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# Fluorine

Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9. [1]

## Abundance of elements in Earth's crust

The abundance of elements in Earth's crust is shown in tabulated form with the estimated crustal abundance for each chemical element shown as either percentage or parts per million (ppm) by mass (10,000 ppm.

## Abundance of the chemical elements

The abundance of the chemical elements is a measure of the occurrence of the chemical elements relative to all other elements in a given environment.

## Acetic acid

Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).

## Acid strength

The strength of an acid refers to its ability or tendency to lose a proton (H+).

## Adduct

An adduct (from the Latin adductus, "drawn toward" alternatively, a contraction of "addition product") is a product of a direct addition of two or more distinct molecules, resulting in a single reaction product containing all atoms of all components.

## Agrochemical

An agrochemical or agrichemical, a contraction of agricultural chemical, is a chemical product used in agriculture.

## Alkali metal

The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.

## Alkaline earth metal

The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table.

## Alkane

In organic chemistry, an alkane, or paraffin (a historical name that also has other meanings), is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon.

## Allotropes of oxygen

There are several known allotropes of oxygen.

## Aluminium fluoride

Aluminium fluoride (AlF3) is an inorganic compound used primarily in the production of aluminium.

## Ammonium fluoride

Ammonium fluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula NH4F.

## André-Marie Ampère

André-Marie Ampère (20 January 177510 June 1836) was a French physicist and mathematician who was one of the founders of the science of classical electromagnetism, which he referred to as "electrodynamics".

## Andreas Sigismund Marggraf

Andreas Sigismund Marggraf (3 March 1709 – 7 August 1782) was a German chemist from Berlin, then capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, and a pioneer of analytical chemistry.

## Anesthetic

An anesthetic (or anaesthetic) is a drug to prevent pain during surgery, completely blocking any feeling as opposed to an analgesic.

## Anode

An anode is an electrode through which the conventional current enters into a polarized electrical device.

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## Antidepressant

Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.

## Antimony pentafluoride

Antimony pentafluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula SbF5.

## Antozonite

Antozonite (historically known as Stinkspat, Stinkfluss, Stinkstein, Stinkspar and fetid fluorite) is a radioactive fluorite variety first found in Wölsendorf, Bavaria, in 1841, and named in 1862.

## Argon fluoride laser

The argon fluoride laser (ArF laser) is a particular type of excimer laser, which is sometimes (more correctly) called an exciplex laser.

## Argon fluorohydride

Argon fluorohydride (systematically named fluoridohydridoargon) or argon hydrofluoride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula HArF (also written ArHF).

## Asbestos

Asbestos is a set of six naturally occurring silicate minerals, which all have in common their eponymous asbestiform habit: i.e. long (roughly 1:20 aspect ratio), thin fibrous crystals, with each visible fiber composed of millions of microscopic "fibrils" that can be released by abrasion and other processes.

## Asymptotic giant branch

The asymptotic giant branch (AGB) is a region of the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram populated by evolved cool luminous stars.

## Atomic number

The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.

## Atorvastatin

Atorvastatin, marketed under the trade name Lipitor among others, is a member of the medication class known as statins, which are used primarily as a lipid-lowering agent and for prevention of events associated with cardiovascular disease.

## Basil Valentine

Basil Valentine is the Anglicised version of the name Basilius Valentinus, ostensibly a 15th-century alchemist, possibly Canon of the Benedictine Priory of Saint Peter in Erfurt, Germany but more likely a pseudonym used by one or several 16th-century German authors.

## Beryllium fluoride

Beryllium fluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula BeF2.

## Beta decay

In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.

## Bioavailability

In pharmacology, bioavailability (BA or F) is a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.

## Bond energy

In chemistry, bond energy (E) or bond enthalpy (H) is the measure of bond strength in a chemical bond.

## Boron monofluoride

Boron monofluoride or fluoroborylene is a chemical compound with formula BF, one atom of boron and one of fluorine.

## Boron trifluoride

Boron trifluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula BF3.

## Bridging ligand

In coordination chemistry, a bridging ligand is a ligand that connects two or more atoms, usually metal ions.

