428 relations: Aadhaar, Aam Aadmi Party, ABP Group, Abul Kalam Azad, Afghanistan–India relations, Akbar Road, Akhil Bharatiya Hindu Mahasabha, All India Congress Committee, All India Forward Bloc, All India Mahila Congress, All India Minority Congress, All India Trinamool Congress, All-India Muslim League, Allahabad (Lok Sabha constituency), Allahabad High Court, Allan Octavian Hume, Allied Publishers, Amarinder Singh, Amethi (Lok Sabha constituency), Amritsar, Andaman & Nicobar Pradesh Congress Committee, Andhra Pradesh Congress Committee, Annie Besant, Anugrah Narayan Sinha, Aortic dissection, Arunachal Pradesh Congress Committee, Asaf Ali, Assam, Assam Pradesh Congress Committee, Assassination of Indira Gandhi, Atal Bihari Vajpayee, Azad Hind, Bacha Khan, Baghpat (Lok Sabha constituency), Bahujan Samaj Party, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Ballia (Lok Sabha constituency), BBC, BBC News, Beant Singh (assassin), Behramji Malabari, Bharatiya Janata Party, Bhulabhai Desai, Bihar, Bihar Pradesh Congress Committee, Bipan Chandra, Bipin Chandra Pal, Bofors scandal, Bombay Presidency, Brahmin, ..., British Empire, Business Standard, C. Rajagopalachari, Capital market, Caste, Central Legislative Assembly, Central Provinces, Centre-left politics, Chanakya, Chandra Shekhar, Charan Singh, Chauri Chaura incident, Chhattisgarh Pradesh Congress Committee, Chief minister, China, Chittaranjan Das, Cholera, Civic nationalism, CNN-News18, Cold War, Communist Party of India (Marxist), Confidence and supply, Congress Working Committee, Constitution of India, Cornell University, Council on Foreign Relations, Dadabhai Naoroji, Daily News and Analysis, Dainik Bhaskar, Democratic socialism, Deregulation, Dinshaw Edulji Wacha, Dow Jones & Company, Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, East Pakistan, Eastern Bloc, Economic liberalisation in India, Economist Group, Egalitarianism, Election Commission of India, Electoral symbol, Empire of Japan, Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, European Union, Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed, Fatehpur (Lok Sabha constituency), Firstpost, Forbes India, Foreign direct investment, Frederick Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood, 1st Marquess of Dufferin and Ava, Gandhian socialism, Gandhism, Ganesh Vasudeo Joshi, Ganesha, Garibi Hatao, George W. Bush, Ghulam Nabi Azad, Globalization, Goa Pradesh Congress Committee, Golden Quadrilateral, Golden Temple, Gooty Kesava Pillai, Gopal Ganesh Agarkar, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Government budget balance, Government of India, Government of India Act, 1935, Governor-General of India, Great Britain, Great Recession, Gujarat Pradesh Congress Committee, Gulzarilal Nanda, H. D. Deve Gowda, H. D. Kumaraswamy, Hamid Karzai, Haryana Pradesh Congress Committee, Hindu, Hindu nationalism, Hindustan Times, Home rule, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, I. K. Gujral, Import substitution industrialization, INA Defence Committee, INC, Independent politician, India, India Shining, India Today, India–Pakistan relations, India–United States Civil Nuclear Agreement, India–United States relations, Indian Army, Indian Civil Service (British India), Indian coal allocation scam, Indian general election, 1934, Indian general election, 1945, Indian general election, 1951–52, Indian general election, 1957, Indian general election, 1962, Indian general election, 1967, Indian general election, 1971, Indian general election, 1977, Indian general election, 1980, Indian general election, 1984, Indian general election, 1989, Indian general election, 1991, Indian general election, 1996, Indian general election, 1998, Indian general election, 1999, Indian general election, 2004, Indian general election, 2009, Indian general election, 2014, Indian independence movement, Indian Institutes of Technology, Indian National Army trials, Indian National Association, Indian National Congress, Indian National Congress (Organisation), Indian National Trade Union Congress, Indian nationalism, Indian Navy, Indian provincial elections, 1937, Indian Youth Congress, Indira Gandhi, Individual and group rights, Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, Indo-Sri Lanka Accord, Industrial licensing in India, Inter-Parliamentary Union, Interim Government of India, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Monetary Fund, Iran–Pakistan gas pipeline, J. B. Kripalani, Jai Jawan Jai Kisan, Janata Dal (Secular), Janata Party, Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale, Jawaharlal Nehru, Jayaprakash Narayan, Jeffrey Sachs, John Micklethwait, K. 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Aadhaar (English: Foundation) is a 12-digit unique identity number that can be obtained by residents of India, based on their biometric and demographic data.
Aam Aadmi Party (AAP, English: Common Man's Party) is an Indian political party, formally launched on 26 November 2012, and is currently the ruling party of the National Capital Territory of Delhi.
Ananda Bazar Patrika (ABP) Group is an Indian media company headquartered in Kolkata, West Bengal.
Maulana Sayyid Abul Kalam Ghulam Muhiyuddin Ahmed bin Khairuddin Al-Hussaini Azad (11 November 1888 – 22 February 1958) was an Indian scholar and the senior Muslim leader of the Indian National Congress during the Indian independence movement.
Bilateral relations between the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan and the Republic of India have traditionally been strong and friendly.
Akbar Road is a main road, in central New Delhi, India.
The Akhil Bhāratiya Hindū Mahāsabhā (translation: All-India Hindu Grand-Assembly) is a right wing Hindu nationalist political party in India.
The All India Congress Committee (AICC) is the Presidium or the central decision-making assembly of the Indian National Congress.
The All India Forward Bloc (AIFB) is a left-wing nationalist political party in India.
The All India Mahila Congress (AIMC), also referred to as Mahila Congress, is the women’s wing of the All India Congress Committee.
All India Minority Congress also referred as Minority Congress is the minority wing of the Congress party.
The All India Trinamool Congress (abbreviated AITC, TMC or Trinamool Congress) is an Indian political party based in West Bengal.
The All-India Muslim League (popularised as Muslim League) was a political party established during the early years of the 20th century in the British Indian Empire.
Allahabad (इलाहाबाद लोकसभा निर्वाचन क्षेत्र) is a Lok Sabha parliamentary constituency in Uttar Pradesh.
The Allahabad High Court or the High Court of Judicature at Allahabad is a high court based in Allahabad that has jurisdiction over the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
Allan Octavian Hume, CB ICS (6 June 1829 – 31 July 1912) was a member of the Imperial Civil Service (later the Indian Civil Service), a political reformer, ornithologist and botanist who worked in British India.
Allied Publishers is an Indian-based academic and literary publishing house, established in 1934 by M. Graham Brash, the Company was acquired by the late Mr.
Captain Amarinder Singh (born 11 March 1942) is an Indian politician, who is currently the 26th Chief Minister of Punjab.
Amethi constituency is known by the name of haji sultan and is one of the 80 Lok Sabha (lower house of the Indian parliament) constituencies in the North Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
Amritsar, historically also known as Rāmdāspur and colloquially as Ambarsar, is a city in north-western India which is the administrative headquarters of the Amritsar district - located in the Majha region of the Indian state of Punjab.
Andaman& Nicobar Pradesh Congress Committee is the wing of Indian National Congress in the parts of Andaman and Nicobar Islands.Dr.C.P.Joshi is the present president of Andaman & Nicobar Pradesh Congress Committee.
