143 relations: Abiogenesis, Age of Sail, Alain Bombard, Albatross, Amino acid, Antarctic, Archaea, Artificial seawater, ASTM International, Basalt, Benguela Current, Bicarbonate, Biomass, Brackish water, Brine, Brine mining, Bromide, Calcium, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbonate, Caspian Sea, Census of Marine Life, Chloride, Chlorine, Cholera, Climate change, CORA dataset, Coral bleaching, Coral reef, Crustacean, Cryptosporidiosis, Cyanobacteria, Dead Sea, Density, Desalination, Diatom, Dinoflagellate, DNA, Drinking water, Edmond Halley, Endorheic basin, Escherichia coli, Evaporation, Evaporator (marine), Evaporite, Fluoride, Fresh water, Galley (kitchen), Giardiasis, ..., Glacier, Greenhouse, Heart arrhythmia, Hepatitis A, Hepatitis E, Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrogen, Hydrogen sulfide, Hydrothermal vent, Ion, Kidney, Kon-Tiki expedition, Lifeboat (shipboard), Magnesium, Marine Biological Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Megavirus, Melting point, Mercury (element), Metabolite, Methane, Mimivirus, Mitchell Sogin, Monsoon, Multi-stage flash distillation, Nasolacrimal duct, National Ocean Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Neritic zone, Nerve, Non-epileptic seizure, Ocean acidification, Osmotic concentration, Outgassing, Oxygen, Pandoravirus salinus, Pelagic zone, Percentage, Peru–Chile Trench, PH, Phytoplankton, Plate tectonics, Poliomyelitis, Potassium, Precipitation, Properties of water, Pseudomonas, Red Sea, Red tide, René Quinton, Residence time, Reverse osmosis, Richard Russell (doctor), Saline water, Salinity, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Science (journal), Scientific theory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Sea ice, Sea salt, Sea turtle, Seabird, Sodium, Speed of sound, Spirillum, Stromatolite, Strontium, Sulfate, Sulfur, Survival skills, Symbiosis, Thalassotherapy, The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, Thermal conductivity, Thermocline, Thermohaline circulation, Thiomargarita namibiensis, Thor Heyerdahl, Total boron, Total inorganic carbon, University of Aberdeen, Urinary system, Urine, Vacuum distillation, Vanadium, Vibrio, Vibrio cholerae, Volcano, Water column, Water cycle, William Willis (sailor). Expand index (93 more) » « Shrink index
Abiogenesis, or informally the origin of life,Compare: Also occasionally called biopoiesis.
The Age of Sail (usually dated as 1571–1862) was a period roughly corresponding to the early modern period in which international trade and naval warfare were dominated by sailing ships, lasting from the 16th to the mid-19th century.
Alain Bombard (27 October 1924 – 19 July 2005) was a French biologist, physician and politician famous for sailing across the Atlantic Ocean in a small boat.
Albatrosses, of the biological family Diomedeidae, are large seabirds related to the procellariids, storm petrels and diving petrels in the order Procellariiformes (the tubenoses).
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
The Antarctic (US English, UK English or and or) is a polar region around the Earth's South Pole, opposite the Arctic region around the North Pole.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
Artificial seawater (abbreviated ASW) is a mixture of dissolved mineral salts (and sometimes vitamins) that simulates seawater.
ASTM International is an international standards organization that develops and publishes voluntary consensus technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services.
Basalt is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon.
The Benguela Current is the broad, northward flowing ocean current that forms the eastern portion of the South Atlantic Ocean gyre.
In inorganic chemistry, bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid.
Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter.
Brackish water is water that has more salinity than fresh water, but not as much as seawater.
Brine is a high-concentration solution of salt (usually sodium chloride) in water.
Brine mining is the extraction of useful materials (elements or compounds) which are naturally dissolved in brine.
A bromide is a chemical compound containing a bromide ion or ligand.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3), characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a polyatomic ion with the formula of.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
The Census of Marine Life was a 10-year scientific initiative, involving a global network of researchers in more than 80 nations, engaged to assess and explain the diversity, distribution, and abundance of life in the oceans.
The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
CORA (standing for Coriolis Ocean database ReAnalysis) is a global oceanographic temperature and salinity dataset produced and maintained by the French institute IFREMER.
Coral bleaching occurs when coral polyps expel algae that live inside their tissues.
Coral reefs are diverse underwater ecosystems held together by calcium carbonate structures secreted by corals.
Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.
Cryptosporidiosis, also known as crypto, is a parasitic disease caused by Cryptosporidium, a genus of protozoan parasites in the phylum Apicomplexa.
Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
The Dead Sea (יָם הַמֶּלַח lit. Sea of Salt; البحر الميت The first article al- is unnecessary and usually not used.) is a salt lake bordered by Jordan to the east and Israel and Palestine to the west.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Desalination is a process that extracts mineral components from saline water.
Diatoms (diá-tom-os "cut in half", from diá, "through" or "apart"; and the root of tém-n-ō, "I cut".) are a major group of microorganisms found in the oceans, waterways and soils of the world.
The dinoflagellates (Greek δῖνος dinos "whirling" and Latin flagellum "whip, scourge") are a large group of flagellate eukaryotes that constitute the phylum Dinoflagellata.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation.
Edmond (or Edmund) Halley, FRS (–) was an English astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist, and physicist.
An endorheic basin (also endoreic basin or endorreic basin) (from the ἔνδον, éndon, "within" and ῥεῖν, rheîn, "to flow") is a limited drainage basin that normally retains water and allows no outflow to other external bodies of water, such as rivers or oceans, but converges instead into lakes or swamps, permanent or seasonal, that equilibrate through evaporation.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.
An evaporator, distiller or distilling apparatus is a piece of ship's equipment used to produce fresh drinking water from sea water by distillation.
Evaporite is the term for a water-soluble mineral sediment that results from concentration and crystallization by evaporation from an aqueous solution.
Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.
The galley is the compartment of a ship, train, or aircraft where food is cooked and prepared.
Giardiasis, popularly known as beaver fever, is a parasitic disease caused by Giardia lamblia.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
A greenhouse (also called a glasshouse) is a structure with walls and roof made mainly of transparent material, such as glass, in which plants requiring regulated climatic conditions are grown.
Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
Hepatitis A is an infectious disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV).
Hepatitis E is a viral hepatitis (liver inflammation) caused by infection with a virus called hepatitis E virus.
Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, 1st Duke of Bronté, (29 September 1758 – 21 October 1805) was a British flag officer in the Royal Navy.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planet's surface from which geothermally heated water issues.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
The Kon-Tiki expedition was a 1947 journey by raft across the Pacific Ocean from South America to the Polynesian islands, led by Norwegian explorer and writer Thor Heyerdahl.
A lifeboat is a small, rigid or inflatable boat carried for emergency evacuation in the event of a disaster aboard a ship.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
The Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) is an international center for research and education in biological and environmental science.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
Megavirus is a viral genus containing a single identified species named Megavirus chilensis (MGVC), phylogenetically related to Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus (APMV).
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Mimivirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Mimiviridae.
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.
Multi-stage flash distillation (MSF) is a water desalination process that distills sea water by flashing a portion of the water into steam in multiple stages of what are essentially countercurrent heat exchangers.
The nasolacrimal duct (sometimes called the tear duct) carries tears from the lacrimal sac of the eye into the nasal cavity.
The National Ocean Service (NOS), an office within the U.S. Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is responsible for preserving and enhancing the nation’s coastal resources and ecosystems along of shoreline bordering of coastal, Great Lakes, and ocean waters.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.
The neritic zone is the relatively shallow part of the ocean above the drop-off of the continental shelf, approximately in depth.
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.
Non-epileptic seizures are paroxysmal events that mimic an epileptic seizure but do not involve abnormal, rhythmic discharges of cortical neurons.
Ocean acidification is the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans, caused by the uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
Osmotic concentration, formerly known as osmolarity, is the measure of solute concentration, defined as the number of osmoles (Osm) of solute per litre (L) of solution (osmol/L or Osm/L).
Outgassing (sometimes called offgassing, particularly when in reference to indoor air quality) is the release of a gas that was dissolved, trapped, frozen or absorbed in some material.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Pandoravirus salinus is a large virus of genus Pandoravirus, found in coastal sediments in Chile, and is one of the largest viruses identified, along with Pandoravirus dulcis.
The pelagic zone consists of the water column of the open ocean, and can be further divided into regions by depth.
In mathematics, a percentage is a number or ratio expressed as a fraction of 100.
The Peru–Chile Trench, also known as the Atacama Trench, is an oceanic trench in the eastern Pacific Ocean, about 160 kilometres (100 mi) off the coast of Peru and Chile.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Phytoplankton are the autotrophic (self-feeding) components of the plankton community and a key part of oceans, seas and freshwater basin ecosystems.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is an infectious disease caused by the poliovirus.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
Water is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from an inherent hint of blue. It is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" and the "solvent of life". It is the most abundant substance on Earth and the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas on Earth's surface. It is also the third most abundant molecule in the universe. Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and are strongly polar. This polarity allows it to separate ions in salts and strongly bond to other polar substances such as alcohols and acids, thus dissolving them. Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass, and a high heat capacity. Water is amphoteric, meaning that it is both an acid and a base—it produces + and - ions by self-ionization.
