280 relations: Al Jazeera, Alexander Alekhine, Alexander Beliavsky, Alexander Shakarov, Alexei Navalny, Alexei Shirov, Alexey Sokolsky, Amsterdam, Anatoly Karpov, Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, Arimaa, Armenians, Arsenic, Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, Baku, Baku pogrom, Banja Luka, Barcelona, Batsford, Belfort, Belgrade, Bent Larsen, Bernie Sanders, Beslan school siege, Bessel Kok, Bill Maher, Bishkek, Blunder (chess), Bobby Fischer, Boris Yeltsin, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Boston Marathon bombing, Bratislava, Brussels, Bugojno, Candidates Tournament, Caro–Kann Defence, Catalan independence referendum, 2017, Catalan regional election, 2017, Center for Security Policy, Channel 4, Chess, Chess Informant, Chess Olympiad, Chess opening, Chess Oscar, Chess title, Chess.com, ChessBase, ..., Chessmetrics, Chris Matthews, Civilization, Classical World Chess Championship 1995, Clichy, Hauts-de-Seine, Coca-Cola, Committee 2008, Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Comparison of top chess players throughout history, Concerns and controversies at the 2014 Winter Olympics, Crimea, Croatia, Daily News and Analysis, Daniel J. King, Daugavpils, David Vincent Hooper, Debrecen, Deep Blue (chess computer), Deep Blue versus Kasparov, 1996, Game 1, Deep Blue versus Kasparov, 1997, Game 6, Deep Thought (chess computer), Defection, Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Party of Russia, Der Spiegel, Dissenters' March, Donald Trump, Dortmund, Edward Winter (chess historian), Election, Elo rating system, Emanuel Lasker, English Chess Federation, European Union, Everyman Chess, Fabiano Caruana, Fast chess, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Federal Security Service, Federal Service for Supervision of Communications, Information Technology and Mass Media, FIDE, FIDE World Chess Championship 2004, FIDE world rankings, Fidel Castro, Florencio Campomanes, France, Gambit Publications, Game of Thrones, Game Over: Kasparov and the Machine, Grandmaster (chess), Graz, Grünfeld Defence, HBO, Hedgehog (chess), Hikaru Nakamura, History of the Jews in Russia, Hoover Institution, How Life Imitates Chess, Human Rights Foundation, IBM, Ignatius Leong, Igor Ivanov (chess player), Intel, Interzonal, Jan Timman, José Raúl Capablanca, Junior (chess), Kanye West, Kasparov versus the World, Ken Whyld, KGB, Kim Jong-un, Kirov, Russia, Kirsan Ilyumzhinov, Komsomol, Leonard Barden, Leukemia, Linares International Chess Tournament, Linares, Jaén, List of chess games between Kasparov and Kramnik, List of FIDE chess world number ones, Lyon, Magnitsky Act, Magnus Carlsen, Makarska, Malta, Marca Leyenda, Mariano Rajoy, Max Euwe, Max Levchin, Maxime Vachier-Lagrave, Mönchengladbach, Michael C. Moynihan, Middle Ages, Mig Greengard, Miguel Najdorf, Mike Pence, Mikhail Botvinnik, Mikhail Tal, Minsk, Moscow, Moscow Kremlin, Moscow theater hostage crisis, Munk Debates, NBC, New Chronology (Fomenko), News conference, Nigel Short, Nikšić, Nimzo-Indian Defence, Novaya Gazeta, NTV (Russia), Oakham School, Oleg Kalugin, Op-ed, OpinionJournal.com, Oxford University Press, Pacific Institute for the Mathematical Sciences, Pasadena, California, Pavilion Books, Pawn (chess), Peter Svidler, Peter Thiel, Pioneers Palace, Politics of Russia, Princeton University Press, Professional Chess Association, Pula, Pussy Riot, Putin Must Go, Queen's Gambit Declined, Rainbow flag (LGBT movement), Raymond Keene, Republican Party (United States), Resisting arrest, Reykjavík, Robert Mugabe, Rule of law, Ruslan Ponomariov, Russia, Russia under Vladimir Putin, Russian Chess Championship, Russian Chess Federation, Russian gay propaganda law, Russian legislative election, 2011, Russian presidential election, 2008, Rustam Kasimdzhanov, Saint Petersburg, Samuel Reshevsky, Savielly Tartakower, Sergei Rublevsky, Seville, Sicilian Defence, Sicilian Defence, Scheveningen Variation, Skara, Skellefteå, Slate (magazine), Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Soviet Union, Speech recognition, Stephen Colbert, Stephen F. Cohen, Tamerlan Tsarnaev, Tbilisi, Tel Aviv University, The Daily Beast, The Guardian, The Moscow Times, The New York Times, The Other Russia (coalition), The Oxford Companion to Chess, The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post, The