## Broad-spectrum antibiotic

The term broad-spectrum antibiotic can refer to an antibiotic that acts on the two major bacterial groups, gram-positive and gram-negative, or any antibiotic that acts against a wide range of disease-causing bacteria.

## Bromofluorocarbon

Bromofluorocarbons (BFCs) are molecules based on carbon, bromine, and fluorine.

## Calcium fluoride

Calcium fluoride is the inorganic compound of the elements calcium and fluorine with the formula CaF2.

## Calcium gluconate

Calcium gluconate is a mineral supplement and medication.

## Carbon

Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

## Carbon black

Carbon black (subtypes are acetylene black, channel black, furnace black, lamp black and thermal black) is a material produced by the incomplete combustion of heavy petroleum products such as FCC tar, coal tar, ethylene cracking tar, with the addition of a small amount of vegetable oil.

## Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

## Carbon group

The carbon group is a periodic table group consisting of carbon (C), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), and flerovium (Fl).

## Carbon monofluoride

Carbon monofluoride (CF, CFx, or (CF)x), also called polycarbon monofluoride (PMF), polycarbon fluoride, poly(carbon monofluoride), and graphite fluoride, is a material formed by high-temperature reaction of fluorine gas with graphite, charcoal, or pyrolytic carbon powder.

## Carbon tetrachloride

Carbon tetrachloride, also known by many other names (the most notable being tetrachloromethane, also recognized by the IUPAC, carbon tet in the cleaning industry, Halon-104 in firefighting, and Refrigerant-10 in HVACR) is an organic compound with the chemical formula CCl4.

## Carbon–fluorine bond

The carbon–fluorine bond is a polar covalent bond between carbon and fluorine that is a component of all organofluorine compounds.

## Carbon–hydrogen bond

The carbon-hydrogen bond (C–H bond) is a bond between carbon and hydrogen atoms that can be found in many organic compounds.

## Carboxylic acid

A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.

## Carl Wilhelm Scheele

Carl Wilhelm Scheele (9 December 1742 – 21 May 1786) was a Swedish Pomeranian and German pharmaceutical chemist.

## Cathode

A cathode is the electrode from which a conventional current leaves a polarized electrical device.

## Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.

## Chalcogen

The chalcogens are the chemical elements in group 16 of the periodic table.

## Chemical element

A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).

## Chemical vapor deposition

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is deposition method used to produce high quality, high-performance, solid materials, typically under vacuum.

## Chloralkali process

The chloralkali process (also chlor-alkali and chlor alkali) is an industrial process for the electrolysis of sodium chloride.

## Chlorine

Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.

## Chlorodifluoromethane

Chlorodifluoromethane or difluoromonochloromethane is a hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC).

## Chlorofluorocarbon

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are fully halogenated paraffin hydrocarbons that contain only carbon (С), chlorine (Cl), and fluorine (F), produced as volatile derivative of methane, ethane, and propane.

## Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

## Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

## Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

## Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

## Ciprofloxacin

Ciprofloxacin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.

## Citalopram

Citalopram (brand names: Celexa, Cipramil and others) is an antidepressant drug of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.

## Citric acid cycle

The citric acid cycle (CAC) – also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

## Cobalt(II) fluoride

Cobalt(II) fluoride is a chemical compound with the formula (CoF2).

## Cobalt(III) fluoride

Cobalt(III) fluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula CoF3.

## Common brushtail possum

The common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula, from the Greek for "furry tailed" and the Latin for "little fox", previously in the genus Phalangista) is a nocturnal, semi-arboreal marsupial of the family Phalangeridae, it is native to Australia, and the second largest of the possums.

## Compounding

Pharmaceutical compounding (done in compounding pharmacies) is the creation of a particular pharmaceutical product to fit the unique need of a patient.

## Coordination complex

In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.

## Covalent bond

A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.

## Covalent radius of fluorine

The covalent radius of fluorine is a measure of the size of a fluorine atom; it is approximated at about 60 picometres.

## Cracking (chemistry)

In petrochemistry, petroleum geology and organic chemistry, cracking is the process whereby complex organic molecules such as kerogens or long-chain hydrocarbons are broken down into simpler molecules such as light hydrocarbons, by the breaking of carbon-carbon bonds in the precursors.

## Cross-link

A cross-link is a bond that links one polymer chain to another.

