240 relations: Active site, Agathocles of Bactria, Albumin, Alkaline fuel cell, Allergen of the Year, Alloy, Alnico, American Geophysical Union, Archaea, Argon, Arsenic, Arsenide, Atomic number, Atomic radius, Aufbau principle, Australia, Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, Bacteria, Beta particle, Bis(cyclooctadiene)nickel(0), Brass, Bronze, Canada, Carbon, Carbon monoxide, Carcinogen, Cathode, Chelation, Chemical element, Cobalt, Cobalt blue, Coenzyme M, Cofactor F430, Coin, Coins of the pound sterling, Coins of the United States dollar, Copper, Cosmogenic nuclide, Cubic crystal system, Cupronickel, Curie temperature, Dermatitis, Devil in Christianity, Diamagnetism, Dichlorobis(triphenylphosphine)nickel(II), Dicobalt octacarbonyl, Dietary Reference Intake, Ductility, Dyshidrosis, Eagle mine project, ..., Earring, Electron, Electron capture, Electron configuration, Electron counting, Electroplating, Elinvar, Enzyme, Euro coins, European Union, Euthydemus II, Extinct radionuclide, Extractive metallurgy, Ferromagnetism, Fine structure, Finland, Flying Eagle cent, Fossil fuel, Froth flotation, Fungus, Gadolinium, Galena, Galvanization, Garnierite, Gas diffusion electrode, Geophysics, Glycation, Greece, Half-life, Hemodialysis, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrogen sulfide, Hydrogenation, Hydrometallurgy, Immediately dangerous to life or health, Incoloy, Inconel, Indian Head cent, Indonesia, Inner core, Institute of Occupational Medicine, Invar, Ionization, Iron, Iron meteorite, Iron pentacarbonyl, Iron-56, Isotope, Isotope geochemistry, Isotopes of iron, Joseph Needham, Kamacite, Krytron, Lactoylglutathione lyase, Laterite, Leaching (chemistry), Light curve, Limonite, Lithium-ion battery, Los, Sweden, Ludwig Mond, Magic number (physics), Magnet, Magnetic field, Magnetostriction, Matte (metallurgy), Merensky Reef, Mesh, Metal, Metal aquo complex, Metal foam, Metallurgical assay, Meteoric iron, Meteorite, Methanogen, Methanosarcina, Michigan, Millerite, Mineral, Mining, Mond process, Monel, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Native metal, Natural abundance, Neutron, New Caledonia, Nickel (Canadian coin), Nickel (United States coin), Nickel allergy, Nickel electroplating, Nickel oxide hydroxide, Nickel silver, Nickel sulfide, Nickel tetracarbonyl, Nickel(II) chloride, Nickel(II) sulfate, Nickel(III) oxide, Nickel-62, Nickel–cadmium battery, Nickel–hydrogen battery, Nickel–iron battery, Nickel–metal hydride battery, Nickeline, Nickelocene, NiFe hydrogenase, Nimonic, Norilsk, Nuclear binding energy, Nuclear fusion, Nuclear isomer, Nuclide, Occupational hazard, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Ore, Ore Mountains, Organonickel, Outer core, Oxidation state, Pacific Ocean, Palladium, Pantaleon, Paramagnetism, Passivation (chemistry), Pentlandite, Periodic Videos, Permalloy, Permian–Triassic extinction event, Permissible exposure limit, Philippines, Phosphine, Platinum, Platinum group, Pollution, Prebiotic (nutrition), Proton, Pulverizer, Pyrometallurgy, Pyrrhotite, Radioactive decay, Radionuclide, Raney nickel, Rare-earth magnet, Rechargeable battery, Recommended exposure limit, Redox, Relative atomic mass, Riddle, Oregon, Russia, Science News, Sediment, Sensitization (immunology), Shampoo, Siberian Traps, Silicon-burning process, Sodium amalgam, Solar System, Stainless steel, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Sudbury Basin, Sulfide, Sulfur, Supernova, Supernova nucleosynthesis, Superoxide dismutase, Surface area, Sweden, Taenite, Tap (valve), Tetracobalt dodecacarbonyl, Thiol, Three-cent piece (United States coin), Tobacco smoke, Tonne, Transition metal, Trypanosomatida, Tsien Tsuen-hsuin, Tungsten carbide, Ultramafic rock, Unified atomic mass unit, United States dollar, United States Geological Survey, United States Mint, University of California, Los Angeles, Upper Peninsula of Michigan, Urea, Urease, Vitamin C, Wastewater, 1,5-Cyclooctadiene. Expand index (190 more) » « Shrink index
In biology, the active site is the region of an enzyme where substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction.
