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Jammu and Kashmir

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Jammu and Kashmir (ænd) is a state in northern India, often denoted by its acronym, J&K. [1]

319 relations: Accession Day (Jammu and Kashmir), Acronym, Afghanistan, Akhnoor, Aksai Chin, All India Institutes of Medical Sciences, Amarnath land transfer controversy, Amarnath Temple, Amnesty International, Anantnag, Anantnag district, Arabian Sea, Archery, Architecture of India, Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, Article 370 of the Constitution of India, ASSOCHAM, Association of International Marathons and Distance Races, Atiqa Bano, Azad Kashmir, Baba Ghulam Shah Badshah University, Bakarwal, Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad, Bakshi Stadium, Balti language, Bandipora, Bandipora district, Banihal, Baramulla, Baramulla district, BBC News Online, Bhaderwah, Bharatiya Janata Party, Bibliography of India, Bicameralism, Bijbehara, Bilaspur–Manali–Leh line, Biogeography, Black-necked crane, Boundary delimitation, Brahmin, Buddhism, Budgam, Budgam district, Central Board of Secondary Education, Central Intelligence Agency, Central University of Jammu, Central University of Kashmir, Chapter VI of 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Accession Day (Jammu and Kashmir)

Accession Day is a holiday in India's northernmost state, Jammu and Kashmir, commemorating 26 October 1947, when Maharaja Hari Singh signed of the Instrument of Accession, in which Jammu and Kashmir joined the Dominion of India.

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Acronym

An acronym is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual letters (as in NATO or laser) and sometimes syllables (as in Benelux).

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Afghanistan

Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.

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Akhnoor

Akhnoor is an archeological site and Municipal Committee in Jammu district in the state of Jammu & Kashmir, India.

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Aksai Chin

Aksai Chin (ﺋﺎﻗﺴﺎﻱ ﭼﯩﻦ;Hindi-अक्साई चिन) is a disputed border area between China and India.

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All India Institutes of Medical Sciences

The All India Institutes of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) are a group of autonomous public medical colleges of higher education.

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Amarnath land transfer controversy

On 26 May 2008, the government of India and state government of Jammu and Kashmir reached an agreement to transfer of forest land to the Shri Amarnathji Shrine Board (SASB) in the main Kashmir valley to set up temporary shelters and facilities for Hindu pilgrims.

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Amarnath Temple

Amarnath cave is a Hindu shrine located in Jammu and Kashmir, India.

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Amnesty International

Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.

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Anantnag

Anantnag (/ə'nʌntna:g/ or /-nɑːg/; anantnāg; "Countless springs"), also called Islamabad, is a city and a municipality, capital of the Anantnag district in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Anantnag district

Anantnag is a district in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Arabian Sea

The Arabian Sea, also known as Sea of Oman, is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Gulf of Aden, Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Peninsula, and on the east by India.

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Archery

Archery is the art, sport, practice or skill of using a bow to shoot arrows.

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Architecture of India

The architecture of India is rooted in its history, culture and religion.

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Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act

Armed Forces (Special Powers) Acts (AFSPA), are Acts of the Parliament of India that grant special powers to the Indian Armed Forces in what each act terms "disturbed areas".

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Article 370 of the Constitution of India

Article 370 of the Indian constitution is an article that gives autonomous status to the state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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ASSOCHAM

The Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India (ASSOCHAM) is one of the apex trade associations of India.

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Association of International Marathons and Distance Races

The Association of International Marathons and Distance Races, also known as AIMS, is an association of long-distance running races.

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Atiqa Bano

Atiqa Bano (1940 – 4 October 2017) was an Indian educationist and activist for the artistic and cultural heritage of Kashmir.

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Azad Kashmir

Azad Jammu and Kashmir (آزاد جموں و کشمیر Āzād Jammū̃ o Kaśmīr, translation: Free Jammu and Kashmir), abbreviated as AJK and commonly known as Azad Kashmir, is a nominally self-governing polity administered by Pakistan.

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Baba Ghulam Shah Badshah University

Baba Ghulam Shah Badshah University is a state university in India which came into existence by the Act of the Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly in 2002.

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Bakarwal

The Bakarwal (also Gujjar - Bakharwal, Bakrawallah and Bakerwal) are a mostly-Sunni Muslim nomadic tribe based in the Pir Panjal and Himalayan mountains of South Asia.

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Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad

Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad (1907–1972) was a politician belonging to the Jammu & Kashmir National Conference and second in command to the principal leader Sheikh Abdullah.

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Bakshi Stadium

Bakshi Stadium is a stadium in Srinagar, India.

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Balti language

Balti (Nastaʿlīq script) is a Tibetic language spoken in the Baltistan region of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, the Nubra Valley of Leh district, and in the Kargil district of Jammu and Kashmir, India.

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Bandipora

Bandipora is the administrative headquarters of the district of Bandipora in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India.

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Bandipora district

Bandipora district is one of the 22 districts in Jammu and Kashmir state in northern India.

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Banihal

Banihal "City of Mountains" is a town and a notified area committee in Ramban district in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Baramulla

Baramulla (ˌbærəˈmʊlə) is a city and a municipality in the Baramulla district in the state of Jammu and Kashmir (India).

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Baramulla district

Baramulla district is one of the 22 districts in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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BBC News Online

BBC News Online is the website of BBC News, the division of the BBC responsible for newsgathering and production.

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Bhaderwah

Bhaderwah (or Bhadarwah) is a town and tehsil in the Doda district, in the State of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Bharatiya Janata Party

The Bharatiya Janata Party (translation: Indian People's Party; BJP) is one of the two major political parties in India, along with the Indian National Congress.

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Bibliography of India

This is a bibliography of notable works about India.

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Bicameralism

A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.

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Bijbehara

Bijbehara, also known as Vijeshwara and Vejibyour, is an ancient town and a notable area in south Kashmir.A very densely populated town, located on National Highway NH-1 A, connecting the Kashmir Valley with the rest of India.

