347 relations: Abbreviation, Acetaldehyde, Acetic acid, Acetone, Acetyl-CoA, Acid, Acid catalysis, Acid dissociation constant, Adsorption, Advocacy group, Africa, Al-Kindi, Alchemy and chemistry in medieval Islam, Alcohol, Alcohol (drug), Alcohol burner, Alcohol by volume, Alcohol dehydrogenase, Alcohol fuel, Alcohol intoxication, Alcohol proof, Alcohol thermometer, Alcohol-induced respiratory reactions, Alcoholic drink, Aldehyde, Algae, Alkali metal, Alkane, Alkoxide, Alkyl, American Civil War, Amine, Ammonium bromide, Ammonium chloride, Amylase, Anaerobic organism, Analgesic, Anhydrous, Antidote, Antiseptic, Antoine Lavoisier, Anxiety, Applejack (drink), Arabic, Archibald Scott Couper, Argonne National Laboratory, Asia, Atlanta, Atom, Auto-brewery syndrome, ..., Autogas, Avgas, Azeotrope, Azeotropic distillation, Bacteria, Bagasse, Beer, Beer–Lambert law, Benzene, Biodiesel, Biofuel, Biotechnology, Bitterant, Brazil, Bromoethane, Butane, Butanol fuel, Calcium chloride, California Air Resources Board, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Carbon sequestration, Carbon tetrachloride, Carboxylic acid, Carburetor, Catalysis, Cellulose, Cellulosic ethanol, Cellulosic ethanol commercialization, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Central nervous system, Charcoal, Chemical compound, Chemical formula, Chemical synthesis, Chemistry, China, Chloral, Chloral hydrate, Chloroethane, Chloroform, Clostridium autoethanogenum, Clostridium ljungdahlii, Coal gas, Combustibility and flammability, Combustion, Conjugate acid, Cooling bath, Copper nanoparticle, Corncob, Cornmeal, Cough medicine, Cyclohexane, Delft University of Technology, Delhi Sultanate, Denatonium, Denaturation (biochemistry), Depressant, Desiccant, Diatomaceous earth, Diesel fuel, Diethyl ether, Diethyl sulfate, Dimethyl ether, Direct-ethanol fuel cell, Disinfectant, Distillation, Diuretic, DNA, Dodecane, Dry ice, E85, Electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide, Electrochemistry, Endogeny (biology), Endospore, Energy crop, Energy density, English language, Enzyme, Essential oil, Ester, Ethane, Ethanol fermentation, Ethanol fuel, Ethanol precipitation, Ethanol-induced non-lamellar phases in phospholipids, Ethyl group, Ethyl nitrite, Ethyl sulfate, Ethylene, Ethylene glycol, Ethynol, Euphoria, Exhaust gas, Exothermic process, Fermentation, Flambé, Flash point, Flexible-fuel vehicle, Ford Model T, Ford Taurus, Formaldehyde, Formic acid, Fortified wine, Fractional distillation, Fractional freezing, Fuel, Functional group, Fungus, Furosemide, Gasoline, Georges-Simon Serullas, Georgia (U.S. state), German language, Glucose, Glycerol, Halide, Haloalkane, Haloform reaction, Halogenation, Hand sanitizer, Hebei, Henry Hennell, Heptane, Hexane, Human digestive system, Hydrogen, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrogen halide, Hydrolysis, Hydrometer, Hydroxy group, Hygroscopy, India, Internal combustion engine, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Interstellar cloud, Iron supplement, Isomer, Isopropyl alcohol, IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry, Jin dynasty (1115–1234), Justus von Liebig, Kelvin, Kohl (cosmetics), Lactic acid, Light aircraft, Lipid, Liquefied natural gas, Liquefied petroleum gas, Liquid-propellant rocket, Liquor, List of gasoline additives, LyondellBasell, Magnesium chloride, Maize, Malt, Mannitol, Marcellin Berthelot, Mashing, Medieval Latin, Metabolism, Methanol, Methyl group, Methylene group, Michael Faraday, Middle East, Minnesota, Miscibility, Miscibility gap, Molecular sieve, Mood (psychology), Moorella (bacterium), Nanowire, Naphtha, Neolithic, New York City, Nicolas-Théodore de Saussure, Nitrogen oxide, Nitromethane, NOx, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Occupational exposure limit, Octane rating, Online Etymology Dictionary, Organic compound, Organic synthesis, Outer space, Over-the-counter drug, Oxford English Dictionary, Oxidizing agent, Paint, Palm wine, Panicum virgatum, Paracetamol, Parts-per notation, Pascal (unit), Pen-tailed treeshrew, Pentane, Periodic Videos, Pervaporation, Petrochemical, Petrochemistry, PGM-11 Redstone, PH, Phenobarbital, Phosphoric acid, Phosphorus pentoxide, Phosphorus tribromide, Pipeline transport, Polysaccharide, Potassium carbonate, Potassium chloride, Potassium hydroxide, Pressure swing adsorption, Propane, Properties of water, Protein, Psychoactive drug, Pyridine, Ramon Llull, Ranitidine, Raw material, Recreational drug use, Reflux, Refractive index, RNA, Rocket, Rocket propellant, Rocket Racing League, Rubbing alcohol, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saponification, Sawdust, São Paulo, Schola Medica Salernitana, Shell Oil Company, Silica gel, Sin tax, SN2 reaction, Social behavior, Sodium, Sodium bromide, Sodium chloride, Sodium hydride, Sodium hydroxide, Sodium nitrite, Solvent, Song dynasty, Space.com, Starch, Still, Straw, Sucrose, Sugar, Sugarcane, Sulfuric acid, Supercritical carbon dioxide, Surface tension, Sweet sorghum, Systematic name, Tears of wine, Tert-Butyl alcohol, Tetrachloroethylene, The Washington Post, Thionyl chloride, Timeline of alcohol fuel, Tincture, Toluene, Torr, Triethyl phosphate, Trihalomethane, Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, Triple point, Tropospheric ozone, Ultraviolet, Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, Undecane, UNESCO, Union Carbide, United Nations Foundation, United States Postal Service, V-2 rocket, Vinyl alcohol, Virus, Volatility (chemistry), Vomiting, Water, Wood fuel, World War II, Yeast, Zeolite, Zinc chloride, 1,1,1-Trichloroethane, 1-Propanol, 2,3-Butanediol. 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An abbreviation (from Latin brevis, meaning short) is a shortened form of a word or phrase.