Agathocles Dikaios (Ἀγαθοκλῆς ὁ Δίκαιος; epithet meaning: "the Just") was a Greco-Bactrian/ Indo-Greek king, who reigned between around 190 and 180 BC.
The albumins (formed from Latin: albumen "(egg) white; dried egg white") are a family of globular proteins, the most common of which are the serum albumins.
The alkaline fuel cell (AFC), also known as the Bacon fuel cell after its British inventor, Francis Thomas Bacon, is one of the most developed fuel cell technologies.
Allergen of the Year is an annual "award" of dubious distinction voted upon by the American Contact Dermatitis Society.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
Alnico is an acronym referring to a family of iron alloys which in addition to iron are composed primarily of aluminium (Al), nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co), hence al-ni-co.
The American Geophysical Union (AGU) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization of geophysicists, consisting of over 62,000 members from 144 countries.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
In chemistry, an arsenide is a compound of arsenic with a less electronegative element or elements.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
The atomic radius of a chemical element is a measure of the size of its atoms, usually the mean or typical distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of electrons.
The aufbau principle states that in the ground state of an atom or ion, electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt (/kroonstet/ 23 December 1722 – 19 August 1765) was a Swedish mineralogist and chemist who discovered nickel in 1751 as a mining expert with the Bureau of Mines.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
A beta particle, also called beta ray or beta radiation, (symbol β) is a high-energy, high-speed electron or positron emitted by the radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus during the process of beta decay.
Bis(cyclooctadiene)nickel(0) is the organometallic compound with the formula Ni(C8H12)2.
Brass is a metallic alloy that is made of copper and zinc.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
A cathode is the electrode from which a conventional current leaves a polarized electrical device.
Chelation is a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
Cobalt blue is a blue pigment made by sintering cobalt(II) oxide with alumina at 1200 °C.
Coenzyme M is a coenzyme required for methyl-transfer reactions in the metabolism of methanogens.
F430 is the prosthetic group of the enzyme methyl coenzyme M reductase (MCR).
A coin is a small, flat, (usually) round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender.
The standard circulating coinage of the United Kingdom is denominated in pounds sterling (symbol "£"), and, since the introduction of the two-pound coin in 1994 (to celebrate the 300th anniversary of the Bank of England 1694–1994), ranges in value from one penny to two pounds.
Coins of the United States dollar were first minted in 1792.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Cosmogenic nuclides (or cosmogenic isotopes) are rare nuclides (isotopes) created when a high-energy cosmic ray interacts with the nucleus of an in situ Solar System atom, causing nucleons (protons and neutrons) to be expelled from the atom (see cosmic ray spallation).
In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube.
Cupronickel (also known as copper-nickel) is an alloy of copper that contains nickel and strengthening elements, such as iron and manganese.
In physics and materials science, the Curie temperature (TC), or Curie point, is the temperature above which certain materials lose their permanent magnetic properties, to be replaced by induced magnetism.
Dermatitis, also known as eczema, is a group of diseases that results in inflammation of the skin.
In mainstream Christianity, the Devil (or Satan) is a fallen angel who rebelled against God.
Diamagnetic materials are repelled by a magnetic field; an applied magnetic field creates an induced magnetic field in them in the opposite direction, causing a repulsive force.
Dichlorobis(triphenylphosphine)nickel(II) is a metal phosphine complex with the formula NiCl22.
Dicobalt octacarbonyl is the inorganic compound Co2(CO)8.
The Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies (United States).
Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.
Dyshidrosis, is a type of dermatitis, that is characterized by itchy blisters on the palms of the hands and bottoms of the feet.
The Eagle Mine is a small, high-grade nickel and copper mine owned by Lundin Mining Corporation.
An earring is a piece of jewelry attached to the ear via a piercing in the earlobe or another external part of the ear (except in the case of clip earrings, which clip onto the lobe). Earrings are worn by both sexes, although more common among women, and have been used by different civilizations in different times. Locations for piercings other than the earlobe include the rook, tragus, and across the helix (see image at right). The simple term "ear piercing" usually refers to an earlobe piercing, whereas piercings in the upper part of the external ear are often referred to as "cartilage piercings". Cartilage piercings are more complex to perform than earlobe piercings and take longer to heal. Earring components may be made of any number of materials, including metal, plastic, glass, precious stone, beads, wood, bone, and other materials. Designs range from small loops and studs to large plates and dangling items. The size is ultimately limited by the physical capacity of the earlobe to hold the earring without tearing. However, heavy earrings worn over extended periods of time may lead to stretching of the earlobe and the piercing.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
Electron capture (K-electron capture, also K-capture, or L-electron capture, L-capture) is a process in which the proton-rich nucleus of an electrically neutral atom absorbs an inner atomic electron, usually from the K or L electron shell.
