353 relations: Abundance of elements in Earth's crust, Abundance of the chemical elements, Acetic acid, Acid strength, Adduct, Agrochemical, Alkali metal, Alkaline earth metal, Alkane, Allotropes of oxygen, Aluminium fluoride, Ammonium fluoride, André-Marie Ampère, Andreas Sigismund Marggraf, Anesthetic, Anode, Antidepressant, Antimony pentafluoride, Antozonite, Argon fluoride laser, Argon fluorohydride, Asbestos, Asymptotic giant branch, Atomic number, Atorvastatin, Basil Valentine, Beryllium fluoride, Beta decay, Bioavailability, Bond energy, Boron monofluoride, Boron trifluoride, Bridging ligand, Broad-spectrum antibiotic, Bromofluorocarbon, Calcium fluoride, Calcium gluconate, Carbon, Carbon black, Carbon dioxide, Carbon group, Carbon monofluoride, Carbon tetrachloride, Carbon–fluorine bond, Carbon–hydrogen bond, Carboxylic acid, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Cathode, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Chalcogen, ..., Chemical element, Chemical vapor deposition, Chloralkali process, Chlorine, Chlorodifluoromethane, Chlorofluorocarbon, Ciprofloxacin, Citalopram, Citric acid cycle, Cobalt(II) fluoride, Cobalt(III) fluoride, Common brushtail possum, Compounding, Coordination complex, Covalent bond, Covalent radius of fluorine, Cracking (chemistry), Cross-link, Cryolite, CT scan, Cubic crystal system, Dental fluorosis, Desflurane, Dexamethasone, Diatomic molecule, Dichlorodifluoromethane, Dielectric, Difluoride, DuPont, Dust collector, Edmond Frémy, Education in Chemistry, Effective nuclear charge, Electric arc furnace, Electric discharge in gases, Electrochemical cell, Electrochemical fluorination, Electrolysis, Electrolyte, Electron affinity, Electron capture, Electron configuration, Electronegativity, Electrophilic fluorination, Enriched uranium, Escitalopram, Ether, Excretion, Exothermic process, Fabric structure, Fatty acid, Filtration, Finkelstein reaction, Flerovium, Fludeoxyglucose (18F), Fludrocortisone, Fluorapatite, Fluoride, Fluoride selective electrode, Fluorinase, Fluorinated ethylene propylene, Fluorine absorption dating, Fluorine deficiency, Fluorine-18, Fluorine-19 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Fluorite, Fluoroacetone, Fluorocarbon, Fluorochemical industry, Fluoroelastomer, Fluoromethane, Fluorosurfactant, Fluorotelomer, Fluorous chemistry, Fluoxetine, Fluticasone, Fluticasone propionate/salmeterol, Fluvoxamine, Fowler process, Freon, Frigidaire, Froth flotation, Functional group, Fungicide, Gas centrifuge, Gaseous diffusion, General Motors, Georgius Agricola, Glass etching, Glass production, Global warming potential, Glucocorticoid, Gore-Tex, Greenhouse gas, Gyromagnetic ratio, Half-life, Hall–Héroult process, Haloalkane, Halogen, Halothane, Heart arrhythmia, Henri Moissan, Heptafluoride, Herbicide, Hexafluoride, Hexafluorosilicic acid, Humphry Davy, Hydrofluoric acid, Hydrofluorocarbon, Hydrofluoroolefin, Hydrogen, Hydrogen bond, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrogen cyanide, Hydrogen fluoride, Hydrogen peroxide, Hydrogen sulfide, Hydrophobe, Hydroxylapatite, Hypervalent molecule, Hypocalcaemia, Immediately dangerous to life or health, Inclusion (mineral), Insulator (electricity), Interhalogen, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Iodine heptafluoride, Ionic bonding, Ionization energy, Ionomer, Iridium, Isoelectronicity, Isotope, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, Karl O. Christe, Kiwi, Krypton, Krypton difluoride, Krypton fluoride laser, Levofloxacin, Lewis acids and bases, Lipophilicity, Louis Jacques Thénard, Magnetic resonance imaging, Manhattan Project, Mass fraction (chemistry), Mass number, Metalloid, Micronutrient, Mineralocorticoid, Miscibility, Monel, Monoclinic crystal system, Monofluoride, Monoisotopic element, Montreal Protocol, Nafion, Neil Bartlett (chemist), Neon, Neurotransmitter, Neutrino, Neutron emission, Nickel(II) fluoride, Nitrogen monofluoride, Nitrogen trifluoride, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Noble gas, Noble metal, Non-stick surface, Non-stoichiometric compound, Nuclear cross section, Nuclear fuel cycle, Nuclear isomer, O-ring, Oligomer, Organic chemistry, Organofluorine chemistry, Orthorhombic crystal system, Oxidation state, Oxycyte, Paraffin wax, Paroxetine, Parts-per notation, Passivation (chemistry), Pentafluoride, Pentagonal bipyramidal molecular geometry, Perfluorinated compound, Perfluoroalkoxy alkane, Perfluorobutane, Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid, Perfluorooctanoic acid, Period (periodic table), Period 2 element, Peroxide, Persistent organic pollutant, Personal protective equipment, Phase transition, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Phosphogypsum, Pickling (metal), Picometre, Plant defense against herbivory, Plant hormone, Plasma etching, Pnictogen, Polychlorinated biphenyl, Polyethylene, Polymerization, Polytetrafluoroethylene, Polyvinyl fluoride, Polyvinylidene fluoride, Positron emission, Potassium bifluoride, Potassium fluoride, Potassium permanganate, Proceedings of the Chemical Society, Proton emission, Proton-exchange membrane, PTFE fiber, Quinolone, Radical fluorination, Radioactive tracer, Radionuclide, Radon, Radon difluoride, Rare-earth element, Reaction intermediate, Refrigerant, Rhenium heptafluoride, Roy J. Plunkett, Royal Society of Chemistry, RSC Advances, Scotchgard, Seal (mechanical), Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Serotonin, Serum albumin, Sevoflurane, Shielding effect, Silicon dioxide, Single bond, Skeletal fluorosis, Smelting, Sodium fluoroacetate, Sodium fluorosilicate, Sodium hexafluoroaluminate, Sodium