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`Abd al Mu'min (c. 1094–1163) (عبد المؤمن بن علي or عبد المومن الــكـومي; full name: Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Muʾmin ibn ʿAlī ibn ʿAlwī ibn Yaʿlā al-Kūmī) was a prominent member of the Almohad movement.
An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education, normally at a college or university.
Adolfo Suárez Madrid–Barajas Airport (Aeropuerto Adolfo Suárez Madrid-Barajas), commonly known as Madrid–Barajas Airport, is the main international airport serving Madrid in Spain.
Air charter is the business of renting an entire aircraft (i.e., chartering) as opposed to individual aircraft seats (i.e., purchasing a ticket through a traditional airline).
Air Malta plc is the flag carrier airline of Malta, with its headquarters in Gudja and its hub at Malta International Airport.
Albert Louis Hammond OBE (born 18 May 1944) is a Gibraltarian singer, songwriter, and record producer.
Alberto Pizzarello was a Gibraltarian poet who wrote mainly in Spanish.
Algeciras (translit) is a port city in the south of Spain, and is the largest city on the Bay of Gibraltar (in Spanish, the Bahía de Algeciras).
The Algeciras Heliport (Helipuerto de Algeciras) is a public heliport in Algeciras (Cádiz, Spain).
The Almohad Caliphate (British English:, U.S. English:; ⵉⵎⵡⴻⵃⵃⴷⴻⵏ (Imweḥḥden), from Arabic الموحدون, "the monotheists" or "the unifiers") was a Moroccan Berber Muslim movement and empire founded in the 12th century.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Andalusia (Andalucía) is an autonomous community in southern Spain.
The Andalusian varieties of Spanish (Spanish: andaluz; Andalusian: andalú) are spoken in Andalusia, Ceuta, Melilla, and Gibraltar.
The Anglo-Egyptian Bank was a British overseas bank established in 1864.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Attorney General of Gibraltar is the chief legal advisor of the Government of Gibraltar.
Austrians (Österreicher) are a Germanic nation and ethnic group, native to modern Austria and South Tyrol that share a common Austrian culture, Austrian descent and Austrian history.
An autovía is one of two classes of major highway in the Spanish road system similar to a British motorway or an American freeway.
The Autovía CA-34 is an autovía in the province of Cádiz, Andalusia, Spain, providing a link between the Autovía A-7 and Gibraltar.
Ándalus Líneas Aéreas also known as just Ándalus was a Spanish regional airline based in Málaga, Spain.
The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
Ballymena is a large town in County Antrim, and the eighth largest in Northern Ireland.
Banco Galliano was the oldest bank in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.
The Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus), also known as Barbary ape or magot, is a species of macaque unique for its distribution outside Asia.
The Barbary Macaque population in Gibraltar is the only wild monkey population in the European continent.
The Barbary partridge (Alectoris barbara), is a gamebird in the pheasant family Phasianidae of the order Galliformes, gallinaceous birds Native to North Africa.
Barclays plc is a British multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered in London.
Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera; with their forelimbs adapted as wings, they are the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight.
The Battle of Trafalgar (21 October 1805) was a naval engagement fought by the British Royal Navy against the combined fleets of the French and Spanish Navies, during the War of the Third Coalition (August–December 1805) of the Napoleonic Wars (1796–1815).
The Bay of Gibraltar (also known as Gibraltar Bay or Bay of Algeciras) is a bay at the southern end of the Iberian Peninsula.
Bayside Comprehensive School, or simply Bayside, is a boys' comprehensive school in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.
The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
Bernard of Clairvaux, O.Cist (Bernardus Claraevallensis; 109020 August 1153) was a French abbot and a major leader in the reform of Benedictine monasticism that caused the formation of the Cistercian order.
A berth is a designated location in a port or harbour used for mooring vessels when they are not at sea.
The Big Four are the four largest professional services networks in the world, offering audit, assurance services, taxation, management consulting, advisory, actuarial, corporate finance and legal services.
Birmingham Airport, formerly Birmingham International Airport and before that, Elmdon Airport, is an international airport located east southeast of Birmingham city centre, slightly north of Bickenhill in the Metropolitan Borough of Solihull, England.
The Bishop in Europe (full title: Bishop of Gibraltar in Europe) is the ordinary of the Church of England's Diocese in Europe in the Province of Canterbury.
Comes Bonifatius (anglicized as Count Boniface) (d. 432) was a Roman general and governor of the Diocese of Africa.
A bookmaker, bookie, or turf accountant is an organization or a person that accepts and pays off bets on sporting and other events at agreed-upon odds.
Border controls are measures taken by a country to monitor or regulate its borders.
Breed 77 (pronounced "Breed Seven-Seven") is a British band from the overseas territory of Gibraltar whose music is a fusion of alternative metal and flamenco.
Brexit is the impending withdrawal of the United Kingdom (UK) from the European Union (EU).
Bristol is a city and county in South West England with a population of 456,000.
Bristol Airport, located at Lulsgate Bottom in North Somerset, is the commercial airport serving the city of Bristol, England, and the surrounding area.
British Airways (BA) is the flag carrier and the largest airline in the United Kingdom based on fleet size, or the second largest, behind easyJet, when measured by passengers carried.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.
The British Forces Broadcasting Service (BFBS) provides radio and television programmes for Her Majesty's Armed Forces, and their dependents worldwide.
British Forces Gibraltar is the British Armed Forces stationed in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.
The British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT) is a British overseas territory of the United Kingdom situated in the Indian Ocean halfway between Tanzania and Indonesia.
The British Overseas Territories (BOT) or United Kingdom Overseas Territories (UKOTs) are 14 territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom.
British passports are passports issued by the United Kingdom to those holding any form of British nationality.
The British Virgin Islands (BVI), officially simply "Virgin Islands", are a British Overseas Territory in the Caribbean, to the east of Puerto Rico.
Campo de Gibraltar ("Gibraltar Countryside") is a comarca (county) in the province of Cádiz, Spain, in the southwestern part of the autonomous community of Andalusia, the southernmost part of mainland Europe.
The Capture of Gibraltar by Anglo-Dutch forces of the Grand Alliance occurred between 1–3 August 1704 during the War of the Spanish Succession.