Acetaldehyde (systematic name ethanal) is an organic chemical compound with the formula CH3CHO, sometimes abbreviated by chemists as MeCHO (Me.
Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).
Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.
Acetyl-CoA (acetyl coenzyme A) is a molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
In acid catalysis and base catalysis a chemical reaction is catalyzed by an acid or a base.
An acid dissociation constant, Ka, (also known as acidity constant, or acid-ionization constant) is a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution.
Adsorption is the adhesion of atoms, ions or molecules from a gas, liquid or dissolved solid to a surface.
Advocacy groups (also known as pressure groups, lobby groups, campaign groups, interest groups, or special interest groups) use various forms of advocacy in order to influence public opinion and/or policy.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Abu Yūsuf Yaʻqūb ibn ʼIsḥāq aṣ-Ṣabbāḥ al-Kindī (أبو يوسف يعقوب بن إسحاق الصبّاح الكندي; Alkindus; c. 801–873 AD) was an Arab Muslim philosopher, polymath, mathematician, physician and musician.
Alchemy and chemistry in Islam refers to the study of both traditional alchemy and early practical chemistry (the early chemical investigation of nature in general) by scholars in the medieval Islamic world.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
Alcohol, also known by its chemical name ethanol, is a psychoactive substance or drug that is the active ingredient in alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine, and distilled spirits (hard liquor).
An alcohol burner or spirit lamp is a piece of laboratory equipment used to produce an open flame.
Alcohol by volume (abbreviated as ABV, abv, or alc/vol) is a standard measure of how much alcohol (ethanol) is contained in a given volume of an alcoholic beverage (expressed as a volume percent).
Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) are a group of dehydrogenase enzymes that occur in many organisms and facilitate the interconversion between alcohols and aldehydes or ketones with the reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ to NADH).
Alcohols have been used as a fuel.
Alcohol intoxication, also known as drunkenness or alcohol poisoning, is negative behavior and physical effects due to the recent drinking of ethanol (alcohol).
Alcohol proof is a measure of the content of ethanol (alcohol) in an alcoholic beverage.
The alcohol thermometer or spirit thermometer is an alternative to the mercury-in-glass thermometer and has similar functions.
Alcohol-induced respiratory reactions, also termed alcohol-induced asthma and alcohol-induced respiratory symptoms, are increasingly recognized as a pathological bronchoconstriction response to the consumption of alcohol that afflicts many people with a "classical" form of asthma, the airway constriction disease evoked by the inhalation of allergens.
An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.
An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain.
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.
In organic chemistry, an alkane, or paraffin (a historical name that also has other meanings), is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon.
An alkoxide is the conjugate base of an alcohol and therefore consists of an organic group bonded to a negatively charged oxygen atom.
In organic chemistry, an alkyl substituent is an alkane missing one hydrogen.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Ammonium bromide, NH4Br, is the ammonium salt of hydrobromic acid.
Ammonium chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula NH4Cl and a white crystalline salt that is highly soluble in water.
An amylase is an enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of starch into sugars.
An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
A substance is anhydrous if it contains no water.
An antidote is a substance which can counteract a form of poisoning.
Antiseptics (from Greek ἀντί anti, "against" and σηπτικός sēptikos, "putrefactive") are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction.
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution;; 26 August 17438 May 1794) CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) was a French nobleman and chemist who was central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and who had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
Applejack is a strong apple-flavored alcoholic drink produced from apples, popular in the American colonial period.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Archibald Scott Couper (31 March 1831 – 11 March 1892) was a Scottish chemist who proposed an early theory of chemical structure and bonding.
