234 relations: Acoustic torpedo, Admiralty, Altmark Incident, Annapolis, Maryland, Anti-submarine warfare, Anti-submarine weapon, Armed merchantman, Armistice of Cassibile, Atlantic Ocean, Attaché, Aurich, Auxiliary ship, Baltic Sea, Battle of Anzio, Battle of Berlin, Battle of France, Battle of the Atlantic, Battleship, Bay of Biscay, Beaufort scale, Befehlshaber der U-Boote, Bendlerblock, Bergen, Berlin, Biscay, Black Sea, Bletchley Park, Bombe, Bonito, Brittany, Bruges, Cape Clear Island, Chesapeake Bay, Cipher, Cipher Department of the High Command of the Wehrmacht, Code (cryptography), Code name, Combined Cipher Machine, Commander-in-chief, Convoy, Convoys HX 229/SC 122, Crete, Cruiser, Cryptanalysis, Cryptochannel, Cryptography, Curaçao, David Kahn (writer), Destroyer, Diana (mythology), ..., Direction finding, Division (military), Eberswalde, Encryption, English Channel, Enigma machine, Erhard Maertens, Escort carrier, Espionage, Fairmile D motor torpedo boat, Far East, Firth of Clyde, Fjord, Flag officer, Flemish Cap, Flensburg, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Freetown, Frequency analysis, Fritz Krauss, Głogów, Gerhard von Scharnhorst, German auxiliary cruiser Atlantis, German battleship Bismarck, German battleship Tirpitz, German code breaking in World War II, German cruiser Admiral Graf Spee, German Empire, German Naval Grid System, German Naval Intelligence Service, German submarine U-13 (1935), German submarine U-31 (1936), German submarine U-33 (1936), German submarine U-382, German submarine U-47 (1938), German submarine U-559, German submarine U-604, German submarine U-664, German submarine U-83 (1940), German tanker Altmark, Gibraltar, Government Communications Headquarters, Great circle, Greenland, Halifax Harbour, Hamburg, Harbourmaster, Harstad, Heer (army), Heinz Bonatz, Heligoland Bight, Herford, High-frequency direction finding, HMCS Athabaskan (G07), HMS Brilliant (H84), HMS Graph, HMS Griffin (H31), HMS Hardy (1936), HMS London (69), HMS Petard (G56), HMS Rawalpindi, HMS Renown (1916), HMS Royal Oak (08), HMS York (90), Hubertus, Hut 4, Hut 8, HX convoys, Hydrophone, Iceland, Imperial German Navy, Indian Ocean, Invasion of Normandy, Ireland, Kapitänleutnant, Karl Dönitz, Kevelaer, Known-plaintext attack, Konteradmiral, Korvettenkapitän, Kriegsmarine, Kronberg im Taunus, Kurt Fricke, Kurzsignale, Latitude, List of Allied convoys during World War II by region, LIT Verlag, Liverpool, Lofoten, London, Longitude, Lorient, Lower Saxony, Luftwaffe, Marder (submarine), Mediterranean Sea, Medusa, Merchant vessel, Metox radar detector, Mid-Atlantic gap, Midget submarine, Montevideo, Morse code, Multiple encryption, Narvik, Neptune, Neumünster, New York City, Newfoundland (island), Nickname, Normandy landings, North Sea, Norway, Norwegian Campaign, Oberkommando der Marine, Ofotfjord, One-time pad, Onomatopoeia, OP-20-G, Operation Dragoon, Operation Torch, Order of battle, Pacific Ocean, Paul Wenneker, Periscope, Poseidon, Potsdam, Prisoner of war, Radar, Radar warning receiver, Radio direction finder, Radio jamming, Radio masts and towers, Red Sea, Reservehandverfahren, Room 40, Royal Air Force, Royal Navy, Salutation, SC convoys, Scapa Flow, Scuttling, Seehund, Seekriegsleitung, Sengwarden, Servizio Informazioni Militare, Short Weather Cipher, Signals intelligence, Sint-Andries, Skagerrak, Sonobuoy, Souda Bay, Stavanger, Stencil Subtractor, Sulfuric acid, Switzerland, Sydney, Nova Scotia, Telecommunication circuit, Thetis, Thetis (decoy), TICOM, Timestamp, Tobruk, Tokyo, Trinidad, Triton (mythology), Trondheim, Typex, U-boat, Unit record equipment, United States Fleet, Watch system, Watchstanding, Wehrmacht, West Africa, Wilhelm Tranow, Witzenhausen, Wolfpack (naval tactic), World War II, Y-stations, 10th Air Corps, 25th meridian west, 40th parallel north, 50th parallel north. Expand index (184 more) » « Shrink index
An acoustic torpedo is a torpedo that aims itself by listening for characteristic sounds of its target or by searching for it using sonar (acoustic homing).