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.
Casablanca (ad-dār al-bayḍāʾ; anfa; local informal name: Kaẓa), located in the central-western part of Morocco bordering the Atlantic Ocean, is the largest city in Morocco.
Catalan Bay (La Caleta) is a small bay and fishing village in Gibraltar, on the eastern side of The Rock away from the main city.
The Cathedral of Saint Mary the Crowned is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Gibraltar.
The Cathedral of the Holy Trinity is the cathedral for the Church of England Diocese of Gibraltar in Europe.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Córdoba, also called Cordoba or Cordova in English, is a city in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba.
Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+1) during the other part of the year.
Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Ceuta (also;; Berber language: Sebta) is an Spanish autonomous city on the north coast of Africa, separated by 14 kilometres from Cadiz province on the Spanish mainland by the Strait of Gibraltar and sharing a 6.4 kilometre land border with M'diq-Fnideq Prefecture in the Kingdom of Morocco.
The Charismatic Movement is the international trend of historically mainstream Christian congregations adopting beliefs and practices similar to Pentecostalism.
Charles Ramirez (born 1953) is a concert guitarist based in London.
Charles VI (1 October 1685 – 20 October 1740; Karl VI.) succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I, as Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia (as Charles II), King of Hungary and Croatia, Serbia and Archduke of Austria (as Charles III) in 1711.
The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Gibraltar is one of the four judges who make up the supreme court of Gibraltar.
The Chief Minister of Gibraltar is the head of Her Majesty's Government of Gibraltar who is elected by the Gibraltar Parliament, and formally appointed by the Governor of Gibraltar, representative of the British Monarch.
Chief Secretary was the title of a senior civil servant in various colonies of the British Empire.
In military strategy, a choke point (or chokepoint) is a geographical feature on land such as a valley, defile or a bridge or at sea such as a strait, which an armed force is forced to pass, sometimes on a substantially narrower front and therefore greatly decreasing its combat power, to reach its objective.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Choux pastry, or pâte à choux, is a light pastry dough used to make profiteroles, italic, éclairs, French crullers, italic, St. Honoré cake, quenelles, Parisian gnocchi, dumplings, italic, italic, italic and churros.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
The Church of Scotland (The Scots Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba), known informally by its Scots language name, the Kirk, is the national church of Scotland.
In linguistics, code-switching occurs when a speaker alternates between two or more languages, or language varieties, in the context of a single conversation.
Everyday language, everyday speech, common parlance, informal language, colloquial language, general parlance, or vernacular (but this has other meanings too), is the most used variety of a language, which is usually employed in conversation or other communication in informal situations.
A comarca (or, pl. comarcas; or, pl. comarques) is a traditional region or local administrative division found in Portugal, Spain and some of their former colonies: Panama, Nicaragua, and Brazil.
The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is the agricultural policy of the European Union.
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
The Commonwealth Foundation (CF) is an intergovernmental organisation that was established by the Commonwealth Heads of Government in 1966, a year after its sister organisation, the Commonwealth Secretariat.
The Commonwealth Games are an international multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
The conservation movement, also known as nature conservation, is a political, environmental, and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including animal and plant species as well as their habitat for the future.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
A converso (feminine form conversa), "a convert", (from Latin, "converted, turned around") was a Jew who converted to Roman Catholicism in Spain or Portugal, particularly during the 14th and 15th centuries, or one of their descendants.
A corporate tax, also called corporation tax or company tax, is a direct tax imposed by a jurisdiction on the income or capital of corporations or analogous legal entities.
The Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS; Tribunal arbitral du sport, TAS) is an international quasi-judicial body established to settle disputes related to sport through arbitration.
Crédit Agricole Group, sometimes called "la banque verte" (the green bank) due to its historical ties to farming, is a French network of cooperative and mutual banks comprising Crédit Agricole local banks, the 39 Crédit Agricole regional banks and a central institute Crédit Agricole S.A..
The Crimean War (or translation) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.
A criminal investigation department (CID) is the branch of all territorial police forces within the British Police, and many other Commonwealth police forces, to which plainclothes detectives belong.
Crown colony, dependent territory and royal colony are terms used to describe the administration of United Kingdom overseas territories that are controlled by the British Government.
The Crown of Castile was a medieval state in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then Castilian king, Ferdinand III, to the vacant Leonese throne. It continued to exist as a separate entity after the personal union in 1469 of the crowns of Castile and Aragon with the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs up to the promulgation of the Nueva Planta decrees by Philip V in 1715. The Indies, Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea were also a part of the Crown of Castile when transformed from lordships to kingdoms of the heirs of Castile in 1506, with the Treaty of Villafáfila, and upon the death of Ferdinand the Catholic. The title of "King of Castile" remained in use by the Habsburg rulers during the 16th and 17th centuries. Charles I was King of Aragon, Majorca, Valencia, and Sicily, and Count of Barcelona, Roussillon and Cerdagne, as well as King of Castile and León, 1516–1556. In the early 18th century, Philip of Bourbon won the War of the Spanish Succession and imposed unification policies over the Crown of Aragon, supporters of their enemies. This unified the Crown of Aragon and the Crown of Castile into the kingdom of Spain. Even though the Nueva Planta decrees did not formally abolish the Crown of Castile, the country of (Castile and Aragon) was called "Spain" by both contemporaries and historians. "King of Castile" also remains part of the full title of Felipe VI of Spain, the current King of Spain according to the Spanish constitution of 1978, in the sense of titles, not of states.
A cruise ship or cruise liner is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, when the voyage itself, the ship's amenities, and sometimes the different destinations along the way (i.e., ports of call), are part of the experience.
The culture of Gibraltar reflects Gibraltarians' diverse origins.
A currency board is a monetary authority which is required to maintain a fixed exchange rate with a foreign currency.
The custodian helmet is the modern name applied to the helmet worn by male police officers in England and Wales (and formerly in Scotland) and certain other places around the world.
Danes (danskere) are a nation and a Germanic ethnic group native to Denmark, who speak Danish and share the common Danish culture.
Dental surgery is any of a number of medical procedures that involve artificially modifying dentition; in other words, surgery of the teeth and jaw bones.
