427 relations: Abundance of elements in Earth's crust, Acid, Actinide, Age of the Earth, Alfred O. C. Nier, Alkali, Alkali metal, Alkaline earth metal, Allotropy, Alpha decay, Alpha particle, Annales de chimie et de physique, Antimony, Aqueous solution, Aquifer, Arco, Idaho, Argentina, Argonne National Laboratory, Arms race, Arsenic, Asia, Athabasca Basin, Atmosphere of Earth, Atmospheric entry, Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Atomic nucleus, Atomic number, Atomic vapor laser isotope separation, Ausonium, Australia, Autunite, Bacteria, Bakouma, BBC News, Berlin, Beta decay, Beta particle, Binding energy, Binucleated cells, Bioaccumulation, Bioremediation, Bismuth-209, Bohemia, Bone, BORAX experiments, Borehole mining, Brain, Breeder reactor, Bromide, Bromine, ..., Cadmium, Calcination, Calcium chloride, Canada, Cancer, CANDU reactor, Carbide, Carbon, Carbon monoxide, Carnotite, Central African Republic, Centrifuge, Ceramic, Charcoal, Chelation, Chemical compound, Chemical element, Chemical reaction, Chemically inert, Chicago Pile-1, China, Chloride, Chlorine, Citrobacter, Classified information, Coal, Coffinite, Cold War, Common Era, Compass, Conservatoire national des arts et métiers, Control rod, Coordination complex, Critical mass, Crust (geology), Cubic crystal system, Cyclotron, Decay chain, Decay product, Density, Dentures, Depleted uranium, Deuterium, Diffusion, Digestion, Double beta decay, Ductility, Dye laser, Earth, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electricity, Electrolysis, Electron, Electronegativity, Energy, Energy Information Administration, England, Enriched uranium, Enrico Fermi, Eugène-Melchior Péligot, Europe, Experimental Breeder Reactor I, F. J. Duarte, Fat Man, Federal government of the United States, Fertile material, Fertilizer, Fiesta (dinnerware), Fissile material, Food, France, Francis Perrin, Fritz Strassmann, Gabon, Gas centrifuge, Gas-cooled reactor, Gaseous diffusion, Geobacter, Geobacter metallireducens, Glass, Glycerol phosphate, Gold, Gram, Graphite, Gulf of Naples, Gulf War syndrome, Gyroscope, Half-life, Halide, Hardnesses of the elements (data page), Heart, Henri Becquerel, Hesperium, Hiroshima, House of Habsburg, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrogen, Ideal gas, Igneous rock, Immediately dangerous to life or health, In situ leach, Inertial navigation system, Iodide, Iodine, Iodine-131, Ion exchange, Iron, Isotope, Isotope separation, Isotopes of neptunium, Isotopes of thorium, Isotopes of uranium, Israel, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Japan, Jáchymov, John R. Dunning, Joule, K-65 residues, Kazakhstan, Kidney, Kidney failure, Kinetic energy penetrator, Laser, Lattice constant, Leachate, Lead, Lignite, Lise Meitner, List of countries by uranium production, List of countries by uranium reserves, List of uranium projects, Lists of nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents, Little Boy, Liver, Lung, Macromolecule, Magnox, Manchester, Manganese, Manhattan Project, Mantle (geology), Mantle convection, Marie Curie, Martin Heinrich Klaproth, Mauve, Mbomou, Megatons to Megawatts Program, Mercury (element), Metal, Metal toxicity, Microorganism, Middle Ages, Mineral, Molecular laser isotope separation, Molybdenum, Monazite, Mordant, Namibia, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Natural abundance, Natural nuclear fission reactor, Natural uranium, Navajo, Negative stain, Neptunium, Neutron, Neutron activation, Neutron poison, Neutron temperature, New Mexico, Niger, Niobium, Nitric acid, Nitride, Nitrogen, Noble gas, Nuclear and radiation accidents and incidents, Nuclear chain reaction, Nuclear Energy Agency, Nuclear engineering, Nuclear espionage, Nuclear fallout, Nuclear fission, Nuclear fission product, Nuclear fuel cycle, Nuclear fusion, Nuclear physics, Nuclear Physics (journal), Nuclear power, Nuclear power plant, Nuclear proliferation, Nuclear reactor, Nuclear reactor physics, Nuclear transmutation, Nuclear weapon, Nuclear weapons testing, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Ocean, OECD, Oklo, Olympic Dam mine, Open-pit mining, Orders of magnitude (energy), Ore, Organelle, Organic compound, Orthorhombic crystal system, Otto Hahn, Otto Robert Frisch, Oxford, Oxford University Press, Oxidation state, Oxide, Paraburkholderia fungorum, Paramagnetism, Paris, Pennsylvania, Perchloric acid, Periodic table, Periodic Videos, Permissible exposure limit, Phase (matter), Phosphate, Photographic plate, Photography, Plant, Plate tectonics, Plutonium, Plutonium-239, Plutonium-242, Plutonium-244, Polyatomic ion, Posillipo, Positron, Potassium, Potassium-40, Pourbaix diagram, Prefecture, Pressurized heavy-water reactor, Primordial nuclide, Proton, Pupin Hall, Pyrophoricity, R-process, Radiation Exposure Compensation Act, Radioactive contamination, Radioactive decay, Radioactive waste, Radiometric dating, Radium, Radon, Recommended exposure limit, Redox, Refining (metallurgy), Relative atomic mass, Reviews of Modern Physics, Rhizophagus irregularis, Rhodium, Roman Empire, Russia, S-process, Saskatchewan, Seawater, Sellafield, Semimetal, Shewanella putrefaciens, Shippingport Atomic Power Station, Short ton, Silver, Skokie, Illinois, Sodium, Sodium chloride, Sodium diuranate, Sodium hydroxide, Soil, Solid, Solubility, Somalia, South America, South Australia, Soviet Union, Space group, Spontaneous fission, Stage lighting, Stagg Field, Strontium-90, Structure of the