The Admiralty, originally known as the Office of the Admiralty and Marine Affairs, was the government department responsible for the command of the Royal Navy firstly in the Kingdom of England, secondly in the Kingdom of Great Britain, and from 1801 to 1964, the United Kingdom and former British Empire.
The Altmark Incident (Norwegian: Altmark-affæren; German: Altmark-Zwischenfall) was a naval incident of World War II between British destroyers and the German tanker ''Altmark'', which happened on 16–17 February 1940.
Annapolis is the capital of the U.S. state of Maryland, as well as the county seat of Anne Arundel County.
Anti-submarine warfare (ASW, or in older form A/S) is a branch of underwater warfare that uses surface warships, aircraft, or other submarines to find, track and deter, damage, or destroy enemy submarines.
An anti-submarine weapon (ASW) is any one of a number of devices that are intended to act against a submarine and its crew, to destroy (sink) the vessel or reduce its capability as a weapon of war.
An armed merchantman is a merchant ship equipped with guns, usually for defensive purposes, either by design or after the fact.
The Armistice of Cassibile was an armistice signed on 3 September 1943 by Walter Bedell Smith and Giuseppe Castellano, and made public on 8 September, between the Kingdom of Italy and the Allies during World War II.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
In diplomacy, an attaché is a person who is assigned ("attached") to the diplomatic or administrative staff of a higher placed person or another service or agency.
Aurich (Low German: Auerk, West Frisian: Auwerk) is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany.
An auxiliary ship is a naval ship designed to operate in any number of roles supporting combatant ships and other naval operations.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
The Battle of Anzio was a battle of the Italian Campaign of World War II that took place from January 22, 1944 (beginning with the Allied amphibious landing known as Operation Shingle) to June 5, 1944 (ending with the capture of Rome).
The Battle of Berlin, designated the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation by the Soviet Union, and also known as the Fall of Berlin, was the final major offensive of the European theatre of World War II.
The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.
The Battle of the Atlantic was the longest continuous military campaign in World War II, running from 1939 to the defeat of Germany in 1945.
A battleship is a large armored warship with a main battery consisting of large caliber guns.
The Bay of Biscay (Golfe de Gascogne, Golfo de Vizcaya, Pleg-mor Gwaskogn, Bizkaiko Golkoa) is a gulf of the northeast Atlantic Ocean located south of the Celtic Sea.
The Beaufort scale is an empirical measure that relates wind speed to observed conditions at sea or on land.
The Befehlshaber der Unterseeboote (BdU) was the supreme commander of the Kriegsmarines U-boat Arm (Ubootwaffe) during World War II.
The Bendlerblock is a building complex in the Tiergarten district of Berlin, Germany, located on Stauffenbergstraße (formerly named Bendlerstraße).
Bergen, historically Bjørgvin, is a city and municipality in Hordaland on the west coast of Norway.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
Biscay (Bizkaia; Vizcaya) is a province of Spain located just south of the Bay of Biscay.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Bletchley Park was the central site for British (and subsequently, Allied) codebreakers during World War II.
The bombe is an electro-mechanical device used by British cryptologists to help decipher German Enigma-machine-encrypted secret messages during World War II.
Bonitos are a tribe of medium-sized, ray-finned predatory fish in the family Scombridae – a family it shares with the mackerel, tuna, and Spanish mackerel tribes, and also the butterfly kingfish.
Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.
Bruges (Brugge; Bruges; Brügge) is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium, in the northwest of the country.
Clear Island or Cape Clear Island (officially known by its Irish name: Cléire, and sometimes also called Oileán Chléire) lies south-west of County Cork in Ireland.
The Chesapeake Bay is an estuary in the U.S. states of Maryland and Virginia.