The Andhra Pradesh Congress Committee (APCC) is the state unit of the Indian National Congress (INC) in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India.
Annie Besant, née Wood (1 October 1847 – 20 September 1933) was a British socialist, theosophist, women's rights activist, writer and orator and supporter of Irish and Indian self-rule.
Aortic dissection (AD) occurs when an injury to the innermost layer of the aorta allows blood to flow between the layers of the aortic wall, forcing the layers apart.
Arunachal Pradesh Congress Committee is the wing of Indian National Congress serving in Arunachal Pradesh.
Asaf Ali (11 May 1888 – 1 April 1953) was an Indian independence fighter and noted Indian lawyer.
Assam is a state in Northeast India, situated south of the eastern Himalayas along the Brahmaputra and Barak River valleys.
Assam Pradesh Congress Committee (APCC or Assam PCC) was formed in June 1921.
Indira Gandhi, the 3rd Prime Minister of India, was assassinated at 9:20 a.m. on 31 October 1984, at her Safdarjung Road, New Delhi residence.
Atal Bihari Vajpayee (pronunciation; born 25 December 1924) is an Indian politician who was the 10th Prime Minister of India, first term for 13 days in 1996 and then from 1998 to 2004.
Ārzī Hukūmat-e-Āzād Hind, the Provisional Government of Free India, or, more simply, Free India (Azad Hind), was an Indian provisional government established in occupied Singapore in 1943 and supported by the Empire of Japan, Nazi Germany, the Italian Social Republic, and their allies.
Abdul Ghaffār Khān (6 February 1890 – 20 January 1988), nicknamed Fakhr-e-Afghān, lit.
Baghpat Lok Sabha constituency is one of the 80 Lok Sabha (lower house of parliament) constituencies in Uttar Pradesh state in India.
The Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) is the third largest national political party in India.
Bal Gangadhar Tilak (or Lokmanya Tilak,; 23 July 1856 – 1 August 1920), born as Keshav Gangadhar Tilak, was an Indian nationalist, teacher, social reformer, lawyer and an independence activist.
Ballia Lok Sabha constituency (बलिया लोकसभा निर्वाचन क्षेत्र) is one of the 80 Lok Sabha (parliamentary) constituencies in Uttar Pradesh state in northern.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Beant Singh (6 January 1959 – 31 October 1984), born in Jaitu in the Faridkot, Punjab, was a bodyguard of Indira Gandhi, one of two who took part in her assassination in 1984.
Behramji Merwanji Malabari (1853–1912) was an Indian poet, publicist, author, and social reformer best known for his ardent advocacy for the protection of the rights of women and for his activities against child marriage.
The Bharatiya Janata Party (translation: Indian People's Party; BJP) is one of the two major political parties in India, along with the Indian National Congress.
Bhulabhai Desai (13 October 1877 – 6 May 1946) was an Indian independence activist and acclaimed lawyer.
Bihar is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India.
The Bihar Pradesh Congress Committee (also known as Bihar PCC or B.P.C.C) is the political unit of the Indian National Congress for the state of Bihar.
Bipan Chandra (27 May 1928 – 30 August 2014) was an Indian historian, specialising in economic and political history of modern India.
Bipin Chandra Pal (November 7, 1858 – May 20, 1932) was an Indian nationalist, a freedom fighter and social reformer.
The Bofors scandal was a major political scandal that occurred between India and Sweden during the 1980s and 1990s, initiated by Indian National Congress (Congress party) politicians and implicating the Indian prime minister, Rajiv Gandhi, and several other members of the Indian and Swedish governments who were accused of receiving kickbacks from Bofors AB, a bank principally financed by the Wallenberg family's Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken, for winning a bid to supply India's 155 mm field howitzer.
The Bombay Presidency, also known as Bombay and Sind from 1843 to 1936 and the Bombay Province, was an administrative subdivision (presidency) of British India.
Brahmin (Sanskrit: ब्राह्मण) is a varna (class) in Hinduism specialising as priests, teachers (acharya) and protectors of sacred learning across generations.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
Business Standard is the third largest Indian English-language daily newspaper published by Business Standard Ltd (BSL) in two languages, English and Hindi.
Chakravarti Rajagopalachari (10 December 1878 – 25 December 1972) informally called Rajaji or C.R., was an Indian politician, independence activist, lawyer, writer and statesman.
A capital market is a financial market in which long-term debt (over a year) or equity-backed securities are bought and sold.
Caste is a form of social stratification characterized by endogamy, hereditary transmission of a lifestyle which often includes an occupation, status in a hierarchy, customary social interaction, and exclusion.
The Central Legislative Assembly was the lower house of the Imperial Legislative Council, the legislature of British India.
The Central Provinces was a province of British India.
Centre-left politics or center-left politics (American English), also referred to as moderate-left politics, is an adherence to views leaning to the left-wing, but closer to the centre on the left–right political spectrum than other left-wing variants.
Chanakya (IAST:,; fl. c. 4th century BCE) was an Indian teacher, philosopher, economist, jurist and royal advisor.
Chandra Shekhar (1 July 1927 – 8 July 2007) was an Indian politician who, served as the 8th Prime Minister of India, between 10 November 1990 and 21 June 1991.
Chaudhary Charan Singh (23 December 1902 – 29 May 1987) served as the 5th Prime Minister of India, serving from 28 July 1979 until 14 January 1980.
Chauri Chaura Shahid Samarak The Chauri Chaura incident occurred at Chauri Chaura in the Gorakhpur district of the United Province, (modern Uttar Pradesh) in British India on 5 February 1922, when a large group of protesters, participating in the Non-cooperation movement, clashed with police, who opened fire.
Chhattisgarh Pradesh Congress Committee is the state wing of Indian National Congress serving in Chhattisgarh.
A chief minister is the elected head of government of a sub-national entity, for instance a administrative subdivision or federal constituent entity.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chittaranjan Das (C. R. Das) (চিত্তরঞ্জন দাশ Chittorônjon Dash), popularly called Deshbandhu (Friend of the Nation), (5 November 1869 – 16 June 1925), was a leading Indian politician, a prominent lawyer, an activist of the Indian National Movement and founder-leader of the Swaraj (Independence) Party in Bengal during British occupation in India.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Civic nationalism, also known as liberal nationalism, is a form of nationalism identified by political philosophers who believe in an inclusive form of nationalism that adheres with traditional liberal values of freedom, tolerance, equality, and individual rights.
CNN-News18 (originally CNN-IBN) is an Indian English-language news television channel founded by Rajdeep Sardesai located in Noida, Uttar Pradesh.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
The Communist Party of India (Marxist) (abbreviated CPI(M)) is a communist party in India.
In a parliamentary democracy based on the Westminster system, confidence and supply are required for a minority government to retain power in the lower house.
The Congress Working Committee (CWC) is the executive committee of the Indian National Congress.
The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India.
Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university located in Ithaca, New York.
The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), founded in 1921, is a United States nonprofit think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.
Dadabhai Naoroji (4 September 1825 – 30 June 1917), known as the Grand Old Man of India, was a Parsi intellectual, educator, cotton trader, and an early Indian political and social leader.
Daily News and Analysis (DNA) is an Indian broadsheet newspaper launched in 2005 and published in English from Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Pune, Jaipur, Bengaluru and Indore in India. It is the first English broadsheet daily in India to introduce an all-colour page format. It targets a young readership and is owned and managed by Diligent Media Corporation.
Dainik Bhaskar (दैनिक भास्कर) is an Indian Hindi-language daily newspaper that is the second largest circulated daily newspaper of India.
