen (medication), Glucocorticoid, Gynecomastia, Hepatotoxicity, High-density lipoprotein, Hirsutism, Hoarse voice, Human skin, ..., Hypertension, Hypogonadism, Hypoxemia, Illegal drug trade, Injection (medicine), Insulin-like growth factor 1, Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, Intramuscular injection, Libido, Ligament, Lipoxygenase, List of androgen esters, Livestock, Low-density lipoprotein, Metabolite, Methyl cellulose, Muscle atrophy, Muscle hypertrophy, Muscle tissue, Nandrolone, Nandrolone acetate, Nutrient, Organic compound, Oxandrolone, Pattern hair loss, Peptide, Performance-enhancing substance, Pharmacodynamics, Prodrug, Professional sports, Progesterone receptor, Progestogen, Prolactin, Prostaglandin, Pulse oximetry, Red blood cell, Respiratory system, Roussel Uclaf, Seborrhoeic dermatitis, Side effect, Slaughterhouse, Steroid, Subcutaneous injection, Substrate (chemistry), Symptom, Tendon, Testosterone, Trademark distinctiveness, Trenbolone, Trenbolone enanthate, Trenbolone hexahydrobenzylcarbonate, Trenbolone undecanoate, United Kingdom, United States, Veterinary medicine, Virilization, Water retention (medicine). Expand index (57 more) » « Shrink index
An angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) is a pharmaceutical drug used primarily for the treatment of hypertension (elevated blood pressure) and congestive heart failure.
An acetate is a salt formed by the combination of acetic acid with an alkaline, earthy, metallic or nonmetallic and other base.
Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).
Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
ALOX15 (also termed arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase, 15-lipoxygenase-1, 15-LO-1, 15-LOX-1) is, like other lipoxygenases, a seminal enzyme in the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids to a wide range of physiologically and pathologically important products.
Anabolic steroids, also known more properly as anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS), are steroidal androgens that include natural androgens like testosterone as well as synthetic androgens that are structurally related and have similar effects to testosterone.
Anabolism (from ἁνά, "upward" and βάλλειν, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that construct molecules from smaller units.
An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone which regulates the development and maintenance of male characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors.
Androgen deficiency also known as hypoandrogenism and androgen deficiency syndrome, is a medical condition characterized by not enough androgenic activity in the body.
An androgen or anabolic steroid ester is an ester of an androgen/anabolic steroid (AAS) such as the natural testosterone or dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or the synthetic nandrolone (19-nortestosterone).
The androgen receptor (AR), also known as NR3C4 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 4), is a type of nuclear receptor that is activated by binding any of the androgenic hormones, including testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in the cytoplasm and then translocating into the nucleus.
Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
An antigonadotropin is a drug which suppresses the activity and/or downstream effects of one or both of the gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).
Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase, also known as ALOX5, 5-lipoxygenase, 5-LOX, or 5-LO, is a non-heme iron-containing enzyme (EC 188.8.131.52) that in humans is encoded by the ALOX5 gene.
Aromatase, also called estrogen synthetase or estrogen synthase, is an enzyme responsible for a key step in the biosynthesis of estrogens.
An athlete (also sportsman or sportswoman) is a person who competes in one or more sports that involve physical strength, speed or endurance.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Benzyl benzoate (BnBzO), sold under the brand name Scabanca among others, is a medication and insect repellent.
The biological half-life of a biological substance is the time it takes for half to be removed by biological processes when the rate of removal is roughly exponential.
A biological target is anything within a living organism to which some other entity (like an endogenous ligand or a drug) is directed and/or binds, resulting in a change in its behavior or function.
A black market, underground economy, or shadow economy is a clandestine market or transaction that has some aspect of illegality or is characterized by some form of noncompliant behavior with an institutional set of rules.
Bodybuilding is the use of progressive resistance exercise to control and develop one's musculature.
Bradykinin is an inflammatory mediator.
Cachexia, or wasting syndrome, is loss of weight, muscle atrophy, fatigue, weakness and significant loss of appetite in someone who is not actively trying to lose weight.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.
