94 relations: Allenby Formation, Anabaena, Antarctica, Aquatic plant, Archegonium, Arctic, Arctic Ocean, Asexual reproduction, Asia, Atmosphere, Azolla cristata, Azolla event, Azolla filiculoides, Azolla nilotica, Azolla pinnata, Azolla primaeva, Beta-Methylamino-L-alanine, Birbal Sahni, Bolivia, British Columbia, Carbon dioxide, Carl Ludwig Willdenow, Chester A. Arnold, Chromium, Companion planting, Copper, David P. Penhallow, Düsseldorf, Edward W. Berry, Eleanor Mary Reid, Eocene, Esmeralda Formation, Eutrophication, Extinction, Fern, Food and Agriculture Organization, Fossil, Gametophyte, Genus, Georg Friedrich Kaulfuss, Georg Heinrich Mettenius, Glochidium, Green River Formation, Greenhouse and icehouse Earth, Greenhouse effect, Holocene, Holotype, Ice sheet, India, International Plant Names Index, ..., Isle of Wight, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, Joseph Decaisne, Lead, Lemnoideae, London Clay, Maastrichtian, Marjorie Elizabeth Jane Chandler, Megaspore, Microsporangia, Missouri Botanical Garden, Mosquito, Moss, Mulch, Nevada, Nickel, Nitrogen, Nitrogen fixation, North Pole, Nutrient, Oligocene, Ornamental plant, Paleocene, Paleoclimatology, Phosphorus, Pliocene, Polyunsaturated fat, Rice, Robert Brown (botanist, born 1773), Salviniaceae, Sporangium, Spore, Sporocarp (ferns), St. Louis, Symbiosis, Tasmania, University of Düsseldorf, Utrecht University, Vivi Vajda, Water, Weed, Wyoming, Zinc, 3-Deoxyanthocyanidin. Expand index (44 more) » « Shrink index
The Allenby formation is a sedimentary rock formation deposited during the early to early Middle Eocene.
Anabaena is a genus of filamentous cyanobacteria that exist as plankton.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.
Aquatic plants are plants that have adapted to living in aquatic environments (saltwater or freshwater).
An archegonium (pl: archegonia), from the ancient Greek ἀρχή ("beginning") and γόνος ("offspring"), is a multicellular structure or organ of the gametophyte phase of certain plants, producing and containing the ovum or female gamete.
The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.
The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceans.
Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
Azolla cristata, the Carolina mosquitofern, Carolina azolla, or water velvet, is a species of Azolla native to the Americas, in eastern North America from southern Ontario southward, and from the east coast west to Wisconsin and Texas, and in the Caribbean, and in Central and South America from southeastern Mexico (Chiapas) south to northern Argentina and Uruguay.
The Azolla event occurred in the middle Eocene epoch, around, when blooms of the freshwater fern Azolla are thought to have happened in the Arctic Ocean.
Azolla filiculoides (water fern) is a species of Azolla, native to warm temperate and tropical regions of the Americas as well as most of the old world including Asia and Australia.
Azolla nilotica is a medium sized floating fern, that naturally occurs in the Nile and in eastern and central Africa.
Azolla pinnata is a species of fern known by several common names, including mosquitofern, feathered mosquitofern and water velvet.
Azolla primaeva is an extinct species of "water fern" in the Azollaceae family known from Eocene fossils from the Ypresian stage, found in southern British Columbia.
β-Methylamino-L-alanine, or BMAA, is a non-proteinogenic amino acid produced by cyanobacteria.
Birbal Sahni FRS (14 November 1891 – 10 April 1949) was an Indian paleobotanist who studied the fossils of the Indian subcontinent.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
British Columbia (BC; Colombie-Britannique) is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carl Ludwig Willdenow (22 August 1765 – 10 July 1812) was a German botanist, pharmacist, and plant taxonomist.
Chester Arthur Arnold was an American paleobotanist, born June 25, 1901 in Leeton, Missouri and died on 19 November 1977.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
Companion planting in gardening and agriculture is the planting of different crops in proximity for any of a number of different reasons, including pest control, pollination, providing habitat for beneficial creatures, maximizing use of space, and to otherwise increase crop productivity.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
David Pearce Penhallow (25 May 1854 – 20 October 1910) was a Canadian-American botanist, paleobotanist and educator.
Düsseldorf (Low Franconian, Ripuarian: Düsseldörp), often Dusseldorf in English sources, is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the seventh most populous city in Germany. Düsseldorf is an international business and financial centre, renowned for its fashion and trade fairs.
Edward Wilber Berry (February 10, 1875 – September 20, 1945) was an American paleontologist and botanist; the principal focus of his research was paleobotany.
Eleanor Mary Reid (born Eleanor Mary Wynne Edwards) (1860–1953) was a British palaeobotanist.
The Eocene Epoch, lasting from, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era.
The Esmeralda Formation is a geologic formation in Nevada.
Eutrophication (from Greek eutrophos, "well-nourished"), or hypertrophication, is when a body of water becomes overly enriched with minerals and nutrients that induce excessive growth of plants and algae.
In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.