Argonne National Laboratory is a science and engineering research national laboratory operated by the University of Chicago Argonne LLC for the United States Department of Energy located near Lemont, Illinois, outside Chicago.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Atlanta is the capital city and most populous municipality of the state of Georgia in the United States.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
Auto-brewery syndrome, also known as gut fermentation syndrome, is a rare medical condition in which intoxicating quantities of ethanol are produced through endogenous fermentation within the digestive system.
Autogas is the common name for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) when it is used as a fuel in internal combustion engines in vehicles as well as in stationary applications such as generators.
Avgas (aviation gasoline, also known as aviation spirit in the UK), is an aviation fuel used in spark-ignited internal-combustion engines to propel aircraft.
An azeotrope (gK, US) or a constant boiling point mixture is a mixture of two or more liquids whose proportions cannot be altered or changed by simple distillation.
In chemistry, azeotropic distillation is any of a range of techniques used to break an azeotrope in distillation.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Bagasse is the fibrous matter that remains after sugarcane or sorghum stalks are crushed to extract their juice.
Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.
The Beer–Lambert law, also known as Beer's law, the Lambert–Beer law, or the Beer–Lambert–Bouguer law relates the attenuation of light to the properties of the material through which the light is travelling.
Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.
Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil- or animal fat-based diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl (methyl, ethyl, or propyl) esters.
A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter.
Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).
A bitterant (or bittering agent) is a chemical that is added to a product to make it smell or taste bitter.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Bromoethane, also known as ethyl bromide, is a chemical compound of the haloalkanes group.
Butane is an organic compound with the formula C4H10 that is an alkane with four carbon atoms.
Butanol may be used as a fuel in an internal combustion engine.
Calcium chloride is an inorganic compound, a salt with the chemical formula CaCl2.
The California Air Resources Board (CARB or ARB) is the "clean air agency" in the government of California.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Carbon sequestration is the process involved in carbon capture and the long-term storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide or other forms of carbon to mitigate or defer global warming.
Carbon tetrachloride, also known by many other names (the most notable being tetrachloromethane, also recognized by the IUPAC, carbon tet in the cleaning industry, Halon-104 in firefighting, and Refrigerant-10 in HVACR) is an organic compound with the chemical formula CCl4.
A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.
A carburetor (American English) or carburettor (British English; see spelling differences) is a device that mixes air and fuel for internal combustion engines in the proper ratio for combustion.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.
Cellulosic ethanol is ethanol (ethyl alcohol) produced from cellulose (the stringy fiber of a plant) rather than from the plant's seeds or fruit.
Cellulosic ethanol commercialization is the process of building an industry out of methods of turning cellulose-containing organic matter into cellulosic ethanol for use as a biofuel.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Charcoal is the lightweight black carbon and ash residue hydrocarbon produced by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chloral, also known as trichloroacetaldehyde or trichloroethanal, is the organic compound with the formula Cl3CCHO.
Chloral hydrate is a geminal diol with the formula C2H3Cl3O2.
Chloroethane or monochloroethane, commonly known by its old name ethyl chloride, is a chemical compound with chemical formula, once widely used in producing tetraethyllead, a gasoline additive.
Chloroform, or trichloromethane, is an organic compound with formula CHCl3.
Clostridium autoethanogenum is an anaerobic bacterium that produces ethanol from carbon monoxide, in so-called syngas fermentation, being one of the few known microorganisms to do so.
Clostridium ljungdahlii is an anaerobic, rod-shaped, motile, endospore-forming, gram-positive bacterium.
Coal gas is a flammable gaseous fuel made from coal and supplied to the user via a piped distribution system.
Flammable materials are those that ignite more easily than other materials, whereas those that are harder to ignite or burn less vigorously are combustible.
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
A conjugate acid, within the Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, is a species formed by the reception of a proton (H+) by a base—in other words, it is a base with a hydrogen ion added to it.
A cooling bath, in laboratory chemistry practice, is a liquid mixture which is used to maintain low temperatures, typically between 13 °C and −196 °C.
A copper nanoparticle is a copper based particle 1 to 100 nm in size.
A corncob, also called cob of corn, is the central core of an ear of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays).
Cornmeal is a meal (coarse flour) ground from dried maize (corn).
Cough medicines are medications used in those with coughing and related conditions.
Cyclohexane is a cycloalkane with the molecular formula C6H12 (the alkyl is abbreviated Cy).
Delft University of Technology (Technische Universiteit Delft) also known as TU Delft, is the largest and oldest Dutch public technological university, located in Delft, Netherlands.
The Delhi Sultanate (Persian:دهلی سلطان, Urdu) was a Muslim sultanate based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).
Denatonium, usually available as denatonium benzoate (under trade names such as BITTERANT-b, BITTER+PLUS, Bitrex or Aversion) and as denatonium saccharide (BITTERANT-s), is the most bitter chemical compound known, with bitterness thresholds of 0.05 ppm for the benzoate and 0.01 ppm for the saccharide.
Denaturation is a process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the quaternary structure, tertiary structure, and secondary structure which is present in their native state, by application of some external stress or compound such as a strong acid or base, a concentrated inorganic salt, an organic solvent (e.g., alcohol or chloroform), radiation or heat.
A depressant, or central depressant, is a drug that lowers neurotransmission levels, which is to depress or reduce arousal or stimulation, in various areas of the brain.