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Bilaspur–Manali–Leh line

Bilaspur–Manali–Leh line is a proposed high-elevation all-weather broad gauge railway track that is planned to connect Bilaspur in Himachal Pradesh to Leh in Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir state of India.

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Biogeography

Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time.

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Black-necked crane

The black-necked crane (Grus nigricollis) is a medium-sized crane in Asia that breeds on the Tibetan Plateau and remote parts of India and Bhutan.

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Boundary delimitation

Boundary delimitation (or simply delimitation) is the drawing of boundaries, particularly of electoral precincts, states, counties or other municipalities.

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Brahmin

Brahmin (Sanskrit: ब्राह्मण) is a varna (class) in Hinduism specialising as priests, teachers (acharya) and protectors of sacred learning across generations.

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Buddhism

Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Budgam

Budgam is a town and a notified area committee in Budgam district in the state of Jammu & Kashmir, India.

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Budgam district

Budgam District is a district of the state of Jammu and Kashmir in India.

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Central Board of Secondary Education

The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) is a national level board of education in India for public and private schools, controlled and managed by Union Government of India.

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Central Intelligence Agency

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).

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Central University of Jammu

Central University of Jammu in Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India has been established through an Act of Parliament: "The Central Universities Act, 2009" by Govt. of India.

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Central University of Kashmir

Central University of Kashmir, formerly Central University of Jammu and Kashmir, is a central university located in Jammu and Kashmir, India.

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Chapter VI of the United Nations Charter

Chapter VI of the United Nations Charter deals with peaceful settlement of disputes.

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Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter

Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter sets out the UN Security Council's powers to maintain peace.

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Chenab River

The Chenab River (चेनाब; ਚਨਾਬ,; چناب) is a major river that flows in India and Pakistan, and is one of the 5 major rivers of the Punjab region.

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Chenab valley

Chenab Valley is a valley in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India.

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Chief minister

A chief minister is the elected head of government of a sub-national entity, for instance a administrative subdivision or federal constituent entity.

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Chinese Communist Revolution

The Chinese Communist Revolution started from 1946, after the end of Second Sino-Japanese War, and was the second part of the Chinese Civil War.

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Christianity

ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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Constituent Assembly of Jammu and Kashmir

Constituent Assembly of Jammu and Kashmir was a body of representatives elected in 1951 to formulate the constitution of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Constitution of India

The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India.

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Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir

The Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir is the legal document in which establishes the framework of government at state level in Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Culture of India

The culture of India refers collectively to the thousands of distinct and unique cultures of all religions and communities present in India.

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Dal Lake

Dal is a lake in Srinagar (Dal Lake is a misnomer as Dal in Kashmiri means lake), the summer capital of Jammu and Kashmir. The urban lake, which is the second largest in the state, is integral to tourism and recreation in Kashmir and is named the "Jewel in the crown of Kashmir" or "Srinagar's Jewel". The lake is also an important source for commercial operations in fishing and water plant harvesting.Pandit pp. 66–93 The shore line of the lake, is about, is encompassed by a boulevard lined with Mughal era gardens, parks, houseboats and hotels. Scenic views of the lake can be witnessed from the shore line Mughal gardens, such as Shalimar Bagh and Nishat Bagh built during the reign of Mughal Emperor Jahangir and from houseboats cruising along the lake in the colourful shikaras. During the winter season, the temperature sometimes reaches, freezing the lake. The lake covers an area of and is part of a natural wetland which covers, including its floating gardens. The floating gardens, known as "Rad" in Kashmiri, blossom with lotus flowers during July and August. The wetland is divided by causeways into four basins; Gagribal, Lokut Dal, Bod Dal and Nagin (although Nagin is also considered as an independent lake). Lokut-dal and Bod-dal each have an island in the centre, known as Rup Lank (or Char Chinari) and Sona Lank respectively. At present, the Dal and its Mughal gardens, Shalimar Bagh and the Nishat Bagh on its periphery are undergoing intensive restoration measures to fully address the serious eutrophication problems experienced by the lake. Massive investments of approximately US$275 million (11 billion) are being made by the Government of India to restore the lake to its original splendour.

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Delhi

Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.

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Doda

Doda is a town located on the right side of the river chenab and a notified area committee in Doda district in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Doda district

Doda is a district in eastern part of Jammu region of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Dogra

The Dogras are an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group in India and Pakistan that speaks the Dogri language.

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Dogri language

Dogri (डोगरी or), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about five million people in India and Pakistan, chiefly in the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh, but also in northern Punjab, other parts of Jammu and Kashmir, and elsewhere.

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East Timor

East Timor or Timor-Leste (Tetum: Timór Lorosa'e), officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (República Democrática de Timor-Leste, Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste), is a sovereign state in Maritime Southeast Asia.

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ESPNcricinfo

ESPNcricinfo (formerly known as Cricinfo or CricInfo) is a sports news website exclusively for the game of cricket.

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Exodus of Kashmiri Hindus

The Hindus of the Kashmir Valley, a large majority of whom were Kashmiri Pandits, were forced to flee the Kashmir valley as a result of Islamic insurgency, on or after 20 January 1990.

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Extrajudicial killing

An extrajudicial killing (also known as extrajudicial execution) is the killing of a person by governmental authorities without the sanction of any judicial proceeding or legal process.

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Farooq Ahmed Dar

Farooq Ahmed Dar (فاروق احمد ڈار), also known by his nom de guerre Bitta Karate, is the current chairman of Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front, and a former Kashmiri militant who allegedly killed many Kashmiri Hindus and took part in the 1990 ethnic cleansing of Kashmiri Hindus.

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Final good

In economics, any commodity which is produced and subsequently consumed by the consumer, to satisfy his current wants or needs, is a consumer good or final good.

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Firstpost

Firstpost is an Indian news and media website.

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Flag of India

The National Flag of India is a horizontal rectangular tricolour of India saffron, white and India green; with the Ashoka Chakra, a 24-spoke wheel, in navy blue at its centre.

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Flag of Jammu and Kashmir

The flag of Jammu and Kashmir is the official flag of the state of Jammu and Kashmir in northern India.

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Flute

The flute is a family of musical instruments in the woodwind group.