## Cryolite

Cryolite (Na3AlF6, sodium hexafluoroaluminate) is an uncommon mineral identified with the once large deposit at Ivigtût on the west coast of Greenland, depleted by 1987.

## CT scan

A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.

## Cubic crystal system

In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube.

## Dental fluorosis

Dental fluorosis (also termed mottled enamel) is an extremely common disorder, characterized by hypomineralization of tooth enamel caused by ingestion of excessive fluoride during enamel formation.

## Desflurane

Desflurane (1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl difluoromethyl ether) is a highly fluorinated methyl ethyl ether used for maintenance of general anesthesia.

## Dexamethasone

Dexamethasone is a type of corticosteroid medication.

## Diatomic molecule

Diatomic molecules are molecules composed of only two atoms, of the same or different chemical elements.

## Dichlorodifluoromethane

Dichlorodifluoromethane (R-12) is a colorless gas usually sold under the brand name Freon-12, and a chlorofluorocarbon halomethane (CFC) used as a refrigerant and aerosol spray propellant.

## Dielectric

A dielectric (or dielectric material) is an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an applied electric field.

## Difluoride

Difluorides are chemical compounds with two fluorine atoms per molecule (or per formula unit).

E.

## Dust collector

A dust collector is a system used to enhance the quality of air released from industrial and commercial processes by collecting dust and other impurities from air or gas.

## Edmond Frémy

Edmond Frémy (28 February 1814 – 3 February 1894) was a French chemist.

## Education in Chemistry

Education in Chemistry is a magazine covering all areas of chemistry education, concentrating on the teaching of chemistry in secondary schools and universities.

## Effective nuclear charge

The effective nuclear charge (often symbolized as Z_ or Z^\ast) is the net positive charge experienced by an electron in a polyelectronic atom.

## Electric arc furnace

An electric arc furnace (EAF) is a furnace that heats charged material by means of an electric arc.

## Electric discharge in gases

Electric discharge in gases occurs when electric current flows through a gaseous medium due to ionization of the gas.

## Electrochemical cell

An electrochemical cell (EC) is a device capable of either generating electrical energy from chemical reactions or using electrical energy to cause chemical reactions.

## Electrochemical fluorination

Electrochemical fluorination (ECF), or electrofluorination, is a foundational organofluorine chemistry method for the preparation of fluorocarbon-based organofluorine compounds.

## Electrolysis

In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.

## Electrolyte

An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.

## Electron affinity

In chemistry and atomic physics, the electron affinity (Eea) of an atom or molecule is defined as the amount of energy released or spent when an electron is added to a neutral atom or molecule in the gaseous state to form a negative ion.

## Electron capture

Electron capture (K-electron capture, also K-capture, or L-electron capture, L-capture) is a process in which the proton-rich nucleus of an electrically neutral atom absorbs an inner atomic electron, usually from the K or L electron shell.

## Electron configuration

In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals.

## Electronegativity

Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.

## Electrophilic fluorination

Electrophilic fluorination is the combination of a carbon-centered nucleophile with an electrophilic source of fluorine to afford organofluorine compounds.

## Enriched uranium

Enriched uranium is a type of uranium in which the percent composition of uranium-235 has been increased through the process of isotope separation.

## Escitalopram

Escitalopram, sold under the brand names Cipralex and Lexapro among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.

## Ether

Ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group—an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups.

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## Excretion

Excretion is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.

## Exothermic process

In thermodynamics, the term exothermic process (exo-: "outside") describes a process or reaction that releases energy from the system to its surroundings, usually in the form of heat, but also in a form of light (e.g. a spark, flame, or flash), electricity (e.g. a battery), or sound (e.g. explosion heard when burning hydrogen).

## Fabric structure

In architecture, fabric structures are forms of constructed fibers that provide end users a variety of aesthetic free-form building designs.

## Fatty acid

In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.

## Filtration

Filtration is any of various mechanical, physical or biological operations that separate solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by adding a medium through which only the fluid can pass.

## Finkelstein reaction

The Finkelstein reaction (often referred to as a halex reaction or halogen exchange) named after the German chemist Hans Finkelstein, is an SN2 reaction (Substitution Nucleophilic Bimolecular reaction) that involves the exchange of one halogen atom for another.