In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals.
Electron counting is a formalism used for classifying compounds and for explaining or predicting electronic structure and bonding.
Electroplating is a process that uses an electric current to reduce dissolved metal cations so that they form a thin coherent metal coating on an electrode.
Elinvar is a nickel-iron alloy notable for having a modulus of elasticity which does not change much with temperature changes.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
There are eight euro coin denominations, ranging from one cent to two euros (the euro is divided into a hundred cents).
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Euthydemus II (Greek: Εὐθύδημος Β΄) was Graeco-Bactrian king; the son of Demetrius I of Bactria, he became king in the 180s BCE, either after his father's death or as a sub-king to him.
An extinct radionuclide is a radionuclide that was formed by nucleosynthesis before the formation of the Solar System, about 4.6 billion years ago, and incorporated into it, but has since decayed to virtually zero abundance, due to having a half-life shorter than about 100 million years.
Extractive metallurgy is a branch of metallurgical engineering wherein process and methods of extraction of metals from their natural mineral deposits are studied.
Ferromagnetism is the basic mechanism by which certain materials (such as iron) form permanent magnets, or are attracted to magnets.
In atomic physics, the fine structure describes the splitting of the spectral lines of atoms due to electron spin and relativistic corrections to the non-relativistic Schrödinger equation.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
The Flying Eagle cent is a one-cent piece struck by the Mint of the United States as a pattern coin in 1856 and for circulation in 1857 and 1858.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
Froth flotation is a process for selectively separating hydrophobic materials from hydrophilic.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Gadolinium is a chemical element with symbol Gd and atomic number 64.
Galena, also called lead glance, is the natural mineral form of lead(II) sulfide.
Galvanization or galvanizing is the process of applying a protective zinc coating to steel or iron, to prevent rusting.
Garnierite is a general name for a green nickel ore which is found in pockets and veins within weathered and serpentinized ultramafic rocks.
Gas diffusion electrodes (GDE) are electrodes with a conjunction of a solid, liquid and gaseous interface, and an electrical conducting catalyst supporting an electrochemical reaction between the liquid and the gaseous phase.
Geophysics is a subject of natural science concerned with the physical processes and physical properties of the Earth and its surrounding space environment, and the use of quantitative methods for their analysis.
Glycation (sometimes called non-enzymatic glycosylation) is the result of the covalent bonding of a sugar molecule, such as glucose or fructose, to a protein or lipid molecule, without the controlling action of an enzyme.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
Hemodialysis, also spelled haemodialysis, commonly called kidney dialysis or simply dialysis, is a process of purifying the blood of a person whose kidneys are not working normally.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
Hydrogenation – to treat with hydrogen – is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum.
Hydrometallurgy is a method for obtaining metals from their ores.
The term immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) is defined by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as exposure to airborne contaminants that is "likely to cause death or immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects or prevent escape from such an environment." Examples include smoke or other poisonous gases at sufficiently high concentrations.
Incoloy refers to a range of superalloys produced by the Special Metals Corporation group of companies.
Inconel is a family of austenitic nickel-chromium-based superalloys.
The Indian Head cent, also known as an Indian Head penny, was a one-cent coin ($0.01) produced by the United States Bureau of the Mint from 1859 to 1909.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
The Earth's inner core is the Earth's innermost part.
The Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) was founded in 1969 by the National Coal Board (NCB) as an independent charity in the UK and retains this charitable purpose and status today.
Invar, also known generically as FeNi36 (64FeNi in the US), is a nickel–iron alloy notable for its uniquely low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE or α).
Ionization or ionisation, is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Iron meteorites are meteorites that consist overwhelmingly of an iron–nickel alloy known as meteoric iron that usually consists of two mineral phases: kamacite and taenite.
Iron pentacarbonyl, also known as iron carbonyl, is the compound with formula5.
Iron-56 (56Fe) is the most common isotope of iron.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Isotope geochemistry is an aspect of geology based upon the study of natural variations in the relative abundances of isotopes of various elements.