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Freedom House

Freedom House is a U.S.-based 501(c)(3) U.S. government-funded non-governmental organization (NGO) that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom, and human rights.

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Freedom in the World

Freedom in the World is a yearly survey and report by the U.S.-based non-governmental organization Freedom House that measures the degree of civil liberties and political rights in every nation and significant related and disputed territories around the world.

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Ganderbal

Ganderbal is a tehsil and a municipality committee in Ganderbal district in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Ganderbal district

Ganderbal is a newly formed district of the state of Jammu and Kashmir of India.

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Ghulam Nabi Azad

Ghulam Nabi Azad (born 7 March 1949) is an Indian politician of the Indian National Congress and was the Minister of Health and Family Welfare.

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Gilgit-Baltistan

Gilgit-Baltistan, formerly known as the Northern Areas, is the northernmost administrative territory in Pakistan.

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Golf course

A golf course is the grounds where the game of golf is played.

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Government College of Engineering and Technology, Jammu

The Government College of Engineering and Technology, Jammu (GCET, Jammu) is an engineering institute located in Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

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Government Medical College, Jammu

The Government Medical College, Jammu also known as GMC Jammu is a Medical College located in Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir.

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Government Medical College, Srinagar

The Government Medical College, Srinagar, (Urdu) also known as GMC Srinagar is a Medical College located in Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir.

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Great Britain

Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.

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Greater Kashmir

Greater Kashmir is an English language newspaper printed and published from Srinagar, the summer capital of the state of Jammu and Kashmir in India.

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Gujari language

Gujari, also known as Gojri (ગુજરી, गुजरी) is a variety of Indo-Aryan spoken by the Gurjars and other tribes of India and Pakistan, with some speakers in Afghanistan.

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Gulmarg

Gulmarg is a town, a hill station, a popular skiing destination and a notified area committee in the Baramula district of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Gurjar

Gurjar or Gujjar are a pastoral agricultural ethnic group with populations in India, Nepal, Pakistan, and a small number in northeastern Afghanistan.

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Handwara

Handwara is a town in the Kupwara District of Jammu and Kashmir located on Baramulla-Kupwara National Highway NH-701 which is governed by a municipal committee.

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Hari Singh

Hari Singh (September 1895 – 26 April 1961) was the last ruling Maharaja of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir in India.

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Haryana

Haryana, carved out of the former state of East Punjab on 1November 1966 on linguistic basis, is one of the 29 states in India.

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Himachal Pradesh

Himachal Pradesh (literally "snow-laden province") is a Indian state located in North India.

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Himalayan subtropical pine forests

The Himalayan subtropical pine forests are a large subtropical coniferous forest ecoregion covering portions of Bhutan, India, Nepal, and Pakistan.

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Himalayas

The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.

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Hindi

Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.

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Hindu

Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.

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Hinduism

Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.

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Houseboat

A houseboat (different from boathouse, which is a shed for storing boats) is a boat that has been designed or modified to be used primarily as a home.

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Human rights abuses in Jammu and Kashmir

Human rights abuses in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir state are an ongoing issue.

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Human Rights Watch

Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.

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Index of India-related articles

Articles (arranged alphabetically) related to India or Indian culture include: List of India-related topics People are listed by their first names.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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India–Pakistan relations

Relations between India and Pakistan have been complex and largely hostile due to a number of historical and political events.

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Indian Armed Forces and the Jammu and Kashmir floods, 2014

In the wake of heavy monsoon rain and flash floods in Jammu and Kashmir, which have allegedly killed over four hundred and rendered hundreds of thousand homeless, the Indian Armed Forces were deployed in increasing numbers starting September 2, 2014 to conduct search, rescue, relief, relocation,humanitarian assistance and rehabilitation missions in Jammu and Kashmir.

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Indian Army

The Indian Army is the land-based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces.

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Indian Independence Act 1947

The Indian Independence Act 1947 (1947 c. 30 (10 & 11. Geo. 6.)) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that partitioned British India into the two new independent dominions of India and Pakistan.

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Indian Institute of Management Jammu

Indian Institute of Management Jammu (IIM Jammu) is a public, autonomous business school located in Jammu, Jammu & Kashmir, India.

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Indian Institute of Technology Jammu

The Indian Institute of Technology Jammu (abbreviated IIT Jammu) is a public research university located in Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India.The Institute came into existence in 2016 when a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between Department of Higher Education, Government of Jammu & Kashmir and Department of Higher Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), Government of India, was signed, setting the ball rolling to set up an IIT campus at village Jagti, Tehsil Nagrota at Jammu.

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Indian National Congress

The Indian National Congress (INC, often called Congress Party) is a broadly based political party in India.

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Indian Railways

Indian Railways (IR) is India's national railway system operated by the Ministry of Railways.

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Indian rupee

The Indian rupee (sign: ₹; code: INR) is the official currency of the Republic of India.

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Indian Standard Time

Indian Standard Time (IST) is the time observed throughout India, with a time offset of UTC+05:30.

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Indian White Paper on Jammu and Kashmir

The Indian Government published a White Paper on Jammu and Kashmir in 1948 in an effort to explain the Indian position on the Kashmir dispute.

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Indo-Pakistani War of 1947

The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948, sometimes known as the First Kashmir War, was fought between India and Pakistan over the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu from 1947 to 1948.