In cryptography, a cipher (or cypher) is an algorithm for performing encryption or decryption—a series of well-defined steps that can be followed as a procedure.
The Cipher Department of the High Command of the Wehrmacht (Amtsgruppe Wehrmachtnachrichtenverbindungen, Abteilung Chiffrierwesen) (also Oberkommando der Wehrmacht Chiffrierabteilung or Chiffrierabteilung of the High Command of the Wehrmacht or Chiffrierabteilung of the OKW or OKW/Chi or Chi) was the Signal Intelligence Agency of the Supreme Command of the Armed Forces of the German Armed Forces before and during World War II.
Cryptography in simple terms means the use of any alphabet or numerical statement which has a meaning or stores a message.
A code name or cryptonym is a word or name used, sometimes clandestinely, to refer to another name, word, project or person.
The Combined Cipher Machine (CCM) (or Combined Cypher Machine) was a common cipher machine system for securing Allied communications during World War II and for a few years after amongst NATO.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
A convoy is a group of vehicles, typically motor vehicles or ships, traveling together for mutual support and protection.
The battle around convoys HX 229 and SC 122 occurred during March 1943 in the Battle of the Atlantic, and was the largest convoy battle of World War II.
Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
A cruiser is a type of warship.
Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, "hidden", and analýein, "to loosen" or "to untie") is the study of analyzing information systems in order to study the hidden aspects of the systems.
In telecommunication, a cryptochannel is a complete system of crypto-communications between two or more holders.
Cryptography or cryptology (from κρυπτός|translit.
Curaçao (Curaçao,; Kòrsou) is a Lesser Antilles island in the southern Caribbean Sea and the Dutch Caribbean region, about north of the Venezuelan coast.
David Kahn (b. February 7, 1930*) is a US historian, journalist and writer.
In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast, maneuverable long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy or battle group and defend them against smaller powerful short-range attackers.
Diana (Classical Latin) was the goddess of the hunt, the moon, and nature in Roman mythology, associated with wild animals and woodland, and having the power to talk to and control animals.
Direction finding (DF), or radio direction finding (RDF), is the measurement of the direction from which a received signal was transmitted.
A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers.
Eberswalde is a major town and the administrative seat of the district Barnim in the German Federal State (Bundesland) of Brandenburg, about 50 km northeast of Berlin.
In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding a message or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it and those who are not authorized cannot.
The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
The Enigma machines were a series of electro-mechanical rotor cipher machines developed and used in the early- to mid-20th century to protect commercial, diplomatic and military communication.
Erhard Maertens or Eberhard Maertens (26 February 1891 in Głogów – 5 May 1945 in Berlin) was a German Vizeadmiral of the Kriegsmarine during World War II.
The escort carrier or escort aircraft carrier (US hull classification symbol CVE), also called a "jeep carrier" or "baby flattop" in the United States Navy (USN) or "Woolworth Carrier" by the Royal Navy, was a small and slow type of aircraft carrier used by the Royal Navy, the Imperial Japanese Navy and Imperial Japanese Army Air Force, and the United States Navy in World War II.
Espionage or spying, is the act of obtaining secret or confidential information without the permission of the holder of the information.
The Fairmile D motor torpedo boat was a type of British Motor Torpedo Boat (MTB) designed by Bill Holt and conceived by Fairmile Marine for the Royal Navy.
The Far East is a geographical term in English that usually refers to East Asia (including Northeast Asia), the Russian Far East (part of North Asia), and Southeast Asia.
The Firth of Clyde is an inlet of the Atlantic Ocean off the southwest coast of Scotland, named for the River Clyde which empties into it.
Geologically, a fjord or fiord is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by a glacier.
A flag officer is a commissioned officer in a nation's armed forces senior enough to be entitled to fly a flag to mark the position from which the officer exercises command.
The Flemish Cap is an area of shallow waters in the north Atlantic Ocean centered roughly at 47° north, 45° west or about 563 km (350 miles) east of St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador.
Flensburg (Danish, Low Saxon: Flensborg; North Frisian: Flansborj; South Jutlandic: Flensborre) is an independent town (kreisfreie Stadt) in the north of the German state of Schleswig-Holstein.
The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), commonly called the Foreign Office, is a department of the Government of the United Kingdom.
Freetown is the capital and largest city of Sierra Leone.