monofluorophosphate, Solvent, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Steelmaking, Stellar nucleosynthesis, Structural unit, Sulfonic acid, Sulfur dioxide, Sulfur hexafluoride, Sulfur tetrafluoride, Sulfuric acid, Surface tension, Surfactant, Surfactants in paint, Swarts fluorination, Synthetic membrane, Tetrafluoride, Tetrafluoromethane, Tin(II) fluoride, Tonne, Tooth decay, Toothpaste, Topaz, Topical medication, Triamcinolone, Trichlorofluoromethane, Tricyclic antidepressant, Trifluoride, Trifluoromethoxy, Trifluoromethyl, Trifluralin, Triple bond, Tungsten hexafluoride, Type II supernova, United States dollar, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Uranium, Uranium hexafluoride, Uranium tetrafluoride, Vertical integration, Viscosity, Viton, Water, Water fluoridation, Water fluoridation controversy, Water supply, Water vapor, Wolf–Rayet star, Xenon, Xenon difluoride, Xenon hexafluoride, Xenon hexafluoroplatinate, Xenon tetrafluoride, 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane, 1,1-Dichloro-1-fluoroethane, 1,2-Dichlorotetrafluoroethane, 2,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene. 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The abundance of elements in Earth's crust is shown in tabulated form with the estimated crustal abundance for each chemical element shown as either percentage or parts per million (ppm) by mass (10,000 ppm.
The abundance of the chemical elements is a measure of the occurrence of the chemical elements relative to all other elements in a given environment.
Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).
The strength of an acid refers to its ability or tendency to lose a proton (H+).
An adduct (from the Latin adductus, "drawn toward" alternatively, a contraction of "addition product") is a product of a direct addition of two or more distinct molecules, resulting in a single reaction product containing all atoms of all components.
An agrochemical or agrichemical, a contraction of agricultural chemical, is a chemical product used in agriculture.
The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.
The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table.
In organic chemistry, an alkane, or paraffin (a historical name that also has other meanings), is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon.
There are several known allotropes of oxygen.
Aluminium fluoride (AlF3) is an inorganic compound used primarily in the production of aluminium.
Ammonium fluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula NH4F.
André-Marie Ampère (20 January 177510 June 1836) was a French physicist and mathematician who was one of the founders of the science of classical electromagnetism, which he referred to as "electrodynamics".
Andreas Sigismund Marggraf (3 March 1709 – 7 August 1782) was a German chemist from Berlin, then capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, and a pioneer of analytical chemistry.
An anesthetic (or anaesthetic) is a drug to prevent pain during surgery, completely blocking any feeling as opposed to an analgesic.
An anode is an electrode through which the conventional current enters into a polarized electrical device.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
Antimony pentafluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula SbF5.
Antozonite (historically known as Stinkspat, Stinkfluss, Stinkstein, Stinkspar and fetid fluorite) is a radioactive fluorite variety first found in Wölsendorf, Bavaria, in 1841, and named in 1862.
The argon fluoride laser (ArF laser) is a particular type of excimer laser, which is sometimes (more correctly) called an exciplex laser.
Argon fluorohydride (systematically named fluoridohydridoargon) or argon hydrofluoride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula HArF (also written ArHF).
Asbestos is a set of six naturally occurring silicate minerals, which all have in common their eponymous asbestiform habit: i.e. long (roughly 1:20 aspect ratio), thin fibrous crystals, with each visible fiber composed of millions of microscopic "fibrils" that can be released by abrasion and other processes.
The asymptotic giant branch (AGB) is a region of the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram populated by evolved cool luminous stars.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
Atorvastatin, marketed under the trade name Lipitor among others, is a member of the medication class known as statins, which are used primarily as a lipid-lowering agent and for prevention of events associated with cardiovascular disease.
Basil Valentine is the Anglicised version of the name Basilius Valentinus, ostensibly a 15th-century alchemist, possibly Canon of the Benedictine Priory of Saint Peter in Erfurt, Germany but more likely a pseudonym used by one or several 16th-century German authors.
Beryllium fluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula BeF2.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
In pharmacology, bioavailability (BA or F) is a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.
In chemistry, bond energy (E) or bond enthalpy (H) is the measure of bond strength in a chemical bond.
Boron monofluoride or fluoroborylene is a chemical compound with formula BF, one atom of boron and one of fluorine.
Boron trifluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula BF3.
In coordination chemistry, a bridging ligand is a ligand that connects two or more atoms, usually metal ions.
The term broad-spectrum antibiotic can refer to an antibiotic that acts on the two major bacterial groups, gram-positive and gram-negative, or any antibiotic that acts against a wide range of disease-causing bacteria.