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Indo-Pakistani War of 1965

The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 was a culmination of skirmishes that took place between April 1965 and September 1965 between Pakistan and India. The conflict began following Pakistan's Operation Gibraltar, which was designed to infiltrate forces into Jammu and Kashmir to precipitate an insurgency against Indian rule. India retaliated by launching a full-scale military attack on West Pakistan. The seventeen-day war caused thousands of casualties on both sides and witnessed the largest engagement of armored vehicles and the largest tank battle since World War II. Hostilities between the two countries ended after a United Nations-mandated ceasefire was declared following diplomatic intervention by the Soviet Union and the United States, and the subsequent issuance of the Tashkent Declaration. Much of the war was fought by the countries' land forces in Kashmir and along the border between India and Pakistan. This war saw the largest amassing of troops in Kashmir since the Partition of British India in 1947, a number that was overshadowed only during the 2001–2002 military standoff between India and Pakistan. Most of the battles were fought by opposing infantry and armoured units, with substantial backing from air forces, and naval operations. Many details of this war, like those of other Indo-Pakistani Wars, remain unclear. India had the upper hand over Pakistan when the ceasefire was declared. "Satisfied that it had secured a strategic and psychological victory over Pakistan by frustrating its attempt to seize Kashmir by force, when the UN resolution was passed, India accepted its terms... with Pakistan's stocks of ammunition and other essential supplies all but exhausted, and with the military balance tipping steadily in India's favour." "Losses were relatively heavy—on the Pakistani side, twenty aircraft, 200 tanks, and 3,800 troops. Pakistan's army had been able to withstand Indian pressure, but a continuation of the fighting would only have led to further losses and ultimate defeat for Pakistan." Quote: The invading Indian forces outfought their Pakistani counterparts and halted their attack on the outskirts of Lahore, Pakistan's second-largest city. By the time the United Nations intervened on 22 September, Pakistan had suffered a clear defeat. Although the two countries fought to a standoff, the conflict is seen as a strategic and political defeat for Pakistan, "... the war itself was a disaster for Pakistan, from the first failed attempts by Pakistani troops to precipitate an insurgency in Kashmir to the appearance of Indian artillery within range of Lahore International Airport." – U.S. Department of State, – Interview with Steve Coll in United States House of Representatives 12 September 1994South Asia in World Politics By Devin T. Hagerty, 2005 Rowman & Littlefield,, p. 26 as it had neither succeeded in fomenting insurrection in Kashmir "... after some initial success, the momentum behind Pakistan's thrust into Kashmir slowed, and the state's inhabitants rejected exhortations from the Pakistani insurgents to join them in taking up arms against their Indian "oppressors." Pakistan's inability to muster support from the local Kashmiri population proved a disaster, both militarily and politically." nor had it been able to gain meaningful support at an international level. "Mao had decided that China would intervene under two conditions—that India attacked East Pakistan, and that Pakistan requested Chinese intervention. In the end, neither of them obtained." Internationally, the war was viewed in the context of the greater Cold War, and resulted in a significant geopolitical shift in the subcontinent. Before the war, the United States and the United Kingdom had been major material allies of both India and Pakistan, as their primary suppliers of military hardware and foreign developmental aid. During and after the conflict, both India and Pakistan felt betrayed by the perceived lack of support by the western powers for their respective positions; those feelings of betrayal were increased with the imposition of an American and British embargo on military aid to the opposing sides. As a consequence, India and Pakistan openly developed closer relationships with the Soviet Union and China, respectively. The perceived negative stance of the western powers during the conflict, and during the 1971 war, has continued to affect relations between the West and the subcontinent. In spite of improved relations with the U.S. and Britain since the end of the Cold War, the conflict generated a deep distrust of both countries within the subcontinent which to an extent lingers to this day."In retrospect, it is clear that the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 represented a watershed in the West's association with the subcontinent.""By extending the Cold War into South Asia, however, the United States did succeed in disturbing the subcontinent's established politico-military equilibrium, undermining British influence in the region, embittering relations between India and Pakistan and, ironically, facilitating the expansion of communist influence in the developing world." "The legacy of the Johnson arms cut-off remains alive today. Indians simply do not believe that America will be there when India needs military help... the legacy of the U.S. "betrayal" still haunts U.S.-Pakistan relations today.".

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Indo-Pakistani War of 1971

The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a military confrontation between India and Pakistan that occurred during the liberation war in East Pakistan from 3 December 1971 to the fall of Dacca (Dhaka) on 16 December 1971.

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Indus River

The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.

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Instrument of Accession (Jammu and Kashmir)

The Instrument of Accession is a legal document executed by Maharaja Hari Singh, ruler of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, on 26 October 1947.

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Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir

The insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir or the Kashmiri Insurgency (also known as Kashmir Intifada) is a conflict between various Kashmiri separatists and the Government of India.

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Internally displaced person

An internally displaced person (IDP) is someone who is forced to flee his or her home but who remains within his or her country's borders.

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International Organization

International Organization is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that covers the entire field of international affairs.

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Iraq

Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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Irreligion

Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.

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Islam

IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Islamia College of Science and Commerce, Srinagar

The Islamia College of Science and Commerce, Srinagar (Urdu) (commonly referred to as Islamia College or ICSC) is a University Grants Commission Autonomous College,and is credited as A grade by NAAC in the state of Jammu and Kashmir located on a campus in Srinagar.

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Islamic architecture

Islamic architecture encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the early history of Islam to the present day.

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Islamic University of Science & Technology

The Islamic University of Science & Technology is a government university located at Awantipora, Pulwama, Jammu and Kashmir.

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ISO 3166-2:IN

ISO 3166-2:IN is the entry for India in ISO 3166-2, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which defines codes for the names of the principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1.

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Jainism

Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.

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Jammu

Jammu is the largest city in the Jammu Division and the winter capital of state of Jammu and Kashmir in India.

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Jammu & Kashmir Bank

Jammu and Kashmir Bank (J&K Bank) is a J&K -based private sector banking and financial services company.

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Jammu & Kashmir National Conference

The Jammu & Kashmir National Conference (JKNC) is a state political party in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Jammu and Kashmir (princely state)

Jammu and Kashmir was, from 1846 until 1952, a princely state of the British Empire in India and ruled by a Jamwal Rajput Dogra Dynasty.

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Jammu and Kashmir High Court

The Jammu and Kashmir High Court is the High Court of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly election, 1987

Elections for the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir were held on 23 March 1987.

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Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly election, 2008

Elections for the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir were held over seven days in November and December 2008.

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Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly election, 2014

The Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly election, 2014 was held in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir in five phases from 25 November – 20 December 2014.

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Jammu and Kashmir Legislature

The Jammu and Kashmir Legislature is the bicameral legislature of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party

The Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party (JKPDP) is a state political party in Jammu and Kashmir, India.