A desiccant is a hygroscopic substance that induces or sustains a state of dryness (desiccation) in its vicinity; it is the opposite of a humectant.
Diatomaceous earth – also known as D.E., diatomite, or kieselgur/kieselguhr – is a naturally occurring, soft, siliceous sedimentary rock that is easily crumbled into a fine white to off-white powder.
Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel.
Diethyl ether, or simply ether, is an organic compound in the ether class with the formula, sometimes abbreviated as (see Pseudoelement symbols).
Diethyl sulfate is a highly toxic and likely carcinogenic chemical compound with formula (C2H5)2SO4.
Dimethyl ether (DME), also known as methoxymethane, is the organic compound with the formula CH3OCH3, simplified to C2H6O.
Direct-ethanol fuel cells or DEFCs are a category of fuel cell in which ethanol is fed directly into the cell.
Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to the surface of non-living objects to destroy microorganisms that are living on the objects.
Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation.
A diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, the increased production of urine.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Dodecane (also known as dihexyl, bihexyl, adakane 12 or duodecane) is a liquid alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)10CH3 (or C12H26), an oily liquid of the paraffin series.
Dry ice, sometimes referred to as "cardice" (chiefly by British chemists), is the solid form of carbon dioxide.
E85 is an abbreviation typically referring to an ethanol fuel blend of 85% ethanol fuel and 15% gasoline or other hydrocarbon by volume.
The electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (ERC) is the conversion of carbon dioxide to more reduced chemical species using electrical energy.
Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice versa.
Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.
An endospore is a dormant, tough, and non-reproductive structure produced by certain bacteria from the Firmicute phylum.
An energy crop is a plant grown as a low-cost and low-maintenance harvest used to make biofuels, such as bioethanol, or combusted for its energy content to generate electricity or heat.
Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
An essential oil is a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile (defined as "the tendency of a substance to vaporize") aroma compounds from plants.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Ethane is an organic chemical compound with chemical formula.
Ethanol fermentation, also called alcoholic fermentation, is a biological process which converts sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose into cellular energy, producing ethanol and carbon dioxide as by-products.
Ethanol fuel is ethyl alcohol, the same type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, used as fuel.
Ethanol precipitation is a method used to purify and/or concentrate RNA, DNA, and polysaccharides such as pectin and xyloglucan from aqueous solutions by adding ethanol as an antisolvent.
The presence of ethanol can lead to the formations of non-lamellar phases also known as non-bilayer phases.
In chemistry, an ethyl group is an alkyl substituent derived from ethane (C2H6).
The chemical compound ethyl nitrite is an alkyl nitrite.
Ethyl sulfate (IUPAC name: ethyl hydrogen sulfate), also known as sulfovinic acid, is an organic chemical compound used as an intermediate in the production of ethanol from ethylene.
Ethylene (IUPAC name: ethene) is a hydrocarbon which has the formula or H2C.
Ethylene glycol (IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an organic compound with the formula (CH2OH)2.
Ethynol is an alkyne–alcohol (ynol) with the formula C2H2O.
Euphoria is an affective state in which a person experiences pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness.
Exhaust gas or flue gas is emitted as a result of the combustion of fuels such as natural gas, gasoline, petrol, biodiesel blends, diesel fuel, fuel oil, or coal.
In thermodynamics, the term exothermic process (exo-: "outside") describes a process or reaction that releases energy from the system to its surroundings, usually in the form of heat, but also in a form of light (e.g. a spark, flame, or flash), electricity (e.g. a battery), or sound (e.g. explosion heard when burning hydrogen).
Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.
Flambé (also spelled flambe) is a cooking procedure in which alcohol is added to a hot pan to create a burst of flames.
The flash point of a volatile material is the lowest temperature at which vapours of the material will ignite, when given an ignition source.
A flexible-fuel vehicle (FFV) or dual-fuel vehicle (colloquially called a flex-fuel vehicle) is an alternative fuel vehicle with an internal combustion engine designed to run on more than one fuel, usually gasoline blended with either ethanol or methanol fuel, and both fuels are stored in the same common tank.
The Ford Model T (colloquially known as the Tin Lizzie, Leaping Lena, or flivver) is an automobile produced by Ford Motor Company from October 1, 1908, to May 26, 1927.
The Ford Taurus is an automobile manufactured by Ford in the United States.
Formic acid, systematically named methanoic acid, is the simplest carboxylic acid.
Fortified wine is a wine to which a distilled spirit, usually brandy, is added.
Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions.
Fractional freezing is a process used in process engineering and chemistry to separate substances with different melting points.
A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work.
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Furosemide, sold under the brand name Lasix among others, is a medication used to treat fluid build-up due to heart failure, liver scarring, or kidney disease.
Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.
Georges-Simon Serullas (2 November 1774 in Poncin – 25 May 1832 in Paris) was a professor of pharmacy notable for being the first to publish a work on Iodoform, an early antiseptic and disinfectant.
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound.
A halide is a binary phase, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative (or more electropositive) than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, astatide, or theoretically tennesside compound.