## Flerovium

Flerovium is a superheavy artificial chemical element with symbol Fl and atomic number 114.

## Fludeoxyglucose (18F)

Fludeoxyglucose (18F) (INN), or fludeoxyglucose F 18 (USAN and USP), also commonly called fluorodeoxyglucose and abbreviated FDG, 18F-FDG or FDG, is a radiopharmaceutical used in the medical imaging modality positron emission tomography (PET).

## Fludrocortisone

Fludrocortisone, sold under the brand name Florinef among others, is a corticosteroid which is used to treat adrenogenital syndrome, postural hypotension, and adrenal insufficiency.

## Fluorapatite

Fluorapatite, often with the alternate spelling of fluoroapatite, is a phosphate mineral with the formula Ca5(PO4)3F (calcium fluorophosphate).

Fluoride.

## Fluoride selective electrode

A fluoride selective electrode is a type of ion selective electrode sensitive to the concentration of the fluoride ion.

## Fluorinase

The fluorinase enzyme (also known as adenosyl-fluoride synthase) catalyzes the reaction between fluoride ion and the co-factor S-adenosyl-L-methionine to generate L-methionine and 5'-fluoro-5'-deoxyadenosine, the first committed product of the fluorometabolite biosynthesis pathway.

## Fluorinated ethylene propylene

Fluorinated ethylene propylene or FEP is a copolymer of hexafluoropropylene and tetrafluoroethylene.

## Fluorine absorption dating

Fluorine absorption dating is a method used to determine the amount of time an object has been underground.

## Fluorine deficiency

Fluoride or fluorine deficiency is a disorder which may cause increased dental caries (or tooth decay, is the breakdown of dental tissues by the acidic products released by the "bacterial fermentation of dietary carbohydrates.") and possibly osteoporosis (a bone disorder which leads to a decrease in bone mass, and an increase in bone fragility), due to a lack of fluoride in the diet.

## Fluorine-18

Fluorine-18 (18F) is a fluorine radioisotope which is an important source of positrons.

## Fluorine-19 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

Fluorine-19 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (fluorine NMR or 19F NMR) is an analytical technique used to detect and identify fluorine-containing compounds.

## Fluorite

Not to be confused with Fluoride. Fluorite (also called fluorspar) is the mineral form of calcium fluoride, CaF2.

## Fluoroacetone

Fluoroacetone is an organofluorine compound with the chemical formula.

## Fluorocarbon

Fluorocarbons, sometimes referred to as perfluorocarbons or PFCs, are, strictly speaking, organofluorine compounds with the formula CxFy, i.e. they contain only carbon and fluorine, though the terminology is not strictly followed.

## Parts-per notation

In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.

## Passivation (chemistry)

Passivation, in physical chemistry and engineering, refers to a material becoming "passive," that is, less affected or corroded by the environment of future use.

## Pentafluoride

Pentafluoride may refer to.

## Pentagonal bipyramidal molecular geometry

In chemistry, a pentagonal bipyramid (or dipyramid) is a molecular geometry with one atom at the centre with seven ligands at the corners of a pentagonal dipyramid.

## Perfluorinated compound

A perfluorinated compound (PFC) per- or polyfluoroalkyl chemical is an organofluorine compound containing only carbon-fluorine bonds (no C-H bonds) and C-C bonds but also other heteroatoms.

## Perfluoroalkoxy alkane

Perfluoroalkoxy alkanes or PFA are fluoropolymers.

## Perfluorobutane

Perfluorobutane (PFB) is a colorless gas.

## Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid

Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (conjugate base perfluorooctanesulfonate) (PFOS) is an anthropogenic fluorosurfactant and global pollutant.

## Perfluorooctanoic acid

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (conjugate base perfluorooctanoate), also known as C8, is a synthetic perfluorinated carboxylic acid and fluorosurfactant.

## Period (periodic table)

A period in the periodic table is a horizontal row.

## Period 2 element

A period 2 element is one of the chemical elements in the second row (or period) of the periodic table of the chemical elements.

## Peroxide

Peroxide is a compound with the structure R-O-O-R. The O−O group in a peroxide is called the peroxide group or peroxo group.

## Persistent organic pollutant

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes.