Bromofluorocarbons (BFCs) are molecules based on carbon, bromine, and fluorine.
Calcium fluoride is the inorganic compound of the elements calcium and fluorine with the formula CaF2.
Calcium gluconate is a mineral supplement and medication.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon black (subtypes are acetylene black, channel black, furnace black, lamp black and thermal black) is a material produced by the incomplete combustion of heavy petroleum products such as FCC tar, coal tar, ethylene cracking tar, with the addition of a small amount of vegetable oil.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
The carbon group is a periodic table group consisting of carbon (C), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), and flerovium (Fl).
Carbon monofluoride (CF, CFx, or (CF)x), also called polycarbon monofluoride (PMF), polycarbon fluoride, poly(carbon monofluoride), and graphite fluoride, is a material formed by high-temperature reaction of fluorine gas with graphite, charcoal, or pyrolytic carbon powder.
Carbon tetrachloride, also known by many other names (the most notable being tetrachloromethane, also recognized by the IUPAC, carbon tet in the cleaning industry, Halon-104 in firefighting, and Refrigerant-10 in HVACR) is an organic compound with the chemical formula CCl4.
The carbon–fluorine bond is a polar covalent bond between carbon and fluorine that is a component of all organofluorine compounds.
The carbon-hydrogen bond (C–H bond) is a bond between carbon and hydrogen atoms that can be found in many organic compounds.
A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.
Carl Wilhelm Scheele (9 December 1742 – 21 May 1786) was a Swedish Pomeranian and German pharmaceutical chemist.
A cathode is the electrode from which a conventional current leaves a polarized electrical device.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
The chalcogens are the chemical elements in group 16 of the periodic table.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is deposition method used to produce high quality, high-performance, solid materials, typically under vacuum.
The chloralkali process (also chlor-alkali and chlor alkali) is an industrial process for the electrolysis of sodium chloride.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Chlorodifluoromethane or difluoromonochloromethane is a hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC).
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are fully halogenated paraffin hydrocarbons that contain only carbon (С), chlorine (Cl), and fluorine (F), produced as volatile derivative of methane, ethane, and propane.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Ciprofloxacin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.
Citalopram (brand names: Celexa, Cipramil and others) is an antidepressant drug of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
The citric acid cycle (CAC) – also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Cobalt(II) fluoride is a chemical compound with the formula (CoF2).
Cobalt(III) fluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula CoF3.
The common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula, from the Greek for "furry tailed" and the Latin for "little fox", previously in the genus Phalangista) is a nocturnal, semi-arboreal marsupial of the family Phalangeridae, it is native to Australia, and the second largest of the possums.
Pharmaceutical compounding (done in compounding pharmacies) is the creation of a particular pharmaceutical product to fit the unique need of a patient.
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
The covalent radius of fluorine is a measure of the size of a fluorine atom; it is approximated at about 60 picometres.
In petrochemistry, petroleum geology and organic chemistry, cracking is the process whereby complex organic molecules such as kerogens or long-chain hydrocarbons are broken down into simpler molecules such as light hydrocarbons, by the breaking of carbon-carbon bonds in the precursors.
A cross-link is a bond that links one polymer chain to another.
Cryolite (Na3AlF6, sodium hexafluoroaluminate) is an uncommon mineral identified with the once large deposit at Ivigtût on the west coast of Greenland, depleted by 1987.
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube.
Dental fluorosis (also termed mottled enamel) is an extremely common disorder, characterized by hypomineralization of tooth enamel caused by ingestion of excessive fluoride during enamel formation.
Desflurane (1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl difluoromethyl ether) is a highly fluorinated methyl ethyl ether used for maintenance of general anesthesia.
Dexamethasone is a type of corticosteroid medication.
Diatomic molecules are molecules composed of only two atoms, of the same or different chemical elements.
Dichlorodifluoromethane (R-12) is a colorless gas usually sold under the brand name Freon-12, and a chlorofluorocarbon halomethane (CFC) used as a refrigerant and aerosol spray propellant.
A dielectric (or dielectric material) is an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an applied electric field.
Difluorides are chemical compounds with two fluorine atoms per molecule (or per formula unit).
A dust collector is a system used to enhance the quality of air released from industrial and commercial processes by collecting dust and other impurities from air or gas.
Edmond Frémy (28 February 1814 – 3 February 1894) was a French chemist.
Education in Chemistry is a magazine covering all areas of chemistry education, concentrating on the teaching of chemistry in secondary schools and universities.
The effective nuclear charge (often symbolized as Z_ or Z^\ast) is the net positive charge experienced by an electron in a polyelectronic atom.
An electric arc furnace (EAF) is a furnace that heats charged material by means of an electric arc.
Electric discharge in gases occurs when electric current flows through a gaseous medium due to ionization of the gas.
An electrochemical cell (EC) is a device capable of either generating electrical energy from chemical reactions or using electrical energy to cause chemical reactions.
Electrochemical fluorination (ECF), or electrofluorination, is a foundational organofluorine chemistry method for the preparation of fluorocarbon-based organofluorine compounds.
In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
In chemistry and atomic physics, the electron affinity (Eea) of an atom or molecule is defined as the amount of energy released or spent when an electron is added to a neutral atom or molecule in the gaseous state to form a negative ion.
Electron capture (K-electron capture, also K-capture, or L-electron capture, L-capture) is a process in which the proton-rich nucleus of an electrically neutral atom absorbs an inner atomic electron, usually from the K or L electron shell.