Week in Chess, Thessaloniki, Tibor Károlyi (chess player), Tigran Petrosian, Tilburg, Time (magazine), Time control, Twitter, U.S. News & World Report, Ukraine, Ukrayinska Pravda, UN Watch, Union of Right Forces, United Arab Emirates, United Civil Front, United States dollar, United States presidential election, 2016, United States presidential primary, USSR Chess Championship, Valencia, Valentina Matviyenko, Valletta, Vasily Smyslov, Vassily Ivanchuk, Václav Havel, Veselin Topalov, Viktor Korchnoi, Vilnius, Viswanathan Anand, Vladimir Kramnik, Vladimir Makogonov, Vladimir Posner, Vladimir Putin, Wesley So, Wilhelm Steinitz, Wolf Blitzer, World Chess Championship, World Chess Championship 1984, World Chess Championship 1985, World Chess Championship 1993, World Chess Championship 2010, World Chess Hall of Fame, World Junior Chess Championship, World Trade Center (1973–2001), X3D Fritz, Yabloko, Yasser Seirawan, Yevgeniy Vladimirov, Zoltán Ribli, 24th Chess Olympiad, 25th Chess Olympiad, 27th Chess Olympiad, 28th Chess Olympiad, 30th Chess Olympiad, 31st Chess Olympiad, 32nd Chess Olympiad, 35th Chess Olympiad. 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Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.
Alexander Alekhine (Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Але́хин, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Alekhin;; March 24, 1946) was a Russian and French chess player and the fourth World Chess Champion.
Alexander Genrikhovich Beliavsky (also Romanized Belyavsky; born December 17, 1953) is a Soviet, Ukrainian and Slovenian chess grandmaster.
Alexander Shakarov (born 8 March 1948 in Baku, Azerbaijan SSR, USSR) is a Soviet chess player, coach and author of Armenian descent.
Alexei Anatolievich Navalny (Алексе́й Анато́льевич Нава́льный,; born June 4, 1976) is a Russian lawyer and political activist.
Alexei Shirov (Aleksejs Širovs;; born 4 July 1972) is a Latvian and Spanish chess grandmaster.
Alexey Pavlovich Sokolsky (3 November 1908 – 27 December 1969) was a Ukrainian-Belarusian chess player of International Master strength in chess, a noted correspondence chess player, and an opening theoretician.
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.
Anatoly Yevgenyevich Karpov (Анато́лий Евге́ньевич Ка́рпов; born May 23, 1951) is a Russian chess grandmaster and former World Champion.
The Crimean peninsula was annexed from Ukraine by the Russian Federation in February–March 2014.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
Azerbaijan (Азәрбајҹан; Azərbaycan), officially the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic (Azerbaijan SSR; Азәрбајҹан Совет Сосиалист Республикасы, Azərbaycan Sovet Sosialist Respublikası, Азербайджанская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Azerbajdžanskaja Sovetskaja Socialističeskaja Respublika) and the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Respublikası, Азәрбајҹан Республикасы), also referred to as Soviet Azerbaijan, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union between 1922 and 1991.
Baku (Bakı) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region, with a population of 2,374,000.
The Baku pogrom was a pogrom directed against the ethnic Armenian inhabitants of Baku, Azerbaijan SSR.
Banja Luka (Бања Лука) or Banjaluka (Бањалука), is the second largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the de facto capital of the Republika Srpska entity.
Barcelona is a city in Spain.
Batsford is a village and civil parish in the Cotswold district of Gloucestershire, England.
Belfort is a city in northeastern France in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté région, situated between Lyon and Strasbourg.
Belgrade (Beograd / Београд, meaning "White city",; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia.
Jørgen Bent Larsen (4 March 19359 September 2010) was a Danish chess grandmaster and author.
Bernard Sanders (born September 8, 1941) is an American politician serving as the junior United States Senator from Vermont since 2007.
The Beslan school siege (also referred to as the Beslan school hostage crisis or Beslan massacre) started on 1 September 2004, lasted three days, involved the illegal imprisonment of over 1,100 people as hostages (including 777 children), and ended with the deaths of at least 334 people.