A dependent territory, dependent area or dependency is a territory that does not possess full political independence or sovereignty as a sovereign state yet remains politically outside the controlling state's integral area.
Desalination is a process that extracts mineral components from saline water.
Dictionary.com is an online dictionary whose domain was first registered on May 14, 1995.
Gibraltar, a British Overseas Territory, located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula, is the subject of an irredentist territorial claim by Spain.
A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
EasyJet Airline Company Limited, styled as easyJet, is a British low-cost carrier airline headquartered at London Luton Airport.
An economic migrant is someone who emigrates from one region to another to seek an improvement in living standards because the living conditions or job opportunities in the migrant's own region are not sufficient.
The economy of Gibraltar consists largely of the services sector.
Lieutenant General Edward Grant Martin Davis, (born 13 February 1963) is a senior Royal Marines officer.
Education in England is overseen by the United Kingdom's Department for Education.
Education in Gibraltar generally follows the English system operating within a three tier system.
The effect of Brexit on Gibraltar concerns the status of Gibraltar after the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union.
Elections to the European Parliament take place every five years by universal adult suffrage.
The Electoral Commission is an independent body set up by the UK Parliament.
Elio Cruz is a Gibraltarian playwright, writing both in English and Llanito.
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
An emergency department (ED), also known as an accident & emergency department (A&E), emergency room (ER), emergency ward (EW) or casualty department, is a medical treatment facility specializing in emergency medicine, the acute care of patients who present without prior appointment; either by their own means or by that of an ambulance.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The Indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe.
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
The European Communities Act 1972 (c. 68) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which made legal provision for the accession of the United Kingdom to the three European Communities, namely the EEC (or "Common Market"), Euratom, and the (now defunct) Coal & Steel Community.
The European Cricket Championship is a group of various tournaments in which national cricket sides throughout Europe compete.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
The European Health Insurance Card (or EHIC) is issued free of charge and allows anyone who is insured by or covered by a statutory social security scheme of the EEA countries and Switzerland to receive medical treatment in another member state free or at a reduced cost, if that treatment becomes necessary during their visit (for example, due to illness or an accident), or if they have a chronic pre-existing condition which requires care such as kidney dialysis.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
The European route E 15 is part of the United Nations international E-road network.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The European Union Customs Union (EUCU) is a customs union which consists of all the member states of the European Union (EU), Monaco, and some territories of the United Kingdom which are not part of the EU (Akrotiri and Dhekelia, Bailiwick of Guernsey, Bailiwick of Jersey, and the Isle of Man).
Fabian Raymond Picardo QC (born 18 February 1972) is a Gibraltarian politician and barrister who is the current Chief Minister of Gibraltar.
The Falklands War (Guerra de las Malvinas), also known as the Falklands Conflict, Falklands Crisis, Malvinas War, South Atlantic Conflict, and the Guerra del Atlántico Sur (Spanish for "South Atlantic War"), was a ten-week war between Argentina and the United Kingdom over two British dependent territories in the South Atlantic: the Falkland Islands, and its territorial dependency, the South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.
A financial centre is a location that is home to a cluster of nationally or internationally significant financial services providers such as banks, investment managers, or stock exchanges.
Financial sector development in developing countries and emerging markets is part of the private sector development strategy to stimulate economic growth and reduce poverty.
Financial services are the economic services provided by the finance industry, which encompasses a broad range of businesses that manage money, including credit unions, banks, credit-card companies, insurance companies, accountancy companies, consumer-finance companies, stock brokerages, investment funds, individual managers and some government-sponsored enterprises.
A flag carrier is a transportation company, such as an airline or shipping company, that, being locally registered in a given sovereign state, enjoys preferential rights or privileges accorded by the government for international operations.
The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.
Football has been a popular part of sport in Gibraltar since its introduction by British military personnel in the 19th century.
The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), commonly called the Foreign Office, is a department of the Government of the United Kingdom.
A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare; and is also used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime.
Francisco Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a military dictator from 1939, after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975.
Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.
Funchal is the largest city, the municipal seat and the capital of Portugal's Autonomous Region of Madeira, bordered by the Atlantic Ocean.
Gatwick Airport (also known as London Gatwick) is a major international airport near Crawley in southeast England, south of Central London.
GB Airways was a UK airline; prior to its dissolution it was headquartered in "The Beehive," a former terminal building, at City Place Gatwick, London Gatwick Airport in Crawley, West Sussex, England.
In the medical profession, a general practitioner (GP) is a medical doctor who treats acute and chronic illnesses and provides preventive care and health education to patients.
Genoa (Genova,; Zêna; English, historically, and Genua) is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy.
Genoese (called Zeneize in the local language) is the main dialect of the Ligurian language spoken in Genoa (the principal city of the Liguria region in Northern Italy).
Admiral of the Fleet Sir George Rooke (1650 – 24 January 1709) was an English naval officer.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Gibraltar Anthem is the national song of the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.
The Gibraltar Broadcasting Corporation (GBC) is Gibraltar's public service broadcaster.
Gibraltar Cable Car (Teleférico de Gibraltar) is an aerial tramway in Gibraltar.
The Gibraltar Chronicle is a national newspaper published in Gibraltar since 1801.
The Gibraltar College is a school in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar, providing programmes at academic, vocational and professional levels.
The Conservative Party in Gibraltar is the part of the Conservative Party that operates in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar.
The Gibraltar Constitution Order 1969 was published on 30 May 1969 as an Order in Council.
The Gibraltar Constitution Order 2006 was taken to a referendum in Gibraltar on 30 November 2006.
Gibraltar Cricket Board is the official national governing body of the sport of cricket in Gibraltar.
The Gibraltar Cruise Terminal is located at the northern end of the Western Arm of the North Mole at Gibraltar Harbour.
The Gibraltar Defence Police (GDP) is a civil police force which guards and enforces law on Ministry of Defence installations in Gibraltar.
The Gibraltar Diamond Jubilee Flotilla, inspired by the Thames Diamond Jubilee Pageant held in England the previous day, celebrated the Queen's sixty years of reign.
The Gibraltar Football Association (GFA) is the governing body for Gibraltarian football and futsal.
General elections were held in Gibraltar on 8 December 2011.
The Gibraltar Group Practice Medical Scheme is an organisation in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar which deals with generating the funds and management resources of healthcare on the Rock.