In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals.
Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
Electrophilic fluorination is the combination of a carbon-centered nucleophile with an electrophilic source of fluorine to afford organofluorine compounds.
Enriched uranium is a type of uranium in which the percent composition of uranium-235 has been increased through the process of isotope separation.
Escitalopram, sold under the brand names Cipralex and Lexapro among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
Ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group—an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups.
Excretion is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.
In thermodynamics, the term exothermic process (exo-: "outside") describes a process or reaction that releases energy from the system to its surroundings, usually in the form of heat, but also in a form of light (e.g. a spark, flame, or flash), electricity (e.g. a battery), or sound (e.g. explosion heard when burning hydrogen).
In architecture, fabric structures are forms of constructed fibers that provide end users a variety of aesthetic free-form building designs.
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
Filtration is any of various mechanical, physical or biological operations that separate solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by adding a medium through which only the fluid can pass.
The Finkelstein reaction (often referred to as a halex reaction or halogen exchange) named after the German chemist Hans Finkelstein, is an SN2 reaction (Substitution Nucleophilic Bimolecular reaction) that involves the exchange of one halogen atom for another.
Flerovium is a superheavy artificial chemical element with symbol Fl and atomic number 114.
Fludeoxyglucose (18F) (INN), or fludeoxyglucose F 18 (USAN and USP), also commonly called fluorodeoxyglucose and abbreviated FDG, 18F-FDG or FDG, is a radiopharmaceutical used in the medical imaging modality positron emission tomography (PET).
Fludrocortisone, sold under the brand name Florinef among others, is a corticosteroid which is used to treat adrenogenital syndrome, postural hypotension, and adrenal insufficiency.
Fluorapatite, often with the alternate spelling of fluoroapatite, is a phosphate mineral with the formula Ca5(PO4)3F (calcium fluorophosphate).
A fluoride selective electrode is a type of ion selective electrode sensitive to the concentration of the fluoride ion.
The fluorinase enzyme (also known as adenosyl-fluoride synthase) catalyzes the reaction between fluoride ion and the co-factor S-adenosyl-L-methionine to generate L-methionine and 5'-fluoro-5'-deoxyadenosine, the first committed product of the fluorometabolite biosynthesis pathway.
Fluorinated ethylene propylene or FEP is a copolymer of hexafluoropropylene and tetrafluoroethylene.
Fluorine absorption dating is a method used to determine the amount of time an object has been underground.
Fluoride or fluorine deficiency is a disorder which may cause increased dental caries (or tooth decay, is the breakdown of dental tissues by the acidic products released by the "bacterial fermentation of dietary carbohydrates.") and possibly osteoporosis (a bone disorder which leads to a decrease in bone mass, and an increase in bone fragility), due to a lack of fluoride in the diet.
Fluorine-18 (18F) is a fluorine radioisotope which is an important source of positrons.
Fluorine-19 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (fluorine NMR or 19F NMR) is an analytical technique used to detect and identify fluorine-containing compounds.
Not to be confused with Fluoride. Fluorite (also called fluorspar) is the mineral form of calcium fluoride, CaF2.
Fluoroacetone is an organofluorine compound with the chemical formula.
Fluorocarbons, sometimes referred to as perfluorocarbons or PFCs, are, strictly speaking, organofluorine compounds with the formula CxFy, i.e. they contain only carbon and fluorine, though the terminology is not strictly followed.
The global market for chemicals from fluorine was about US$16 billion per year as of 2006.
A fluoroelastomer is a fluorocarbon-based synthetic rubber.
Fluoromethane, also known as methyl fluoride, Freon 41, Halocarbon-41 and HFC-41, is a non-toxic, liquefiable, and flammable gas at standard temperature and pressure.
Fluorosurfactants (also fluorinated surfactants, perfluorinated alkylated substances or PFASs) are synthetic organofluorine chemical compounds that have multiple fluorine atoms.
Fluorotelomers are fluorocarbon-based oligomers, or telomers, synthesized by telomerization.
Fluorous chemistry involves the use of perfluorinated compounds or perfluorinated substituents to facilitate recovery of a catalyst or reaction product.
Fluoxetine, also known by trade names Prozac and Sarafem, among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
Fluticasone is a synthetic glucocorticoid which is used in some countries to treat nasal symptoms.
The combination preparation fluticasone/salmeterol is a formulation containing fluticasone propionate and salmeterol xinafoate, used in the management of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Fluvoxamine, sold under the brand name Luvox among others, is a medication which is used primarily for the treatment of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), and is also used to treat major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders such as panic disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder.
The Fowler process is an industry and laboratory route to fluorocarbons, by fluorinating hydrocarbons or their partially fluorinated derivatives in the vapor phase over cobalt(III) fluoride.
Freon is a registered trademark of The Chemours Company, which uses it for a number of halocarbon products.
Frigidaire is the US consumer and commercial home appliances brand subsidiary of European parent company Electrolux.
Froth flotation is a process for selectively separating hydrophobic materials from hydrophilic.
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
Fungicides are biocidal chemical compounds or biological organisms used to kill parasitic fungi or their spores.
A gas centrifuge is a device that performs isotope separation of gases.
Gaseous diffusion is a technology used to produce enriched uranium by forcing gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF6) through semipermeable membranes.
General Motors Company, commonly referred to as General Motors (GM), is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Detroit that designs, manufactures, markets, and distributes vehicles and vehicle parts, and sells financial services.