Democratic socialism is a political philosophy that advocates political democracy alongside social ownership of the means of production with an emphasis on self-management and/or democratic management of economic institutions within a market socialist, participatory or decentralized planned economy.
Deregulation is the process of removing or reducing state regulations, typically in the economic sphere.
Sir Dinshaw Edulji Wacha (1844–1936) was a Parsi Indian politician from Bombay.
Dow Jones & Company is an American publishing and financial information firm that has been owned by News Corp. since 2007.
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK), (Dravidian Progress Federation) is a state political party in the states of Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh in India.
East Pakistan was the eastern provincial wing of Pakistan between 1955 and 1971, covering the territory of the modern country Bangladesh.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
The economic liberalisation in India refers to the economic liberalisation, initiated in 1991, of the country's economic policies, with the goal of making the economy more market and service-oriented and expanding the role of private and foreign investment.
The Economist Newspaper Limited, trading as The Economist Group, is a British multinational media company headquartered in London and best known as publisher of The Economist.
Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.
The Election Commission of India is an autonomous constitutional authority responsible for administering election processes in India.
An electoral symbol is a standardised symbol allocated to a political party.
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Encyclopædia Britannica Online is the website of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. and its Encyclopædia Britannica, with more than 120,000 articles that are updated regularly.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed (13 May 1905 – 11 February 1977) was the fifth President of India from 1974 to 1977 and also the 2nd President of India to die in office.
Fatehpur Lok Sabha constituency is one of the 80 Lok Sabha (parliamentary) constituencies in Uttar Pradesh state in northern India.
Firstpost is an Indian news and media website.
Forbes India is the Indian edition of Forbes which is managed by Reliance Industries-owned media conglomerate, Network 18.
A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.
Frederick Temple Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood, 1st Marquess of Dufferin and Ava (21 June 1826 – 12 February 1902) was a British public servant and prominent member of Victorian society.
Gandhian socialism is the branch of socialism based on the nationalist interpretation of the theories of the founding father of the Republic of India, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi.
Gandhism is a body of ideas that describes the inspiration, vision and the life work of Mohandas Gandhi.
Ganesh Vasudeo Joshi (9 apri1828 – 25 July 1880) was a lawyer, social reformer, and political activist.
Ganesha (गणेश), also known as Ganapati, Vinayaka, Pillaiyar and Binayak, is one of the best-known and most worshipped deities in the Hindu pantheon.
Garibi Hatao desh bachao ("Abolish poverty, save the nation") was the theme and slogan of Indira Gandhi's 1971 election bid and later also used by her son Rajiv Gandhi.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
Ghulam Nabi Azad (born 7 March 1949) is an Indian politician of the Indian National Congress and was the Minister of Health and Family Welfare.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
Goa Pradesh Congress Committee (G.P.C.C) is the unit of Indian National Congress for the State of Goa.
The Golden Quadrilateral is a highway network connecting many of the major industrial, agricultural and cultural centres of India.
Sri Harmandir Sahib ("The abode of God"), also known as Darbar Sahib,, informally referred to as the Golden Temple, is a Gurdwara located in the city of Amritsar, Punjab, India.
Diwan Bahadur Pattu Kesava Pillai (October 8, 1860 – March 28, 1933) was an Indian journalist, politician and activist of the Indian Independence movement.
Gopal Ganesh Agarkar (14 July 1856 – 17 June 1895) was a Indian social reformer, educationist, and thinker from Maharashtra, British India.
Gopal Krishna Gokhale CIE (9 May 1866 – 19 February 1915) was one of the political leaders and a social reformer during the Indian Independence Movement against the British Empire in India.
A government budget is a financial statement presenting the government's proposed revenues and spending for a financial year.
The Government of India (IAST), often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic.
The Government of India Act,1935 was originally passed in August 1935 (25 & 26 Geo. 5 c. 42), and is said to be the longest Act (British) of Parliament ever enacted by that time.
The Governor-General of India (or, from 1858 to 1947, officially the Viceroy and Governor-General of India, commonly shortened to Viceroy of India) was originally the head of the British administration in India and, later, after Indian independence in 1947, the representative of the Indian head of state.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
The Great Recession was a period of general economic decline observed in world markets during the late 2000s and early 2010s.
The Gujarat Pradesh Congress Committee (GPCC) is the unit of the Indian National Congress for the state of Gujarat.
Gulzarilal Nanda (4 July 1898 – 15 January 1998) was an Indian politician and economist who specialized in labour issues.
Haradanahalli Doddegowda Deve Gowda (born 18 May 1933) is an Indian politician who served as the 11th Prime Minister of India from 1 June 1996 to 21 April 1997.
Hamid Karzai, (Pashto/حامد کرزی, born 24 December 1957) is an Afghan politician who was the leader of Afghanistan from 22 December 2001 to 29 September 2014, originally as an interim leader and then as President for almost ten years, from 7 December 2004 to 2014.
Haryana Pradesh Congress Committee (Haryana PCC or H.P.C.C) is the unit of the Indian National Congress — one of the world's largest political organizations — working in the state of Haryana.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
Hindu nationalism has been collectively referred to as the expressions of social and political thought, based on the native spiritual and cultural traditions of the Indian subcontinent.
Hindustan Times is an Indian English-language daily newspaper founded in 1924 with roots in the Indian independence movement of the period ("Hindustan" being a historical name for India).
Home rule is government of a colony, dependent country, or region by its own citizens.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Inder Kumar Gujral (4 December 1919 – 30 November 2012) was an Indian politician who served as the 11th Prime Minister of India from April 1997 to March 1998.
Import substitution industrialization (ISI) is a trade and economic policy which advocates replacing foreign imports with domestic production.
The INA Defence Committee, later the INA Defence and Relief Committee, was a committee established by the Indian National Congress in 1945 to defend those officers of the Indian National Army who were to be charged during the INA trials.
INC may refer to.
An independent or nonpartisan politician is an individual politician not affiliated with any political party.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
India Shining (Hindi: भारत उदय) was a marketing slogan referring to the overall feeling of economic optimism in India in 2004.
India Today is an Indian English-language fortnightly news magazine and news television channel.
Relations between India and Pakistan have been complex and largely hostile due to a number of historical and political events.
The 123 Agreement signed between the United States of America and the Republic of India is known as the U.S.–India Civil Nuclear Agreement or Indo-US nuclear deal.
India–United States relations (or Indo-American relations) refers to the international relations that exist between the Republic of India and the United States of America.
The Indian Army is the land-based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces.
The Indian Civil Service (ICS) for part of the 19th century officially known as the Imperial Civil Service, was the elite higher civil service of the British Empire in British India during British rule in the period between 1858 and 1947.
Coal allocation scam (or Coalgate) is a major political scandal concerning the Indian government's allocation of the nation's coal deposits to public sector enterprise (PSEs) and private companies.
General elections were held in British India in 1934.
General elections were held in British India in December 1945 to elect members of the Central Legislative Assembly and the Council of State.
The Indian general election of 1951–52 elected the first Lok Sabha since India became independent in August 1947.
The Indian general election of 1957 elected the 2nd Lok Sabha of India.
The Indian general election of 1962 elected the 3rd Lok Sabha of India and was held from 19 to 25 February.
The Indian general election of 1967 elected the 4th Lok Sabha of India and was held from 17 to 21 February.
India held general elections to the 5th Lok Sabha in March 1971.
In a major turn of events, the ruling Congress lost control of India for the first time in independent India in the Indian general election, 1977.