In cryptanalysis, frequency analysis is the study of the frequency of letters or groups of letters in a ciphertext.
Fritz Krauss (born March 20, 1898 in Chur, Germany, July 13, 1978 in Großhansdorf) was a German naval officer, most recently a Konteradmiral in the World War II.
Głogów (Glogau, rarely Groß-Glogau, Hlohov) is a town in southwestern Poland.
Gerhard Johann David Waitz von Scharnhorst (12 November 1755 – 28 June 1813), was a Hanoverian-born general in Prussian service from 1801.
The German auxiliary cruiser Atlantis (HSK 2), known to the Kriegsmarine as Schiff 16 and to the Royal Navy as Raider-C, was a converted German ''Hilfskreuzer'' (auxiliary cruiser), or merchant or commerce raider of the Kriegsmarine, which, in World War II, travelled more than in 602 days, and sank or captured 22 ships totaling.
Bismarck was the first of two s built for Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine.
Tirpitz was the second of two s built for Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine (navy) during World War II.
German code breaking in World War II achieved some notable successes cracking British Naval ciphers until well into the fourth year of the War, but also suffered from a problem typical of the German armed forces of the time: numerous branches and institutions maintained their own cryptographic departments, working on their own without collaboration or sharing results with equivalent units.
Admiral Graf Spee was a "Panzerschiff" (armored ship), nicknamed a "pocket battleship" by the British, which served with the Kriegsmarine of Nazi Germany during World War II.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
German Naval Grid Reference, (German:Gradnetzmeldeverfahren), was a system for referencing a location on a map.
The German Naval Intelligence Service (German: Marinenachrichtendienst) (MND) was the naval intelligence department of the Germany Navy and had a long history, going back to the naval aspirations of German Emperor, Wilhelm II in 1899.
German submarine U-13 was a Type IIB U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine which was commissioned on 30 November 1936, following construction at the Deutsche Werke shipyards at Kiel.
German submarine U-31 was a Type VIIA U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II.
German submarine U-33 was a Type VIIA U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II.
German submarine U-382 was a Type VIIC U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II.
German submarine U-47 was a Type VIIB U-boat of Nazi Germany's navy (Kriegsmarine) during World War II.
German submarine U-559 was a Type VIIC U-boat built for Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine for service during World War II.
German submarine U-604 was a Type VIIC U-boat built for Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine for service during World War II.
German submarine U-664 was a Type VIIC U-boat built for Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine for service during World War II.
German submarine U-83 was a Type VIIB U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II.
Altmark was a German oil tanker and supply vessel, one of five of a class built between 1937 and 1939.
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) is an intelligence and security organisation responsible for providing signals intelligence (SIGINT) and information assurance to the government and armed forces of the United Kingdom.
A great circle, also known as an orthodrome, of a sphere is the intersection of the sphere and a plane that passes through the center point of the sphere.
Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
Halifax Harbour is a large natural harbour on the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia, Canada, located in the Halifax Regional Municipality.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
A harbourmaster (or harbormaster, see spelling differences) is an official responsible for enforcing the regulations of a particular harbour or port, in order to ensure the safety of navigation, the security of the harbour and the correct operation of the port facilities.
is the second-most populated municipality in Troms county, Norway.
Heer may refer to.
Hermann Leopold Ludwig Eugen Hans Heinz Bonatz (18 August 1897 in Witzenhausen – 1981) was a German naval officer during World War II, known as Heinz Bonatz, chief of B-Dienst (Beobachtungsdienst, literally: observation or monitoring service) until January 1944.
The Heligoland Bight, also known as Helgoland Bight, (Helgoländer Bucht) is a bay which forms the southern part of the German Bight, itself a bay of the North Sea, located at the mouth of the Elbe river.
Herford is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, located in the lowlands between the hill chains of the Wiehen Hills and the Teutoburg Forest.
High-frequency direction finding, usually known by its abbreviation HF/DF or nickname huff-duff, is a type of radio direction finder (RDF) introduced in World War II.
HMCS Athabaskan was the first of three destroyers of the Royal Canadian Navy to bear this name.
HMS Brilliant was a built for the Royal Navy (RN) around 1930.
HMS Graph (pennant number P715) was a German Type VIIC U-boat that the British Royal Navy captured during World War II.