## Personal protective equipment

Personal protective equipment (PPE) refers to protective clothing, helmets, goggles, or other garments or equipment designed to protect the wearer's body from injury or infection.

## Phase transition

The term phase transition (or phase change) is most commonly used to describe transitions between solid, liquid and gaseous states of matter, and, in rare cases, plasma.

## Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society

Philosophical Transactions, titled Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (often abbreviated as Phil. Trans.) from 1776, is a scientific journal published by the Royal Society.

## Phosphogypsum

Phosphogypsum refers to the calcium sulfate hydrate formed as a by-product of the production of fertilizer from phosphate rock.

## Pickling (metal)

Pickling is a metal surface treatment used to remove impurities, such as stains, inorganic contaminants, rust or scale from ferrous metals, copper, precious metals and aluminum alloys.

## Picometre

The picometre (international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: pm) or picometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to, or one trillionth of a metre, which is the SI base unit of length.

## Plant defense against herbivory

Plant defense against herbivory or host-plant resistance (HPR) describes a range of adaptations evolved by plants which improve their survival and reproduction by reducing the impact of herbivores.

## Plant hormone

Plant hormones (also known as phytohormones) are chemicals that regulate plant growth.

## Plasma etching

Plasma etching is a form of plasma processing used to fabricate integrated circuits.

## Pnictogen

A pnictogen is one of the chemical elements in group 15 of the periodic table.

## Polychlorinated biphenyl

A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is an organic chlorine compound with the formula C12H10−xClx.

## Polyethylene

Polyethylene or polythene (abbreviated PE; IUPAC name polyethene or poly(ethylene)) is the most common plastic.

## Polymerization

In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.

## Polytetrafluoroethylene

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene that has numerous applications.

## Polyvinyl fluoride

Polyvinyl fluoride (PVF) or –(CH2CHF)n– is a polymer material mainly used in the flammability-lowering coatings of airplane interiors and photovoltaic module backsheets.

## Polyvinylidene fluoride

Polyvinylidene fluoride or polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) is a highly non-reactive thermoplastic fluoropolymer produced by the polymerization of vinylidene difluoride.

## Positron emission

Positron emission or beta plus decay (β+ decay) is a subtype of radioactive decay called beta decay, in which a proton inside a radionuclide nucleus is converted into a neutron while releasing a positron and an electron neutrino (νe).

## Potassium bifluoride

Potassium bifluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula KHF2.

## Potassium fluoride

Potassium fluoride is the chemical compound with the formula KF.

## Potassium permanganate

Potassium permanganate is an inorganic chemical compound and medication.

## Proceedings of the Chemical Society

The Proceedings of the Chemical Society was a scientific journal published at various times in the life of the Chemical Society, a scientific society in the United Kingdom that combined with other societies to form the Royal Society of Chemistry in 1980.

## Proton emission

Proton emission (also known as proton radioactivity) is a rare type of radioactive decay in which a proton is ejected from a nucleus.

## Proton-exchange membrane

A proton-exchange membrane, or polymer-electrolyte membrane (PEM), is a semipermeable membrane generally made from ionomers and designed to conduct protons while acting as an electronic insulator and reactant barrier, e.g. to oxygen and hydrogen gas.

## PTFE fiber

PTFE fiber is a chemically resistant material.

## Quinolone

Quinolone may refer to.

## Radical fluorination

Radical fluorination is a type of fluorination reaction, complementary to nucleophilic and electrophilic approaches.

## Radioactive tracer

A radioactive tracer, or radioactive label, is a chemical compound in which one or more atoms have been replaced by a radionuclide so by virtue of its radioactive decay it can be used to explore the mechanism of chemical reactions by tracing the path that the radioisotope follows from reactants to products.

## Radionuclide

A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.

## Radon

Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86.

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## Radon difluoride

Radon difluoride is a compound of radon, a noble gas.

## Rare-earth element

A rare-earth element (REE) or rare-earth metal (REM), as defined by IUPAC, is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium.

## Reaction intermediate

A reaction intermediate or an intermediate is a molecular entity that is formed from the reactants (or preceding intermediates) and reacts further to give the directly observed products of a chemical reaction.

## Refrigerant

A refrigerant is a substance or mixture, usually a fluid, used in a heat pump and refrigeration cycle.