India held general elections to the 7th Lok Sabha in January,1980.
General elections were held in India in 1984 soon after the assassination of previous Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi, though the vote in Assam and Punjab was delayed until 1985 due to ongoing fighting.
General elections were held in India in 1989 to elect the members of the 9th Lok Sabha.
General elections were held in India in 1991 to elect the members of the 10th Lok Sabha.
General elections were held in India in 1996 to elect the members of the 11th Lok Sabha contested by the Congress Party and Bharatiya Janata Party.
General elections were held in India in 1998, after the government elected in 1996 collapsed and the 12th Lok Sabha was convened.
General Elections were held in India from 5 September to 3 October 1999, a few months after the Kargil War.
Legislative elections were held in India in four phases between 20 April and 10 May 2004.
India held general elections to the 15th Lok Sabha in five phases between 16 April 2009 and 13 May 2009.
The Indian general election of 2014 was held to constitute the 16th Lok Sabha, electing members of parliament for all 543 parliamentary constituencies of India.
The Indian independence movement encompassed activities and ideas aiming to end the East India Company rule (1757–1857) and the British Indian Empire (1857–1947) in the Indian subcontinent.
The Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) are autonomous public institutes of higher education, located in India.
The Indian National Army trials (INA trials), which are also called the Red Fort trials, were the British Indian trial by courts-martial of a number of officers of the Indian National Army (INA) between November 1945 and May 1946, for charges variously for treason, torture, murder and abetment to murder during World War II.
The Indian National Association also known as Indian Association was the first avowed nationalist organization founded in British India by Surendranath Banerjee and Ananda Mohan Bose in 1876.
The Indian National Congress (INC, often called Congress Party) is a broadly based political party in India.
The Indian National Congress (Organisation) or Congress (O) was a political party in India formed when the Congress party split following the expulsion of Indira Gandhi.
Indian National Trade Union Congress (INTUC) is the trade union wing of the Indian National Congress.
Indian nationalism developed as a concept during the Indian independence movement fought against the colonial British Raj.
The Indian Navy (IN; IAST: Bhāratīya Nau Senā) is the naval branch of the Indian Armed Forces.
Provincial elections were held in British India in the winter of 1936-37 as mandated by the Government of India Act 1935.
The Indian Youth Congress is the youth wing of the Indian National Congress party.
Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (née Nehru; 19 November 1917 – 31 October 1984) was an Indian politician, stateswoman and a central figure of the Indian National Congress.
Group rights, also known as collective rights, are rights held by a group qua group rather than by its members severally; in contrast, individual rights are rights held by individual people; even if they are group-differentiated, which most rights are, they remain individual rights if the right-holders are the individuals themselves.
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 was a culmination of skirmishes that took place between April 1965 and September 1965 between Pakistan and India. The conflict began following Pakistan's Operation Gibraltar, which was designed to infiltrate forces into Jammu and Kashmir to precipitate an insurgency against Indian rule. India retaliated by launching a full-scale military attack on West Pakistan. The seventeen-day war caused thousands of casualties on both sides and witnessed the largest engagement of armored vehicles and the largest tank battle since World War II. Hostilities between the two countries ended after a United Nations-mandated ceasefire was declared following diplomatic intervention by the Soviet Union and the United States, and the subsequent issuance of the Tashkent Declaration. Much of the war was fought by the countries' land forces in Kashmir and along the border between India and Pakistan. This war saw the largest amassing of troops in Kashmir since the Partition of British India in 1947, a number that was overshadowed only during the 2001–2002 military standoff between India and Pakistan. Most of the battles were fought by opposing infantry and armoured units, with substantial backing from air forces, and naval operations. Many details of this war, like those of other Indo-Pakistani Wars, remain unclear. India had the upper hand over Pakistan when the ceasefire was declared. "Satisfied that it had secured a strategic and psychological victory over Pakistan by frustrating its attempt to seize Kashmir by force, when the UN resolution was passed, India accepted its terms... with Pakistan's stocks of ammunition and other essential supplies all but exhausted, and with the military balance tipping steadily in India's favour." "Losses were relatively heavy—on the Pakistani side, twenty aircraft, 200 tanks, and 3,800 troops. Pakistan's army had been able to withstand Indian pressure, but a continuation of the fighting would only have led to further losses and ultimate defeat for Pakistan." Quote: The invading Indian forces outfought their Pakistani counterparts and halted their attack on the outskirts of Lahore, Pakistan's second-largest city. By the time the United Nations intervened on 22 September, Pakistan had suffered a clear defeat. Although the two countries fought to a standoff, the conflict is seen as a strategic and political defeat for Pakistan, "... the war itself was a disaster for Pakistan, from the first failed attempts by Pakistani troops to precipitate an insurgency in Kashmir to the appearance of Indian artillery within range of Lahore International Airport." – U.S. Department of State, – Interview with Steve Coll in United States House of Representatives 12 September 1994South Asia in World Politics By Devin T. Hagerty, 2005 Rowman & Littlefield,, p. 26 as it had neither succeeded in fomenting insurrection in Kashmir "... after some initial success, the momentum behind Pakistan's thrust into Kashmir slowed, and the state's inhabitants rejected exhortations from the Pakistani insurgents to join them in taking up arms against their Indian "oppressors." Pakistan's inability to muster support from the local Kashmiri population proved a disaster, both militarily and politically." nor had it been able to gain meaningful support at an international level. "Mao had decided that China would intervene under two conditions—that India attacked East Pakistan, and that Pakistan requested Chinese intervention. In the end, neither of them obtained." Internationally, the war was viewed in the context of the greater Cold War, and resulted in a significant geopolitical shift in the subcontinent. Before the war, the United States and the United Kingdom had been major material allies of both India and Pakistan, as their primary suppliers of military hardware and foreign developmental aid. During and after the conflict, both India and Pakistan felt betrayed by the perceived lack of support by the western powers for their respective positions; those feelings of betrayal were increased with the imposition of an American and British embargo on military aid to the opposing sides. As a consequence, India and Pakistan openly developed closer relationships with the Soviet Union and China, respectively. The perceived negative stance of the western powers during the conflict, and during the 1971 war, has continued to affect relations between the West and the subcontinent. In spite of improved relations with the U.S. and Britain since the end of the Cold War, the conflict generated a deep distrust of both countries within the subcontinent which to an extent lingers to this day."In retrospect, it is clear that the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 represented a watershed in the West's association with the subcontinent.""By extending the Cold War into South Asia, however, the United States did succeed in disturbing the subcontinent's established politico-military equilibrium, undermining British influence in the region, embittering relations between India and Pakistan and, ironically, facilitating the expansion of communist influence in the developing world." "The legacy of the Johnson arms cut-off remains alive today. Indians simply do not believe that America will be there when India needs military help... the legacy of the U.S. "betrayal" still haunts U.S.-Pakistan relations today.".
The Indo-Sri Lanka Peace Accord was an accord signed in Colombo on 29 July 1987, between Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and Sri Lankan President J. R. Jayewardene.
In India, there are some regulations and restrictions with regard to establishing industries in certain categories.
The Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU; Union Interparlementaire) is a global inter-parliamentary institution established in 1889 by Frédéric Passy (France) and William Randal Cremer (United Kingdom).
The interim government of India, formed on 2 September 1946 from the newly elected Constituent Assembly of India, had the task of assisting the transition of British India to independence.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
The Iran–Pakistan gas pipeline, also known as the Peace pipeline, or IP Gas, is an under-construction pipeline to deliver natural gas from Iran to Pakistan.