Earth, Sublimation (phase transition), Submarine, Subprefecture, Supernova, Tetragonal crystal system, Thallium, Thermal decomposition, Thermonuclear weapon, Thorium, Thorium fuel cycle, Timeline of chemical element discoveries, Tin, Titanium, TNT, Toner, Tonne, Torbernite, Transmission electron microscopy, Trinity (nuclear test), Tritium, Triuranium octoxide, Tunable laser, Tungsten, Ukraine, Underground mining (soft rock), United States, United States Department of Health and Human Services, United States dollar, United States Navy, University of Chicago, University of Oxford, University of Plymouth, Uranate, Uraninite, Uranium bubble of 2007, Uranium carbide, Uranium dioxide, Uranium glass, Uranium hexafluoride, Uranium hydride, Uranium mining, Uranium nitride, Uranium oxide, Uranium tetrachloride, Uranium tetrafluoride, Uranium tile, Uranium trioxide, Uranium-233, Uranium-234, Uranium-235, Uranium-236, Uranium-238, Uranium–lead dating, Uranium–thorium dating, Uranium–uranium dating, Uranophane, Uranus, Uranus (mythology), Uranyl, Uranyl acetate, Uranyl carbonate, Uranyl chloride, Uranyl fluoride, Uranyl nitrate, Uranyl sulfate, USS Nautilus (SSN-571), Uzbekistan, Valence electron, Vapor pressure, Vehicle armour, Virus, Water, Weapon, West Africa, Westinghouse Lamp Plant, William Herschel, World Nuclear Association, World Uranium Hearing, World War II, X-10 Graphite Reactor, X-ray, Yellowcake, Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository, Zinc, 1,000,000, 1,000,000,000. 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The abundance of elements in Earth's crust is shown in tabulated form with the estimated crustal abundance for each chemical element shown as either percentage or parts per million (ppm) by mass (10,000 ppm.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
The actinide or actinoid (IUPAC nomenclature) series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium.
The age of the Earth is 4.54 ± 0.05 billion years This age may represent the age of the Earth’s accretion, of core formation, or of the material from which the Earth formed.
Alfred Otto Carl Nier (May 28, 1911 – May 16, 1994) was an American physicist who pioneered the development of mass spectrometry.
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.
The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table.
Allotropy or allotropism is the property of some chemical elements to exist in two or more different forms, in the same physical state, known as allotropes of these elements.
Alpha decay or α-decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle (helium nucleus) and thereby transforms or 'decays' into an atom with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two.
Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.
Annales de chimie et de physique (French for Annals of Chemistry and of Physics) is a scientific journal that was founded in Paris, France, in 1789 under the title Annales de chimie.
Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from stibium) and atomic number 51.
An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water.
An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt).
Arco is a city in Butte County, Idaho, United States.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Argonne National Laboratory is a science and engineering research national laboratory operated by the University of Chicago Argonne LLC for the United States Department of Energy located near Lemont, Illinois, outside Chicago.
An arms race, in its original usage, is a competition between two or more states to have the best armed forces.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Location of the Athabasca Basin in the Canadian Shield The Athabasca Basin is a region in the Canadian Shield of northern Saskatchewan and Alberta Canada.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
Atmospheric entry is the movement of an object from outer space into and through the gases of an atmosphere of a planet, dwarf planet or natural satellite.
During the final stage of World War II, the United States detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
Atomic vapor laser isotope separation, or AVLIS, is a method by which specially tuned lasers are used to separate isotopes of uranium using selective ionization of hyperfine transitions.
Ausonium (atomic symbol Ao) was the name assigned to the element with atomic number 93, now known as neptunium.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Autunite (hydrated calcium uranyl phosphate) with formula: Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2·10-12H2O is a yellow - greenish fluorescent mineral with a hardness of 2 -. Autunite crystallizes in the orthorhombic system and often occurs as tabular square crystals.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Bakouma is a sub-prefecture in the prefecture of Mbomou in Central African Republic.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
A beta particle, also called beta ray or beta radiation, (symbol β) is a high-energy, high-speed electron or positron emitted by the radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus during the process of beta decay.
Binding energy (also called separation energy) is the minimum energy required to disassemble a system of particles into separate parts.
Binucleated cells are cells that contain two nuclei.
Bioaccumulation is the accumulation of substances, such as pesticides, or other chemicals in an organism.