Naturally occurring iron (26Fe) consists of four stable isotopes: 5.845% of 54Fe (possibly radioactive with a half-life over 3.1×1022 years), 91.754% of 56Fe, 2.119% of 57Fe and 0.282% of 58Fe.
Noel Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham (9 December 1900 – 24 March 1995) was a British biochemist, historian and sinologist known for his scientific research and writing on the history of Chinese science and technology.
Kamacite is an alloy of iron and nickel, which is found on Earth only in meteorites.
The krytron is a cold-cathode gas-filled tube intended for use as a very high-speed switch, somewhat similar to the thyratron.
In enzymology, a lactoylglutathione lyase (also known as glyoxalase I) is an enzyme that catalyzes the isomerization of hemithioacetal adducts, which are formed in a spontaneous reaction between a glutathionyl group and aldehydes such as methylglyoxal.
Laterite is a soil and rock type rich in iron and aluminium, and is commonly considered to have formed in hot and wet tropical areas.
Leaching is the process of extracting substances from a solid by dissolving them in a liquid, either naturally or through an industrial process.
In astronomy, a light curve is a graph of light intensity of a celestial object or region, as a function of time.
Limonite is an iron ore consisting of a mixture of hydrated iron(III) oxide-hydroxides in varying composition.
A lithium-ion battery or Li-ion battery (abbreviated as LIB) is a type of rechargeable battery in which lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during discharge and back when charging.
Los is a locality situated in Ljusdal Municipality, Gävleborg County, Sweden with 387 inhabitants in 2010.
Ludwig Mond (7 March 1839 – 11 December 1909) was a German-born chemist and industrialist who took British nationality.
In nuclear physics, a magic number is a number of nucleons (either protons or neutrons, separately) such that they are arranged into complete shells within the atomic nucleus.
A magnet is a material or object that produces a magnetic field.
A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.
Magnetostriction (cf. electrostriction) is a property of ferromagnetic materials that causes them to change their shape or dimensions during the process of magnetization.
Matte is a term used in the field of pyrometallurgy given to the molten metal sulfide phases typically formed during smelting of copper, nickel, and other base metals.
The Merensky Reef is a layer of igneous rock in the Bushveld Igneous Complex (BIC) in the North West, Limpopo, Gauteng and Mpumalanga provinces of South Africa which together with an underlying layer, the Upper Group 2 Reef (UG2), contains most of the world's known reserves of platinum group metals (PGMs) or platinum group elements (PGEs) - platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium and osmium.
A mesh is a barrier made of connected strands of metal, fiber, or other flexible or ductile materials.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Metal aquo complexes are coordination compounds containing metal ions with only water as a ligand.
Regular foamed aluminium A metal foam is a cellular structure consisting of a solid metal (frequently aluminium) with gas-filled pores comprising a large portion of the volume.
A metallurgical assay is a compositional analysis of an ore, metal, or alloy.
Meteoric iron, sometimes meteoritic iron, is a native metal found in meteorites and made from the elements iron and nickel mainly in the form of the mineral phases kamacite and taenite.
A meteorite is a solid piece of debris from an object, such as a comet, asteroid, or meteoroid, that originates in outer space and survives its passage through the atmosphere to reach the surface of a planet or moon.
Methanogens are microorganisms that produce methane as a metabolic byproduct in anoxic conditions.
Methanosarcina is a genus of euryarchaeote archaea that produce methane.
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States.
Millerite is a nickel sulfide mineral, NiS.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
The Mond process, sometimes known as the carbonyl process, is a technique created by Ludwig Mond in 1890, to extract and purify nickel.
Monel is a group of nickel alloys, primarily composed of nickel (up to 67%) and copper, with small amounts of iron, manganese, carbon, and silicon.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.
A native metal is any metal that is found in its metallic form, either pure in nature.
In physics, natural abundance (NA) refers to the abundance of isotopes of a chemical element as naturally found on a planet.
New Caledonia (Nouvelle-Calédonie)Previously known officially as the "Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies" (Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et dépendances), then simply as the "Territory of New Caledonia" (French: Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie), the official French name is now only Nouvelle-Calédonie (Organic Law of 19 March 1999, article 222 IV — see). The French courts often continue to use the appellation Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie.
The Canadian five-cent coin, commonly called a nickel, is a coin worth five cents or one-twentieth of a Canadian dollar.
A nickel, in American usage, is a five-cent coin struck by the United States Mint.
Nickel allergy (also referred to as Ni-ACD) is a form of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) caused by exposure to the chemical element nickel.
Nickel electroplating is a technique of electroplating a thin layer of nickel onto a metal object.