HMS Griffin (H31) was a G-class destroyer, built for the Royal Navy in the mid-1930s.
HMS Hardy was the flotilla leader for the H-class destroyers, built for the Royal Navy in the mid-1930s.
HMS London, pennant number C69, was a member of the second group of the heavy cruisers of the Royal Navy.
HMS Petard was a P-class destroyer of the British Royal Navy that saw service during World War II.
HMS Rawalpindi was a British armed merchant cruiser, (a converted passenger ship intended to raid and sink enemy merchant shipping) that was sunk in a surface action against the German battleships and during the first months of the Second World War.
HMS Renown was the lead ship of her class of battlecruisers of the Royal Navy built during the First World War.
HMS Royal Oak was one of five s built for the Royal Navy during the First World War.
HMS York was the first of two heavy cruisers built for the Royal Navy in the late 1920s.
Saint Hubertus or Hubert (656 – 30 May 727) became Bishop of Liège in 708 AD.
Hut 4 was a wartime section of the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) at Bletchley Park tasked with the translation, interpretation and distribution of Kriegsmarine (German navy) messages deciphered by Hut 8.
Hut 8 was a section in the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) at Bletchley Park (the British World War II codebreaking station) tasked with solving German naval (Kriegsmarine) Enigma messages.
The HX convoys were a series of North Atlantic convoys which ran during the Battle of the Atlantic in the Second World War.
A hydrophone (Ancient Greek ὕδωρ.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
The Imperial German Navy ("Imperial Navy") was the navy created at the time of the formation of the German Empire.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
The Western Allies of World War II launched the largest amphibious invasion in history when they assaulted Normandy, located on the northern coast of France, on 6 June 1944.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
Kapitänleutnant, short: KptLt / in lists: KL, (Lang-en: Captain lieutenant) is an officer grade of the captains military hierarchy group of the German Bundeswehr.
Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz (sometimes spelled Doenitz;; 16 September 1891 24 December 1980) was a German admiral who played a major role in the naval history of World War II.
Kevelaer is a municipality in the district of Kleve, in North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany.
The known-plaintext attack (KPA) is an attack model for cryptanalysis where the attacker has access to both the plaintext (called a crib), and its encrypted version (ciphertext).
Konteradmiral, abbreviated KAdm or KADM, is the second lowest naval flag officer rank in the German Navy.
Korvettenkapitän, short: KKpt / in lists: KK, is the lowest senior officer rank in the German Navy / armed forces of Germany (Bundeswehr).
The Kriegsmarine (literally "War Navy") was the navy of Germany from 1935 to 1945.
Kronberg im Taunus is a town in the Hochtaunuskreis district, Hesse, Germany and part of the Frankfurt Rhein-Main urban area.
Kurt Fricke (8 November 1889 – 2 May 1945) was an Admiral with the Kriegsmarine (navy) of Nazi Germany during World War II and a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross.
The Short Signal Code, also known as the Short Signal Book (Kurzsignalbuch), was a short code system used by the Kriegsmarine (German Navy) during World War II to minimize the transmission duration of messages.
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
This is a List of Allied convoys during World War II by region.
LIT Verlag is a German academic publisher founded in 1980.
Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 in 2017.
Lofoten is an archipelago and a traditional district in the county of Nordland, Norway.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Longitude, is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Lorient is a town (French "commune") and seaport in the Morbihan "department" of Brittany in North-Western France.
Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen, Neddersassen) is a German state (Land) situated in northwestern Germany.
The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II.
The Marder was a German miniature submarine developed from the Neger.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
In Greek mythology, Medusa (Μέδουσα "guardian, protectress") was a monster, a Gorgon, generally described as a winged human female with living venomous snakes in place of hair.
A merchant vessel, trading vessel or merchantman is a boat or ship that transports cargo or carries passengers for hire.
Metox, named after its manufacturer, was a pioneering high-frequency radar warning receiver (RWR) manufactured by a small French company in occupied Paris.
The Mid-Atlantic Gap is a geographical term attributed to an undefended area beyond the reach of land-based RAF Coastal Command antisubmarine (A/S) aircraft during the Battle of the Atlantic in the Second World War.
A midget submarine (also called a mini submarine) is any submarine under 150 tons, typically operated by a crew of one or two but sometimes up to 6 or 9, with little or no on-board living accommodation.