Georgius Agricola (24 March 1494 – 21 November 1555) was a German mineralogist and metallurgist.
Glass etching comprises the techniques of creating art on the surface of glass by applying acidic, caustic, or abrasive substances.
Glass production involves two main methods – the float glass process that produces sheet glass, and glassblowing that produces bottles and other containers.
Global warming potential (GWP) is a relative measure of how much heat a greenhouse gas traps in the atmosphere.
Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.
Gore-Tex is a waterproof, breathable fabric membrane and registered trademark of W. L. Gore and Associates.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
In physics, the gyromagnetic ratio (also sometimes known as the magnetogyric ratio in other disciplines) of a particle or system is the ratio of its magnetic moment to its angular momentum, and it is often denoted by the symbol γ, gamma.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
The Hall–Héroult process is the major industrial process for smelting aluminium.
The haloalkanes (also known as halogenoalkanes or alkyl halides) are a group of chemical compounds derived from alkanes containing one or more halogens.
The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).
Halothane, sold under the brandname Fluothane among others, is a general anesthetic.
Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
Ferdinand Frederick Henri Moissan (28 September 1852 – 20 February 1907) was a French chemist who won the 1906 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work in isolating fluorine from its compounds.
Heptafluoride typically refers to compounds with the formula RnMxF7y− or RnMxF7y+, where n, x, and y are independent variables and R any substituent.
Herbicides, also commonly known as weedkillers, are chemical substances used to control unwanted plants.
A hexafluoride is a chemical compound with the general formula QXnF6, QXnF6m−, or QXnF6m+.
Hexafluorosilicic acid is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written as). It is a colorless liquid rarely encountered undiluted.
Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet (17 December 177829 May 1829) was a Cornish chemist and inventor, who is best remembered today for isolating, using electricity, a series of elements for the first time: potassium and sodium in 1807 and calcium, strontium, barium, magnesium and boron the following year, as well as discovering the elemental nature of chlorine and iodine.
Hydrofluoric acid is a solution of hydrogen fluoride (HF) in water.
Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), organic compounds that contain fluorine and hydrogen atoms, are the most common type of organofluorine compounds.
Hydrofluoroolefins (HFOs) are unsaturated organic compounds composed of hydrogen, fluorine and carbon.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
The compound hydrogen chloride has the chemical formula and as such is a hydrogen halide.
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), sometimes called prussic acid, is a chemical compound with the chemical formula HCN.
Hydrogen fluoride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula.
Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.
Hydroxylapatite, also called hydroxyapatite (HA), is a naturally occurring mineral form of calcium apatite with the formula Ca5(PO4)3(OH), but is usually written Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 to denote that the crystal unit cell comprises two entities.
A hypervalent molecule (the phenomenon is sometimes colloquially known as expanded octet) is a molecule that contains one or more main group elements apparently bearing more than eight electrons in their valence shells.
Hypocalcaemia, also spelled hypocalcemia, is low calcium levels in the blood serum.
The term immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) is defined by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as exposure to airborne contaminants that is "likely to cause death or immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects or prevent escape from such an environment." Examples include smoke or other poisonous gases at sufficiently high concentrations.
In mineralogy, an inclusion is any material that is trapped inside a mineral during its formation.
An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely; very little electric current will flow through it under the influence of an electric field.
An interhalogen compound is a molecule which contains two or more different halogen atoms (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, or astatine) and no atoms of elements from any other group.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
Iodine heptafluoride, also known as iodine(VII) fluoride or iodine fluoride, is an interhalogen compound with the chemical formula IF7.
Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, and is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compounds.
The ionization energy (Ei) is qualitatively defined as the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron, the valence electron, of an isolated gaseous atom to form a cation.
An ionomer (iono- + -mer) is a polymer that comprises repeat units of both electrically neutral repeating units and a fraction of ionized units (usually no more than 15 mole percent) covalently bonded to the polymer backbone as pendant group moieties.
Iridium is a chemical element with symbol Ir and atomic number 77.
Isoelectronicity is the phenomenon of two or more chemical species (atoms, molecules, radicals, ions etc.) differing in the atoms that comprise them but having the same number of valence electrons and the same structure (that is, the same number of atoms with the same connectivity).
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (also Louis Joseph Gay-Lussac; 6 December 1778 – 9 May 1850) was a French chemist and physicist.
Karl Otto Christe (born July 24, 1936) is an inorganic chemist.
Kiwi or kiwis are flightless birds native to New Zealand, in the genus Apteryx and family Apterygidae.
Krypton (from translit "the hidden one") is a chemical element with symbol Kr and atomic number 36.
Krypton difluoride, KrF2 is a chemical compound of krypton and fluorine.
A krypton fluoride laser (KrF laser) is a particular type of excimer laser, which is sometimes (more correctly) called an exciplex laser.
Levofloxacin, sold under the trade names Levaquin among others, is an antibiotic.
A Lewis acid is a chemical species that contains an empty orbital which is capable of accepting an electron pair from a Lewis base to form a Lewis adduct.
Lipophilicity (from Greek λίπος "fat" and φίλος "friendly"), refers to the ability of a chemical compound to dissolve in fats, oils, lipids, and non-polar solvents such as hexane or toluene.
Louis Jacques Thénard (4 May 1777 – 21 June 1857) was a French chemist.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.
In chemistry, the mass fraction w_i is the ratio of one substance with mass m_i to the mass of the total mixture m_\text, defined as The symbol Y_i is also used to denote mass fraction.