Jivatram Bhagwandas Kripalani (11 November 1888 – 19 March 1982), popularly known as Acharya Kripalani, was an Indian politician, noted particularly for holding the presidency of the Indian National Congress during the transfer of power in 1947.
Jai Jawan Jai Kisan ("Hail the Soldier, Hail the Farmer") was a slogan of the second Prime Minister of India Lal Bahadur Shastri in 1965 at a public gathering at Ramlila Maidan, Delhi.
The Janata Dal (Secular) is an Indian political party led by former Prime Minister of India, H. D. Deve Gowda.
The Janata Party (JP or JNP) (translation: People's Party) was an amalgam of Indian political parties opposed to the State of Emergency that was imposed between 1975 and 1977 by the Government of India under the Prime Ministership of Indira Gandhi and her party, the Indian National Congress (R).
Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale (born Jarnail Singh Brar) (2 June 1947 – 6 June 1984) was a leader of the Sikh organization Damdami Taksal, and a notable supporter of the Anandpur Resolution.
Jawaharlal Nehru (14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence.
Jayaprakash Narayan (11 October 1902 – 8 October 1979), popularly referred to as JP or Lok Nayak (Hindi for The People's Leader), was an Indian independence activist, theorist and political leader, remembered especially for leading the mid-1970s opposition against Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, for whose overthrow he called a "total revolution".
Jeffrey David Sachs (born November 5, 1954) is an American economist and director of the Earth Institute at Columbia University, where he holds the title of University Professor, the highest rank Columbia bestows on its faculty.
Richard John Micklethwait CBE (born 11 August 1962) is editor-in-chief of Bloomberg News, a position he has held since February 2015.
Kumaraswami Kamaraj (15 July 1903, The Hindu, 8 July 2009 –2 October 1975, hinduonnet.com. 15–28 September 2001), was a leader of the Indian National Congress (INC), widely acknowledged as the "Kingmaker" in Indian politics during the 1960s.
Karnataka also known Kannada Nadu is a state in the south western region of India.
The Karnataka Legislative Assembly is the lower house of the bicameral legislature of Karnataka state in southern India.
The 15th Karnataka Legislative Assembly election was held on 12th May 2018 in 222 constituencies of the Karnataka Legislative Assembly.
Karnataka Pradesh Congress Committee (also known as Karnataka PCC or K.P.C.C) is the unit of the Indian National Congress for the state of Karnataka.
Karnataka Pragnyavantha Janatha Party (KPJP) is an Indian political party based in Karnataka.
Kashinath Trimbak Telang (20 August 1850, Bombay – 1 September 1893, Bombay) was an Indologist and Indian judge at Bombay High Court.
Kerala Pradesh Congress Committee (Kerala PCC or K.P.C.C) is the unit of the Indian National Congress—one of the world's largest political organization—working in the state of Kerala.
Khan Muhammad Abbas Khan is a former member of Indian National Congress, a liberal reformer, Khan Mohammad Abbas Khan belonged to the democratic party, which formed a coalition with congress and served as the interim mister for industries.
The Khilafat movement (1919–22) was a pan-Islamist, political protest campaign launched by Muslims of India to influence the British government not to abolish the Ottoman Caliphate.
Lal Bahadur Shastri (2 October 1904 – 11 January 1966) was the 2nd Prime Minister of India and a senior leader of the Indian National Congress political party.
Lal Thanhawla (born 19 May 1942) is an Indian politician who has been the Chief Minister of Mizoram since 11 December 2008.
Lala Lajpat Rai, (28 January 1865 – 17 November 1928) was an Indian freedom fighter.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Left Front (বামফ্রন্ট, transliterated bamfront) is an alliance of political parties in the Indian state of West Bengal.
The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (translit, translit, commonly known as the LTTE or the Tamil Tigers) was a Tamil militant organization that was based in northeastern Sri Lanka.
Liberty, in politics, consists of the social, political, and economic freedoms to which all community members are entitled.
The Licence Raj or Permit Raj (rāj, meaning "rule" in Hindi) was the elaborate system of licences, regulations and accompanying red tape that were required to set up and run businesses in India between 1947 and 1990.
The Chief Minister of Karnataka is the chief executive of the south Indian state of Karnataka.
The Chief Minister of Mizoram is the chief executive of the northeast Indian state of Mizoram.
The Chief Minister of Puducherry is the chief executive of the south Indian union territory of Puducherry.
The Chief Minister of Punjab, a north Indian state, is the head of the Government of Punjab.
India has a multi-party system with recognition accorded to national and state and District level parties.
The Indian National Congress (INC) is one of the two major parties in the political system of Republic of India.
The Prime Minister of India is the chief executive of the Government of India.
Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.
The Lok Sabha (House of the People) is the lower house of India's bicameral Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha.
Madhya Pradesh Congress Committee or (MP Congress) is the Pradesh Congress Committee (state wing) of the Indian National Congress (INC) serving in the state of Madhya Pradesh.
Madras Mahajana Sabha was an Indian nationalist organisation based in the Madras Presidency.
The Madras Presidency, or the Presidency of Fort St.
The Maharashtra Pradesh Congress Committee (M.P.C.C) is the unit of the Indian National Congress for the state of Maharashtra.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule.
Mapanna Mallikarjun Kharge (born 21 July 1942) is an Indian politician and the leader of the Indian National Congress party in the 16th Lok Sabha.
The Manipur Pradesh Congress Committee (MPCC) is the unit of the Indian National Congress for the state of Manipur, India.
Manmohan Singh (born 26 September 1932) is an Indian economist and politician who served as the Prime Minister of India from 2004 to 2014.
A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
Marquess of Linlithgow, in the County of Linlithgow or West Lothian, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
Medak Lok Sabha constituency (మెదక్ లోక సభ నియోజకవర్గం) is one of the 17 Lok Sabha (Lower House of the Parliament) constituencies in Telangana state in southern India.
A Member of Legislative Assembly (MLA) is a representative elected by the voters of an electoral district (constituency) to the legislature of the State government in the Indian system of government.
The Midday Meal Scheme is a school meal programme of the Government of India designed to improve the nutritional status of school-age children nationwide.
The Minister of External Affairs (or simply Foreign Minister) is the head of the Ministry of External Affairs of the Government of India.
The Minister of Finance (or simply, Finance Minister) is the head of the Ministry of Finance of the Government of India.
The Minister of Information and Broadcasting is the head of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting and one of the cabinet ministers of the Government of India.
The Ministry of Commerce and Industry administers two departments, the Department of Commerce and the Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion.
The Ministry of Defence (IAST) (abbreviated as MoD) is charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the Indian armed forces.
The Ministry of External Affairs of India (abbreviated as MEA), also known as the Foreign Ministry, is the government agency responsible for the conduct of foreign relations of India.
The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) or Home Ministry (IAST: Gṛha Maṃtrālaya) is a ministry of the Government of India.
Mint is an Indian financial daily newspaper published by HT Media, a Delhi-based media group which is controlled by the KK Birla family and also publishes Hindustan Times.
A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system blending elements of market economies with elements of planned economies, free markets with state interventionism, or private enterprise with public enterprise.
Mizoram is a state in Northeast India, with Aizawl as its capital city.
The Mizoram Legislative Assembly is the unicameral state legislature of Mizoram state in north-eastern India.
The Mizoram Legislative Assembly election, 2013 was held on 25 November 2013 in all 40 constituencies of the Legislative Assembly of Mizoram.