Montevideo is the capital and largest city of Uruguay.
Morse code is a method of transmitting text information as a series of on-off tones, lights, or clicks that can be directly understood by a skilled listener or observer without special equipment.
Multiple encryption is the process of encrypting an already encrypted message one or more times, either using the same or a different algorithm.
(Norwegian) or Áhkanjárga (Northern Sami) is the third-largest town and municipality in Nordland county, Norway by population.
Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System.
Neumünster is an urban municipality in the middle of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Newfoundland (Terre-Neuve) is a large Canadian island off the east coast of the North American mainland, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
A nickname is a substitute for the proper name of a familiar person, place, or thing, for affection or ridicule.
The Normandy landings were the landing operations on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
The Norwegian Campaign (9 April to 10 June 1940) was fought in Norway between Norway, the Allies and Germany in World War II after the latter's invasion of the country.
The Oberkommando der Marine (OKM) was Nazi Germany's Naval High Command and the highest administrative and command authority of the Kriegsmarine.
Ofotfjord (Ofotfjorden) or Narvik Fjord is a fjord in Nordland county, Norway.
In cryptography, the one-time pad (OTP) is an encryption technique that cannot be cracked, but requires the use of a one-time pre-shared key the same size as, or longer than, the message being sent.
An onomatopoeia (from the Greek ὀνοματοποιία; ὄνομα for "name" and ποιέω for "I make", adjectival form: "onomatopoeic" or "onomatopoetic") is a word that phonetically imitates, resembles or suggests the sound that it describes.
OP-20-G or "Office of Chief Of Naval Operations (OPNAV), 20th Division of the Office of Naval Communications, G Section / Communications Security", was the U.S. Navy's signals intelligence and cryptanalysis group during World War II.
Operation Dragoon (initially Operation Anvil) was the code name for the Allied invasion of Southern France on 15August 1944.
Operation Torch (8–16 November 1942, formerly Operation Gymnast) was a Anglo–American invasion of French North Africa, during the North African Campaign of the Second World War.
In modern use, the order of battle of an armed force participating in a military operation or campaign shows the hierarchical organization, command structure, strength, disposition of personnel, and equipment of units and formations of the armed force.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
Paul Werner Wenneker (27 February 1890 – 17 October 1979) was a German admiral and diplomat.
A periscope is an instrument for observation over, around or through an object, obstacle or condition that prevents direct line-of-sight observation from an observer's current position.
Poseidon (Ποσειδῶν) was one of the Twelve Olympians in ancient Greek religion and myth.
Potsdam is the capital and largest city of the German federal state of Brandenburg.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
Radar warning receiver (RWR) systems detect the radio emissions of radar systems.
A radio direction finder (RDF) is a device for finding the direction, or ''bearing'', to a radio source.
Radio jamming is the deliberate jamming, blocking or interference with authorized wireless communications.
Radio masts and towers are, typically, tall structures designed to support antennas (also known as aerials) for telecommunications and broadcasting, including television.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
Reservehandverfahren (RHV) (Reserve Hand Procedure) was a German Naval World War II hand-cipher system used as a backup method when no working Enigma machine was available.
In the history of cryptanalysis, Room 40, also known as 40 O.B. (Old Building) (latterly NID25) was the section in the British Admiralty most identified with the British cryptanalysis effort during the First World War, in particular the interception and decoding of the Zimmermann Telegram which played a role in bringing the United States into the War.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
A salutation is a greeting used in a letter or other written or non-written communication.
The SC convoys were a series of North Atlantic convoys that ran during the battle of the Atlantic during World War II.
Scapa Flow viewed from its eastern end in June 2009 Scapa Flow is a body of water in the Orkney Islands, Scotland, sheltered by the islands of Mainland, Graemsay, Burray,S.
Scuttling is the deliberate sinking of a ship by allowing water to flow into the hull.
The Seehund (German: "seal"), also known as Type XXVII, was a successful series of German midget submarines created during World War II.
The Seekriegsleitung or SKL (Maritime Warfare Command) was a higher command staff section of the Kaiserliche Marine and the Kriegsmarine of Germany during the World Wars.
The village of Sengwarden lies north of Wilhelmshaven, Germany.