The Gibraltar Health Authority (GHA) is the national publicly funded healthcare organisation of the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar.
Gibraltar International Airport or North Front Airport is the civilian airport that serves the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.
The British overseas territory of Gibraltar has no administrative divisions.
The Gibraltar Methodist Church is part of the South East District of the Methodist Church of Great Britain.
The Gibraltar national cricket team is the team that represents the British overseas territory of Gibraltar in international cricket.
Gibraltar National Day, celebrated annually on 10 September, is the official national day of the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.
The Gibraltar Parliament is the legislature of the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.
The Gibraltar pound (currency sign: £; banking code: GIP) is the currency of Gibraltar.
The Gibraltar Social Democrats (GSD) is a centre-right political party in Gibraltar.
The Gibraltar Socialist Labour Party (GSLP) is a social-democratic political party in Gibraltar.
The Gibraltar sovereignty referendum of 1967 was held on 10 September 1967, in which Gibraltarian citizens were asked whether they wished to pass under Spanish sovereignty, with Gibraltarians keeping their British citizenship and a special status for Gibraltar within Spain; or remain under British sovereignty, with institutions of self-government.
The Gibraltar sovereignty referendum of 2002 was a referendum which was called by the Government of Gibraltar and was held on 7 November 2002 within the British overseas territory on a proposal by the UK Government to share sovereignty of the territory between Spain and the United Kingdom.
The Gibraltar Squadron is a unit of the British Royal Navy.
Gibraltar is a town located in Zulia State in Venezuela between Bobures to the south and Boscan to the north.
The Gibraltar–Spain border is the international boundary between the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar and the Kingdom of Spain.
Gibraltarian cuisine is the result of a long relationship between the people of Spanish Andalusia and those of Great Britain, as well as the many foreigners who have made Gibraltar their home over the past three centuries.
The Gibraltarians (colloquially Llanitos) are a cultural group native to Gibraltar, a British overseas territory located near the southernmost tip of the Iberian Peninsula at the entrance to the Mediterranean Sea.
Gibtelecom is the largest telecommunications provider in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.
"God Save the Queen" (alternatively "God Save the King", depending on the gender of the reigning monarch) is the national or royal anthem in a number of Commonwealth realms, their territories, and the British Crown dependencies.
Gorham's Cave is a natural sea cave in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar.
Her Majesty's Government of Gibraltar is the democratically elected government of the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar.
The Government of the United Kingdom, formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
The Governor of Gibraltar is the representative of the British monarch in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.
Gram flour or chickpea flour or besan (बेसन; ပဲမှုန့်; بيسن), is a pulse flour made from a variety of ground chickpea known as Bengal gram.
The Grand Alliance is the name commonly used for the coalition formed on 20 December 1689 by England, the Dutch Republic and Emperor Leopold, on behalf of the Archduchy of Austria.
The Great Siege of Gibraltar was an unsuccessful attempt by Spain and France to capture Gibraltar from the British during the American War of Independence.
GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is a standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to describe the protocols for second-generation digital cellular networks used by mobile devices such as tablets, first deployed in Finland in December 1991.
Haketia (חַכִּיתִּיָה, حاكيتيا, Haquetía) (also written as Hakitia or Haquitía) is an endangered Jewish Romance language also known as Djudeo Spañol, Ladino Occidental, or Western Judaeo-Spanish.
The Hawker Hurricane is a British single-seat fighter aircraft of the 1930s–1940s that was designed and predominantly built by Hawker Aircraft Ltd.
Héctor Licudi Bottaro (Gibraltar, - Madrid, 21 October 1959) was a Gibraltarian journalist and writer.
Henry IV of Castile (Castilian: Enrique IV) (5 January 1425 – 11 December 1474), King of the Crown of Castile, nicknamed the Impotent (ruled 1454–1474), was the last of the weak late medieval kings of Castile.
Her Majesty's Customs (Gibraltar) are the primary Customs and import authority in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar.
Heracles (Ἡρακλῆς, Hēraklês, Glory/Pride of Hēra, "Hera"), born Alcaeus (Ἀλκαῖος, Alkaios) or Alcides (Ἀλκείδης, Alkeidēs), was a divine hero in Greek mythology, the son of Zeus and Alcmene, foster son of AmphitryonBy his adoptive descent through Amphitryon, Heracles receives the epithet Alcides, as "of the line of Alcaeus", father of Amphitryon.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula.
The history of Gibraltar, a small peninsula on the southern Iberian coast near the entrance of the Mediterranean Sea, spans over 2,900 years.
There has been a Jewish presence in Gibraltar for more than 650 years.
A Maltese community has existed in Gibraltar since shortly after its capture by an Anglo-Dutch fleet in 1704.
One ship and two shore establishments of the Royal Navy have borne the name HMS Rooke after Admiral Sir George Rooke: Ship.
HMS Scimitar is a fast patrol boat of the British Royal Navy.
A house church or home church is a label used to describe a group of Christians who regularly gather for worship in private homes.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
Iberia, legally incorporated as Iberia, Líneas Aéreas de España, S.A. Operadora, Sociedad Unipersonal, is the flag carrier airline of Spain, founded in 1927.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
Iberis gibraltarica (Gibraltar candytuft) is a flowering plant of the genus Iberis and the family Brassicaceae.
An intellectual is a person who engages in critical thinking, research, and reflection about society and proposes solutions for its normative problems.
International direct dialing (IDD) or international subscriber dialling (ISD) is placing an international telephone call that is dialed directly by a telephone subscriber, rather than by an telephone operator.
The International Island Games Association (IIGA) is an organisation the sole purpose of which is to organise the Island Games, a friendly biennial multi-sport competition between teams from several European islands and other small territories.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; Union Internationale des Télécommunications (UIT)), originally the International Telegraph Union (Union Télégraphique Internationale), is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies.
An invasive species is a species that is not native to a specific location (an introduced species), and that has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage to the environment, human economy or human health.
Isabella I (Isabel, 22 April 1451 – 26 November 1504) reigned as Queen of Castile from 1474 until her death.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 codes are two-letter country codes defined in ISO 3166-1, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), to represent countries, dependent territories, and special areas of geographical interest.
ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 codes are three-letter country codes defined in ISO 3166-1, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), to represent countries, dependent territories, and special areas of geographical interest.
ISO 3166-1 numeric (or numeric-3) codes are three-digit country codes defined in ISO 3166-1, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), to represent countries, dependent territories, and special areas of geographical interest.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Italians (Italiani) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula.
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List or Red Data List), founded in 1964, has evolved to become the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species.
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea.
Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
International Airport of Jerez-La Parra (Aeropuerto Internacional de Jerez-La Parra), is an airport located northeast of Jerez de la Frontera in Southern Spain, about from Cadiz.
James Francis Murphy (born 23 August 1967) is a Scottish former politician who was Leader of the Scottish Labour Party between 2014 and 2015 and a cabinet minister in the UK Government.
Juan Alonso de Guzmán y Suárez de Figueroa Orozco, 1st Duke of Medina Sidonia and 3rd Count de Niebla (in full, Don Juan Alonso de Guzmán y Suárez de Figueroa Orozco, primer Duque de Medina Sidonia, tercer Conde de Niebla, Señor de Sanlúcar de Barrameda, Señor de Lepe, Ayamonte y Gibraltar, Adelantado Mayor de la Frontera de Andalucía) (c. 1405 – December 1468) was a Spanish nobleman and military figure of the Reconquista.
Judaeo-Spanish or Judeo-Spanish (judeo-español, Hebrew script: גֿודֿיאו-איספאנייול, Cyrillic: Ђудео-Еспањол), commonly referred to as Ladino, is a Romance language derived from Old Spanish.
Julio José Iglesias de la Cueva (born 23 September 1943) is a Spanish singer and songwriter.
The Jurassic (from Jura Mountains) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous Period Mya.
Jyske Bank A/S is the third largest Danish bank in terms of market share.
Kaiane Loise Aldorino Lopez, GMH (née Aldorino; born 8 July 1986) is a Gibraltarian politician and beauty queen.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
A Key Stage is a stage of the state education system in England, Wales, Northern Ireland and the British Territory of Gibraltar setting the educational knowledge expected of students at various ages.
King George V Hospital (colloquially KG5) is a psychiatric hospital in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar run by the Gibraltar Health Authority.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Kingdom of Gibraltar is one of the many historic substantive titles pertaining to the Castilian monarchy and its successor, the Spanish monarchy, belonging to what is known as Grand Title (Título Grande).
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
La Línea de la Concepción (more often referred to as La Línea) is a town in Spain, in the province of Cádiz in Andalucia.
Land reclamation, usually known as reclamation, and also known as land fill (not to be confused with a landfill), is the process of creating new land from ocean, riverbeds, or lake beds.
A law enforcement agency (LEA), in North American English, is a government agency responsible for the enforcement of the laws.
The law of Gibraltar is a combination of common law and statute, and is based heavily upon English law.
The terms right-hand traffic (RHT) and left-hand traffic (LHT) refer to the practice, in bidirectional traffic situations, to keep to the right side or to the left side of the road, respectively.
Legal tender is a medium of payment recognized by a legal system to be valid for meeting a financial obligation.
Leopoldo Sanguinetti was a Gibraltarian poet and writer.
The Liberal Party of Gibraltar (Libs) is a liberal political party in Gibraltar.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
The following is a list of licensed banks currently trading in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
FIFA assigns a three-letter country code (more properly termed a trigramme or trigram) to each of its member and non-member countries.
The Gibraltarians (also called Llanitos/as, Gibraltareños/as) are a cultural group or nation from the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.
This list of Internet top-level domain (TLD) extensions contains top-level domains, which are those domains in the DNS root zone of the Domain Name System of the Internet.
This is a list of the municipalities in the province of Cádiz in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain.
Liverpool John Lennon Airport is an international airport serving North West England.
Llanito or Yanito (pronounced) is a form of Spanish heavily laced with words from English and some from other languages such as Genoese, spoken in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.
London Luton Airport, previously called Luton International Airport, is an international airport located east of the town centre in the Borough of Luton in Bedfordshire, England, and is north of Central London.
Madeira is a Portuguese archipelago situated in the north Atlantic Ocean, southwest of Portugal.
The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.
Maghrebis or Maghrebians are the native inhabitants of the Maghreb in Northwest Africa.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
Malta International Airport (Ajruport Internazzjonali ta' Malta) is the only airport in Malta and it serves the whole of the Maltese Islands.
Maltese (Malti) is the national language of Malta and a co-official language of the country alongside English, while also serving as an official language of the European Union, the only Semitic language so distinguished.
The Maltese (Maltin) are an ethnic group indigenous to Malta, and identified with the Maltese language.
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.
Manchester Airport is an international airport in Ringway, Manchester, England, south-west of Manchester city centre.
Punto Fa, S.L., trading as MANGO, is a Spanish clothing design and manufacturing company, founded in Barcelona (Spain) by brothers Isak Andic and Nahman Andic.
The Marinid dynasty (Berber: Imrinen, المرينيون Marīniyūn) or Banu abd al-Haqq was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Zenata Berber descent that ruled Morocco from the 13th to the 15th century.
Mario Arroyo is a Gibraltarian poet and former school teacher.
Marks & Spencer Group plc (also known as M&S) is a major British multinational retailer headquartered in the City of Westminster, London.
Mary Chiappe was a Gibraltarian writer and former Gibraltar Minister for Education in the 1960s.
His or Her Worship the Mayor of Gibraltar is the ceremonial official of the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.
Málaga Airport, officially Málaga–Costa del Sol Airport (Aeropuerto de Málaga-Costa del Sol) since June 2011, is the fourth busiest airport in Spain after Madrid–Barajas, Barcelona and Palma de Mallorca.
A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Melon Diesel was a successful Gibraltarian pop rock band, signed by Sony Music, who achieved popularity in Spain.
A Member of the European Parliament (MEP) is a person who has been elected to serve as a popular representative in the European Parliament.
Menorca or Minorca (Menorca; Menorca; from Latin: Insula Minor, later Minorica "smaller island") is one of the Balearic Islands located in the Mediterranean Sea belonging to Spain.
MercoPress is an online news agency based in Montevideo, Uruguay.