Pseudomonas is a genus of Gram-negative, Gammaproteobacteria, belonging to the family Pseudomonadaceae and containing 191 validly described species.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
Red tide is a common name for a worldwide phenomenon known as an algal bloom (large concentrations of aquatic microorganisms—protozoans or unicellular algae) when it is caused by species of dinoflagellates and other organisms.
René Quinton (1866–1925), was a French physiologist and aviation pioneer.
For material flowing through a volume, the residence time is a measure of how much time the matter spends in it.
Reverse osmosis (RO) is a water purification technology that uses a semipermeable membrane to remove ions, molecules and larger particles from drinking water.
Richard Russell (26 November 1687 – 1759) was an 18th-century British physician who encouraged his patients to use a form of water therapy that involved the submersion or bathing in, and drinking of, seawater.
Saline water (more commonly known as salt water) is water that contains a high concentration of dissolved salts (mainly NaCl).
Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity).
Samuel Taylor Coleridge (21 October 177225 July 1834) was an English poet, literary critic, philosopher and theologian who, with his friend William Wordsworth, was a founder of the Romantic Movement in England and a member of the Lake Poets.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
A scientific theory is an explanation of an aspect of the natural world that can be repeatedly tested, in accordance with the scientific method, using a predefined protocol of observation and experiment.
The Scripps Institution of Oceanography (sometimes referred to as SIO, Scripps Oceanography, or Scripps) in La Jolla, California, founded in 1903, is one of the oldest and largest centers for ocean and Earth science research, public service, undergraduate and graduate training in the world.
Sea ice arises as seawater freezes.
Sea salt is a less refined salt that is produced by the evaporation of seawater.
Sea turtles (superfamily Chelonioidea), sometimes called marine turtles, are reptiles of the order Testudines.
Seabirds (also known as marine birds) are birds that are adapted to life within the marine environment.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit time by a sound wave as it propagates through an elastic medium.
Spirillum is a genus of Gram-negative Terrible a in the family Spirillaceae of the Nitrosomonadales of the Betaproteobacteria.
Stromatolites or stromatoliths (from Greek στρῶμα strōma "layer, stratum" (GEN στρώματος strōmatos), and λίθος lithos "rock") are layered mounds, columns, and sheet-like sedimentary rocks that were originally formed by the growth of layer upon layer of cyanobacteria, a single-celled photosynthesizing microbe.
Strontium is the chemical element with symbol Sr and atomic number 38.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Survival skills are techniques that a person may use in order to sustain life in any type of natural environment or built environment.
Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.
Thalassotherapy (from the Greek word thalassa, meaning "sea") is the use of seawater as a form of therapy.
The Rime of the Ancient Mariner (originally The Rime of the Ancyent Marinere) is the longest major poem by the English poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge, written in 1797–98 and published in 1798 in the first edition of Lyrical Ballads.
Thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat.
A thermocline (also known as the thermal layer or the metalimnion in lakes) is a thin but distinct layer in a large body of fluid (e.g. water, such as an ocean or lake) or air (such as an atmosphere) in which temperature changes more rapidly with depth than it does in the layers above or below.
Thermohaline circulation (THC) is a part of the large-scale ocean circulation that is driven by global density gradients created by surface heat and freshwater fluxes.
Thiomargarita namibiensis is a gram-negative coccoid Proteobacterium, found in the ocean sediments of the continental shelf of Namibia.
Thor Heyerdahl (October 6, 1914 – April 18, 2002) was a Norwegian adventurer and ethnographer with a background in zoology, botany, and geography.
The total boron (BT) is the sum of boron species in a solution.
The total inorganic carbon (CT, or TIC) or dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is the sum of inorganic carbon species in a solution.
The University of Aberdeen is a public research university in Aberdeen, Scotland.
The urinary system, also known as the renal system or urinary tract, consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and the urethra.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
Vacuum distillation is a method of distillation performed under reduced pressure.
Vanadium is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23.
Vibrio is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria, possessing a curved-rod shape (comma shape), several species of which can cause foodborne infection, usually associated with eating undercooked seafood.
Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative, comma-shaped bacterium.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
A water column is a conceptual column of water from the surface of a sea, river or lake to the bottom sediment.
The water cycle, also known as the hydrological cycle or the hydrologic cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth.
William Willis (September 8, 1893 – July 1968) was an American sailor and writer who is famous due to his solo rafting expeditions across oceans.