Cartilage is a resilient and smooth elastic tissue, a rubber-like padding that covers and protects the ends of long bones at the joints, and is a structural component of the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes, the intervertebral discs, and many other body components.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Clitoromegaly (or macroclitoris) is an abnormal enlargement of the clitoris that is mostly congenital or acquired, though deliberately induced clitoris enlargement as a form of female genital body modification is achieved through various uses of anabolic steroids, including testosterone, and may also be referred to as clitoromegaly. Clitoromegaly is not the same as normal enlargement of the clitoris seen during sexual arousal.
A controlled substance is generally a drug or chemical whose manufacture, possession, or use is regulated by a government, such as illicitly used drugs or prescription medications that are designated a Controlled Drug in the United Kingdom.
Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.
Cyclooxygenase (COX), officially known as prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS), is an enzyme (specifically, a family of isozymes) that is responsible for formation of prostanoids, including thromboxane and prostaglandins such as prostacyclin, from arachidonic acid.
In chemistry, a derivative is a compound that is derived from a similar compound by a chemical reaction.
Dihydrotestosterone (DHT), or 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT), also known as androstanolone or stanolone, is an endogenous androgen sex steroid and hormone.
In competitive sports, doping is the use of banned athletic performance-enhancing drugs by athletic competitors.
Endurance (also related to sufferance, resilience, constitution, fortitude, and hardiness) is the ability of an organism to exert itself and remain active for a long period of time, as well as its ability to resist, withstand, recover from, and have immunity to trauma, wounds, or fatigue.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Estradiol (E2), also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone.
Estradiol benzoate, sold under the brand name Progynon-B among others, is a medication which is used in hormone therapy such as for menopausal symptoms and in veterinary medicine.
Estrane is a C18 steroid derivative, with a gonane core.
An estrogen is a type of medication which is used most commonly in hormonal birth control and menopausal hormone therapy.
Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.
Gynecomastia is an endocrine system disorder in which a noncancerous increase in the size of male breast tissue occurs.
Hepatotoxicity (from hepatic toxicity) implies chemical-driven liver damage.
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are one of the five major groups of lipoproteins.
Hirsutism is excessive body hair in men and women on parts of the body where hair is normally absent or minimal, such as on the chin or chest in particular, or the face or body in general.
A hoarse voice, also known as hoarseness or dysphonia, is when the voice involuntarily sounds breathy, raspy, or strained, or is softer in volume or lower in pitch.
The human skin is the outer covering of the body.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hypogonadism means diminished functional activity of the gonads—the testes or the ovaries —that may result in diminished sex hormone biosynthesis.
Hypoxemia (or hypoxaemia in British English) is an abnormally low level of oxygen in the blood.
The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global black market dedicated to the cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of drugs that are subject to drug prohibition laws.
Injection (often referred to as a "shot" in US English, or a "jab" in UK English) is the act of putting a liquid, especially a drug, into a person's body using a needle (usually a hypodermic needle) and a syringe.
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), also called somatomedin C, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGF1 gene.
The insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor is a protein found on the surface of human cells.
Intramuscular (also IM or im) injection is the injection of a substance directly into muscle.
Libido, colloquially known as sex drive, is a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity.
A ligament is the fibrous connective tissue that connects bones to other bones.
Lipoxygenases are a family of (non-heme), iron-containing enzymes most of which catalyze the dioxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in lipids containing a cis,cis-1,4- pentadiene into cell signaling agents that serve diverse roles as autocrine signals that regulate the function of their parent cells, paracrine signals that regulate the function of nearby cells, and endocrine signals that regulate the function of distant cells.
This is a list of androgen esters, including esters (as well as ethers) of natural androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and synthetic anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS) like nandrolone (19-nortestosterone).
Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool.
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is one of the five major groups of lipoprotein which transport all fat molecules around the body in the extracellular water.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
Methyl cellulose (or methylcellulose) is a chemical compound derived from cellulose.
Muscle atrophy is defined as a decrease in the mass of the muscle; it can be a partial or complete wasting away of muscle, and is most commonly experienced when persons suffer temporary disabling circumstances such as being restricted in movement and/or confined to bed as when hospitalized.