The haloalkanes (also known as halogenoalkanes or alkyl halides) are a group of chemical compounds derived from alkanes containing one or more halogens.
The haloform reaction is a chemical reaction where a haloform (CHX3, where X is a halogen) is produced by the exhaustive halogenation of a methyl ketone (a molecule containing the R–CO–CH3 group) in the presence of a base.
Halogenation is a chemical reaction that involves the addition of one or more halogens to a compound or material.
Hand sanitizer is a liquid generally used to decrease infectious agents on the hands.
Hebei (postal: Hopeh) is a province of China in the North China region.
Henry Hennell FRS (c. 1797 – 4 June 1842) was an English chemist.
n-Heptane is the straight-chain alkane with the chemical formula H3C(CH2)5CH3 or C7H16.
Hexane is an alkane of six carbon atoms, with the chemical formula C6H14.
The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder).
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
The compound hydrogen chloride has the chemical formula and as such is a hydrogen halide.
Hydrogen halides are diatomic inorganic compounds with the formula HX where X is one of the halogens: fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, or astatine.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
Hydrometer from Practical Physics A hydrometer or areometer is an instrument used for measuring the relative density of liquids based on the concept of buoyancy.
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.
Hygroscopy is the phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules from the surrounding environment, which is usually at normal or room temperature.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.
The International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) is an International organization which conducts agricultural research for rural development, headquartered in Patancheru (Hyderabad, Telangana, India) with several regional centers (Bamako (Mali), Nairobi (Kenya)) and research stations (Niamey (Niger), Kano (Nigeria), Lilongwe (Malawi), Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), Bulawayo (Zimbabwe)).
An interstellar cloud is generally an accumulation of gas, plasma, and dust in our and other galaxies.
Iron supplements, also known as iron salts and iron pills, are a number of iron formulations used to treat and prevent iron deficiency including iron deficiency anemia.
An isomer (from Greek ἰσομερής, isomerès; isos.
Isopropyl alcohol (IUPAC name propan-2-ol; commonly called isopropanol) is a compound with the chemical formula C3H8O.
In chemical nomenclature, the IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry is a systematic method of naming organic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).
The Jin dynasty, officially known as the Great Jin, lasted from 1115 to 1234 as one of the last dynasties in Chinese history to predate the Mongol invasion of China.
Justus Freiherr von Liebig (12 May 1803 – 18 April 1873) was a German chemist who made major contributions to agricultural and biological chemistry, and was considered the founder of organic chemistry.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
Kohl (كُحْل) is an ancient eye cosmetic, traditionally made by grinding stibnite (Sb2S3) for similar purposes to charcoal used in mascara.
Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.
A light aircraft is an aircraft that has a maximum gross takeoff weight of or less.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas (predominantly methane, CH4, with some mixture of ethane C2H6) that has been converted to liquid form for ease and safety of non-pressurized storage or transport.
Liquefied petroleum gas or liquid petroleum gas (LPG or LP gas), also referred to as simply propane or butane, are flammable mixtures of hydrocarbon gases used as fuel in heating appliances, cooking equipment, and vehicles.
A liquid-propellant rocket or liquid rocket is a rocket engine that uses liquid propellants.
Liquor (also hard liquor, hard alcohol, or spirits) is an alcoholic drink produced by distillation of grains, fruit, or vegetables that have already gone through alcoholic fermentation.
Gasoline additives increase gasoline's octane rating or act as corrosion inhibitors or lubricants, thus allowing the use of higher compression ratios for greater efficiency and power.
LyondellBasell Industries N.V. is a public multinational chemical company with American and European roots, incorporated in the Netherlands, with U.S. operations headquarters in Houston, Texas, and global operations in London, UK.
Magnesium chloride is the name for the chemical compound with the formula MgCl2 and its various hydrates MgCl2(H2O)x.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
Malt is germinated cereal grains that have been dried in a process known as "malting".
Mannitol is a type of sugar alcohol which is also used as a medication.
Pierre Eugène Marcellin Berthelot FRS FRSE (25 October 1827 – 18 March 1907) was a French chemist and politician noted for the ThomsenendashBerthelot principle of thermochemistry.
In brewing and distilling, mashing is the process of combining a mix of grain (typically malted barley with supplementary grains such as corn, sorghum, rye, or wheat), known as the "grain bill", and water, known as "liquor", and heating this mixture.
Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church, and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).
A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3.
In organic chemistry, a methylene group is any part of a molecule that consists of two hydrogen atoms bound to a carbon atom, which is connected to the remainder of the molecule by a double bond.
Michael Faraday FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States.
Miscibility is the property of substances to mix in all proportions (that is, to fully dissolve in each other at any concentration), forming a homogeneous solution.
A miscibility gap is a region in a phase diagram for a mixture of components where the mixture exists as two or more phases - any region of composition of mixtures where the constituents are not completely miscible.
A molecular sieve is a material with pores (very small holes) of uniform size.
In psychology, a mood is an emotional state.
Moorella is a genus of bacteriae belonging to the Firmicutes.
A nanowire is a nanostructure, with the diameter of the order of a nanometer (10−9 meters).