Bioremediation is a process used to treat contaminated media, including water, soil and subsurface material, by altering environmental conditions to stimulate growth of microorganisms and degrade the target pollutants.
Bismuth-209 is the "quasi-stable" isotope of bismuth with the longest known half-life of any radioisotope that undergoes α-decay (alpha decay).
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
The BORAX Experiments were a series of safety experiments on boiling water nuclear reactors conducted by Argonne National Laboratory in the 1950s and 1960s at the National Reactor Testing Station in eastern Idaho.
Borehole Mining (BHM) is a remote operated method of extracting (mining) mineral resources through boreholes by means of high pressure water jets.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
A breeder reactor is a nuclear reactor that generates more fissile material than it consumes.
A bromide is a chemical compound containing a bromide ion or ligand.
Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35.
Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.
The IUPAC defines calcination as "heating to high temperatures in air or oxygen".
Calcium chloride is an inorganic compound, a salt with the chemical formula CaCl2.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
The CANDU, for Canada Deuterium Uranium, is a Canadian pressurized heavy-water reactor design used to generate electric power.
In chemistry, a carbide is a compound composed of carbon and a less electronegative element.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Carnotite is a potassium uranium vanadate radioactive mineral with chemical formula K2(UO2)2(VO4)2·3H2O.
The Central African Republic (CAR; Sango: Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka; République centrafricaine, or Centrafrique) is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
A centrifuge is a piece of equipment that puts an object in rotation around a fixed axis (spins it in a circle), applying a force perpendicular to the axis of spin (outward) that can be very strong.
A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.
Charcoal is the lightweight black carbon and ash residue hydrocarbon produced by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances.
Chelation is a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
In chemistry, the term chemically inert is used to describe a substance that is not chemically reactive.
Chicago Pile-1 (CP-1) was the world's first nuclear reactor.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Citrobacter is a genus of Gram-negative coliform bacteria in the Enterobacteriaceae family.
Classified information is material that a government body deems to be sensitive information that must be protected.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
Coffinite is a uranium-bearing silicate mineral with formula: U(SiO4)1−x(OH)4x. It occurs as black incrustations, dark to pale-brown in thin section. It has a grayish-black streak. It has a brittle to conchoidal fracture. The hardness of coffinite is between 5 and 6. It was first described in 1954 for an occurrence at the La Sal No. 2 Mine, Beaver Mesa, Mesa County, Colorado, US, and named for American geologist Reuben Clare Coffin (1886–1972). It has widespread global occurrence in Colorado Plateau-type uranium ore deposits of uranium and vanadium. It replaces organic matter in sandstone and in hydrothermal vein type deposits. It occurs in association with uraninite, thorite, pyrite, marcasite, roscoelite, clay minerals and amorphous organic matter.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
A compass is an instrument used for navigation and orientation that shows direction relative to the geographic cardinal directions (or points).
The Conservatoire national des arts et métiers (CNAM; National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts) is a doctoral degree-granting higher education establishment (or grand établissement) and Grande école in engineering, operated by the French government, dedicated to providing education and conducting research for the promotion of science and industry.
Control rods are used in nuclear reactors to control the fission rate of uranium and plutonium.
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
A critical mass is the smallest amount of fissile material needed for a sustained nuclear chain reaction.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube.
A cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator invented by Ernest O. Lawrence in 1929-1930 at the University of California, Berkeley, and patented in 1932.
In nuclear science, the decay chain refers to a series of radioactive decays of different radioactive decay products as a sequential series of transformations.
In nuclear physics, a decay product (also known as a daughter product, daughter isotope, radio-daughter, or daughter nuclide) is the remaining nuclide left over from radioactive decay.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Dentures (also known as false teeth) are prosthetic devices constructed to replace missing teeth; they are supported by the surrounding soft and hard tissues of the oral cavity.
Depleted uranium (DU; also referred to in the past as Q-metal, depletalloy or D-38) is uranium with a lower content of the fissile isotope U-235 than natural uranium.
Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1).
Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
In nuclear physics, double beta decay is a type of radioactive decay in which two protons are simultaneously transformed into two neutrons, or vice versa, inside an atomic nucleus.
Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.
A dye laser is a laser which uses an organic dye as the lasing medium, usually as a liquid solution.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.
In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System responsible for collecting, analyzing, and disseminating energy information to promote sound policymaking, efficient markets, and public understanding of energy and its interaction with the economy and the environment.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Enriched uranium is a type of uranium in which the percent composition of uranium-235 has been increased through the process of isotope separation.
Enrico Fermi (29 September 1901 – 28 November 1954) was an Italian-American physicist and the creator of the world's first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1.
Eugène-Melchior Péligot (24 March 1811 in Paris – 15 April 1890 in Paris), also known as Eugène Péligot, was a French chemist who isolated the first sample of uranium metal in 1841.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR-I) is a decommissioned research reactor and U.S. National Historic Landmark located in the desert about southeast of Arco, Idaho.
Francisco Javier "Frank" Duarte (born c. 1954) is a laser physicist and author/editor of several well-known books on tunable lasers and quantum optics.
"Fat Man" was the codename for the atomic bomb that was detonated over the Japanese city of Nagasaki by the United States on 9 August 1945.