Mizoram Pradesh Congress Committee is the wing of Indian National Congress serving in Mizoram.
Morarji Desai (29 February 1896 – 10 April 1995) was an Indian independence activist and served between 1977 and 1979 as the 4th Prime Minister of India and led the government formed by the Janata Party.
Motilal Nehru (6 May 1861 – 6 February 1931) was an Indian lawyer, an activist of the Indian Independence Movement and an important leader of the Indian National Congress, who also served as the Congress President twice, 1919–1920 and 1928–1929.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah (محمد علی جناح ALA-LC:, born Mahomedali Jinnahbhai; 25 December 1876 – 11 September 1948) was a lawyer, politician, and the founder of Pakistan.
Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Sir Narayan Ganesh Chandavarkar (नारायण गणेश चन्दावरकर)(2 December 1855 – 14 May 1923) was an early Indian National Congress politician and Hindu reformer.
Nandyal Lok Sabha constituency is one of the 25 Lok Sabha (Lower House of the Parliament) constituencies in Kurnool District, Andhra Pradesh state in southern India.
The National Advisory Council (NAC) of India was an advisory body set up by the first United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government to advise the Prime Minister of India.
The Pakistan National Congress (PNC), later known as the Bangladesh National Congress, was a political party that mainly represented the Hindus and other religious minorities in Pakistan.
The National Dairy Development Board is an institution of national importance set up by an Act of Parliament of India.
The National Democratic Alliance (NDA) is a centre-right coalition of political parties in India.
National Health Mission (NHM) was launched by the government of India in 2013 subsuming the National Rural Health Mission and National Urban Health Mission.
National Herald is an Indian newspaper published by The Associated Journals Ltd.
National Investigation Agency (NIA) is a central agency established by the Indian Government to combat terror in India.
National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005 (or, NREGA, later renamed as the "Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act", MGNREGA), is an Indian labour law and social security measure that aims to guarantee the 'right to work'.
The National Students' Union of India (NSUI) is the student wing of the Indian National Congress party, established on 9 April 1971.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
New Delhi Television Limited (NDTV) is an Indian television media company founded in 1988 by Radhika Roy, a journalist.
NDTV India (Hindi: NDTV इंडिया) is a Hindi news channel in India that is owned by New Delhi Television Limited.
Neelam Sanjiva Reddy (19 May 1913 – 1 June 1996) was the sixth President of India, serving from 1977 to 1982.
The Nehru–Gandhi family is an Indian political dynasty that has occupied a prominent place in the politics of India.
Neoliberalism or neo-liberalism refers primarily to the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism.
Network 18 Group is a media and entertainment group.
New Delhi is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of Government of India.
News Corporation (officially referred to and trading as News Corp) is an American multinational mass media company, formed as a spin-off of the former News Corporation (as founded by Rupert Murdoch in 1979) focusing on newspapers and publishing.
The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.
The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) was a province of British India and subsequently of Pakistan.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
The Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) is a multilateral export control regime and a group of nuclear supplier countries that seek to prevent nuclear proliferation by controlling the export of materials, equipment and technology that can be used to manufacture nuclear weapons.
Old Irish (Goídelc; Sean-Ghaeilge; Seann Ghàidhlig; Shenn Yernish; sometimes called Old Gaelic) is the name given to the oldest form of the Goidelic languages for which extensive written texts are extant.
Operation Blue Star was an Indian military operation carried out between 1 and 8 June 1984, ordered by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi to remove militant religious leader Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and his armed followers from the buildings of the Harmandir Sahib complex in Amritsar, Punjab.
Other Backward Class (OBC) is a collective term used by the Government of India to classify castes which are socially or educationally or economically disadvantaged.
The Ottoman Caliphate (1517–1924), under the Ottoman dynasty of the Ottoman Empire, was the last Sunni Islamic caliphate of the late medieval and the early modern era.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Palavai Rangaiah Naidu (1828–1902) was an Indian lawyer, politician and Indian independence activist.
Pamulaparti Venkata Narasimha Rao (28 June 1921 – 23 December 2004) was an Indian lawyer and politician who served as the 9th Prime Minister of India (1991–1996).
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Part XI – consists of Articles on Relations between the Union and States.
The decision to effect the Partition of Bengal (বঙ্গভঙ্গ.) was announced on 19 July 1905 by the Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon.
The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan.
Sir Peter Alexander Ustinov, (né von Ustinov; or; 16 April 192128 March 2004) was a British actor, voice actor, writer, dramatist, filmmaker, theatre and opera director, stage designer, screenwriter, comedian, humorist, newspaper and magazine columnist, radio broadcaster, and television presenter.
Sir Pherozeshah Merwanjee Mehta, KCIE (4 August 1845 – 5 November 1915) was an Indian political leader, activist, and a leading lawyer of Bombay, who was knighted by the British Government in India for his service to the law.
Phulpur Lok Sabha constituency is one of the 80 Lok Sabha (parliamentary) constituencies in Uttar Pradesh state in northern India.
A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic and production plans.
Political freedom (also known as political autonomy or political agency) is a central concept in history and political thought and one of the most important features of democratic societies.
The politics of India takes place within the framework of its constitution.
A polity is any kind of political entity.
Pune Sarvajanik Sabha, (पुणे सार्वजनिक सभा.), was a sociopolitical organisation in British India which started with the aim of working as a mediating body between the government and people of India and to popularise the peasants' legal rights.
The elected committee that directs the Congress Party in an Indian state is known as Pradesh Congress Committee (PCC).
The President of the Republic of India is the head of state of India and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces.
The Prime Minister of India is the leader of the executive of the Government of India.
A princely state, also called native state (legally, under the British) or Indian state (for those states on the subcontinent), was a vassal state under a local or regional ruler in a subsidiary alliance with the British Raj.
The private sector is the part of the economy, sometimes referred to as the citizen sector, which is run by private individuals or groups, usually as a means of enterprise for profit, and is not controlled by the State.
Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.
In India, the Privy Purse was a payment made to the ruling (royal or lower) families of erstwhile princely states as part of their agreements to first integrate with India in 1947, and later to merge their states in 1949 whereby they lost all ruling rights.
The Progressive Alliance (PA) is a political international of social-democratic and progressive political parties and organisations founded on 22 May 2013 in Leipzig, Germany.
Progressivism is the support for or advocacy of improvement of society by reform.
A provisional government, also called a morning or transitional government, is an emergency governmental authority set up to manage a political transition, generally in the cases of new nations or following the collapse of the previous governing administration.
The public sector (also called the state sector) is the part of the economy composed of both public services and public enterprises.
Puducherry (literally New Town in Tamil), formerly known as Pondicherry, is a union territory of India.
The Puducherry Legislative Assembly is the unicameral legislature of the Indian union territory (UT) of Puducherry, which comprises four districts: Puducherry, Karaikal, Mahé and Yanam.
The legislative assembly election in the Indian union territory of Puducherry was held on 16 May 2016 to elect members of the 30 constituencies in the non-contiguous territory.
Pune, formerly spelled Poona (1857–1978), is the second largest city in the Indian state of Maharashtra, after Mumbai.
The Punjab Legislative Assembly or the Punjab Vidhan Sabha (ਪੰਜਾਬ ਵਿਧਾਨ ਸਭਾ) is the unicameral legislature of the state of Punjab in northern India.
A Legislative Assembly election was held in the Indian state of Punjab on 4 February 2017 to elect the 117 members of the Punjab Legislative Assembly.
Punjab Pradesh Congress Committee (or Punjab PCC) is the affiliate of the Indian National Congress in the state of Punjab.