The mass number (symbol A, from the German word Atomgewichte (atomic weight), also called atomic mass number or nucleon number, is the total number of protons and neutrons (together known as nucleons) in an atomic nucleus. It determines the atomic mass of atoms. Because protons and neutrons both are baryons, the mass number A is identical with the baryon number B as of the nucleus as of the whole atom or ion. The mass number is different for each different isotope of a chemical element. This is not the same as the atomic number (Z) which denotes the number of protons in a nucleus, and thus uniquely identifies an element. Hence, the difference between the mass number and the atomic number gives the number of neutrons (N) in a given nucleus:. The mass number is written either after the element name or as a superscript to the left of an element's symbol. For example, the most common isotope of carbon is carbon-12, or, which has 6 protons and 6 neutrons. The full isotope symbol would also have the atomic number (Z) as a subscript to the left of the element symbol directly below the mass number:. This is technically redundant, as each element is defined by its atomic number, so it is often omitted.
A metalloid is any chemical element which has properties in between those of metals and nonmetals, or that has a mixture of them.
Micronutrients are essential elements required by organisms in small quantities throughout life to orchestrate a range of physiological functions to maintain health.
Mineralocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which in turn are a class of steroid hormones.
Miscibility is the property of substances to mix in all proportions (that is, to fully dissolve in each other at any concentration), forming a homogeneous solution.
Monel is a group of nickel alloys, primarily composed of nickel (up to 67%) and copper, with small amounts of iron, manganese, carbon, and silicon.
In crystallography, the monoclinic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.
A monofluoride is a chemical compound with one fluoride per formula unit.
A monoisotopic element is one of 26 chemical elements which have only a single stable isotope (nuclide).
The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (a protocol to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer) is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances that are responsible for ozone depletion.
Nafion is a sulfonated tetrafluoroethylene based fluoropolymer-copolymer discovered in the late 1960s by Walther Grot of DuPont.
Neil Bartlett (15 September 1932 – 5 August 2008) was a chemist who specialized in fluorine and compounds containing fluorine, and became famous for creating the first noble gas compounds.
Neon is a chemical element with symbol Ne and atomic number 10.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
A neutrino (denoted by the Greek letter ν) is a fermion (an elementary particle with half-integer spin) that interacts only via the weak subatomic force and gravity.
Neutron emission is a mode of radioactive decay in which one or more neutrons are ejected from a nucleus.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Nickel(II) fluoride is the chemical compound with the formula NiF2.
Nitrogen monofluoride (fluoroimidogen) is a metastable species that has been observed in laser studies.
Nitrogen trifluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula NF3.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.
The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.
In chemistry, the noble metals are metals that are resistant to corrosion and oxidation in moist air (unlike most base metals).
A non-stick surface is a surface engineered to reduce the ability of other materials to stick to it.
Non-stoichiometric compounds are chemical compounds, almost always solid inorganic compounds, having elemental composition whose proportions cannot be represented by integers; most often, in such materials, some small percentage of atoms are missing or too many atoms are packed into an otherwise perfect lattice work.
The nuclear cross section of a nucleus is used to characterize the probability that a nuclear reaction will occur.
The nuclear fuel cycle, also called nuclear fuel chain, is the progression of nuclear fuel through a series of differing stages.
A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atomic nucleus caused by the excitation of one or more of its nucleons (protons or neutrons).
An O-ring, also known as a packing, or a toric joint, is a mechanical gasket in the shape of a torus; it is a loop of elastomer with a round cross-section, designed to be seated in a groove and compressed during assembly between two or more parts, creating a seal at the interface.
An oligomer (oligo-, "a few" + -mer, "parts") is a molecular complex of chemicals that consists of a few monomer units, in contrast to a polymer, where the number of monomers is, in principle, infinite.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
Organofluorine chemistry describes the chemistry of the organofluorines, organic compounds that contain the carbon–fluorine bond.
In crystallography, the orthorhombic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
Oxycyte is an experimental third-generation perfluorocarbon (PFC) therapeutic oxygen carrier invented by Leland Clark and developed by Tenax Therapeutics (TENX; formerly Oxygen Biotherapeutics, Inc. and Synthetic Blood International).
Paraffin wax is a white or colourless soft solid, derived from petroleum, coal or oil shale, that consists of a mixture of hydrocarbon molecules containing between twenty and forty carbon atoms.
Paroxetine, also known by trade names including Paxil and Seroxat among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class. It is used to treat major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. It has also been used in the treatment of hot flashes and night sweats associated with menopause. It has a similar tolerability profile to other SSRIs. The common side effects include drowsiness, dry mouth, loss of appetite, sweating, trouble sleeping and delayed ejaculation. It may also be associated with a slightly increased risk of birth defects. The rate of withdrawal symptoms in young people may be higher with paroxetine and venlafaxine than other SSRIs and SNRIs. Several studies have associated paroxetine with suicidal thinking and behavior in children and adolescents. Marketing of the drug began in 1992 by the pharmaceutical company SmithKline Beecham, known since 2000 as GlaxoSmithKline. Generic formulations have been available since 2003 when the patent expired. The United States Department of Justice fined GlaxoSmithKline $3 billion in 2012, including a sum for withholding data on paroxetine, unlawfully promoting it for under-18s and preparing an article, following one of its clinical trials, study 329, that misleadingly reported the drug was effective in treating adolescent depression.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
Passivation, in physical chemistry and engineering, refers to a material becoming "passive," that is, less affected or corroded by the environment of future use.