Nickel oxide hydroxide is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula NiO(OH).
Nickel silver, Maillechort, German silver, Argentan, new silver, nickel brass, albata, alpacca, or electrum is a copper alloy with nickel and often zinc.
Nickel sulfide is a inorganic compound with the formula NiS.
Nickel carbonyl (IUPAC name: tetracarbonylnickel) is the organonickel compound with the formula Ni(CO)4.
Nickel(II) chloride (or just nickel chloride), is the chemical compound NiCl2.
Nickel(II) sulfate, or just nickel sulfate, usually refers to the inorganic compound with the formula NiSO4(H2O)6.
Nickel(III) oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Ni2O3.
Nickel-62 is an isotope of nickel having 28 protons and 34 neutrons.
The nickel–cadmium battery (NiCd battery or NiCad battery) is a type of rechargeable battery using nickel oxide hydroxide and metallic cadmium as electrodes.
A nickel–hydrogen battery (NiH2 or Ni–H2) is a rechargeable electrochemical power source based on nickel and hydrogen.
The nickel–iron battery (NiFe battery) is a rechargeable battery having nickel(III) oxide-hydroxide positive plates and iron negative plates, with an electrolyte of potassium hydroxide.
A nickel metal hydride battery, abbreviated NiMH or Ni–MH, is a type of rechargeable battery.
Nickeline or niccolite is a mineral consisting of nickel arsenide (NiAs) containing 43.9% nickel and 56.1% arsenic.
Nickelocene is the organonickel compound with the formula Ni(''η''5-C5H5)2.
hydrogenase is a type of hydrogenase, which is an oxidative enzyme that reversibly convert molecular hydrogen in prokaryotes including Bacteria and Archaea.
Nimonic is a registered trademark of Special Metals Corporation that refers to a family of nickel-based high-temperature low creep superalloys.
Norilsk (p) is an industrial city in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, located above the Arctic Circle, east of the Yenisei River and south of the western Taymyr Peninsula.
Nuclear binding energy is the minimum energy that would be required to disassemble the nucleus of an atom into its component parts.
In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).
A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atomic nucleus caused by the excitation of one or more of its nucleons (protons or neutrons).
A nuclide (from nucleus, also known as nuclear species) is an atomic species characterized by the specific constitution of its nucleus, i.e., by its number of protons Z, its number of neutrons N, and its nuclear energy state.
An occupational hazard is a hazard experienced in the workplace.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.
The Ore Mountains or Ore Mountain Range (Erzgebirge; Krušné hory; both literally "ore mountains") in Central Europe have formed a natural border between Saxony and Bohemia for around 800 years, from the 12th to the 20th centuries.
Organonickel chemistry is a branch of organometallic chemistry that deals with organic compounds featuring nickel-carbon bonds.
The outer core of the Earth is a fluid layer about thick and composed of mostly iron and nickel that lies above Earth's solid inner core and below its mantle.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
Palladium is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46.
Pantaleon (Greek: Πανταλέων) was a Greek king who reigned some time between 190–180 BCE in Bactria and India.
Paramagnetism is a form of magnetism whereby certain materials are weakly attracted by an externally applied magnetic field, and form internal, induced magnetic fields in the direction of the applied magnetic field.
Passivation, in physical chemistry and engineering, refers to a material becoming "passive," that is, less affected or corroded by the environment of future use.
Pentlandite is an iron-nickel sulfide, (Fe,Ni)9S8.
The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.
Permalloy is a nickel–iron magnetic alloy, with about 80% nickel and 20% iron content.
The Permian–Triassic (P–Tr or P–T) extinction event, colloquially known as the Great Dying, the End-Permian Extinction or the Great Permian Extinction, occurred about 252 Ma (million years) ago, forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods, as well as the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras.
The permissible exposure limit (PEL or OSHA PEL) is a legal limit in the United States for exposure of an employee to a chemical substance or physical agent such as loud noise.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Phosphine (IUPAC name: phosphane) is the compound with the chemical formula PH3.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
The platinum-group metals (abbreviated as the PGMs; alternatively, the platinoids, platinides, platidises, platinum group, platinum metals, platinum family or platinum-group elements (PGEs)) are six noble, precious metallic elements clustered together in the periodic table.
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.
Prebiotics are food ingredients that induce the growth or activity of beneficial microorganisms (e.g., bacteria and fungi).
A pulverizer or grinder is a mechanical device for the grinding of many different types of materials.
Pyrometallurgy is a branch of extractive metallurgy.