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Jammu and Kashmir State Board of School Education

The Jammu and Kashmir State Board of School Education (abbreviated as JKSBSE or JK SBOSE) is the main board of school education in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Jammu district

Jammu is the most populous district in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir and is home to the winter capital (Jammu) of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Jammu Division

Jammu is one of the three administrative divisions within Jammu and Kashmir, the northernmost state in India.

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Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front

The Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF) is a political organisation in Jammu & Kashmir founded by Amanullah Khan and Maqbool Bhat.

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Jammu–Baramulla line

The Jammu–Baramulla line is a railway line under construction to connect the Kashmir Valley in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir with the rest of the country.

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Jammu–Poonch line

The Jammu–Poonch line is a proposed railway line from Jammu Tawi station via the Historic City of Akhnoor to Poonch via Kaleeth-Dori Dager-Chowki Choura-Bhambla-Nowshera-Rajouri.

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Jhelum River

The Jhelum River, Vitasta (Sanskrit: वितस्ता, fem., also, Vetastā, Kashmiri: Vyeth(ویتھ/व्यथा)), is a river of northwestern India and eastern Pakistan. It is the westernmost of the five rivers of Punjab, and passes through Srinager District. It is a tributary of the Indus River and has a total length of about.

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Karakoram-West Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe

The Karakoram-West Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe is a montane grasslands and shrublands ecoregion found in parts of Pakistan, China, Afghanistan, and India.

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Kargil

Kargil is a city in the Kargil district of Ladakh region, in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Kargil district

Kargil is a district of Ladakh division in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Kargil War

The Kargil War (करगिल युद्ध, kargil yuddh, کرگل جنگ kargil jang), also known as the Kargil conflict, was an armed conflict between India and Pakistan that took place between May and July 1999 in the Kargil district of Kashmir and elsewhere along the Line of Control (LOC).

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Kashmir

Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.

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Kashmir conflict

The Kashmir conflict is a territorial conflict primarily between India and Pakistan, having started just after the partition of India in 1947.

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Kashmir stag

The Kashmir stag (Cervus hanglu hanglu), also called hangul, was previuosly thought to be a subspecies of elk native to India but later researchers identified it to be a separate species.

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Kashmir Valley

The Kashmir Valley, also known as the Vale of Kashmir, is a valley in the portion of the Kashmir region administered by India.

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Kashmiri language

Kashmiri (کأشُر), or Koshur (pronounced kọ̄šur or kạ̄šur) is a language from the Dardic subgroup of Indo-Aryan languages and it is spoken primarily in the Kashmir Valley and Chenab Valley of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Kashmiri Pandit

The Kashmiri Pandits (also known as Kashmiri Brahmins) are a Saraswat Brahmin community from the Kashmir Valley, a mountainous region in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Kashmiris

The Kashmiris (کٲشُر لُکھ / कॉशुर लुख) are an ethnic group native to the Kashmir Valley, in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, who speak Kashmiri, an Indo-Aryan Dardic language.

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Kathua

Kathua (kəˈθʊə), is a city and a Municipal Council in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, near its southern border with Punjab and Himachal Pradesh.Kathua is also called 'the city of Sufis' or ' Dawlat Auliya' owing to the presence of large number of Sufi Shrines of Pirs.

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Kathua district

Kathua district is one of 22 administrative districts that comprise the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Katra, Jammu and Kashmir

Katra or Katra Vaishno Devi, as it is popularly known, is a small town in Reasi district in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India, situated in the foothills of the Trikuta Mountains, where the holy shrine of Vaishno Devi is located.

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Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (abbreviated as KP; خیبر پختونخوا; خیبر پښتونخوا) is one of the four administrative provinces of Pakistan, located in the northwestern region of the country along the international border with Afghanistan.

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Kishtwar

Kishtwar is a municipality in the Kishtwar District of the Jammu region in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Kishtwar district

Kishtwar District is a district of the state of Jammu and Kashmir of India.

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Kofi Annan

Kofi Atta Annan (born 8 April 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1997 to December 2006.

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Kulgam

Kulgam is a town and a notified area committee in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Kulgam district

Kulgam District is a district of the state of Jammu and Kashmir of India.

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Kupwara

Kupwara is a town and a municipal committee in Kupwara District in the Indian administered state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Kupwara district

Kupwara District is located in Jammu and Kashmir, India.

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Ladakh

Ladakh ("land of high passes") is a region in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir that currently extends from the Kunlun mountain range to the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people of Indo-Aryan and Tibetan descent.

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Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council, Leh

The Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council, Leh (LAHDC) is an Autonomous Hill Council that administers the Leh District of Jammu and Kashmir, India.

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Ladakh Marathon

The Ladakh Marathon is a marathon held in Leh, a town in the Ladakh region in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Ladakhi language

The Ladakhi language, also called Bhoti or Bodhi, is a Tibetic language spoken in the Ladakh region of India.

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Lahore Declaration

The Lahore Declaration was a bilateral agreement and governance treaty between India and Pakistan.

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Lakshadweep

Lakshadweep (Lakshadīb), formerly known as the Laccadive, Minicoy, and Aminidivi Islands, is a group of islands in the Laccadive Sea, off the southwestern coast of India.

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Leh

Leh is a town in the Leh district of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Leh district

Leh is one of the two districts located in Ladakh, the other being the Kargil District to the west, in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India.

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Lidder Valley

The Lidder Valley or Liddar ValleyKaul, Manmohan N., Glacial and Fluvial Geomorphology of Western Himalaya, South Asia Books, 1990, p. 23, in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India, is a Himalayan sub-valley that forms the southeastern corner of the Kashmir Valley.

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Line of Actual Control

The Line of Actual Control (LAC) is a demarcation line that separates Indian-controlled territory from Chinese-controlled territory in the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Line of Control

The term Line of Control (LoC) refers to the military control line between the Indian and Pakistani controlled parts of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir—a line which does not constitute a legally recognized international boundary, but is the de facto border.

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List of districts in India

A district (zilā) is an administrative division of an Indian state or territory.