Punjab is a state in northern India.
The, or Declaration of the Independence of India, was promulgated by the Indian National Congress on 19 December 1929, resolving the Congress and Indian nationalists to fight for Purna Swaraj, or complete self-rule independent of the British Empire (literally in Sanskrit, purna (पूर्ण), "complete", swa (स्व), "self," raj (राज), "rule," thus "complete self-rule").
Rae Bareli Lok Sabha constituency (रायबरेली लोक सभा निर्वाचन क्षेत्र) is one of the 80 Lok Sabha (parliamentary) constituencies in the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
Rahul Gandhi (born 19 June 1970) is an Indian politician.
Raj Narain (November 1917-31 Dec 1986) was an Indian freedom fighter and politician.
Rajasthan Pradesh Congress Committee or (Rajasthan Congress) or Rajasthan PCC is the Pradesh Congress Committee (state wing) of the Indian National Congress (INC) serving in the state of Rajasthan.
Rajendra Prasad (3 December 1884 – 28 February 1963) was the first President of India, in office from 1950 to 1962.
Rajiv Ratna Gandhi (20 August 1944 – 21 May 1991) was an Indian politician who served as the 6th Prime Minister of India from 1984 to 1989.
The Rajya Sabha or Council of States is the upper house of the Parliament of India.
Ramachandra Guha (born 29 April 1958) is an Indian historian and writer whose research interests include environmental, social, political, contemporary and cricket history.
Red tape is an idiom that refers to excessive regulation or rigid conformity to formal rules that is considered redundant or bureaucratic and hinders or prevents action or decision-making.
Rediff.com is an Indian news, information, entertainment and shopping web portal, founded in 1996 as "Rediff On The NeT".
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act or Right to Education Act (RTE) is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted on 4 August 2009, which describes the modalities of the importance of free and compulsory education for children between the age of 6 to 14 years in India under Article 21A of the Indian Constitution.
Right to Information (RTI) is an Act of the Parliament of India to provide for setting out the practical regime of the right to information for citizens and replaces the erstwhile Freedom of information Act, 2002.
The Royal Indian Navy revolt (also called the Royal Indian Navy mutiny or Bombay mutiny) encompasses a total strike and subsequent revolt by Indian sailors of the Royal Indian Navy on board ship and shore establishments at Bombay harbour on 18 February 1946.
Sheikh Muhammad Ikram (Urdu: شیخ محمد اکرام; b. 10 September 1908 – 17 January 1973) better known as S. M. Ikram, was a Pakistani historian, biographer, and littérateur.
Siddavanahalli Nijalingappa (10 December 1902 – 8 August 2000, Chitradurga) was a senior Congress politician and the Chief Minister of Karnataka (then Mysore State) between 1956 and 1958 and once again, between 1962 and 1968.
Sabarkantha Lok Sabha constituency (સાબરકાંઠા લોકસભા મતવિસ્તાર)is one of 26 Lok Sabha (parliamentary) constituencies in Gujarat state in western India.
A sales tax is a tax paid to a governing body for the sales of certain goods and services.
Sanjay Gandhi (14 December 1946 – 23 June 1980) was an Indian politician.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (Hindi: सर्व शिक्षा अभियान, Sarva Shiksha Abhiyān, English: Education for All Movement), or SSA, is an Indian Government programme aimed at the universalisation of elementary education "in a time bound manner", as mandated by the 86th Amendment to the Constitution of India making free and compulsory education to children between the ages of 6 to 14 (estimated to be 205 million children in 2001) a fundamental right.
Sarvodaya (Devanagari: सर्वोदय, Gujarati: સર્વોદય) is a Sanskrit term meaning 'universal uplift' or 'progress of all'.
Satwant Singh Agwan (1962 – 6 January 1989) was one of the Sikh bodyguards, who, along with Beant Singh, assassinated their principal, the Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi, at her New Delhi residence on 31 October 1984.
Satyagraha सत्याग्रह; satya: "truth", graha: "insistence" or "holding firmly to") or holding onto truth or truth force – is a particular form of nonviolent resistance or civil resistance. The term satyagraha was coined and developed by Mahatma Gandhi (1869–1948). He deployed satyagraha in the Indian independence movement and also during his earlier struggles in South Africa for Indian rights. Satyagraha theory influenced Martin Luther King Jr.'s and James Bevel's campaigns during the Civil Rights Movement in the United States, and many other social justice and similar movements. Someone who practices satyagraha is a satyagrahi.
Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity).
Secularity (adjective form secular, from Latin saeculum meaning "worldly", "of a generation", "temporal", or a span of about 100 years) is the state of being separate from religion, or of not being exclusively allied with or against any particular religion.
The Seva Dal is the grassroots front organization of the Indian National Congress.
Sharad Govindrao Pawar (born 12 December 1940) is an Indian politician who serves as the president of the Nationalist Congress Party which he founded in 1999, after separating from the Indian National Congress.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
The Sino-Indian War (भारत-चीन युद्ध Bhārat-Chīn Yuddh), also known as the Sino-Indian Border Conflict, was a war between China and India that occurred in 1962.
Sitaram Kesri (15 November 1919 – 24 October 2000) was an Indian politician and parliamentarian.
Sky blue is the name of a colour that resembles the colour of the sky at noon.
Social democracy is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and capitalist economy.
Social justice is a concept of fair and just relations between the individual and society.
Social liberalism (also known as modern liberalism or egalitarian liberalism) is a political ideology and a variety of liberalism that endorses a market economy and the expansion of civil and political rights while also believing that the legitimate role of the government includes addressing economic and social issues such as poverty, health care and education.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
The Socialist International (SI) is a worldwide association of political parties, which seek to establish democratic socialism.
Sonia Gandhi (born 9 December 1946) is an Indian politician of Italian descent.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
A state of emergency in India refers to a period of governance under an altered constitutional setup that can be proclaimed by the President of India, when he/she perceives grave threats to the nation from internal and external sources or from financial situations of crisis.
Since independence, the Indian National Congress has participated in elections, Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha.
Subhas Chandra Bose (23 January 1897 – 18 August 1945) was an Indian nationalist whose defiant patriotism made him a hero in India, but whose attempt during World War II to rid India of British rule with the help of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan left a troubled legacy.
The Supreme Court of India is the highest judicial forum and final court of appeal under the Constitution of India, the highest constitutional court, with the power of constitutional review.
Surat Lok Sabha constituency is one of the 26 Lok Sabha (parliamentary) constituencies in Gujarat.
Sir Surendranath Banerjee (সুরেন্দ্রনাথ বন্দ্যোপাধ্যায়) (10 November 18486 August 1925) was one of the earliest Indian political leaders during the British Raj.
The Swadeshi movement, part of the Indian independence movement and the developing Indian nationalism, was an economic strategy aimed at removing the British Empire from power and improving economic conditions in India by following the principles of swadeshi and which had some success.
The Swaraj Party, Swarajaya Party or Swarajya Party or Swarajist Party, established as the Congress-Khilafat Swarajaya Party, was a political party formed in India in January 1923 after the Gaya annual conference in December 1922 of the National Congress, that sought greater self-government and political freedom for the Indian people from the British Raj.
Sardar Swaran Singh was an Indian politician.
Tiruvellore Thattai Krishnamachari (1899–1974) was the Indian Finance Minister from 1956–1958 and from 1964-1966.
Tamil Nadu Congress Committee(TNCC) is the wing of Indian National Congress serving in Tamil Nadu.