Naphtha is a flammable liquid hydrocarbon mixture.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Nicolas-Théodore de Saussure (14 October 1767, in Geneva – 18 April 1845, in Geneva) was a Swiss chemist and student of plant physiology who made seminal advances in phytochemistry.
Nitrogen oxide may refer to a binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen, or a mixture of such compounds.
Nitromethane is an organic compound with the chemical formula.
In atmospheric chemistry, is a generic term for the nitrogen oxides that are most relevant for air pollution, namely nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is an American multiprogram science and technology national laboratory sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and administered, managed, and operated by UT-Battelle as a federally funded research and development center (FFRDC) under a contract with the DOE.
An occupational exposure limit is an upper limit on the acceptable concentration of a hazardous substance in workplace air for a particular material or class of materials.
An octane rating, or octane number, is a standard measure of the performance of an engine or aviation fuel.
The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary written and compiled by Douglas Harper that describes the origins of English-language words.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the intentional construction of organic compounds.
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.
Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as opposed to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.
Paint is any liquid, liquefiable, or mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, converts to a solid film.
Palm wine is an alcoholic beverage created from the sap of various species of palm tree such as the palmyra, date palms, and coconut palms.
Panicum virgatum, commonly known as switchgrass, is a perennial warm season bunchgrass native to North America, where it occurs naturally from 55°N latitude in Canada southwards into the United States and Mexico.
--> Acetanilide was the first aniline derivative serendipitously found to possess analgesic as well as antipyretic properties, and was quickly introduced into medical practice under the name of Antifebrin by A. Cahn and P. Hepp in 1886. But its unacceptable toxic effects, the most alarming being cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia, prompted the search for less toxic aniline derivatives. Harmon Northrop Morse had already synthesised paracetamol at Johns Hopkins University via the reduction of ''p''-nitrophenol with tin in glacial acetic acid in 1877, but it was not until 1887 that clinical pharmacologist Joseph von Mering tried paracetamol on humans. In 1893, von Mering published a paper reporting on the clinical results of paracetamol with phenacetin, another aniline derivative. Von Mering claimed that, unlike phenacetin, paracetamol had a slight tendency to produce methemoglobinemia. Paracetamol was then quickly discarded in favor of phenacetin. The sales of phenacetin established Bayer as a leading pharmaceutical company. Overshadowed in part by aspirin, introduced into medicine by Heinrich Dreser in 1899, phenacetin was popular for many decades, particularly in widely advertised over-the-counter "headache mixtures", usually containing phenacetin, an aminopyrine derivative of aspirin, caffeine, and sometimes a barbiturate. Paracetamol is the active metabolite of phenacetin and acetanilide, both once popular as analgesics and antipyretics in their own right. However, unlike phenacetin, acetanilide and their combinations, paracetamol is not considered carcinogenic at therapeutic doses. Von Mering's claims remained essentially unchallenged for half a century, until two teams of researchers from the United States analyzed the metabolism of acetanilide and paracetamol. In 1947 David Lester and Leon Greenberg found strong evidence that paracetamol was a major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and in a subsequent study they reported that large doses of paracetamol given to albino rats did not cause methemoglobinemia. In three papers published in the September 1948 issue of the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Bernard Brodie, Julius Axelrod and Frederick Flinn confirmed using more specific methods that paracetamol was the major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and established that it was just as efficacious an analgesic as its precursor. They also suggested that methemoglobinemia is produced in humans mainly by another metabolite, phenylhydroxylamine. A follow-up paper by Brodie and Axelrod in 1949 established that phenacetin was also metabolised to paracetamol. This led to a "rediscovery" of paracetamol. It has been suggested that contamination of paracetamol with 4-aminophenol, the substance von Mering synthesised it from, may be the cause for his spurious findings. Paracetamol was first marketed in the United States in 1950 under the name Triagesic, a combination of paracetamol, aspirin, and caffeine. Reports in 1951 of three users stricken with the blood disease agranulocytosis led to its removal from the marketplace, and it took several years until it became clear that the disease was unconnected. Paracetamol was marketed in 1953 by Sterling-Winthrop Co. as Panadol, available only by prescription, and promoted as preferable to aspirin since it was safe for children and people with ulcers. In 1955, paracetamol was marketed as Children's Tylenol Elixir by McNeil Laboratories. In 1956, 500 mg tablets of paracetamol went on sale in the United Kingdom under the trade name Panadol, produced by Frederick Stearns & Co, a subsidiary of Sterling Drug Inc. In 1963, paracetamol was added to the British Pharmacopoeia, and has gained popularity since then as an analgesic agent with few side-effects and little interaction with other pharmaceutical agents. Concerns about paracetamol's safety delayed its widespread acceptance until the 1970s, but in the 1980s paracetamol sales exceeded those of aspirin in many countries, including the United Kingdom. This was accompanied by the commercial demise of phenacetin, blamed as the cause of analgesic nephropathy and hematological toxicity. In 1988 Sterling Winthrop was acquired by Eastman Kodak which sold the over the counter drug rights to SmithKline Beecham in 1994. Available without a prescription since 1959, it has since become a common household drug. Patents on paracetamol have long expired, and generic versions of the drug are widely available.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.