## Rhenium heptafluoride

Rhenium heptafluoride is the compound with the formula ReF7.

## Roy J. Plunkett

Roy J. Plunkett (June 26, 1910 – May 12, 1994) was an American chemist.

## Royal Society of Chemistry

The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".

## RSC Advances

RSC Advances is an online-only peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on all aspects of the chemical sciences.

## Scotchgard

Scotchgard is a 3M brand of products, a stain and durable water repellent applied to fabric, furniture, and carpets to protect them from stains.

## Seal (mechanical)

A mechanical seal is a device that helps join systems or mechanisms together by preventing leakage (e.g. in a plumbing system), containing pressure, or excluding contamination.

## Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.

## Serotonin

Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.

## Serum albumin

Serum albumin, often referred to simply as blood albumin, is an albumin (a type of globular protein) found in vertebrate blood.

## Sevoflurane

Sevoflurane (1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-(fluoromethoxy)propane; synonym, fluoromethyl hexafluoroisopropyl ether), is a sweet-smelling, nonflammable, highly fluorinated methyl isopropyl ether used as an inhalational anaesthetic for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia.

## Shielding effect

The shielding effect describes the attraction between an electron and the nucleus in any atom with more than one electron.

## Silicon dioxide

Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.

## Single bond

In chemistry, a single bond is a chemical bond between two atoms involving two valence electrons.

## Skeletal fluorosis

Skeletal fluorosis is a bone disease caused by excessive accumulation of fluoride in the bones.

## Smelting

Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to melt out a base metal.

No description.

## Sodium fluorosilicate

Sodium fluorosilicate is a compound with the chemical formula Na2.

## Sodium hexafluoroaluminate

Sodium aluminium hexafluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula Na3AlF6.

## Sodium monofluorophosphate

Sodium monofluorophosphate, commonly abbreviated MFP, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Na2PO3F.

## Solvent

A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.

## Standard conditions for temperature and pressure

Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.

## Steelmaking

Steelmaking is the process for producing steel from iron ore and scrap.

## Stellar nucleosynthesis

Stellar nucleosynthesis is the theory explaining the creation (nucleosynthesis) of chemical elements by nuclear fusion reactions between atoms within the stars.

## Structural unit

In polymer chemistry, a structural unit is a building block of a polymer chain.

## Sulfonic acid

A sulfonic acid (or sulphonic acid) refers to a member of the class of organosulfur compounds with the general formula R−S(.

## Sulfur dioxide

Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.

## Sulfur hexafluoride

Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is an inorganic, colorless, odorless, non-flammable, extremely potent greenhouse gas, and an excellent electrical insulator.

## Sulfur tetrafluoride

Sulfur tetrafluoride is the chemical compound with the formula SF4.

## Sulfuric acid

Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.

## Surface tension

Surface tension is the elastic tendency of a fluid surface which makes it acquire the least surface area possible.

## Surfactant

Surfactants are compounds that lower the surface tension (or interfacial tension) between two liquids, between a gas and a liquid, or between a liquid and a solid.

## Surfactants in paint

Paint has four major components: pigments, binders, solvents, and additives.

## Swarts fluorination

Swarts fluorination is a process whereby the chlorine atoms in a compound - generally an organic compound, but experiments have been performed using silanes - are replaced with fluorine, by treatment with antimony trifluoride in the presence of chlorine or of antimony pentachloride.

## Synthetic membrane

An artificial membrane, or synthetic membrane, is a synthetically created membrane which is usually intended for separation purposes in laboratory or in industry.

## Tetrafluoride

A tetrafluoride is a chemical compound with four fluorines in its formula.

## Tetrafluoromethane

Tetrafluoromethane, also known as carbon tetrafluoride, is the simplest fluorocarbon (CF4).

## Tin(II) fluoride

Tin(II) fluoride, commonly referred to commercially as stannous fluoride (from Latin stannum, 'tin') is a chemical compound with the formula SnF2.

## Tonne

The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.

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## Tooth decay

Tooth decay, also known as dental caries or cavities, is a breakdown of teeth due to acids made by bacteria.

## Toothpaste

Toothpaste is a paste or gel dentifrice used with a toothbrush as an accessory to clean and maintain the aesthetics and health of teeth.