The Met Office (officially the Meteorological Office) is the United Kingdom's national weather service.
The Metropolitan Police Service (MPS), commonly known as the Metropolitan Police and informally as the Met, is the territorial police force responsible for law enforcement in Greater London, excluding the "square mile" of the City of London, which is the responsibility of the City of London Police.
The Middle Atlas (Amazigh: ⴰⵟⵍⴰⵙ ⴰⵏⴰⵎⵎⴰⵙ, Atlas Anammas, Arabic: الأطلس المتوسط, al-Aṭlas al-Mutawassiṭ) is a mountain range in Morocco.
The military history of Gibraltar during World War II exemplifies Gibraltar's position as a British fortress since the early 18th century and as a vital factor in British military strategy, both as a foothold on the continent of Europe, and as a bastion of British sea power.
The Ministry of Defence (MoD or MOD) is the British government department responsible for implementing the defence policy set by Her Majesty's Government and is the headquarters of the British Armed Forces.
Mona is a neighbourhood in southeastern Saint Andrew Parish, approximately eight kilometres from Kingston, Jamaica.
Monarch Airlines, also known simply as Monarch, was a British charter and scheduled airline which later, in 2004, became a low-cost airline The airline's headquarters were at Luton; in addition, it had other bases at Birmingham, Leeds/Bradford, Gatwick and Manchester.
The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories.
Monkeys are non-hominoid simians, generally possessing tails and consisting of about 260 known living species.
The Moorish Castle is the name given to a medieval fortification in Gibraltar comprising various buildings, gates, and fortified walls, with the dominant features being the Tower of Homage and the Gate House.
Moroccans (Berber: ⵉⵎⵖⵕⴰⴱⵉⵢⵏ, Imɣṛabiyen) are people inhabiting or originating from Morocco that share a common Moroccan culture and Maghrebi ancestry.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Wm Morrison Supermarkets plc, trading as Morrisons, is the fourth largest chain of supermarkets in the United Kingdom, and is headquartered in Bradford, West Yorkshire, England.
Mothercare plc is a British retailer which specialises in products for expectant mothers and in general merchandise for children up to 8 years old.
A motorcycle, often called a bike, motorbike, or cycle, is a two-> or three-wheeled motor vehicle.
Multi-stage flash distillation (MSF) is a water desalination process that distills sea water by flashing a portion of the water into steam in multiple stages of what are essentially countercurrent heat exchangers.
Multilingualism is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers.
The Nasrid dynasty (بنو نصر banū Naṣr or banū al-Aḥmar) was the last Arab Muslim dynasty in Iberia, ruling the Emirate of Granada from 1230 until 1492.
National colours are frequently part of a country's set of national symbols.
The National Curriculum was introduced into England, Wales and Northern Ireland as a nationwide curriculum for primary and secondary state schools following the Education Reform Act (1988).
A national dish is a culinary dish that is strongly associated with a particular country.
The National University of Distance Education, known in Spanish as Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), is a distance learning and research university founded in 1972 and is the only university run by the central government of Spain.
Natural resources are resources that exist without actions of humankind.
A nature reserve (also called a natural reserve, bioreserve, (natural/nature) preserve, or (national/nature) conserve) is a protected area of importance for wildlife, flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research.
A naval base, navy base, or military port is a military base, where warships and naval ships are docked when they have no mission at sea or want to restock.
Neanderthals (also; also Neanderthal Man, taxonomically Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, who lived in Eurasia during at least 430,000 to 38,000 years ago.
Nicholas Andrew Martin Rodger FBA (born 12 November 1949) is a historian of the Royal Navy and senior research fellow of All Souls College, Oxford.
Nu metal (also known as nü-metal and) is a subgenre of that combines elements of with elements of other music genres such as hip hop, alternative rock, funk, industrial and grunge.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written.
The olive, known by the botanical name Olea europaea, meaning "European olive", is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, found in the Mediterranean Basin from Portugal to the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia as far east as China, as well as the Canary Islands and Réunion.
One Minute Silence is a four-piece rap metal/nu metal band based in London.
Online gambling (or Internet gambling) includes poker, casinos and sports betting.
Operation Algeciras was a foiled Argentine plan to sabotage a Royal Navy warship in Gibraltar during the Falklands War.
Operation Felix was the codename for a proposed German seizure of Gibraltar during World War II, subject to the co-operation of Spanish caudillo Francisco Franco.
Operation Pedestal (Battaglia di Mezzo Agosto, "Battle of mid-August"), known in Malta as the Santa Marija Convoy (Il-Konvoj ta' Santa Marija), was a British operation to carry supplies to the island of Malta in August 1942, during the Second World War.
An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.
Our Lady of Europe (Nuestra Señora de Europa or Virgen de Europa) is a title given to the Blessed Virgin Mary as patroness of Gibraltar.
Panorama is a daily newspaper published in Gibraltar.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
Atmospheric aerosol particles, also known as atmospheric particulate matter, particulate matter (PM), particulates, or suspended particulate matter (SPM) are microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in Earth's atmosphere.
A pensioner is a person who collects a pension, most commonly because of retirement from the workforce.
Pentecostalism or Classical Pentecostalism is a renewal movement"Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals",.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
The Pillars of Hercules (Latin: Columnae Herculis, Greek: Ἡράκλειαι Στῆλαι, Arabic: أعمدة هرقل / Aʿmidat Hiraql, Spanish: Columnas de Hércules) was the phrase that was applied in Antiquity to the promontories that flank the entrance to the Strait of Gibraltar.
A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus,, of the family Pinaceae.
The Plymouth Brethren are a conservative, low church, nonconformist, evangelical Christian movement whose history can be traced to Dublin, Ireland, in the late 1820s, originating from Anglicanism.
The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
Port of Gibraltar, also known as Gibraltar Harbour, is a seaport in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Portuguese people are an ethnic group indigenous to Portugal that share a common Portuguese culture and speak Portuguese.
The pound sign (£) is the symbol for the pound sterling—the currency of the United Kingdom and previously of Great Britain and the Kingdom of England.
The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.
A prescription drug (also prescription medication or prescription medicine) is a pharmaceutical drug that legally requires a medical prescription to be dispensed.