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.
Fertile material is a material that, although not itself fissionable by thermal neutrons, can be converted into a fissile material by neutron absorption and subsequent nuclei conversions.
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
Fiesta, often called Fiestaware, is a line of ceramic glazed dinnerware manufactured and marketed by the Homer Laughlin China Company of Newell, West Virginia since its introduction in 1936, with a hiatus from 1973 to 1985.
In nuclear engineering, fissile material is material capable of sustaining a nuclear fission chain reaction.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francis Perrin (17 August 1901 – 4 July 1992) was a French physicist, the son of Nobel prize-winning physicist Jean Perrin.
Friedrich Wilhelm "Fritz" Strassmann (Straßmann; 22 February 1902 – 22 April 1980) was a German chemist who, with Otto Hahn in early 1939, identified barium in the residue after bombarding uranium with neutrons, results which, when confirmed, demonstrated the previously unknown phenomenon of nuclear fission.
Gabon, officially the Gabonese Republic (République gabonaise), is a sovereign state on the west coast of Central Africa.
A gas centrifuge is a device that performs isotope separation of gases.
A gas-cooled reactor (GCR) is a nuclear reactor that uses graphite as a neutron moderator and carbon dioxide as coolant.
Gaseous diffusion is a technology used to produce enriched uranium by forcing gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF6) through semipermeable membranes.
Geobacter is a genus of Proteobacteria.
Geobacter metallireducens is a gram-negative metal-reducing proteobacterium.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
Glycerol phosphate may refer to.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
The gram (alternative spelling: gramme; SI unit symbol: g) (Latin gramma, from Greek γράμμα, grámma) is a metric system unit of mass.
Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.
The Gulf of Naples, also called the Bay of Naples, is a roughly 15-kilometer-wide (9.3 mi) gulf located along the south-western coast of Italy (province of Naples, Campania region).
Gulf War syndrome (GWS), also known as Gulf War illnesses (GWI) and chronic multisymptom illness (CMI), is a chronic and multisymptomatic disorder affecting returning military veterans and civilian workers of the 1990–91 Gulf War.
A gyroscope (from Ancient Greek γῦρος gûros, "circle" and σκοπέω skopéō, "to look") is a device used for measuring or maintaining orientation and angular velocity.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
A halide is a binary phase, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative (or more electropositive) than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, astatide, or theoretically tennesside compound.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Antoine Henri Becquerel (15 December 1852 – 25 August 1908) was a French physicist, Nobel laureate, and the first person to discover evidence of radioactivity.
Hesperium (also known as esperium; atomic symbol Es) was the name assigned to the element with atomic number 94, now known as plutonium.
is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture and the largest city in the Chūgoku region of western Honshu - the largest island of Japan.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
An ideal gas is a theoretical gas composed of many randomly moving point particles whose only interactions are perfectly elastic collisions.
Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic.
The term immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) is defined by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as exposure to airborne contaminants that is "likely to cause death or immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects or prevent escape from such an environment." Examples include smoke or other poisonous gases at sufficiently high concentrations.
In-situ leaching (ISL), also called in-situ recovery (ISR) or solution mining, is a mining process used to recover minerals such as copper and uranium through boreholes drilled into a deposit, in situ.
An inertial navigation system (INS) is a navigation aid that uses a computer, motion sensors (accelerometers), rotation sensors (gyroscopes), and occasionally magnetic sensors (magnetometers) to continuously calculate by dead reckoning the position, the orientation, and the velocity (direction and speed of movement) of a moving object without the need for external references.
An iodide ion is the ion I−.
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
Iodine-131 (131I) is an important radioisotope of iodine discovered by Glenn Seaborg and John Livingood in 1938 at the University of California, Berkeley.
Ion exchange is an exchange of ions between two electrolytes or between an electrolyte solution and a complex.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Isotope separation is the process of concentrating specific isotopes of a chemical element by removing other isotopes.
Neptunium (93Np) is usually considered an artificial element, although trace quantities are found in nature, so thus a standard atomic weight cannot be given.
Although thorium (90Th) has 6 naturally occurring isotopes, none of these isotopes are stable; however, one isotope, 232Th, is relatively stable, with a half-life of 1.405×1010 years, considerably longer than the age of the Earth, and even slightly longer than the generally accepted age of the universe.
Uranium (92U) is a naturally occurring radioactive element that has no stable isotopes but two primordial isotopes (uranium-238 and uranium-235) that have long half-life and are found in appreciable quantity in the Earth's crust, along with the decay product uranium-234.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Julius Robert Oppenheimer (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist and professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Jáchymov, until 1945 known by its German name of Sankt Joachimsthal or Joachimsthal (meaning "Saint Joachim's Valley"; Thal, or Tal in modern orthography) is a spa town in the Karlovy Vary Region of Bohemia, now part of the Czech Republic.
John Ray Dunning (September 24, 1907 – August 25, 1975) was an American physicist who played key roles in the Manhattan Project that developed the first atomic bombs.
The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.
K-65 residues are the very radioactive mill residues resulting from a uniquely concentrated uranium ore discovered before WW II in Katanga province (Shinkolobwe) of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly called the Belgian Congo).
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.