Muscle hypertrophy involves an increase in size of skeletal muscle through a growth in size of its component cells.
Muscle tissue is a soft tissue that composes muscles in animal bodies, and gives rise to muscles' ability to contract.
Nandrolone, also known as 19-nortestosterone, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) which is used in the form of esters such as nandrolone decanoate (brand name Deca-Durabolin) and nandrolone phenylpropionate (brand name Durabolin).
Nandrolone acetate, also known as 19-nortestosterone 17β-acetate or as estr-4-en-17β-ol-3-one 17β-acetate, is a synthetic, injected anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) and a derivative of 19-nortestosterone (nandrolone) that was never marketed.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Oxandrolone, sold under the brand names Oxandrin and Anavar among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used to help promote weight gain in various situations, to help offset protein catabolism caused by long-term corticosteroid therapy, to support recovery from severe burns, to treat bone pain associated with osteoporosis, to aid in the development of girls with Turner syndrome, and for other indications.
Pattern hair loss, known as male-pattern hair loss (MPHL) when it affects males and female-pattern hair loss (FPHL) when it affects females, is hair loss that primarily affects the top and front of the scalp.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
Performance-enhancing substances, also known as performance-enhancing drugs (PED), are substances that are used to improve any form of activity performance in humans.
Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs (especially pharmaceutical drugs).
A prodrug is a medication or compound that, after administration, is metabolized (i.e., converted within the body) into a pharmacologically active drug.
Professional sports, as opposed to amateur sports, are sports in which athletes receive payment for their performance.
The progesterone receptor (PR), also known as NR3C3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3, is a protein found inside cells.
Progestogens, also sometimes spelled progestagens or gestagens, are a class of steroid hormones that bind to and activate the progesterone receptor (PR).
Prolactin (PRL), also known as luteotropic hormone or luteotropin, is a protein that is best known for its role in enabling mammals, usually females, to produce milk.
The prostaglandins (PG) are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds having diverse hormone-like effects in animals.
Pulse oximetry is a noninvasive method for monitoring a person's oxygen saturation (SO2).
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.
Roussel Uclaf S.A. was a French pharmaceutical company and one of several predecessor companies of today's Sanofi.
Seborrhoeic dermatitis, also known as seborrhoea, is a long-term skin disorder.
In medicine, a side effect is an effect, whether therapeutic or adverse, that is secondary to the one intended; although the term is predominantly employed to describe adverse effects, it can also apply to beneficial, but unintended, consequences of the use of a drug.
A slaughterhouse or abattoir is a facility where animals are slaughtered for consumption as food.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
A subcutaneous injection is administered as a bolus into the subcutis, the layer of skin directly below the dermis and epidermis, collectively referred to as the cutis.
In chemistry, a substrate is typically the chemical species being observed in a chemical reaction, which reacts with a reagent to generate a product.
A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.
A tendon or sinew is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension.
Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.
Trademark distinctiveness is an important concept in the law governing trademarks and service marks.
Trenbolone is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) of the nandrolone group which itself was never marketed.
Trenbolone enanthate, known by the nickname Trenabol, is a synthetic and injected anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) and a derivative of nandrolone which was never marketed.
Trenbolone hexahydrobenzylcarbonate, or trenbolone cyclohexylmethylcarbonate, sold under the brand names Parabolan and Hexabolan, is a synthetic, injected anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) of the nandrolone group and an androgen ester – specifically, the C17β hexahydrobenzylcarbonate (cyclohexylmethylcarbonate) ester of trenbolone – which was marketed in France for medical use in humans but has since been discontinued.
Trenbolone undecanoate, or trenbolone undecylate, is a synthetic and injected anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) and a derivative of nandrolone (19-nortestosterone) which was never marketed.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Veterinary medicine is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease, disorder and injury in non-human animals.
Virilization or masculinization is the biological development of sex differences, changes that make a male body different from a female body.
The term water retention (also known as fluid retention) or hydrops, hydropsy, edema, signifies an abnormal accumulation of clear, watery fluid in the tissues or cavities of the body.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.