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List of districts in Jammu and Kashmir

The Indian state of Jammu consists of three divisions: Jammu, Kashmir Valley and Ladakh, and is further divided into 22 districts: This excludes Gilgit-bultistan 64,817 and Pakistan Occupied Kashmir 13,297 km2 Total 78,114 km2 under the administration of Pakistan, 5,180 km2 handed over by Pakistan to China and 37,555 km2 Total 42,735 km2 under the administration of China in Ladakh district That is 2,22,236-1,20,849.

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List of governors of Jammu and Kashmir

When India became independent, Hari Singh was the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir.

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List of high courts in India

There are 24 high courts at the state and union territory level of India, which together with the Supreme Court of India at the national level, comprise the country's judicial system.

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List of Indian states and territories by Human Development Index

The national average HDI for India in 2008 was 0.467.

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List of Indian states and union territories by GDP

These are lists of Indian states and union territories by their nominal gross state domestic product (GSDP).

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List of states and union territories of India by area

The following is a list of states and union territories of the Republic of India by area from largest to smallest according to the census of 2011.

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List of states and union territories of India by population

India is a union of 29 states and 7 union territories.

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Literacy in India

Literacy in India is a key for socio-economic progress, and the Indian literacy rate has grown to 74% (2011 Census figure) with recent reports of 80% literacy.

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Lohri

Lohri is a popular winter time Punjabi folk festival, celebrated primarily by Sikhs and Hindus from the Punjab region of Indian subcontinent.

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Lok Sabha

The Lok Sabha (House of the People) is the lower house of India's bicameral Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha.

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Maulana Azad Stadium

The Maulana Azad Stadium (also spelled Molana Azad Stadium) is a stadium in Jammu and is one of the home venues for the Jammu and Kashmir cricket team.

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Mint (newspaper)

Mint is an Indian financial daily newspaper published by HT Media, a Delhi-based media group which is controlled by the KK Birla family and also publishes Hindustan Times.

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More plains

More plains is crossed by the road from Leh to Manali.

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Mufti Mohammad Sayeed

Mufti Mohammad Sayeed (12 January 1936 – 7 January 2016) was a politician from the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Mujahideen

Mujahideen (مجاهدين) is the plural form of mujahid (مجاهد), the term for one engaged in Jihad (literally, "holy war").

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Narendra Modi

Narendra Damodardas Modi (born 17 September 1950) is an Indian politician serving as the 14th and current Prime Minister of India since 2014.

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Narinder Nath Vohra

Narinder Nath Vohra (often abbreviated as N. N. Vohra) (IAST) (born 5 May 1936) is a retired 1959 batch IAS officer of Punjab cadre and the current and 12th Governor of the Indian State of Jammu and Kashmir, he is the first civilian Governor of Jammu and Kashmir in 18 years after Jagmohan.

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National Institute of Technology, Srinagar

National Institute of Technology, Srinagar (NITSRI), formerly Regional Engineering College, Srinagar, is a public engineering and research institution, located in Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

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Nelumbo nucifera

Nelumbo nucifera, also known as Indian lotus, sacred lotus, bean of India, Egyptian bean or simply lotus, is one of two extant species of aquatic plant in the family Nelumbonaceae.

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New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

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New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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Nigeen Lake

Nigeen Lake (alteratively spelled as Nageen Lake) is a mildly eutrophic lake located in Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

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Non-governmental organization

Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.

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North India

North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India.

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Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows

The Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows is a montane grasslands and shrublands ecoregion of the elevations of the northwestern Himalaya of China, India, and Pakistan.

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Northwestern thorn scrub forest

The Northwestern thorn scrub forests are a xeric shrubland ecoregion of Pakistan and northwestern India, stretching along the border lowlands and hills between the two countries.

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Official language

An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.

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Outline of India

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to India: India – seventh-largest country by area, located on the Indian subcontinent in South Asia.

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Pahari-Pothwari

The Indo-Aryan language spoken on the Pothohar Plateau in northern Punjab, in most of the Pakistani polity of Azad Kashmir, and in western areas of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir is known by a variety of names, the most common of which are Pahari and Pothwari (or Pothohari).

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Pakistan

Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.

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Parliament of India

The Parliament of India is the supreme legislative body of the Republic of India.

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Partition of India

The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan.

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Pashto

Pashto (پښتو Pax̌tō), sometimes spelled Pukhto, is the language of the Pashtuns.

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Pattan

Pattan is a town and a municipal committee in Baramulla district, in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Pervez Musharraf

Pervez Musharraf (پرویز مشرف; born 11 August 1943) is a Pakistani politician and a retired four-star army general who was the tenth President of Pakistan from 2001 until tendering resignation, to avoid impeachment, in 2008.

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Pilgrim

A pilgrim (from the Latin peregrinus) is a traveler (literally one who has come from afar) who is on a journey to a holy place.

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Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

The Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel or Banihal railway tunnel is an 11.215 km (7 mile) railway tunnel located in Pir Panjal Range of middle Himalayas in Jammu and Kashmir, India, north of Banihal town.

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Pir Panjal Range

The Pir Panjal Range is a group of mountains in the Inner Himalayan region, running from east-southeast (ESE) to west-northwest (WNW) across the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir where the average elevation varies from to.

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Platanus orientalis

Platanus orientalis, the Old World sycamore, or Oriental plane, is a large, deciduous tree of the Platanaceae family, growing to or more, and known for its longevity and spreading crown.

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Plough

A plough (UK) or plow (US; both) is a tool or farm implement used in farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed or planting to loosen or turn the soil.

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Poonch

Poonch (also referred to as Punch) is a town and a municipal council in Poonch District in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Poonch district, India

District Poonch or Punch is one of the most remote districts of Jammu and Kashmir.

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President's rule

In India, President's rule refers to suspension of state government and imposition of direct Central Government rule in a state.

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Prime Minister of India

The Prime Minister of India is the leader of the executive of the Government of India.

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Pulwama

Pulwama (known as Panwangam in antiquity, and later as Pulgam) is a town and a notified area committee in Pulwama district in the Jammu and Kashmir.