A kinetic energy penetrator (KEP, KE weapon, long-rod penetrator or LRP) is a type of ammunition designed to penetrate vehicle armour.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
The lattice constant, or lattice parameter, refers to the physical dimension of unit cells in a crystal lattice.
A leachate is any liquid that, in the course of passing through matter, extracts soluble or suspended solids, or any other component of the material through which it has passed.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is a soft, brown, combustible, sedimentary rock formed from naturally compressed peat.
Lise Meitner (7 November 1878 – 27 October 1968) was an Austrian-Swedish physicist who worked on radioactivity and nuclear physics.
This is a list of countries by uranium production in 2015.
Uranium reserves are reserves of recoverable uranium, regardless of isotope, based on a set market price.
Uranium production is carried out in about 20 countries around the world, producing a cumulative total of 54,610 tonnes of uranium (tU).
These are lists of nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents.
"Little Boy" was the codename for the atomic bomb dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima on 6 August 1945 during World War II by the Boeing B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay, piloted by Colonel Paul W. Tibbets, Jr., commander of the 509th Composite Group of the United States Army Air Forces.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers).
Magnox is a type of nuclear power/production reactor that was designed to run on natural uranium with graphite as the moderator and carbon dioxide gas as the heat exchange coolant.
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.
The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.
Mantle convection is the slow creeping motion of Earth's solid silicate mantle caused by convection currents carrying heat from the interior of the Earth to the surface.
Marie Skłodowska Curie (born Maria Salomea Skłodowska; 7 November 18674 July 1934) was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity.
Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1 December 1743 – 1 January 1817) was a German chemist who discovered uranium (1789), zirconium (1789), and cerium (1803), and named titanium (1795) and tellurium (1798).
Mauve is a pale purple colour named after the mallow flower (French: mauve).
Mbomou is one of the sixteen prefectures of the Central African Republic.
The Megatons to Megawatts Program, successfully completed in December 2013, is the popular name given to the program which is also called the United States-Russia Highly Enriched Uranium Purchase Agreement.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Metal toxicity or metal poisoning is the toxic effect of certain metals in certain forms and doses on life.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
Molecular laser isotope separation (MLIS) is a method of isotope separation, where specially tuned lasers are used to separate isotopes of uranium using selective ionization of hyperfine transitions of uranium hexafluoride molecules.
Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.
Monazite is a reddish-brown phosphate mineral containing rare-earth metals.
A mordant or dye fixative is a substance used to set (i.e. bind) dyes on fabrics by forming a coordination complex with the dye, which then attaches to the fabric (or tissue).
Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.
In physics, natural abundance (NA) refers to the abundance of isotopes of a chemical element as naturally found on a planet.
A natural nuclear fission reactor is a uranium deposit where self-sustaining nuclear chain reactions have occurred.
Natural uranium (NU, Unat) refers to uranium with the same isotopic ratio as found in nature.
The Navajo (British English: Navaho, Diné or Naabeehó) are a Native American people of the Southwestern United States.
Negative staining is an established method, often used in diagnostic microscopy, for contrasting a thin specimen with an optically opaque fluid.
Neptunium is a chemical element with symbol Np and atomic number 93.
Neutron activation is the process in which neutron radiation induces radioactivity in materials, and occurs when atomic nuclei capture free neutrons, becoming heavier and entering excited states.
In applications such as nuclear reactors, a neutron poison (also called a neutron absorber or a nuclear poison) is a substance with a large neutron absorption cross-section.
The neutron detection temperature, also called the neutron energy, indicates a free neutron's kinetic energy, usually given in electron volts.
New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.
Niger, also called the Niger officially the Republic of the Niger, is a landlocked country in Western Africa named after the Niger River.
Niobium, formerly known as columbium, is a chemical element with symbol Nb (formerly Cb) and atomic number 41.
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
In chemistry, a nitride is a compound of nitrogen where nitrogen has a formal oxidation state of 3-.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.
A nuclear and radiation accident is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as "an event that has led to significant consequences to people, the environment or the facility." Examples include lethal effects to individuals, radioactive isotope to the environment, or reactor core melt." The prime example of a "major nuclear accident" is one in which a reactor core is damaged and significant amounts of radioactive isotopes are released, such as in the Chernobyl disaster in 1986.
A nuclear chain reaction occurs when one single nuclear reaction causes an average of one or more subsequent nuclear reactions, thus leading to the possibility of a self-propagating series of these reactions.
The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is an intergovernmental agency that is organized under the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
Nuclear engineering is the branch of engineering concerned with the application of breaking down atomic nuclei (fission) or of combining atomic nuclei (fusion), or with the application of other sub-atomic processes based on the principles of nuclear physics.
Nuclear espionage is the purposeful giving of state secrets regarding nuclear weapons to other states without authorization (espionage).
Nuclear fallout, or simply fallout, is the residual radioactive material propelled into the upper atmosphere following a nuclear blast, so called because it "falls out" of the sky after the explosion and the shock wave have passed.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).
Nuclear fission products are the atomic fragments left after a large atomic nucleus undergoes nuclear fission.
The nuclear fuel cycle, also called nuclear fuel chain, is the progression of nuclear fuel through a series of differing stages.