Pentafluoride may refer to.
In chemistry, a pentagonal bipyramid (or dipyramid) is a molecular geometry with one atom at the centre with seven ligands at the corners of a pentagonal dipyramid.
A perfluorinated compound (PFC) per- or polyfluoroalkyl chemical is an organofluorine compound containing only carbon-fluorine bonds (no C-H bonds) and C-C bonds but also other heteroatoms.
Perfluoroalkoxy alkanes or PFA are fluoropolymers.
Perfluorobutane (PFB) is a colorless gas.
Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (conjugate base perfluorooctanesulfonate) (PFOS) is an anthropogenic fluorosurfactant and global pollutant.
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (conjugate base perfluorooctanoate), also known as C8, is a synthetic perfluorinated carboxylic acid and fluorosurfactant.
A period in the periodic table is a horizontal row.
A period 2 element is one of the chemical elements in the second row (or period) of the periodic table of the chemical elements.
Peroxide is a compound with the structure R-O-O-R. The O−O group in a peroxide is called the peroxide group or peroxo group.
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes.
Personal protective equipment (PPE) refers to protective clothing, helmets, goggles, or other garments or equipment designed to protect the wearer's body from injury or infection.
The term phase transition (or phase change) is most commonly used to describe transitions between solid, liquid and gaseous states of matter, and, in rare cases, plasma.
Philosophical Transactions, titled Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (often abbreviated as Phil. Trans.) from 1776, is a scientific journal published by the Royal Society.
Phosphogypsum refers to the calcium sulfate hydrate formed as a by-product of the production of fertilizer from phosphate rock.
Pickling is a metal surface treatment used to remove impurities, such as stains, inorganic contaminants, rust or scale from ferrous metals, copper, precious metals and aluminum alloys.
The picometre (international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: pm) or picometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to, or one trillionth of a metre, which is the SI base unit of length.
Plant defense against herbivory or host-plant resistance (HPR) describes a range of adaptations evolved by plants which improve their survival and reproduction by reducing the impact of herbivores.
Plant hormones (also known as phytohormones) are chemicals that regulate plant growth.
Plasma etching is a form of plasma processing used to fabricate integrated circuits.
A pnictogen is one of the chemical elements in group 15 of the periodic table.
A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is an organic chlorine compound with the formula C12H10−xClx.
Polyethylene or polythene (abbreviated PE; IUPAC name polyethene or poly(ethylene)) is the most common plastic.
In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene that has numerous applications.
Polyvinyl fluoride (PVF) or –(CH2CHF)n– is a polymer material mainly used in the flammability-lowering coatings of airplane interiors and photovoltaic module backsheets.
Polyvinylidene fluoride or polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) is a highly non-reactive thermoplastic fluoropolymer produced by the polymerization of vinylidene difluoride.
Positron emission or beta plus decay (β+ decay) is a subtype of radioactive decay called beta decay, in which a proton inside a radionuclide nucleus is converted into a neutron while releasing a positron and an electron neutrino (νe).
Potassium bifluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula KHF2.
Potassium fluoride is the chemical compound with the formula KF.
Potassium permanganate is an inorganic chemical compound and medication.
The Proceedings of the Chemical Society was a scientific journal published at various times in the life of the Chemical Society, a scientific society in the United Kingdom that combined with other societies to form the Royal Society of Chemistry in 1980.
Proton emission (also known as proton radioactivity) is a rare type of radioactive decay in which a proton is ejected from a nucleus.
A proton-exchange membrane, or polymer-electrolyte membrane (PEM), is a semipermeable membrane generally made from ionomers and designed to conduct protons while acting as an electronic insulator and reactant barrier, e.g. to oxygen and hydrogen gas.
PTFE fiber is a chemically resistant material.
Quinolone may refer to.
Radical fluorination is a type of fluorination reaction, complementary to nucleophilic and electrophilic approaches.
A radioactive tracer, or radioactive label, is a chemical compound in which one or more atoms have been replaced by a radionuclide so by virtue of its radioactive decay it can be used to explore the mechanism of chemical reactions by tracing the path that the radioisotope follows from reactants to products.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86.
Radon difluoride is a compound of radon, a noble gas.
A rare-earth element (REE) or rare-earth metal (REM), as defined by IUPAC, is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium.
A reaction intermediate or an intermediate is a molecular entity that is formed from the reactants (or preceding intermediates) and reacts further to give the directly observed products of a chemical reaction.
A refrigerant is a substance or mixture, usually a fluid, used in a heat pump and refrigeration cycle.
Rhenium heptafluoride is the compound with the formula ReF7.
Roy J. Plunkett (June 26, 1910 – May 12, 1994) was an American chemist.
The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".
RSC Advances is an online-only peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on all aspects of the chemical sciences.
Scotchgard is a 3M brand of products, a stain and durable water repellent applied to fabric, furniture, and carpets to protect them from stains.
A mechanical seal is a device that helps join systems or mechanisms together by preventing leakage (e.g. in a plumbing system), containing pressure, or excluding contamination.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Serum albumin, often referred to simply as blood albumin, is an albumin (a type of globular protein) found in vertebrate blood.
Sevoflurane (1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-(fluoromethoxy)propane; synonym, fluoromethyl hexafluoroisopropyl ether), is a sweet-smelling, nonflammable, highly fluorinated methyl isopropyl ether used as an inhalational anaesthetic for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia.