The pen-tailed treeshrew (Ptilocercus lowii) is a treeshrew native to southern Thailand, the Malay Peninsula, Borneo, and some Indonesian islands.
Pentane is an organic compound with the formula C5H12—that is, an alkane with five carbon atoms.
The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.
Pervaporation (or pervaporative separation) is a processing method for the separation of mixtures of liquids by partial vaporization through a non-porous or porous membrane.
Petrochemicals (also known as petroleum distillates) are chemical products derived from petroleum.
Petrochemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies the transformation of crude oil (petroleum) and natural gas into useful products or raw materials.
The PGM-11 Redstone was the first large American ballistic missile.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Phenobarbital, also known as phenobarbitone or phenobarb, is a medication recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of certain types of epilepsy in developing countries.
Phosphoric acid (also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid) is a mineral (inorganic) and weak acid having the chemical formula H3PO4.
Phosphorus pentoxide is a chemical compound with molecular formula P4O10 (with its common name derived from its empirical formula, P2O5).
Phosphorus tribromide is a colourless liquid with the formula PBr3.
Pipeline transport is the transportation of goods or material through a pipe.
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
Potassium carbonate (K2CO3) is a white salt, which is soluble in water (insoluble in ethanol) and forms a strongly alkaline solution.
Potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine.
Potassium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula KOH, and is commonly called caustic potash.
Pressure swing adsorption (PSA) is a technology used to separate some gas species from a mixture of gases under pressure according to the species' molecular characteristics and affinity for an adsorbent material.
Propane is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8.
Water is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from an inherent hint of blue. It is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" and the "solvent of life". It is the most abundant substance on Earth and the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas on Earth's surface. It is also the third most abundant molecule in the universe. Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and are strongly polar. This polarity allows it to separate ions in salts and strongly bond to other polar substances such as alcohols and acids, thus dissolving them. Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass, and a high heat capacity. Water is amphoteric, meaning that it is both an acid and a base—it produces + and - ions by self-ionization.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.
Pyridine is a basic heterocyclic organic compound with the chemical formula C5H5N.
Ramon Llull, T.O.S.F. (c. 1232 – c. 1315; Anglicised Raymond Lully, Raymond Lull; in Latin Raimundus or Raymundus Lullus or Lullius) was a philosopher, logician, Franciscan tertiary and Spanish writer.
Ranitidine, sold under the trade name Zantac among others, is a medication which decreases stomach acid production.
A raw material, also known as a feedstock or most correctly unprocessed material, is a basic material that is used to produce goods, finished products, energy, or intermediate materials which are feedstock for future finished products.
Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.
Reflux is a technique involving the condensation of vapors and the return of this condensate to the system from which it originated.
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
Rocket propellant is a material used either directly by a rocket as the reaction mass (propulsive mass) that is ejected, typically with very high speed, from a rocket engine to produce thrust, and thus provide spacecraft propulsion, or indirectly to produce the reaction mass in a chemical reaction.
The Rocket Racing League was a racing league that planned to use rocket-powered aircraft to race a closed-circuit air racetrack.
Rubbing alcohol refers to either isopropyl alcohol (propan-2-ol) or ethanol based liquids, or the comparable British Pharmacopoeia defined surgical spirit, with isopropyl alcohol products being the most widely available.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of yeast.
Saponification is a process that produces soap.
Sawdust or wood dust is a by-product or waste product of woodworking operations such as sawing, milling, planing, routing, drilling and sanding.
São Paulo is a municipality in the southeast region of Brazil.
The Schola Medica Salernitana (Scuola Medica Salernitana) was a late Medieval medical school, the first and most important of its kind.
Shell Oil Company is the United States-based wholly owned subsidiary of Royal Dutch Shell, transnational corporation "oil major" of Anglo-Dutch origins, which is amongst the largest oil companies in the world.
Silica gel is an amorphous and porous form of silicon dioxide (silica), consisting of an irregular tridimensional framework of alternating silicon and oxygen atoms with nanometer-scale voids and pores.
A sin tax is an excise tax specifically levied on certain goods deemed harmful to society, for example alcohol and tobacco, candies, drugs, soft drinks, fast foods, coffee, sugar, gambling and pornography.
The SN2 reaction is a type of reaction mechanism that is common in organic chemistry.
Social behavior is behavior among two or more organisms, typically from the same species.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Sodium bromide is an inorganic compound with the formula NaBr.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
Sodium hydride is the chemical compound with the empirical formula NaH.
Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.
Sodium nitrite is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaNO2.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
Space.com is a space and astronomy news website.
Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.
A still is an apparatus used to distill liquid mixtures by heating to selectively boil and then cooling to condense the vapor.
Straw is an agricultural by-product, the dry stalks of cereal plants, after the grain and chaff have been removed.
Sucrose is common table sugar.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
Supercritical carbon dioxide (s) is a fluid state of carbon dioxide where it is held at or above its critical temperature and critical pressure.
Surface tension is the elastic tendency of a fluid surface which makes it acquire the least surface area possible.
Sweet sorghum is any of the many varieties of the sorghum grass whose stalks have a high sugar content.