In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).
Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.
Nuclear Physics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier.
Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.
A nuclear power plant or nuclear power station is a thermal power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor.
Nuclear proliferation is the spread of nuclear weapons, fissionable material, and weapons-applicable nuclear technology and information to nations not recognized as "Nuclear Weapon States" by the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
Nuclear reactor physics is the branch of science that deals with the study and application of chain reaction to induce a controlled rate of fission in a nuclear reactor for the production of energy.
Nuclear transmutation is the conversion of one chemical element or an isotope into another chemical element.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
Nuclear weapons tests are experiments carried out to determine the effectiveness, yield, and explosive capability of nuclear weapons.
Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) is a consortium of American universities headquartered in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, with an office in Washington, D.C., and staff at several other locations across the country.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is an American multiprogram science and technology national laboratory sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and administered, managed, and operated by UT-Battelle as a federally funded research and development center (FFRDC) under a contract with the DOE.
Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant (Обнинская АЭС, Obninskaja AES) was built in the "Science City" of Obninsk,, who was there at the time.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.
An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
Oklo is a region near the town of Franceville, in the Haut-Ogooué province of the Central African state of Gabon.
The Olympic Dam mine is a large poly-metallic underground mine located in South Australia, 550 km NNW of Adelaide.
Open-pit, open-cast or open cut mining is a surface mining technique of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow.
This list compares various energies in joules (J), organized by order of magnitude.
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.
In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
In crystallography, the orthorhombic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.
Otto Hahn, (8 March 1879 – 28 July 1968) was a German chemist and pioneer in the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry.
Otto Robert Frisch FRS (1 October 1904 – 22 September 1979) was an Austrian-British physicist.
Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
Paraburkholderia fungorum is a species of proteobacteria.
Paramagnetism is a form of magnetism whereby certain materials are weakly attracted by an externally applied magnetic field, and form internal, induced magnetic fields in the direction of the applied magnetic field.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.
Perchloric acid is a mineral acid with the formula HClO4.
The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.
The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.
The permissible exposure limit (PEL or OSHA PEL) is a legal limit in the United States for exposure of an employee to a chemical substance or physical agent such as loud noise.
In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
Photographic plates preceded photographic film as a capture medium in photography.
Photography is the science, art, application and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.
Plutonium-239 is an isotope of plutonium.
Plutonium-242 is one of the isotopes of plutonium, the second longest-lived, with a half-life of 373,300 years.
Plutonium-244 (244Pu) is an isotope of plutonium that has a half-life of 80 million years.
A polyatomic ion, also known as a molecular ion, is a charged chemical species (ion) composed of two or more atoms covalently bonded or of a metal complex that can be considered to be acting as a single unit.
Posillipo is a residential quarter of Naples, southern Italy, located along the northern coast of the Gulf of Naples; it is called Pusilleco in the Neapolitan language.
The positron or antielectron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Potassium-40 (40K) is a radioactive isotope of potassium which has a very long half-life of 1.251 years.
In electrochemistry, a Pourbaix diagram, also known as a potential/pH diagram, EH-pH diagram or a pE/pH diagram, maps out possible stable (equilibrium) phases of an aqueous electrochemical system.
A prefecture (from the Latin Praefectura) is an administrative jurisdiction or subdivision in any of various countries and within some international church structures, and in antiquity a Roman district governed by an appointed prefect.
A pressurized heavy-water reactor (PHWR) is a nuclear reactor, commonly using natural uranium as its fuel, that uses heavy water (deuterium oxide D2O) as its coolant and neutron moderator.
In geochemistry, geophysics and geonuclear physics, primordial nuclides, also known as primordial isotopes, are nuclides found on Earth that have existed in their current form since before Earth was formed.
Pupin Physics Laboratories, also known as Pupin Hall is home to the physics and astronomy departments of Columbia University in New York City and a National Historic Landmark.
A pyrophoric substance (from Greek πυροφόρος, pyrophoros, "fire-bearing") ignites spontaneously in air at or below 55 °C (130 °F).
The rapid neutron-capture process, or so-called r-process, is a set of nuclear reactions that in nuclear astrophysics is responsible for the creation (nucleosynthesis) of approximately half the abundances of the atomic nuclei heavier than iron, usually synthesizing the entire abundance of the two most neutron-rich stable isotopes of each heavy element.
The United States Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (RECA) is a federal statute providing for the monetary compensation of people, including atomic veterans, who contracted cancer and a number of other specified diseases as a direct result of their exposure to atmospheric nuclear testing undertaken by the United States during the Cold War, or their exposure to radon gas and other radioactive isotopes while undertaking uranium mining, milling or the transportation of ore.
Radioactive contamination, also called radiological contamination, is the deposition of, or presence of radioactive substances on surfaces or within solids, liquids or gases (including the human body), where their presence is unintended or undesirable (from the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA - definition).
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
Radioactive waste is waste that contains radioactive material.
Radiometric dating or radioactive dating is a technique used to date materials such as rocks or carbon, in which trace radioactive impurities were selectively incorporated when they were formed.
Radium is a chemical element with symbol Ra and atomic number 88.
Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86.
