165 relations: Action potential, Alpha-Linolenic acid, Amino acid, Animal, Antioxidant, Arginine, Biochemistry, Biosynthesis, Biotin, Boron, Butyric acid, Calcium, Calorie, Carbohydrate, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carotenoid, Cell membrane, Cellulose, Chemical element, Chemical substance, Chloride, Chlorine, Choline, CHON, Chromium, Cobalt, Cofactor (biochemistry), Constipation, Copper, Cyanocobalamin, De novo synthesis, Defecation, Diatomic molecule, Diet (nutrition), Dietary fiber, Dietary Reference Intake, Disaccharide, Empty calorie, Endogeny (biology), Energy, Essential amino acid, Essential fatty acid, Ethanol, Excretion, Exogeny, Exoskeleton, Fat, Fatty acid, Feather, ..., Fermentation, Flavonoid, Fluoride, Folate, Food and Agriculture Organization, Food composition data, Fructose, Fungus, Glucose, Glutamine, Glycerol, Glycogen, Gram, Hair, Histidine, Homeostasis, Hydrocarbon, Hydrogen, In vivo, Inositol, Iodine, Iron, Isoleucine, Kilogram, Lactose, Leucine, Life, Lignan, Linoleic acid, Lipid, List of macronutrients, List of micronutrients, List of phytochemicals in food, Lysine, Magnesium, Manganese, Metabolism, Methionine, Methylsulfonylmethane, Microgram, Micronutrient, Mineral (nutrient), Molybdenum, Monosaccharide, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Niacin, Nitrate, Nitrogen, Nucleotide, Nutrient, Nutrient cycle, Nutrient density, Nutrition, Nutritionism, Oligosaccharide, Omega-3 fatty acid, Omega-6 fatty acid, Organic compound, Ounce, Oxygen, Pantothenic acid, Peptide bond, Phenylalanine, Phosphate, Phosphorus, Physiology, Phytochemical, Plant, Polyphenol, Polysaccharide, Potassium, Prebiotic (nutrition), Preterm birth, Protease, Protein, Protein (nutrient), Protein catabolism, Protist, Provitamin, Reference Daily Intake, Resveratrol, Riboflavin, Saturated fat, Scale (anatomy), Selenium, Short-chain fatty acid, Silicon, Sodium, Starch, Sucrose, Sugar, Sulfate, Sulfur, Taurine, The Wall Street Journal, Thiamine, Threonine, Tocopherol, Tocotrienol, Tryptophan, University of Utah, Unsaturated fat, Valine, Vascular smooth muscle, Vinegar, Vitamin, Vitamin A, Vitamin B6, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Vitamin K, Water, World Health Organization, Zinc. Expand index (115 more) » « Shrink index
In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.
α-Linolenic acid (ALA) is an n−3 fatty acid.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.
Arginine (symbol Arg or R) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
Biotin is a water-soluble B vitamin, also called vitamin B7 and formerly known as vitamin H or coenzyme R. Biotin is composed of a ureido ring fused with a tetrahydrothiophene ring.
Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.
Butyric acid (from βούτῡρον, meaning "butter"), also known under the systematic name butanoic acid, abbreviated BTA, is a carboxylic acid with the structural formula CH3CH2CH2-COOH.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
A calorie is a unit of energy.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carotenoids, also called tetraterpenoids, are organic pigments that are produced by plants and algae, as well as several bacteria and fungi.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.
The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Choline is a water-soluble vitamin-like essential nutrient.
CHON is a mnemonic acronym for the four most common elements in living organisms: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.
Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Cyanocobalamin is a synthetic form of 12.
De novo synthesis refers to the synthesis of complex molecules from simple molecules such as sugars or amino acids, as opposed to recycling after partial degradation.
Defecation is the final act of digestion, by which organisms eliminate solid, semisolid, or liquid waste material from the digestive tract via the anus.