Bessel Kok (born in Hilversum, 13 December 1941) is a Dutch businessman and chess organiser living in Prague.
William Maher (born January 20, 1956) is an American comedian, political commentator, and television host.
Bishkek (Бишке́к, BISHKEK, بىشکەک;; bʲɪʂˈkʲɛk), formerly Pishpek and Frunze, is the capital and largest city of Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz Republic).
In chess, a blunder is a very bad move.
Robert James Fischer (March 9, 1943January 17, 2008) was an American chess grandmaster and the eleventh World Chess Champion.
Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (p; 1 February 1931 – 23 April 2007) was a Soviet and Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
During the annual Boston Marathon on April 15, 2013, two homemade bombs detonated 12 seconds and apart at 2:49 p.m., near the finish line of the race, killing three people and injuring several hundred others, including 16 who lost limbs.
Bratislava (Preßburg or Pressburg, Pozsony) is the capital of Slovakia.
Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.
Bugojno is a town and municipality located in Central Bosnia Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Candidates Tournament is a chess tournament organized by FIDE, chess' international governing body, since 1950, as the final contest to determine the challenger for the World Chess Championship.
The Caro–Kann Defence is a chess opening characterised by the moves: The Caro–Kann is a common defence against the King's Pawn Opening and is classified as a "Semi-Open Game" like the Sicilian Defence and French Defence, although it is thought to be more solid and less dynamic than either of those openings.
The Catalan independence referendum of 2017, also known by the numeronym 1-O (for "1 October") in Spanish media, was an independence referendum held on 1 October 2017 in the Spanish autonomous community of Catalonia, passed by the Parliament of Catalonia as the Law on the Referendum on Self-determination of Catalonia and called by the Generalitat de Catalunya.
The 2017 Catalan regional election was held on Thursday, 21 December 2017 to elect the 12th Parliament of the Autonomous Community of Catalonia.
The Center for Security Policy (CSP) is a far-right, Washington, D.C.-based think tank.
Channel 4 is a British public-service television broadcaster that began transmission on 2 November 1982.
Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.
Chess Informant (Šahovski Informator) is a publishing company from Belgrade (Serbia, former Yugoslavia) that periodically (since 2012, four volumes per year) produces a book entitled Chess Informant, as well as the Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings, Encyclopaedia of Chess Endings, Opening Monographs, other print publications, and software (including electronic editions of most print publications).
The Chess Olympiad is a biennial chess tournament in which teams from all over the world compete.
A chess opening or simply an opening refers to the initial moves of a chess game.
Chess Oscar was an international award given annually to the best chess player.
A chess title is a title created by a chess governing body and bestowed upon players based on their performance and rank.
Chess.com is an Internet chess server, Internet forum and social networking website; it is also the name of the company that runs the site.
ChessBase GmbH is a German company that markets chess software, maintains a chess news site, and operates servers for online chess.
Chessmetrics is a system for rating chess players devised by Jeff Sonas.
Christopher John Matthews (born December 17, 1945) is an American political commentator, talk show host, and author.
A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.
The Classical World Chess Championship 1995, known at the time as the PCA World Chess Championship 1995, was held from September 10, 1995, to October 16, 1995, on the 107th floor of the World Trade Center in New York City.
Clichy (sometimes unofficially Clichy-la-Garenne) is a commune in the northwestern suburbs of Paris, France.
Coca-Cola, or Coke (also Pemberton's Cola at certain Georgian vendors), is a carbonated soft drink produced by The Coca-Cola Company.
The "2008 - A Free Choice" Committee, launched on 29 January 2004, was an umbrella organization of the Russian democratic opposition.
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union.
This article presents a number of methodologies that have been suggested for the task of comparing the greatest chess players in history.
There were many controversies and concerns affecting the 2014 Winter Olympics.
Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
Daily News and Analysis (DNA) is an Indian broadsheet newspaper launched in 2005 and published in English from Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Pune, Jaipur, Bengaluru and Indore in India. It is the first English broadsheet daily in India to introduce an all-colour page format. It targets a young readership and is owned and managed by Diligent Media Corporation.
Daniel John King (born 28 August 1963) is an English chess grandmaster, writer, coach, journalist and broadcaster.
Daugavpils (Daugpiļs; Даугавпилс; see other names) is a city in southeastern Latvia, located on the banks of the Daugava River, from which the city gets its name.