A recommended exposure limit (REL) is an occupational exposure limit that has been recommended by the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for adoption as a permissible exposure limit.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
In metallurgy, refining consists of purifying an impure metal.
Relative atomic mass (symbol: A) or atomic weight is a dimensionless physical quantity defined as the ratio of the average mass of atoms of a chemical element in a given sample to one unified atomic mass unit.
Reviews of Modern Physics is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Physical Society.
Rhizophagus irregularis (previously known as Glomus intraradices) is an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus used as a soil inoculant in agriculture and horticulture.
Rhodium is a chemical element with symbol Rh and atomic number 45.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The slow neutron-capture process or s-process is a series of reactions in nuclear astrophysics that occur in stars, particularly AGB stars.
Saskatchewan is a prairie and boreal province in western Canada, the only province without natural borders.
Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.
Sellafield is a nuclear fuel reprocessing and nuclear decommissioning site, close to the village of Seascale on the coast of the Irish Sea in Cumbria, England.
A semimetal is a material with a very small overlap between the bottom of the conduction band and the top of the valence band.
Shewanella putrefaciens is a Gram-negative pleomorphic bacterium.
The Shippingport Atomic Power Station was (according to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission) the world’s first full-scale atomic electric power plant devoted exclusively to peacetime uses.
The short ton is a unit of weight equal to.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Skokie (formerly Niles Center) is a village in Cook County, Illinois, United States.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
Sodium diuranate or yellow uranium oxide, Na2U2O7·6H2O, is a uranium salt also known as the yellow oxide of uranium.
Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a state in the southern central part of Australia.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
In mathematics, physics and chemistry, a space group is the symmetry group of a configuration in space, usually in three dimensions.
Spontaneous fission (SF) is a form of radioactive decay that is found only in very heavy chemical elements.
Stage lighting is the craft of lighting as it applies to the production of theatre, dance, opera and other performance arts.
Amos Alonzo Stagg Field is the name of two different football fields for the University of Chicago.
Strontium-90 is a radioactive isotope of strontium produced by nuclear fission, with a half-life of 28.8 years.
The interior structure of the Earth is layered in spherical shells: an outer silicate solid crust, a highly viscous asthenosphere and mantle, a liquid outer core that is much less viscous than the mantle, and a solid inner core.
Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase, without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.
A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.
Subprefecture is an administrative division of a country that is below prefecture or province.
A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.
In crystallography, the tetragonal crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.
Thallium is a chemical element with symbol Tl and atomic number 81.
Thermal decomposition, or thermolysis, is a chemical decomposition caused by heat.
A thermonuclear weapon is a second-generation nuclear weapon design using a secondary nuclear fusion stage consisting of implosion tamper, fusion fuel, and spark plug which is bombarded by the energy released by the detonation of a primary fission bomb within, compressing the fuel material (tritium, deuterium or lithium deuteride) and causing a fusion reaction.
Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.
The thorium fuel cycle is a nuclear fuel cycle that uses an isotope of thorium,, as the fertile material.
The discovery of the 118 chemical elements known to exist today is presented here in chronological order.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
Trinitrotoluene (TNT), or more specifically 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3.
Toner is a powder mixture used in laser printers and photocopiers to form the printed text and images on the paper, in general through a toner cartridge.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
Torbernite, whose name derives from the Swedish chemist Torbern Bergman (1735–1784), is a radioactive, hydrated green copper uranyl phosphate mineral, found in granites and other uranium-bearing deposits as a secondary mineral.
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, also sometimes conventional transmission electron microscopy or CTEM) is a microscopy technique in which a beam of electrons is transmitted through a specimen to form an image.
Trinity was the code name of the first detonation of a nuclear weapon.
Tritium (or; symbol or, also known as hydrogen-3) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen.
Triuranium octoxide (U3O8) is a compound of uranium.
A tunable laser is a laser whose wavelength of operation can be altered in a controlled manner.
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Underground soft rock mining is a group of underground mining techniques used to extract coal, oil shale, potash and other minerals or geological materials from sedimentary ("soft") rocks.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
The University of Plymouth is a public university based predominantly in Plymouth, England where the main campus is located, but the university has campuses and affiliated colleges across South West England.
A uranate is a ternary oxide involving the element uranium in one of the oxidation states +4, +5 or +6.
Uraninite, formerly pitchblende, is a radioactive, uranium-rich mineral and ore with a chemical composition that is largely UO2, but due to oxidation the mineral typically contains variable proportions of U3O8.
The uranium bubble of 2007 was a period of nearly exponential growth in the price of natural uranium, starting in 2005 and peaking at roughly $300/kg (or ~$135/lb) in mid-2007.
Uranium carbide, a carbide of uranium, is a hard refractory ceramic material.
Uranium dioxide or uranium(IV) oxide (2), also known as urania or uranous oxide, is an oxide of uranium, and is a black, radioactive, crystalline powder that naturally occurs in the mineral uraninite.
Uranium glass is glass which has had uranium, usually in oxide diuranate form, added to a glass mix before melting for coloration.
Uranium hexafluoride, referred to as "hex" in the nuclear industry, is a compound used in the uranium enrichment process that produces fuel for nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons.