Primary healthcare (PHC) refers to "essential health care" that is based on "scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology, which make universal health care accessible to all individuals and families in a community.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
Private banking is banking, investment and other financial services provided by banks to high-net-worth individuals (HNWIs) with high levels of income or sizable assets.
A profiterole, cream puff (US), or choux à la crème is a filled French choux pastry ball with a typically sweet and moist filling of whipped cream, custard, pastry cream, or ice cream.
The Progressive Democratic Party (PDP) was a liberal conservative political party from Gibraltar.
Cádiz is a province of southern Spain, in the southwestern part of the autonomous community of Andalusia.
RAF Gibraltar (also formerly known as North Front) is a Royal Air Force station on Gibraltar.
Rail transport in Morocco is operated by the national railway operator ONCF.
A raven is one of several larger-bodied species of the genus Corvus.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
Reverse osmosis (RO) is a water purification technology that uses a semipermeable membrane to remove ions, molecules and larger particles from drinking water.
The Rock of Gibraltar, also known as the Pillars of Hercules, is a monolithic limestone promontory located in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar, near the southwestern tip of Europe on the Iberian Peninsula.
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Gibraltar is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
The Royal College of Music is a conservatoire established by royal charter in 1882, located in South Kensington, London, UK.
The Royal Gibraltar Police (RGP) is, along with the H.M.Customs Gibraltar, the principal civilian law enforcement agency in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.
The Royal Gibraltar Post Office is the postal services in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.
The Royal Gibraltar Regiment is the home defence unit for the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
Rugby union is a popular sport since its introduction by British military personnel in the 19th Century.
Samuel G. Benady MBE, Panorama, 16 June 2007.
San Roque station (called in the railway system San Roque-La Línea, due to the proximity of La Línea de la Concepción) is located in a neighbourhood belonging to the municipality of San Roque in the Cadiz province.
The San Roque-La Línea railway line is a railway line built by the Algeciras Gibraltar Railway Company, it connects La Línea de la Concepción to San Roque station, but that has never been used.
Sandy Bay is a small bay on the eastern Mediterranean coast of Gibraltar, on the opposite side of The Rock from the main city.
Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage.
A Scenes of Crime Officer (SOCO) is an officer who gathers forensic evidence for the British police.
The Schengen Area is an area comprising 26 European states that have officially abolished passport and all other types of border control at their mutual borders.
The right of people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a jus cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms.
Self-governance, self-government, or autonomy, is an abstract concept that applies to several scales of organization.
Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or Sephardim (סְפָרַדִּים, Modern Hebrew: Sefaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm; also Ye'hude Sepharad, lit. "The Jews of Spain"), originally from Sepharad, Spain or the Iberian peninsula, are a Jewish ethnic division.
Serco Group plc is a provider of public services with headquarters based in Hook, Hampshire.
Serge is a type of twill fabric that has diagonal lines or ridges on both sides, made with a two-up, two-down weave.
Seville (Sevilla) is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville, Spain.
The Siege of Malta in the Second World War was a military campaign in the Mediterranean Theatre.
Signals intelligence (SIGINT) is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether communications between people (communications intelligence—abbreviated to COMINT) or from electronic signals not directly used in communication (electronic intelligence—abbreviated to ELINT).
Sindhi (سنڌي, सिन्धी,, ਸਿੰਧੀ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the historical Sindh region, spoken by the Sindhi people.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
The ethno-linguistic composition of the population of South Asia, that is the nations of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Maldives and Sri Lanka is highly diverse.
South West England is a constituency of the European Parliament.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spain–United Kingdom relations, also called Spanish-British relations, are the bilateral international relations between the Kingdom of Spain and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
Spaniards are a Latin European ethnic group and nation.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
The Speaker of the Gibraltar Parliament is the presiding officer of the Gibraltar Parliament, the legislature of the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar.
Special Branch is a label customarily used to identify units responsible for matters of national security and intelligence in British and Commonwealth police forces, as well as in Ireland and the Royal Malaysian Police.
The special territories of the European Union are 31 territories of EU member states which, for historical, geographical, or political reasons, enjoy special status within or outside the European Union.
Sport-utility (vehicle), SUV or sport-ute is an automotive classification, typically a kind of station wagon / estate car with off-road vehicle features like raised ground clearance and ruggedness, and available four-wheel drive.
A sports governing body is a sports organization that has a regulatory or sanctioning function.
St Bernard's Hospital is the only civilian general hospital in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.
State schools (also known as public schools outside England and Wales)In England and Wales, some independent schools for 13- to 18-year-olds are known as 'public schools'.
The Strait of Gibraltar (مضيق جبل طارق, Estrecho de Gibraltar) is a narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar and Peninsular Spain in Europe from Morocco and Ceuta (Spain) in Africa.
The Student Loans Company (SLC) is a not for profit company in the United Kingdom that provides student loans.
Student loans and grants in the United Kingdom are primarily provided by the government through the Student Loans Company (SLC), a non-departmental public body.
Stuffing, filling, or dressing, is an edible substance or mixture, often a starch, used to fill a cavity in another food item while cooking.
thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.
Sunglass Hut is an international retailer of sunglasses and sunglass accessories founded in Miami, Florida, United States, in 1971.
The Supermarine Spitfire is a British single-seat fighter aircraft used by the Royal Air Force and other Allied countries before, during and after World War II.
The four active synagogues of Gibraltar are colloquially known as the Great Synagogue, the Little Synagogue, the Flemish Synagogue, and the Abudarham Synagogue.
Tag rugby, or flag rugby, is a non-contact team game in which each player wears a belt that has two velcro tags attached to it, or shorts with velcro patches.
Tanger Med is a global logistics gateway located on the Strait of Gibraltar and connected to 174 ports worldwide with handling capacities of: 9 million containers, exports of 1 million new vehicles, transit of 7 million passengers and 700,000 trucks on an annual basis. Tanger Med constitutes an industrial hub for more than 800 companies representing a yearly export turnover in excess of 6 400 MEUR in various sectors such as automotive, aeronautics, logistics, textile and trade.
Tangier (طَنجة Ṭanjah; Berber: ⵟⴰⵏⴵⴰ Ṭanja; old Berber name: ⵜⵉⵏⴳⵉ Tingi; adapted to Latin: Tingis; Tanger; Tánger; also called Tangiers in English) is a major city in northwestern Morocco.