David Vincent Hooper (31 August 1915 – May 1998), born in Reigate, was a British chess player and writer.
Debrecen is Hungary's second largest city after Budapest.
Deep Blue was a chess-playing computer developed by IBM.
Deep Blue–Kasparov, 1996, Game 1 is a famous chess game in which a computer played against a human being.
Game 6 of the Deep Blue–Kasparov rematch, played in New York City on May 11, 1997 and starting at 3:00 p.m. EDT, was the last chess game in the 1997 rematch of Deep Blue versus Garry Kasparov.
Deep Thought was a computer designed to play chess.
In politics, a defector is a person who gives up allegiance to one state in exchange for allegiance to another, in a way which is considered illegitimate by the first state.
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (nicknamed the GOP for Grand Old Party).
The Democratic Party of Russia or DPR (Демократическая Партия России, Demokraticheskaya Partiya Rossii) is a conservative Russian political party that was founded in 1990.
Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.
The Dissenters' March (Марш несогласных) was a series of Russian opposition protests that took place on December 16, 2006 in Moscow, on March 3, 2007 in Saint Petersburg, on March 24 in Nizhny Novgorod, on April 14 for the second time in Moscow, on April 15 again in Saint Petersburg, on May 18 in Samara, and on May 19 in Chelyabinsk.
Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current President of the United States, in office since January 20, 2017.
Dortmund (Düörpm:; Tremonia) is an independent city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Edward Winter (born 1955) is an English chess journalist, archivist, historian, collector and author.
An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office.
The Elo rating system is a method for calculating the relative skill levels of players in zero-sum games such as chess.
Emanuel Lasker (December 24, 1868 – January 11, 1941) was a German chess player, mathematician, and philosopher who was World Chess Champion for 27 years (from 1894 to 1921).
The English Chess Federation (ECF) is the governing chess organisation in England and is affiliated to FIDE.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Everyman Chess, formerly known as Cadogan Chess, is a major publisher of books and CDs about chess.
Fabiano Luigi Caruana (born July 30, 1992) is an Italian-American chess grandmaster.
Fast chess (also known as speed chess) is a variation of chess in which each side is given less time to make their moves than under normal tournament time controls.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.
The Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation (FSB; fʲɪdʲɪˈralʲnəjə ˈsluʐbə bʲɪzɐˈpasnəstʲɪ rɐˈsʲijskəj fʲɪdʲɪˈratsɨjɪ) is the principal security agency of Russia and the main successor agency to the USSR's Committee of State Security (KGB).
The Federal Service for Supervision of Communications, Information Technology and Mass Media (Федеральная служба по надзору в сфере связи, информационных технологий и массовых коммуникаций) or Roskomnadzor (Роскомнадзор) is the Russian federal executive body responsible for censorship in media and telecommunications.
The Fédération Internationale des Échecs or World Chess Federation is an international organization that connects the various national chess federations around the world and acts as the governing body of international chess competition.
The FIDE World Chess Championship 2004 was held at the Almahary Hotel in Tripoli, Libya, from June 18 to July 13.
The Fédération Internationale des Échecs (FIDE) is the organization that governs international chess competition.
Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (August 13, 1926 – November 25, 2016) was a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008.
Florencio Campomanes (22 February 1927 – 3 May 2010) was a Filipino political scientist, chess player, and chess organizer.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Gambit Publications is a major publisher of chess books.
Game of Thrones is an American fantasy drama television series created by David Benioff and D. B. Weiss.
Game Over: Kasparov and the Machine is a 2003 documentary film by Vikram Jayanti about the match between Garry Kasparov, the highest rated chess player in history (at the time) and the World Champion for 15 years (1985–2000), and Deep Blue, a chess-playing computer created by IBM.
The title Grandmaster (GM) is awarded to chess players by the world chess organization FIDE.
Graz is the capital of Styria and the second-largest city in Austria after Vienna.
The Grünfeld Defence (ECO codes D70–D99) is a chess opening characterised by the moves: Black offers White the possibility of cxd5, when after Nxd5 White further gets the opportunity to kick the Black Knight around with e4, leading to an imposing central pawn duo for White.
Home Box Office (HBO) is an American premium cable and satellite television network of Home Box Office, Inc..
The Hedgehog is a pawn formation in chess adopted usually by Black that can arise from several openings.
is a Japanese-American chess grandmaster.
Jews in the Russian Empire have historically constituted a large religious diaspora; the vast territories of the Russian Empire at one time hosted the largest population of Jews in the world.