Diatomic molecules are molecules composed of only two atoms, of the same or different chemical elements.
In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism.
Dietary fiber or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants.
The Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies (United States).
A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or bivose) is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides (simple sugars) are joined by glycosidic linkage.
In human nutrition, the term empty calories applies to foods and beverages composed primarily or solely of sugar, fats or oils, or alcohol-containing beverages.
Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
An essential amino acid, or indispensable amino acid, is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized ''de novo'' (from scratch) by the organism, and thus must be supplied in its diet.
Essential fatty acids, or EFAs, are fatty acids that humans and other animals must ingest because the body requires them for good health but cannot synthesize them.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Excretion is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.
In a variety of contexts, exogeny or exogeneity is the fact of an action or object originating externally.
An exoskeleton (from Greek έξω, éxō "outer" and σκελετός, skeletós "skeleton") is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton) of, for example, a human.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
Feathers are epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds and other, extinct species' of dinosaurs.
Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.
Flavonoids (or bioflavonoids) (from the Latin word flavus meaning yellow, their color in nature) are a class of plant and fungus secondary metabolites.
Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
Food composition data (FCD) are detailed sets of information on the nutritionally important components of foods and provide values for energy and nutrients including protein, carbohydrates, fat, vitamins and minerals and for other important food components such as fibre.
Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Glutamine (symbol Gln or Q) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound.
Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, fungi, and bacteria.
The gram (alternative spelling: gramme; SI unit symbol: g) (Latin gramma, from Greek γράμμα, grámma) is a metric system unit of mass.
Hair is a protein filament that grows from follicles found in the dermis.
Histidine (symbol His or H) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.
Myo-inositol, or simply inositol, is a carbocyclic sugar that is abundant in brain and other mammalian tissues, mediates cell signal transduction in response to a variety of hormones, neurotransmitters and growth factors and participates in osmoregulation It is a sugar alcohol with half the sweetness of sucrose (table sugar).
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Isoleucine (symbol Ile or I) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK, also known as "Le Grand K" or "Big K"), a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Saint-Cloud, France.
Lactose is a disaccharide.
Leucine (symbol Leu or L) is an essential amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.
The lignans are a large group of polyphenols found in plants.
Linoleic acid (LA), a carboxylic acid, is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid, an 18-carbon chain with two double bonds in cis configuration.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
This list is a categorization of the most common food components based on their macronutrients.
The following is a list of micronutrients.
While there is ample evidence to indicate the health benefits of diets rich in fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains and nuts, no specific food has been acknowledged by scientists and government regulatory authorities as providing a health benefit.
Lysine (symbol Lys or K) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Methionine (symbol Met or M) is an essential amino acid in humans.
Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is an organosulfur compound with the formula (CH3)2SO2.
In the metric system, a microgram or microgramme (μg; the recommended symbol in the United States when communicating medical information is mcg) is a unit of mass equal to one millionth of a gram.
Micronutrients are essential elements required by organisms in small quantities throughout life to orchestrate a range of physiological functions to maintain health.
In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life.
Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.
Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar), also called simple sugars, are the most basic units of carbohydrates.
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a survey research program conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in the United States, and to track changes over time.
Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient.
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
A nutrient cycle (or ecological recycling) is the movement and exchange of organic and inorganic matter back into the production of matter.
Nutrient density identifies the proportion of nutrients in foods, with terms such as nutrient rich and micronutrient dense referring to similar properties.
Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.
Nutritionism is a paradigm that assumes that it is the scientifically identified nutrients in foods that determine the value of individual food stuffs in the diet.
An oligosaccharide (from the Greek ὀλίγος olígos, "a few", and σάκχαρ sácchar, "sugar") is a saccharide polymer containing a small number (typically three to ten) of monosaccharides (simple sugars).
Omega−3 fatty acids, also called ω−3 fatty acids or n−3 fatty acids, are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).