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Pulwama district

Pulwama is a district in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Punjab, India

Punjab is a state in northern India.

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Punjabi language

Punjabi (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ; Shahmukhi: پنجابی) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, ranking as the 10th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.

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Punjabis

The Punjabis (Punjabi:, ਪੰਜਾਬੀ), or Punjabi people, are an ethnic group associated with the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, who speak Punjabi, a language from the Indo-Aryan language family.

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Rajouri

Rajouri or Rajauri is a town and a municipal council in Rajouri district in Jammu and Kashmir.

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Rajouri district

Rajouri (or Rajauri) is a district of Jammu region in Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Rajya Sabha

The Rajya Sabha or Council of States is the upper house of the Parliament of India.

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Ramban (Jammu and Kashmir)

Wikipedia:WikiProject Indian cities Ramban is a town in the Ramban district in Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. It is the district headquarters. It lies on the banks of the Chenab river, on the National Highway-1A (now NH44) at about 150 km from Jammu and about 150 km from Srinagar, making it almost the central point on the Jammu-Srinagar National Highway.

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Ramban district

Ramban is one of the 22 districts in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India.

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Ranbir Singh Pora

Ranbir Singh Pura (Hindi: रणबीर सिंह पुरा) is a constituency under jammu district notified area committee in Jammu district in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Ravi River

The Ravi (ਰਾਵੀ, راوی, रावी) is a transboundary river crossing northwestern India and eastern Pakistan.

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Reasi

Reasi is a town and a notified area committee and tehsil in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Reasi district

Reasi district is a district of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Rediff.com

Rediff.com is an Indian news, information, entertainment and shopping web portal, founded in 1996 as "Rediff On The NeT".

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Royal Springs Golf Course, Srinagar

The Royal Springs Golf Course, is a public golf course located near Chashme Shahi over looking Dal Lake in Srinagar, Kashmir.

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Russia

Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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S&P CNX 500

The S&P CNX 500 is India’s first broad-based stock market index of the Indian stock market.

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Saffron

Saffron (pronounced or) is a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus, commonly known as the "saffron crocus".

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Samba

Samba is a Brazilian musical genre and dance style, with its roots in Africa via the West African slave trade and African religious traditions, particularly of Angola and the Congo, through the samba de roda genre of the northeastern Brazilian state of Bahia, from which it derived.

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Samba district

Samba District is a newly formed district in the Indian administered state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Samba, Jammu and Kashmir

Samba is a city and Municipal Committee in Samba district in the Indian administered state Jammu and Kashmir.

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Sanskrit

Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.

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Sapphire

Sapphire is a precious gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum, an aluminium oxide.

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Secretary-General of the United Nations

The Secretary-General of the United Nations (UNSG or just SG) is the head of the United Nations Secretariat, one of the six principal organs of the United Nations.

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Separatist movements of India

Secession in India typically refers to state secession, which is the withdrawal of one or more states from the Republic of India.

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Sericulture

Sericulture, or silk farming, is the cultivation of silkworms to produce silk.

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Sheikh Abdullah

Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah (5 December 1905 – 8 September 1982) was a Kashmiri politician who played a central role in the politics of Jammu and Kashmir, the northernmost Indian state.

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Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology

Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology (SKUAST) was an Agricultural University in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu

Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu (SKUAST-J) came into existence on 20 September 1999 following the amendment in Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology Act 1982 through the State legislature.

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Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences

Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, also abbreviated SKIMS, is the largest medical Institute under State Legislature Act in Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Sher-i-Kashmir Stadium

Sher-i-Kashmir Stadium is a cricket stadium located in Srinagar.

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Shikara

The shikara is a type of wooden boat found on Dal Lake and other water bodies of Srinagar in Kashmir.

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Shina language

Shina (Shina: (Perso-Arabic)) is a language from the Dardic sub-group of the Indo-Aryan languages family spoken by the Shina people, a plurality of the people in Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, as well as in pockets in India such as in Dah Hanu, Gurez and Dras.

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Shopian district

The Shopian Hill District is one of the districts of Jammu and Kashmir, India.

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Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University

The Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, commonly referred to as SMVD University or SMVDU, is a university on an campus located near Katra, Jammu and Kashmir.

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Shupiyan

Shupiyan or Shopian is a town in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Siachen Glacier

The Siachen Glacier (Hindi: सियाचिन ग्लेशियर, Urdu: سیاچن گلیشیر) is a glacier located in the eastern Karakoram range in the Himalayas at about, just northeast of the point NJ9842 where the Line of Control between India and Pakistan ends.

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Sikh

A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a person associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.

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Sikhism

Sikhism (ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi,, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the fifth-largest. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them (20 million) living in Punjab, the Sikh homeland in northwest India, and about 2 million living in neighboring Indian states, formerly part of the Punjab. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539), and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014),, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield,, pages 17, 84-85William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press,, pages 241–242 Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth. The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life., page.

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Simla Agreement

The Simla Agreement (or Shimla Agreement) was signed between India and Pakistan on 2 July 1972 in Simla, the capital city of Indian state of Himachal Pradesh.

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Sind Valley

The Sind Valley is a Himalayan sub-valley of the Kashmir Valley in the State of Jammu and Kashmir of India.

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Ski resort

A ski resort is a resort developed for skiing, snowboarding, and other winter sports.

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Sopore

Sopore known as Suyyapur in antiquity, is a town in the Baramulla district of Jammu and Kashmir, India.

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Soviet–Afghan War

The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years, from December 1979 to February 1989.

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Special economic zone

A special economic zone (SEZ) is an area in which business and trade laws are different from the rest of the country.

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Srinagar

Srinagar is the largest city and the summer capital of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Srinagar district

Situated at the center of the Kashmir valley, Srinagar is the second most populous district in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, after Jammu District and is home to the summer capital (Srinagar) of Jammu and Kashmir (The capital moves to Jammu city in the winter).

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Srinagar–Kargil–Leh line

The Srinagar–Kargil–Leh line is a proposed railway line from Srinagar station via the town of Kargil to Leh by Indian Railways.