## Topaz

Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F, OH)2.

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## Topical medication

A topical medication is a medication that is applied to a particular place on or in the body.

## Triamcinolone

Triamcinolone is an intermediate-acting synthetic glucocorticoid given orally, by injection, by inhalation, or as a topical ointment or cream.

## Trichlorofluoromethane

Trichlorofluoromethane, also called freon-11, CFC-11, or R-11, is a chlorofluorocarbon.

## Tricyclic antidepressant

Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a class of medications that are used primarily as antidepressants.

## Trifluoride

Trifluorides are compounds having three fluorines per formula unit.

## Trifluoromethoxy

Trifluoromethoxy is the chemical group –O–.

## Trifluoromethyl

Trifluoromethyl is a functional group that has the formula -CF3.

## Trifluralin

Trifluralin is a commonly used pre-emergence herbicide.

## Triple bond

A triple bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two atoms involving six bonding electrons instead of the usual two in a covalent single bond.

## Tungsten hexafluoride

Tungsten(VI) fluoride, also known as tungsten hexafluoride, is an inorganic compound with the formula WF6.

## Type II supernova

A Type II supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas) results from the rapid collapse and violent explosion of a massive star.

## United States dollar

The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.

## United States Environmental Protection Agency

The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.

## Uranium

Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.

## Uranium hexafluoride

Uranium hexafluoride, referred to as "hex" in the nuclear industry, is a compound used in the uranium enrichment process that produces fuel for nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons.

## Uranium tetrafluoride

Uranium tetrafluoride (UF4) is a green crystalline solid compound of uranium with an insignificant vapor pressure and very slight solubility in water.

## Vertical integration

In microeconomics and management, vertical integration is an arrangement in which the supply chain of a company is owned by that company.

## Viscosity

The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.

## Viton

Viton is a brand of FKM, a synthetic rubber and fluoropolymer elastomer commonly used in O-rings, chemical-resistant gloves, and other molded or extruded goods.

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## Water

Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.

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## Water fluoridation

Water fluoridation is the controlled addition of fluoride to a public water supply to reduce tooth decay.

## Water fluoridation controversy

The water fluoridation controversy arises from political, moral, ethical, economic, and safety concerns regarding the fluoridation of public water supplies.

## Water supply

Water supply is the provision of water by public utilities commercial organisations, community endeavors or by individuals, usually via a system of pumps and pipes.

No description.

## Wolf–Rayet star

Wolf–Rayet stars, often abbreviated as WR stars, are a rare heterogeneous set of stars with unusual spectra showing prominent broad emission lines of highly ionised helium and nitrogen or carbon.

## Xenon

Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and atomic number 54.

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## Xenon difluoride

Xenon difluoride is a powerful fluorinating agent with the chemical formula, and one of the most stable xenon compounds.

## Xenon hexafluoride

Xenon hexafluoride is a noble gas compound with the formula XeF6 and the highest of the three known binary fluorides of xenon, the other two being XeF2 and XeF4.

## Xenon hexafluoroplatinate

Xenon hexafluoroplatinate is the product of the reaction of platinum hexafluoride and xenon, in an experiment that proved the chemical reactivity of the noble gases.

## Xenon tetrafluoride

Xenon tetrafluoride is a chemical compound with chemical formula.

## 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane

1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane (also known as norflurane (INN), R-134a, Freon 134a, Forane 134a, Genetron 134a, Florasol 134a, Suva 134a, or HFC-134a) is a haloalkane refrigerant with thermodynamic properties similar to R-12 (dichlorodifluoromethane) but with insignificant ozone depletion potential and a somewhat lower global warming potential (1,430, compared to R-12's GWP of 10,900).

## 1,1-Dichloro-1-fluoroethane

1,1-Dichloro-1-fluoroethane is a haloalkane with the formula.

## 1,2-Dichlorotetrafluoroethane

1,2-Dichlorotetrafluoroethane, or R-114, also known as cryofluorane (INN), is a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) with the molecular formula ClF2CCF2Cl.

## 2,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene

2,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene, or HFO-1234yf, is a hydrofluoroolefin (HFO) with the formula CH2.

## 2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

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## 2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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## References

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