A systematic name is a name given in a systematic way to one unique group, organism, object or chemical substance, out of a specific population or collection.
The phenomenon called tears of wine is manifested as a ring of clear liquid, near the top of a glass of wine, from which droplets continuously form and drop back into the wine.
tert-Butyl alcohol (TBA), also called tert-butanol or t-butanol, is the simplest tertiary alcohol, with a formula of (CH3)3COH (sometimes represented as t-BuOH).
Tetrachloroethylene, also known under the systematic name tetrachloroethene, or perchloroethylene ("perc" or "PERC"), and many other names, is a chlorocarbon with the formula Cl2C.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
Thionyl chloride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula SOCl2.
Ethanol, an alcohol fuel, is an important fuel for the operation of internal combustion engines that are used in cars, trucks, and other kinds of machinery.
A tincture is typically an alcoholic extract of plant or animal material or solution of such, or of a low volatility substance (such as iodine and mercurochrome).
Toluene, also known as toluol, is an aromatic hydrocarbon.
The torr (symbol: Torr) is a unit of pressure based on an absolute scale, now defined as exactly of a standard atmosphere (101.325 kPa).
Triethyl phosphate is a chemical compound with the formula (C2H5)3PO4 or OP(OEt)3.
Trihalomethanes (THMs) are chemical compounds in which three of the four hydrogen atoms of methane (CH4) are replaced by halogen atoms.
Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX), also known as co-trimoxazole among other names, is an antibiotic used to treat a variety of bacterial infections.
In thermodynamics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which the three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.
Ozone (O3) is a constituent of the troposphere (it is also an important constituent of some regions of the stratosphere commonly known as the ozone layer).
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy or ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry (UV–Vis or UV/Vis) refers to absorption spectroscopy or reflectance spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible spectral region.
Undecane (also known as hendecane) is a liquid alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)9CH3.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
Union Carbide Corporation is a wholly owned subsidiary (since 2001) of Dow Chemical Company.
The United Nations Foundation was launched in 1998 with a $1 billion gift from Ted Turner to support the United Nations causes.
The United States Postal Service (USPS; also known as the Post Office, U.S. Mail, or Postal Service) is an independent agency of the United States federal government responsible for providing postal service in the United States, including its insular areas and associated states.
The V-2 (Vergeltungswaffe 2, "Retribution Weapon 2"), technical name Aggregat 4 (A4), was the world's first long-range guided ballistic missile.
Vinyl alcohol, also called ethenol (IUPAC name), is the simplest enol.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
In chemistry and physics, volatility is quantified by the tendency of a substance to vaporize.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Wood fuel (or fuelwood) is a fuel, such as firewood, charcoal, chips, sheets, pellets, and sawdust.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.
Zeolites are microporous, aluminosilicate minerals commonly used as commercial adsorbents and catalysts.
Zinc chloride is the name of chemical compounds with the formula ZnCl2 and its hydrates.
The organic compound 1,1,1-trichloroethane, also known as methyl chloroform, is a chloroalkane.
1-Propanol is a primary alcohol with the formula CH3CH2CH2OH (sometimes represented as PrOH or n-PrOH).
2,3-Butanediol (HOCHMe)2 has three stereoisomers, all of which are colorless, viscous liquids.
ATC code D08AX08, ATC code V03AB16, ATC code V03AZ01, ATCvet code QD08AX08, ATCvet code QV03AB16, ATCvet code QV03AZ01, Absolute alcohol, Absolute ethanol, Acquarzente, Aethanol, Aethylalkohol, Alcare Hand Degermer, Algrain, Anhydrol, Anhydrous alcohol, Anhydrous ethanol, Bio ethanol, Bio-ethanol, Bioethanol, C2H5OH, C2h50h, CH3CH2OH, Chemical derivatives of ethanol, Cologne spirit, Cologne spirits, C₂H₅OH, Denatured Alcohol Cd-10, Denatured Alcohol Cd-5, Denatured Alcohol Cd-5a, Denatured Alcohol Sd-1, Denatured Alcohol Sd-13a, Denatured Alcohol Sd-17, Denatured Alcohol Sd-23a, Denatured Alcohol Sd-28, Denatured Alcohol Sd-30, Denatured Alcohol Sd-39b, Denatured Alcohol Sd-39c, Denatured Alcohol Sd-3a, Denatured Alcohol Sd-40m, Drying ethanol, E1510, Ehtanol, Endogenous ethanol, Endogenous ethanol in humans, EtOH, Etanol, Ethanol purification, Ethanol, Silent Spirit, Ethanol-alcohol, Ethanolic, Ethonal, Ethonol, Ethyl Alcohol, Ethyl alchohol, Ethyl alcohol, Ethyl hydrate, Ethylalcohol, Ethylic alcohol, Ethylol, Ethyloxidane, Hydration of ethene, Hydrous ethanol, Hydroxyethane, Hydroxyethyl, Industrial ethanol, Jaysol, Jaysol S, Methylcarbinol, Pure alcohol, Reagent Alcohol, Synasol, Tecsol, Tecsol C, Thanol, Thiofaco M-50, Wet alcohol, Wine spirit.