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Standard Tibetan

Standard Tibetan is the most widely spoken form of the Tibetic languages.

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States and union territories of India

India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities.

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Subramanian Swamy

Subramanian Swamy (born 15 September 1939) is an Indian economist, statistician and politician who serves as a Member of Parliament in Rajya Sabha, the upper house of the Indian Parliament.

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Sumbal, Jammu and Kashmir

Sumbal is a town and a notified area committee in Baramulla district in Jammu and Kashmir.

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Supreme Court of India

The Supreme Court of India is the highest judicial forum and final court of appeal under the Constitution of India, the highest constitutional court, with the power of constitutional review.

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Suzerainty

Suzerainty (and) is a back-formation from the late 18th-century word suzerain, meaning upper-sovereign, derived from the French sus (meaning above) + -erain (from souverain, meaning sovereign).

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Tawi River

Tawi is a river that flows through the city of Jammu.

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The Indian Express

The Indian Express is an English-language Indian daily newspaper.

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The Times of India

The Times of India (TOI) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper owned by The Times Group.

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Thukpa

Thukpa is a Tibetan noodle soup, which originated in the eastern part of Tibet and eastern and northern part of Nepal.

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Tibet

Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.

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Tibet Autonomous Region

The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) or Xizang Autonomous Region, called Tibet or Xizang for short, is a province-level autonomous region of the People's Republic of China (PRC).

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Tibetan cuisine

Tibetan cuisine includes the culinary traditions and practices of Tibet and its peoples, many of whom reside in India and Nepal.

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Tibetan culture

Tibet developed a distinct culture due to its geographic and climatic conditions.

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Tibetan people

The Tibetan people are an ethnic group native to Tibet.

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Topographic map

In modern mapping, a topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief, usually using contour lines, but historically using a variety of methods.

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Tourism in Jammu and Kashmir

Jammu and Kashmir is the northernmost state of India locked in Himalayan Mountains.

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Tral

Tral is a town and a sub-district in Pulwama district of Jammu and Kashmir, India, situated 10 km from NH1 Awantipora.

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Trans-Karakoram Tract

The Trans-Karakoram Tract (शक्सगाम, شکسگام‎); also known as Shaksgam or the Shaksgam Tract, is an area of more than along both sides of the Shaksgam River and extending from the Karakoram to the Kunlun range.

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Transhumance

Transhumance is a type of nomadism or pastoralism, a seasonal movement of people with their livestock between fixed summer and winter pastures.

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Trophic state index

Trophic State Index (TSI) is a classification system designed to rate bodies of water based on the amount of biological activity they sustain.

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Tsampa

Tsampa or Tsamba (साम्पा) is a Tibetan and Himalayan Nepalese staple foodstuff, particularly prominent in the central part of the region.

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Tso Moriri

Tso Moriri or Lake Moriri or "Mountain Lake", is a lake in the Ladakhi part of the Changthang Plateau (literally: northern plains) in Jammu and Kashmir in Northern India.

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Two-nation theory

The two-nation theory is the basis of the creation of Pakistan.

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Udhampur

Udhampur (ˌʊd̪ʱəmpur) is a city and a municipal council in Udhampur District in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Udhampur district

Udhampur is a district in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, is a United Nations programme with the mandate to protect refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless people, and assist in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country.

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United Nations Security Council

The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.

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United Nations Security Council Resolution 47

The United Nations Security Council Resolution 47, adopted on April 21, 1948, concerns the resolution of the Kashmir conflict.

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University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign

The University of Illinois Urbana–Champaign (also known as U of I, Illinois, or colloquially as the University of Illinois or UIUC) is a public research university in the U.S. state of Illinois and the flagship institution of the University of Illinois System.

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University of Jammu

The University of Jammu informally known as Jammu University (JU), accredited as A+ grade by National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC), was established in 1969 by an Act of the State Legislature which effectively split the Jammu and Kashmir University into the separate University of Jammu and University of Kashmir.

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University of Kashmir

The University of Kashmir (UK) is a university on the western side of Dal Lake in the city of Srinagar which lies in the India state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Urdu

Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.

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Vaisakhi

Vaisakhi (IAST), also known as Baisakhi, Vaishakhi, or Vasakhi is a historical and religious festival in Sikhism and Hinduism.

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Vaishno Devi

Vaishno Devi, also known as Mata Rani, Trikuta and Vaishnavi, is a manifestation of the Hindu Goddess Mata Adi Shakti also known as Chandi/Durga.

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Verinag

Verinag (वेरीनाग) is a tourist place and a notified area committee with tehsil status (Shahabad Bala Verinag) in Anantnag district in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India.

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Weaving

Weaving is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth.

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Western Himalayan broadleaf forests

The Western Himalayan broadleaf forests is a temperate broadleaf and mixed forest ecoregion which is found in the middle elevations of the western Himalayas, including parts of Nepal, India, and Pakistan.

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Western Himalayan subalpine conifer forests

The Western Himalayan subalpine conifer forests is a temperate coniferous forests ecoregion of the middle and upper elevations of the western Middle Himalayas of Nepal, India, and Pakistan.

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Xinjiang

Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.

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Yasin Malik

Yasin Malik (born 1966) is a Kashmiri separatist leader who advocates the separation of Kashmir from both India and Pakistan.

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Zanskar

Zanskar or Zangskar (Ladakhi: zangs dkar་) is a subdistrict or tehsil of the Kargil district, which lies in the eastern half of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Zoroastrianism

Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.

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15th Lok Sabha

Members of the 15th Lok Sabha were elected during the 2009 general election in India.

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1946 Cabinet Mission to India

The United Kingdom Cabinet Mission of 1946 to India aimed to discuss the transfer of power from the British government to the Indian leadership, with the aim of preserving India's unity and granting it independence.

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2016–18 Kashmir unrest

The 2016–18 unrest in Kashmir, also known as the Burhan aftermath, refers to a series of violent protests in the Kashmir Valley of the Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir.

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2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

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2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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Redirects here:

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jammu_and_Kashmir

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