Uranium hydride, also called uranium trihydride (UH3), is an inorganic compound and a hydride of uranium.
Uranium mining is the process of extraction of uranium ore from the ground.
Uranium nitride refers to a family of several ceramic materials: uranium mononitride (UN), uranium sesquinitride (U2N3) and uranium dinitride (UN2).
Uranium oxide is an oxide of the element uranium.
Uranium tetrachloride (UCl4) is compound of uranium in oxidation state +4.
Uranium tetrafluoride (UF4) is a green crystalline solid compound of uranium with an insignificant vapor pressure and very slight solubility in water.
Uranium tiles have been used in the glazing industry for many centuries, as uranium oxide makes an excellent ceramic glaze, and is reasonably abundant on the earth's crust.
Uranium trioxide (UO3), also called uranyl oxide, uranium(VI) oxide, and uranic oxide, is the hexavalent oxide of uranium.
Uranium-233 is a fissile isotope of uranium that is bred from thorium-232 as part of the thorium fuel cycle.
Uranium-234 is an isotope of uranium.
Uranium-235 (235U) is an isotope of uranium making up about 0.72% of natural uranium.
Uranium-236 is an isotope of uranium that is neither fissile with thermal neutrons, nor very good fertile material, but is generally considered a nuisance and long-lived radioactive waste.
Uranium-238 (238U or U-238) is the most common isotope of uranium found in nature, with a relative abundance of 99%.
Uranium–lead dating, abbreviated U–Pb dating, is one of the oldestBoltwood, B.B., 1907, On the ultimate disintegration products of the radio-active elements.
Uranium–thorium dating, also called thorium-230 dating, uranium-series disequilibrium dating or uranium-series dating, is a radiometric dating technique established in the 1960s which has been used since the 1970s to determine the age of calcium carbonate materials such as speleothem or coral.
Uranium–uranium dating is a radiometric dating technique which compares two isotopes of uranium (U) in a sample: uranium-234 (234U) and uranium-238 (238U).
Uranophane (Ca(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2·5H2O), also known as uranotile, is a rare calcium uranium silicate hydrate mineral that forms from the oxidation of other uranium-bearing minerals.
Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun.
Uranus (Ancient Greek Οὐρανός, Ouranos meaning "sky" or "heaven") was the primal Greek god personifying the sky and one of the Greek primordial deities.
The uranyl ion is an oxycation of uranium in the oxidation state +6, with the chemical formula.
Uranyl acetate (UO2(CH3COO)2·2H2O) is the acetate salt of uranyl and is a yellow-green crystalline solid made up of yellow-green rhombic crystals and has a slight acetic odor.
Uranyl carbonate, UO2(CO3), is a carbonate of uranium that forms the backbone of several uranyl mineral species such as andersonite, mckelveyite-(Y) and wyartite and most importantly rutherfordine.
Uranyl chloride, UO2Cl2 is an unstable, bright yellow coloured chemical compound of uranium.
Uranyl fluoride (UO2F2), a compound of uranium, is an intermediate in the conversion of uranium hexafluoride UF6 to an uranium oxide or metal form and is a direct product of the reaction of UF6 with moisture in the air.
Uranyl nitrate (UO2(NO3)2) is a water soluble yellow uranium salt.
Uranyl sulfate (UO2SO4), a sulfate of uranium, is an odorless lemon-yellow sand-like solid in its pure crystalline form.
USS Nautilus (SSN-571) was the world's first operational nuclear-powered submarine and the first submarine to complete a submerged transit of the North Pole on 3rd August 1958.
Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
In chemistry, a valence electron is an outer shell electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond if the outer shell is not closed; in a single covalent bond, both atoms in the bond contribute one valence electron in order to form a shared pair.
Vapor pressure or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system.
Military vehicles are commonly armoured (or armored; see spelling differences) to withstand the impact of shrapnel, bullets, missiles or shells, protecting the personnel inside from enemy fire.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
A weapon, arm or armament is any device used with intent to inflict damage or harm.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
The Westinghouse Lamp Plant located in Bloomfield, New Jersey, was one of the lamp manufacturing plants of Westinghouse Electric Corporation.
Frederick William Herschel, (Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel; 15 November 1738 – 25 August 1822) was a German-born British astronomer, composer and brother of fellow astronomer Caroline Herschel, with whom he worked.
The World Nuclear Association (WNA) is the international organization that promotes nuclear power and supports the companies that comprise the global nuclear industry.
The World Uranium Hearing was held in Salzburg, Austria in September 1992.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The X-10 Graphite Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, formerly known as the Clinton Pile and X-10 Pile, was the world's second artificial nuclear reactor (after Enrico Fermi's Chicago Pile-1), and the first designed and built for continuous operation.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
Yellowcake (also called urania) is a type of uranium concentrate powder obtained from leach solutions, in an intermediate step in the processing of uranium ores.
The Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository, as designated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act amendments of 1987, is to be a deep geological repository storage facility within Yucca Mountain for spent nuclear fuel and other high-level radioactive waste in the United States.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
1,000,000 (one million), or one thousand thousand, is the natural number following 999,999 and preceding 1,000,001.
1,000,000,000 (one billion, short scale; one thousand million or milliard, yard, long scale) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001.