The Hoover Institution is an American public policy think tank and research institution located at Stanford University in California.
How Life Imitates Chess is a book by former World Chess Champion Garry Kasparov.
The Human Rights Foundation (HRF) is a non-profit organization that promotes and protects human rights globally, with a focus on closed societies.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
Ignatius Leong (born 1956) is a professional chess organizer in Singapore and has been one of Asia's leading organizers for more than 20 years.
Igor Vasilyevich Ivanov (January 8, 1947 – November 17, 2005) was a Russian-born Canadian grandmaster of chess and a concert pianist.
Intel Corporation (stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley.
Interzonal chess tournaments were tournaments organized by the World Chess Federation FIDE from the 1950s to the 1990s.
Jan Timman (born 14 December 1951) is a Dutch chess Grandmaster who was one of the world's leading players from the late 1970s to the early 1990s.
José Raúl Capablanca y Graupera (19 November 1888 – 8 March 1942) was a Cuban chess player who was world chess champion from 1921 to 1927.
Junior is a computer chess program written by the Israeli programmers Amir Ban and Shay Bushinsky.
Kanye Omari West (born June 8, 1977) is an American rapper, singer, songwriter, record producer, entrepreneur and fashion designer.
Kasparov versus the World was a game of chess played in 1999 over the Internet.
Kenneth Whyld (6 March 1926 – 11 July 2003) was a British chess author and researcher, best known as the co-author (with David Hooper) of The Oxford Companion to Chess, a single-volume chess reference work in English.
The KGB, an initialism for Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti (p), translated in English as Committee for State Security, was the main security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954 until its break-up in 1991.
Kim Jong-un (born 8 January 1983) is a North Korean politician serving as leader of North Korea since 2011 and Leader of the Workers' Party of Korea since 2012.
Kirov (Киров; masculine) or Kirova (Кирова; feminine or masculine genitive) is the name of several inhabited localities in Russia.
Kirsan Nikolayevich Ilyumzhinov (Кирса́н Никола́евич Илюмжи́нов; Kalmyk: Үлмҗин Кирсән, Ülmcin Kirsən; born April 5, 1962) is a Kalmyk businessman and politician.
The All-Union Leninist Young Communist League (Всесою́зный ле́нинский коммунисти́ческий сою́з молодёжи (ВЛКСМ)), usually known as Komsomol (Комсомо́л, a syllabic abbreviation of the Russian kommunisticheskiy soyuz molodyozhi), was a political youth organization in the Soviet Union.
Leonard William Barden (born 20 August 1929, in Croydon, London) is an English chess master, writer, broadcaster, organizer and promoter.
Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.
The Linares International Chess Tournament (Spanish: Torneo Internacional de Ajedrez Ciudad de Linares) was an annual chess tournament, usually played around the end of February, which takes its name from the city of Linares in the Jaén province of Andalusia, Spain, in which it is held.
Linares is a city located in the Andalusian province of Jaén, Spain.
Garry Kasparov and Vladimir Kramnik have played 49 classical chess games, of which Kramnik won five, Kasparov won four, with the remaining 40 games drawn.
A total of seven chess players have been the chess world number one on the official FIDE rating list since it was first published in July 1971.
Lyon (Liyon), is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France.
The Magnitsky Act, formally known as the Russia and Moldova Jackson–Vanik Repeal and Sergei Magnitsky Rule of Law Accountability Act of 2012, is a bipartisan bill passed by the U.S. Congress and signed by President Obama in December 2012, intending to punish Russian officials responsible for the death of Russian tax accountant Sergei Magnitsky in a Moscow prison in 2009.
Sven Magnus Øen Carlsen (born 30 November 1990) is a Norwegian chess grandmaster and the current World Chess Champion.
Makarska (Italian: Macarsca) is a small city on the Adriatic coastline of Croatia, about southeast of Split and northwest of Dubrovnik.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
Marca Leyenda (Marca legend) is an award given by the Spanish sports newspaper Marca to the best sport professionals in history.
Mariano Rajoy Brey (born 27 March 1955) is a Spanish politician who served as Prime Minister of Spain from 2011 to 2018, when a vote of no confidence ousted his government.
Machgielis "Max" Euwe, PhD (May 20, 1901 – November 26, 1981) was a Dutch chess Grandmaster, mathematician, author, and chess administrator.