Omega-6 fatty acids (also referred to as ω-6 fatty acids or n-6 fatty acids) are a family of polyunsaturated fatty acids that have in common a final carbon-carbon double bond in the ''n''-6 position, that is, the sixth bond, counting from the methyl end.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
The ounce (abbreviated oz; apothecary symbol: ℥) is a unit of mass, weight, or volume used in most British derived customary systems of measurement.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5 (a B vitamin), is a water-soluble vitamin.
A peptide bond is a covalent chemical bond linking two consecutive amino acid monomers along a peptide or protein chain.
Phenylalanine (symbol Phe or F) is an α-amino acid with the formula.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
Phytochemicals are chemical compounds produced by plants, generally to help them thrive or thwart competitors, predators, or pathogens.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Polyphenols (also known as polyhydroxyphenols) are a structural class of mainly natural, but also synthetic or semisynthetic, organic chemicals characterized by the presence of large multiples of phenol structural units.
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Prebiotics are food ingredients that induce the growth or activity of beneficial microorganisms (e.g., bacteria and fungi).
Preterm birth, also known as premature birth, is the birth of a baby at fewer than 37 weeks gestational age.
A protease (also called a peptidase or proteinase) is an enzyme that performs proteolysis: protein catabolism by hydrolysis of peptide bonds.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Proteins are essential nutrients for the human body.
Protein catabolism is the breakdown of proteins into amino acids and simple derivative compounds, for transport into the cell through the plasma membrane and ultimately for the polymerization into new proteins via the use of ribonucleic acids (RNA) and ribosomes.
A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.
A provitamin is a substance that may be converted within the body to a vitamin.
The Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily intake level of a nutrient that is considered to be sufficient to meet the requirements of 97–98% of healthy individuals in every demographic in the United States.
Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a stilbenoid, a type of natural phenol, and a phytoalexin produced by several plants in response to injury or, when the plant is under attack by pathogens such as bacteria or fungi.
Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
A saturated fat is a type of fat in which the fatty acid chains have all or predominantly single bonds.
In most biological nomenclature, a scale (Greek λεπίς lepis, Latin squama) is a small rigid plate that grows out of an animal's skin to provide protection.
Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), also referred to as volatile fatty acids (VFAs), are fatty acids with two to six carbon atoms.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.
Sucrose is common table sugar.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
Thiamine, also known as thiamin or vitamin B1, is a vitamin found in food, and manufactured as a dietary supplement and medication.
Threonine (symbol Thr or T) is an amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Tocopherols (TCP) are a class of organic chemical compounds (more precisely, various methylated phenols), many of which have vitamin E activity.
Tocotrienols are certain members of the vitamin E family.
Tryptophan (symbol Trp or W) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
The University of Utah (also referred to as the U, U of U, or Utah) is a public coeducational space-grant research university in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States.
An unsaturated fat is a fat or fatty acid in which there is at least one double bond within the fatty acid chain.
Valine (symbol Val or V) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Vascular smooth muscle refers to the particular type of smooth muscle found within, and composing the majority of the wall of blood vessels.
Vinegar is a liquid consisting of about 5–20% acetic acid (CH3COOH), water (H2O), and trace chemicals that may include flavorings.
A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) which is an essential micronutrient - that is, a substance which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism - but cannot synthesize it (either at all, or in sufficient quantities), and therefore it must be obtained through the diet.
Vitamin A is a group of unsaturated nutritional organic compounds that includes retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, and several provitamin A carotenoids (most notably beta-carotene).
Vitamin B6 refers to a group of chemically similar compounds which can be interconverted in biological systems.
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.
Vitamin E is a group of eight compounds that include four tocopherols and four tocotrienols.
Vitamin K is a group of structurally similar, fat-soluble vitamins that the human body requires for complete synthesis of certain proteins that are prerequisites for blood coagulation (K from Koagulation, Danish for "coagulation") and which the body also needs for controlling binding of calcium in bones and other tissues.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
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