The Italian Military Information Service (Servizio Informazioni Militare, or SIM) was the military intelligence organization for the Royal Army (Regio Esercito) of the Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) from 1900 until 1946, and of the Italian Republic until 1949.
The Short Weather Cipher (Wetterkurzschlüssel, abbreviated WKS), also known as the weather short signal book, was a cipher, presented as a codebook, that was used by the radio telegraphists aboard U-boats of the German Navy (Kriegsmarine) during World War II.
Signals intelligence (SIGINT) is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether communications between people (communications intelligence—abbreviated to COMINT) or from electronic signals not directly used in communication (electronic intelligence—abbreviated to ELINT).
Sint-Andries is a suburb of Bruges in the province of West Flanders in Belgium.
The Skagerrak is a strait running between the southeast coast of Norway, the southwest coast of Sweden, and the Jutland peninsula of Denmark, connecting the North Sea and the Kattegat sea area, which leads to the Baltic Sea.
A sonobuoy (a portmanteau of sonar and buoy) is a relatively small buoy (typically, in diameter and long) expendable sonar system that is dropped/ejected from aircraft or ships conducting anti-submarine warfare or underwater acoustic research.
Souda Bay is a bay and natural harbour near the town of Souda on the northwest coast of the Greek island of Crete.
Stavanger is a city and municipality in Norway.
The Stencil Subtractor frame was a ciphered text recyphering tool that was invented by British Army Intelligence Officer and cryptographer John Tiltman and was ready for trial by April 1941 but was not adopted officially by the British Forces until March 1942, and not brought into service until June 1943.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Sydney is a population centre and former city in Nova Scotia, Canada.
A telecommunication circuit is any line, conductor, or other conduit by which information is transmitted.
Thetis (Θέτις), is a figure from Greek mythology with varying mythological roles.
Thetis was the name of a floating radar decoy used by German U-boats during the Second World War.
TICOM (Target Intelligence Committee) was a secret Allied project formed in World War II to find and seize German intelligence assets, particularly in the field of cryptology and signals intelligence.
A timestamp is a sequence of characters or encoded information identifying when a certain event occurred, usually giving date and time of day, sometimes accurate to a small fraction of a second.
Tobruk or Tubruq (Αντίπυργος) (طبرق Ṭubruq; also transliterated as Tóbruch, Tobruch, Tobruck and Tubruk) is a port city on Libya's eastern Mediterranean coast, near the border of Egypt.
, officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and has been the capital since 1869.
Trinidad is the larger and more populous of the two major islands of Trinidad and Tobago.
Triton (Τρίτων Tritōn) is a mythological Greek god, the messenger of the sea.
Trondheim (historically Kaupangen, Nidaros and Trondhjem) is a city and municipality in Trøndelag county, Norway.
In the history of cryptography, Typex (alternatively, Type X or TypeX) machines were British cipher machines used from 1937.
U-boat is an anglicised version of the German word U-Boot, a shortening of Unterseeboot, literally "undersea boat".
Starting at the end of the nineteenth century, well before the advent of electronic computers, data processing was performed using electromechanical machines called unit record equipment, electric accounting machines (EAM) or tabulating machines.
The United States Fleet was an organization in the United States Navy from 1922 until after World War II.
A watch system, watch schedule, or watch bill is a method of assigning regular periods of work duty aboard ships and some other areas of employment.
Watchstanding, or watchkeeping, in nautical terms concerns the division of qualified personnel to operate a ship continuously.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
Wilhelm Tranow was a very successful German cryptanalyst, who before and during World War II worked in the monitoring service of the German Navy and was responsible for breaking a number of encrypted radio communication systems, particularly the Naval Cypher, which was used by the British Admiralty for encrypting operational signals and the Naval Code for encrypting administrative signals.
Witzenhausen is a small town in the Werra-Meißner-Kreis in northeastern Hesse, Germany.
The term wolfpack refers to the mass-attack tactics against convoys used by German U-boats of the Kriegsmarine during the Battle of the Atlantic, and by submarines of the United States Navy against Japanese shipping in the Pacific Ocean in World War II.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Y-stations were British signals intelligence collection sites established during the First World War and used again during the Second World War.
The meridian 25° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Greenland, the Atlantic Ocean, Cape Verde Islands, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 40th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 40 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 50th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 50 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.