Tarifa is a small town in the province of Cádiz, Andalusia, on the southernmost coast of mainland Spain.
Taxi is a Gibraltarian pop rock band founded in 2005 after the break-up of Melon Diesel.
Direct telephone connections between Gibraltar and Spain were severed in 1969, when land communications between both territories were halted by the Spanish leader Francisco Franco, and were not restored until 1986.
A telephone exchange is a telecommunications system used in the public switched telephone network or in large enterprises.
The Gibraltar telephone numbering plan is the system used for assigning telephone numbers in Gibraltar.
The Thames Diamond Jubilee Pageant was a parade on 3 June 2012 of 670 boats on the Tideway of the River Thames in London as part of the celebrations of the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), often informally known as the Mormon Church, is a nontrinitarian, Christian restorationist church that is considered by its members to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
TheFreeDictionary.com is an American online dictionary and encyclopedia that gathers information from a variety of sources.
The Siege of Gibraltar of 1727 (thirteenth siege of Gibraltar, second by Spain) saw Spanish forces besiege the British garrison of Gibraltar as part of the Anglo-Spanish War.
Three-tier education refers to those structures of schooling, which exist in some parts of England, where pupils are taught in three distinct school types.
Tina Turner (born Anna Mae Bullock; November 26, 1939) is an American-born Swiss singer-songwriter, dancer, actress, and author.
Thomas Jacob "Tommy" Hilfiger (born March 24, 1951) is an American fashion designer best known for founding the lifestyle brand Tommy Hilfiger Corporation in 1985.
The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle located on the north bank of the River Thames in central London.
The Treaty of Accession 1972 was the international agreement which provided for the accession of Denmark, Ireland, Norway and the United Kingdom to the European Communities.
The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Rome) is one of two treaties forming the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU), the other being the Treaty on European Union (TEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Maastricht).
The Treaty of Utrecht, which established the Peace of Utrecht, is a series of individual peace treaties, rather than a single document, signed by the belligerents in the War of the Spanish Succession, in the Dutch city of Utrecht in March and April 1713.
Trino Cruz Seruya (born 1960) is a Gibraltarian poet.
The Union of European Football Associations (UEFA; Union des Associations Européennes de Football; Vereinigung Europäischer Fußballverbände) is the administrative body for association football in Europe, although several member states are primarily or entirely located in Asia.
The 2016 UEFA European Championship, commonly referred to as UEFA Euro 2016 or simply Euro 2016, was the 15th UEFA European Championship, the quadrennial international men's football championship of Europe organised by UEFA.
The Umayyad conquest of Hispania was the initial expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate over Hispania, largely extending from 711 to 788.
In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, also known as the EU referendum and the Brexit referendum, took place on 23 June 2016 in the United Kingdom (UK) and Gibraltar to gauge support for the country either remaining a member of, or leaving, the European Union (EU) under the provisions of the European Union Referendum Act 2015 and also the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000.
The United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories is a list of places that the United Nations General Assembly deems to be "non-self-governing" and subject to the decolonization process.
The University of Gibraltar is a not-for-profit independent tertiary institution that was established by The University of Gibraltar Act 2015.
Urban planning is a technical and political process concerned with the development and design of land use in an urban environment, including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas, such as transportation, communications, and distribution networks.
USS Wasp (CV-7) was a United States Navy aircraft carrier commissioned in 1940 and lost in action in 1942.
A value-added tax (VAT), known in some countries as a goods and services tax (GST), is a type of tax that is assessed incrementally, based on the increase in value of a product or service at each stage of production or distribution.
The Vandals were a large East Germanic tribe or group of tribes that first appear in history inhabiting present-day southern Poland.
A vernacular, or vernacular language, is the language or variety of a language used in everyday life by the common people of a specific population.
The Visigothic Kingdom or Kingdom of the Visigoths (Regnum Gothorum) was a kingdom that occupied what is now southwestern France and the Iberian Peninsula from the 5th to the 8th centuries.
The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was a European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death of the childless Charles II of Spain in November 1700.
In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), a ward is the larger of two types of local congregations, the smaller being a branch.
A warrant is generally an order that serves as a specific type of authorization, that is, a writ issued by a competent officer, usually a judge or magistrate, which permits an otherwise illegal act that would violate individual rights and affords the person executing the writ protection from damages if the act is performed.
Water supply is the provision of water by public utilities commercial organisations, community endeavors or by individuals, usually via a system of pumps and pipes.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
Westside School or simply Westside is a girls' comprehensive school in the British territory of Gibraltar.
Westside is an urban area of the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.
Whitney Elizabeth Houston (August 9, 1963 – February 11, 2012) was an American singer and actress.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
Winston Churchill Avenue is an arterial road in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Yellow fever is a viral disease of typically short duration.
.eu is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the European Union (EU).
.gi is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Gibraltar, a British Overseas Territory.
The 1943 Gibraltar B-24 crash resulted in the death of an estimated sixteen people, including general Władysław Sikorski, the commander-in-chief of the Polish Army and the Prime Minister of the Polish government-in-exile.
846 Naval Air Squadron is a squadron of the Royal Navy's Fleet Air Arm.
Air Force of Gibraltar, Army of Gibraltar, British-occupied Spain, Capital of Gibraltar, Cebelitarık, Conscription in Gibraltar, Fauna of Gibraltar, Flora of Gibraltar, Gebel-al-Tarik, Geography of Gibraltar, Gibilterra, Gibralta, Gibraltar (United Kingdom), Gibraltar 300, Gibraltar east, Gibraltar, Gibraltar, Gibraltar/Geography, Gibraltar/History, Gibraltar/Military, Gibraltar/Transnational issues, Gibralter, Gibraltor, Gilbraltar, Gilbratar, Girbraltar, Health in Gibraltar, ISO 3166-1:GI, Jabal Al-Tariq, Jabal Tariq, Jabal al-Tariq, Jabal al-Tāriq, Military of Gibraltar, Name of Gibraltar, Protestantism in Gibraltar, The weather in Gibraltar, Wildlife of Gibraltar, جبل طارق.