The Tashkent Declaration was a peace agreement between India and Pakistan signed on 10 January 1966 that resolved the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.
Telangana Pradesh Congress Committee or TPCC is a state unit of the Indian National Congress (INC) in the state of Telangana, India.
Telugu Desam Party (translation: Party of the Telugu Land), abbreviated as TDP, is a regional political party active in the Southern States of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.
The Caravan is an Indian English-language, long-form narrative journalism magazine covering politics and culture.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Economic Times is an English-language, Indian daily newspaper published by the Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd..
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Hindu is an Indian daily newspaper, headquartered at Chennai.
The Indian Express is an English-language Indian daily newspaper.
The National is a private English-language daily newspaper published in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
The Sydney Morning Herald (SMH) is a daily compact newspaper published by Fairfax Media in Sydney, Australia.
The Times Group is India’s largest media conglomerate, according to Financial Times as of March 2015.
The Times of India (TOI) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper owned by The Times Group.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
The Week is an Indian news magazine founded in the year 1982 and is published by The Malayala Manorama Co.
Toleration is the acceptance of an action, object, or person which one dislikes or disagrees with, where one is in a position to disallow it but chooses not to.
The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations (UN) program headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.
The Union Council of Ministers exercises executive authority in the Republic of India.
The United Progressive Alliance (UPA) is a coalition of centre-left political parties in India formed after the 2004 general election.
The United Provinces of Agra and Oudh was a province of India under the British Raj, which existed from 1902 to 1947; the official name was shortened by the Government of India Act 1935 to United Provinces (UP), by which the province had been commonly known, and by which name it was also a province of independent India until 1950.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The University of Calcutta (informally known as Calcutta University or CU) is a public state university located in Kolkata (formerly Calcutta), West Bengal, India established on 24 January 1857.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of Michigan Press is part of Michigan Publishing at the University of Michigan Library.
Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act is an Indian law aimed at effective prevention of unlawful activities associations in India.
Untouchability is the practice of ostracising a group by segregating them from the mainstream by social custom or legal mandate.
Uttar Pradesh (IAST: Uttar Pradeś) is a state in northern India.
Uttarakhand Pradesh Congress Committee (Uttarakhand PCC) is the Pradesh Congress Committee (state wing) of the Indian National Congress (INC) serving in the state of Uttarakhand.
Velu Narayanasamy (born 30 May 1947) is an Indian National Congress politician, who is the current and 10th Chief Minister of the Union Territory of Puducherry since June 2016.
Vishwanath Pratap Singh (25 June 1931 – 27 November 2008), was an Indian politician and government official, the 7th Prime Minister of India from 1989 to 1990.
Varahagiri Venkata Giri (10 August 1894 – 24 June 1980), commonly known as V. V. Giri, was the fourth president of India from 24 August 1969 to 24 August 1974.
Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel (31 October 1875 – 15 December 1950), popularly known as Sardar Patel, was the first Deputy Prime Minister of India.
A value-added tax (VAT), known in some countries as a goods and services tax (GST), is a type of tax that is assessed incrementally, based on the increase in value of a product or service at each stage of production or distribution.
Voice of America (VOA) is a U.S. government-funded international radio broadcast source that serves as the United States federal government's official institution for non-military, external broadcasting.
The West Bengal Pradesh Congress Committee (WB.P.C.C or WPCC) is the unit of the Indian National Congress for the state of West Bengal.
The Western Bloc during the Cold War refers to the countries allied with the United States and NATO against the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact.
Sir William Wedderburn, 4th Baronet, JP DL (25 March 1838 – 25 January 1918) was a Scottish civil servant in India and a politician.
Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee (or Umesh Chandra Banerjee by current English orthography of Bengali names) (29 December 1844 – 21 July 1906) was an Indian barrister and was the first president of Indian National Congress.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Yashwantrao Balwantrao Chavan (12 March 1913 – 25 November 1984) was the first Chief Minister of Maharashtra after the division of Bombay State and the fifth Deputy Prime Minister of India.
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California.
List of Members of the 10th Lok Sabha, (20 June 1991 – 10 May 1996) elected during Indian general election, 1991 held during May–June 1991.
General elections were held in India in April–May 1996 to elect the members of the 11th Lok Sabha.
This is the list of members of the 12th Lok Sabha, (10 March 1998 – 26 April 1999) after the Indian general election, 1998 held during February–March 1998.
The 13th Lok Sabha (10 October 1999 – 6 February 2004) is the thirteenth session of the Lok Sabha (House of the People, or lower house in the Parliament of India).
The 14th Lok Sabha (17 May 2004 – 18 May 2009) was convened after the Indian general election, 2004 held in four phases during 20 April – 10 May 2004, which led to the formation of First Manmohan Singh ministry (2004–2009).
Members of the 15th Lok Sabha were elected during the 2009 general election in India.
Members of the 16th Lok Sabha were elected during the 2014 Indian general election.
The 1984 anti-Sikh riots, also known as the 1984 Sikh Massacre, was a series of organised pogroms against Sikhs in India by anti-Sikh mobs (notably Congress Party members and temporarily released convicts) in response to the assassination of Indira Gandhi by her Sikh bodyguards.
The 1991 Indian economic crisis had its roots in 1985 when India began having balance of payments problems as imports swelled, leaving the country in a twin deficit: the Indian trade balance was in deficit at a time when the government was running a large fiscal deficit.
The First Lok Sabha was constituted on 17 April 1952 after India's first general election.
The 2006 Indian anti-reservation protests were a series of protests that took place in India in 2006 in opposition to the decision of the Union Government of India, led by the Indian National Congress-headed multiparty coalition United Progressive Alliance, to implement reservations for the Other Backward Classes (OBCs) in central and private institutes of higher education.
The 2008 Mumbai attacks (also referred to as 26/11) were a group of terrorist attacks that took place in November 2008, when 10 members of Lashkar-e-Taiba, an Islamic terrorist organisation based in Pakistan, carried out a series of 12 coordinated shooting and bombing attacks lasting four days across Mumbai.
The 2G spectrum case was an alleged scam by the politicians and government officials under the United Progressive Alliance (Congress) coalition government in India.
The Second Lok Sabha (5 April 1957 – 31 March 1962) was elected after the Indian general election, 1957.
List of Members of the 3rd Lok Sabha, (2 April 1962 – 3 March 1967) elected February–March 1962.
List of Members of the 4th Lok Sabha,(4 March 1967 – 27-12-1970) elected February–March 1967.
List of Members of the 5th Lok Sabha, (15 March 1971 – 18 January 1977) elected February–March 1971.
The Lok Sabha (House of the People) is the lower house in the Parliament of India.
List of Members of the 7th Lok Sabha, (18 January 1980 – 31 December 1984) elected December 1979 – January 1980.
The 8th Lok Sabha ran from 31 December 1984 to 27 November 1989.
List of Members of the 9th Lok Sabha (2 December 1989 – 13 March 1991) elections in 22-26 November 1989.
All India National Congress, Congress (I), Congress (Indira), Congress (R), Congress I, Congress Parliamentary Party, Congress alliance, Congress party of India, Congress(I), I.N.C., INC Political Party, India National Congress, Indian Congress party, Indian National Congress (I), Indian National Congress (Indira), Indian National Congress - I, Indian National Congress Party, Indian National Congress party, Indian National Organization, Indian national congress, Indira Congress, Manipur India Congress, National Congress party, Post-independence Congress party, President of Congress of India, Save Goa Front, The Indian National Congress.