The shielding effect describes the attraction between an electron and the nucleus in any atom with more than one electron.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
In chemistry, a single bond is a chemical bond between two atoms involving two valence electrons.
Skeletal fluorosis is a bone disease caused by excessive accumulation of fluoride in the bones.
Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to melt out a base metal.
Sodium fluorosilicate is a compound with the chemical formula Na2.
Sodium aluminium hexafluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula Na3AlF6.
Sodium monofluorophosphate, commonly abbreviated MFP, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Na2PO3F.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.
Steelmaking is the process for producing steel from iron ore and scrap.
Stellar nucleosynthesis is the theory explaining the creation (nucleosynthesis) of chemical elements by nuclear fusion reactions between atoms within the stars.
In polymer chemistry, a structural unit is a building block of a polymer chain.
A sulfonic acid (or sulphonic acid) refers to a member of the class of organosulfur compounds with the general formula R−S(.
Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.
Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is an inorganic, colorless, odorless, non-flammable, extremely potent greenhouse gas, and an excellent electrical insulator.
Sulfur tetrafluoride is the chemical compound with the formula SF4.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
Surface tension is the elastic tendency of a fluid surface which makes it acquire the least surface area possible.
Surfactants are compounds that lower the surface tension (or interfacial tension) between two liquids, between a gas and a liquid, or between a liquid and a solid.
Paint has four major components: pigments, binders, solvents, and additives.
Swarts fluorination is a process whereby the chlorine atoms in a compound - generally an organic compound, but experiments have been performed using silanes - are replaced with fluorine, by treatment with antimony trifluoride in the presence of chlorine or of antimony pentachloride.
An artificial membrane, or synthetic membrane, is a synthetically created membrane which is usually intended for separation purposes in laboratory or in industry.
A tetrafluoride is a chemical compound with four fluorines in its formula.
Tetrafluoromethane, also known as carbon tetrafluoride, is the simplest fluorocarbon (CF4).
Tin(II) fluoride, commonly referred to commercially as stannous fluoride (from Latin stannum, 'tin') is a chemical compound with the formula SnF2.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
Tooth decay, also known as dental caries or cavities, is a breakdown of teeth due to acids made by bacteria.
Toothpaste is a paste or gel dentifrice used with a toothbrush as an accessory to clean and maintain the aesthetics and health of teeth.
Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F, OH)2.
A topical medication is a medication that is applied to a particular place on or in the body.
Triamcinolone is an intermediate-acting synthetic glucocorticoid given orally, by injection, by inhalation, or as a topical ointment or cream.
Trichlorofluoromethane, also called freon-11, CFC-11, or R-11, is a chlorofluorocarbon.
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a class of medications that are used primarily as antidepressants.
Trifluorides are compounds having three fluorines per formula unit.
Trifluoromethoxy is the chemical group –O–.
Trifluoromethyl is a functional group that has the formula -CF3.
Trifluralin is a commonly used pre-emergence herbicide.
A triple bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two atoms involving six bonding electrons instead of the usual two in a covalent single bond.
Tungsten(VI) fluoride, also known as tungsten hexafluoride, is an inorganic compound with the formula WF6.
A Type II supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas) results from the rapid collapse and violent explosion of a massive star.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Uranium hexafluoride, referred to as "hex" in the nuclear industry, is a compound used in the uranium enrichment process that produces fuel for nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons.
Uranium tetrafluoride (UF4) is a green crystalline solid compound of uranium with an insignificant vapor pressure and very slight solubility in water.
In microeconomics and management, vertical integration is an arrangement in which the supply chain of a company is owned by that company.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
Viton is a brand of FKM, a synthetic rubber and fluoropolymer elastomer commonly used in O-rings, chemical-resistant gloves, and other molded or extruded goods.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Water fluoridation is the controlled addition of fluoride to a public water supply to reduce tooth decay.
The water fluoridation controversy arises from political, moral, ethical, economic, and safety concerns regarding the fluoridation of public water supplies.
Water supply is the provision of water by public utilities commercial organisations, community endeavors or by individuals, usually via a system of pumps and pipes.
Wolf–Rayet stars, often abbreviated as WR stars, are a rare heterogeneous set of stars with unusual spectra showing prominent broad emission lines of highly ionised helium and nitrogen or carbon.
Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and atomic number 54.
Xenon difluoride is a powerful fluorinating agent with the chemical formula, and one of the most stable xenon compounds.
Xenon hexafluoride is a noble gas compound with the formula XeF6 and the highest of the three known binary fluorides of xenon, the other two being XeF2 and XeF4.
Xenon hexafluoroplatinate is the product of the reaction of platinum hexafluoride and xenon, in an experiment that proved the chemical reactivity of the noble gases.
Xenon tetrafluoride is a chemical compound with chemical formula.
1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane (also known as norflurane (INN), R-134a, Freon 134a, Forane 134a, Genetron 134a, Florasol 134a, Suva 134a, or HFC-134a) is a haloalkane refrigerant with thermodynamic properties similar to R-12 (dichlorodifluoromethane) but with insignificant ozone depletion potential and a somewhat lower global warming potential (1,430, compared to R-12's GWP of 10,900).
1,1-Dichloro-1-fluoroethane is a haloalkane with the formula.
1,2-Dichlorotetrafluoroethane, or R-114, also known as cryofluorane (INN), is a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) with the molecular formula ClF2CCF2Cl.
2,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene, or HFO-1234yf, is a hydrofluoroolefin (HFO) with the formula CH2.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.