A fern is a member of a group of vascular plants that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor flowers.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
A gametophyte is one of the two alternating phases in the life cycle of plants and algae.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
Georg Friedrich Kaulfuss (8 April 1786 – 9 December 1830) was a professor at Halle.
Georg Heinrich Mettenius (24 November 1823 – 18 August 1866) was a German botanist born in Frankfurt am Main.
The glochidium (plural glochidia) is a microscopic larval stage of some freshwater mussels, aquatic bivalve mollusks in the families Unionidae and Margaritiferidae, the river mussels and European freshwater pearl mussels.
The Green River Formation is an Eocene geologic formation that records the sedimentation in a group of intermountain lakes in three basins along the present-day Green River in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah.
Throughout the Phanerozoic history of the Earth, the planet's climate has been fluctuating between two dominant climate states: the greenhouse Earth and the icehouse Earth.
The greenhouse effect is the process by which radiation from a planet's atmosphere warms the planet's surface to a temperature above what it would be without its atmosphere.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
A holotype is a single physical example (or illustration) of an organism, known to have been used when the species (or lower-ranked taxon) was formally described.
An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than, this is also known as continental glacier.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The International Plant Names Index (IPNI) describes itself as "a database of the names and associated basic bibliographical details of seed plants, ferns and lycophytes." Coverage of plant names is best at the rank of species and genus.
The Isle of Wight (also referred to informally as The Island or abbreviated to IOW) is a county and the largest and second-most populous island in England.
Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck (1 August 1744 – 18 December 1829), often known simply as Lamarck, was a French naturalist.
Joseph Decaisne (7 March 1807 – 8 January 1882) was a French botanist and agronomist.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Duckweed, or water lens, are flowering aquatic plants which float on or just beneath the surface of still or slow-moving bodies of fresh water and wetlands.
The London Clay Formation is a marine geological formation of Ypresian (early Eocene Epoch, c. 56–49 Ma) age which crops out in the southeast of England.
The Maastrichtian is, in the ICS geologic timescale, the latest age (uppermost stage) of the Late Cretaceous epoch or Upper Cretaceous series, the Cretaceous period or system, and of the Mesozoic era or erathem.
Marjorie Chandler (1897–1983), was a British paleobotanist who made her own reputation as a scientist after a long partnership with Eleanor Mary Reid, as a research assistant.
Megaspores, also called macrospores, are a type of spore that is present in heterosporous plants.
Microsporangia are sporangia that produce microspores and give rise to male gametes.
The Missouri Botanical Garden is a botanical garden located at 4344 Shaw Boulevard in St. Louis, Missouri.
Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies that constitute the family Culicidae.
Mosses are small flowerless plants that typically grow in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.
A mulch is a layer of material applied to the surface of soil.
Nevada (see pronunciations) is a state in the Western, Mountain West, and Southwestern regions of the United States of America.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen in the Earth's atmosphere is converted into ammonia (NH3) or other molecules available to living organisms.
The North Pole, also known as the Geographic North Pole or Terrestrial North Pole, is (subject to the caveats explained below) defined as the point in the Northern Hemisphere where the Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
The Oligocene is a geologic epoch of the Paleogene Period and extends from about 33.9 million to 23 million years before the present (to). As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the epoch are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are slightly uncertain.
Ornamental plants are plants that are grown for decorative purposes in gardens and landscape design projects, as houseplants, for cut flowers and specimen display.
The Paleocene or Palaeocene, the "old recent", is a geological epoch that lasted from about.
Paleoclimatology (in British spelling, palaeoclimatology) is the study of changes in climate taken on the scale of the entire history of Earth.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
The Pliocene (also Pleiocene) Epoch is the epoch in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.333 million to 2.58 million years BP.
Polyunsaturated fats are fats in which the constituent hydrocarbon chain possesses two or more carbon–carbon double bonds.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
Robert Brown FRSE FRS FLS MWS (21 December 1773 – 10 June 1858) was a Scottish botanist and palaeobotanist who made important contributions to botany largely through his pioneering use of the microscope.
Salviniaceae (or formerly Salviniaceæ) is a family of heterosporous ferns in the order Salviniales.
A sporangium (pl., sporangia) (modern Latin, from Greek σπόρος (sporos) ‘spore’ + αγγείον (angeion) ‘vessel’) is an enclosure in which spores are formed.
In biology, a spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions.
A sporocarp is a specialised type of structure found in some ferns whose primary function is the production and release of spores.
Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.
Tasmania (abbreviated as Tas and known colloquially as Tassie) is an island state of Australia.
Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf (HHU) (Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf) was founded in 1965 as the successor organisation to Düsseldorf’s Medical Academy of 1907.
Utrecht University (UU; Universiteit Utrecht, formerly Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht) is a university in Utrecht, the Netherlands.
Vivi Vajda is a Swedish geologist.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
A weed is a plant considered undesirable in a particular situation, "a plant in the wrong place".
Wyoming is a state in the mountain region of the western United States.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
The 3-Deoxyanthocyanidins and their glycosides (3-deoxyanthocyanins or 3-DA) are molecules with an anthocyanidins backbone lacking an hydroxyl group at position 3 on the C-ring.