Pyrrhotite is an iron sulfide mineral with the formula Fe(1-x)S (x.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
Raney nickel, also called spongy nickel, is a fine-grained solid composed mostly of nickel derived from a nickel-aluminium alloy.
Rare-earth magnets are strong permanent magnets made from alloys of rare-earth elements.
A rechargeable battery, storage battery, secondary cell, or accumulator is a type of electrical battery which can be charged, discharged into a load, and recharged many times, as opposed to a disposable or primary battery, which is supplied fully charged and discarded after use.
A recommended exposure limit (REL) is an occupational exposure limit that has been recommended by the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for adoption as a permissible exposure limit.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Relative atomic mass (symbol: A) or atomic weight is a dimensionless physical quantity defined as the ratio of the average mass of atoms of a chemical element in a given sample to one unified atomic mass unit.
Riddle is a city in Douglas County, Oregon, United States.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Science News is an American bi-weekly magazine devoted to short articles about new scientific and technical developments, typically gleaned from recent scientific and technical journals.
Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles.
In immunology, the term sensitization is used for the following concepts:Anderson DM, ed.
Shampoo is a hair care product, typically in the form of a viscous liquid, that is used for cleaning hair.
The Siberian Traps (Сибирские траппы, Sibirskiye trappy) is a large region of volcanic rock, known as a large igneous province, in Siberia, Russia.
In astrophysics, silicon burning is a very brief sequence of nuclear fusion reactions that occur in massive stars with a minimum of about 8-11 solar masses.
Sodium amalgam, commonly denoted Na(Hg), is an alloy of mercury and sodium.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
In metallurgy, stainless steel, also known as inox steel or inox from French inoxydable (inoxidizable), is a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5% chromium content by mass.
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.
The Sudbury Basin, also known as Sudbury Structure or the Sudbury Nickel Irruptive, is a major geological structure in Ontario, Canada.
Sulfide (systematically named sulfanediide, and sulfide(2−)) (British English sulphide) is an inorganic anion of sulfur with the chemical formula S2− or a compound containing one or more S2− ions.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.
Supernova nucleosynthesis is a theory of the nucleosynthesis of the natural abundances of the chemical elements in supernova explosions, advanced as the nucleosynthesis of elements from carbon to nickel in massive stars by Fred Hoyle in 1954.
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an enzyme that alternately catalyzes the dismutation (or partitioning) of the superoxide (O2&minus) radical into either ordinary molecular oxygen (O2) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).
The surface area of a solid object is a measure of the total area that the surface of the object occupies.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Taenite (Fe,Ni) is a mineral found naturally on Earth mostly in iron meteorites.
A tap (also spigot or faucet: see usage variations) is a valve controlling the release of a liquid or gas.
Tetracobalt dodecacarbonyl is the chemical compound with the formula Co4(CO)12.
Thiol is an organosulfur compound that contains a carbon-bonded sulfhydryl (R–SH) group (where R represents an alkyl or other organic substituent).
The United States three cent piece was a unit of currency equaling of a United States dollar.
Cigarette smoke is an aerosol produced by the incomplete combustion of tobacco during the smoking of cigarettes.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.
Trypanosomatida is a group of kinetoplastid excavates distinguished by having only a single flagellum.
Tsien Tsuen-hsuin (11 January 19109 April 2015), also known as T.H. Tsien, was a Chinese sinologist and librarian who served as a professor of Chinese literature and library science at the University of Chicago, and was also curator of its East Asian Library from 1949 to 1978.
Tungsten carbide (chemical formula: WC) is a chemical compound (specifically, a carbide) containing equal parts of tungsten and carbon atoms.
Ultramafic (also referred to as ultrabasic rocks, although the terms are not wholly equivalent) are igneous and meta-igneous rocks with a very low silica content (less than 45%), generally >18% MgO, high FeO, low potassium, and are composed of usually greater than 90% mafic minerals (dark colored, high magnesium and iron content).
The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
The United States Mint is the agency that produces circulating coinage for the United States to conduct its trade and commerce, as well as controlling the movement of bullion.
The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) is a public research university in the Westwood district of Los Angeles, United States.
The Upper Peninsula (UP), also known as Upper Michigan, is the northern of the two major peninsulas that make up the U.S. state of Michigan.
Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.
Ureases, functionally, belong to the superfamily of amidohydrolases and phosphotriesterases.
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
Wastewater (or waste water) is any water that has been affected by human use.
1,5-Cyclooctadiene is the organic compound with the chemical formula C8H12.