Maksymilian Rafailovych "Max" Levchin (Максиміліан Рафаїлович Левчин; born July 11, 1975) is a Ukrainian-born American computer scientist.
Maxime Vachier-Lagrave (born 21 October 1990) is a French chess grandmaster.
Mönchengladbach is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Michael C. Moynihan is an American journalist and the cultural news editor for The Daily Beast/Newsweek and the managing editor of ''Vice'' magazine.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Michael "Mig" Greengard (born 9 June 1969 in Northern California, USA) is an American chess author and journalist who currently lives in New York City.
Miguel Najdorf (born Mojsze Mendel Najdorf) (15 April 1910 – 4 July 1997) was a Polish-Argentine chess grandmaster.
Michael Richard Pence (born June 7, 1959) is an American politician and lawyer serving as the 48th and current Vice President of the United States, in office since January 20, 2017.
Mikhail Moiseyevich Botvinnik (Михаи́л Моисе́евич Ботви́нник,; – May 5, 1995) was a Soviet and Russian International Grandmaster and World Chess Champion for most of 1948 to 1963.
Mikhail Nekhemyevich Tal (Mihails Tāls; Михаил Нехемьевич Таль, Mikhail Nekhem'evich Tal,; sometimes transliterated Mihails Tals or Mihail Tal; 9 November 1936 – 28 June 1992) was a Soviet Latvian chess Grandmaster and the eighth World Chess Champion (from 1960 to 1961).
Minsk (Мінск,; Минск) is the capital and largest city of Belarus, situated on the Svislach and the Nyamiha Rivers.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
The Moscow Kremlin (p), usually referred to as the Kremlin, is a fortified complex at the heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River to the south, Saint Basil's Cathedral and Red Square to the east, and the Alexander Garden to the west.
The Moscow theater hostage crisis (also known as the 2002 Nord-Ost siege) was the seizure of a crowded Dubrovka Theater by 40 to 50 armed Chechens on 23 October 2002 that involved 850 hostages and ended with the death of at least 170 people.
The Munk Debates are a semi-annual series of debates on major policy issues held in Toronto, Canada.
The National Broadcasting Company (NBC) is an American English language commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of NBCUniversal, a subsidiary of Comcast.
The New Chronology is a pseudohistorical theory which argues that the conventional chronology of Middle Eastern and European history is fundamentally flawed, and that events attributed to the civilizations of the Roman Empire, Ancient Greece and Ancient Egypt actually occurred during the Middle Ages, more than a thousand years later.
A news conference or press conference is a media event in which newsmakers invite journalists to hear them speak and, most often, ask questions.
Nigel David Short (born 1 June 1965) is an English chess grandmaster, chess columnist, chess coach and chess commentator.
Nikšić (Montenegrin Cyrillic: Никшић) is the second largest city of Montenegro, with a total population of 56,970 located in the west of the country, in the centre of the spacious Nikšić field at the foot of Trebjesa Hill.
The Nimzo-Indian Defence is a chess opening characterised by the moves: Other move orders, such as 1.c4 e6 2.Nc3 Nf6 3.d4 Bb4, are also feasible.
Novaya Gazeta (p) is a Russian newspaper well known in its country for its critical and investigative coverage of Russian political and social affairs.
NTV (Cyrillic: НТВ) is a Russian television channel that was launched as a subsidiary of Vladimir Gusinsky's company.
Oakham School is a British co-educational independent school in the market town of Oakham in Rutland, with a school roll of about 1,000 pupils, aged from 10 to 18.
Oleg Danilovich Kalugin (Оле́г Дани́лович Калу́гин; born September 6, 1934) is a former KGB general (stripped of his rank and awards by a Russian Court decision in 2002).
An op-ed (originally short for "opposite the editorial page" although often taken to stand for "opinion editorial") is a written prose piece typically published by a newspaper or magazine which expresses the opinion of a named author usually not affiliated with the publication's editorial board.
OpinionJournal.com is a website featuring content from the editorial pages of The Wall Street Journal.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Pacific Institute for the Mathematical Sciences (PIMS) is a mathematical institute created in 1996 by universities in Western Canada and the Northwestern United States to promote research and excellence in all areas of the mathematical sciences.
Pasadena is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States, located 10 miles (16 kilometers) northeast of Downtown Los Angeles.
Pavilion Books Holdings Ltd is an English publishing company based in London.
The pawn (♙,♟) is the most numerous piece in the game of chess, and in most circumstances, also the weakest.
Pyotr Veniaminovich Svidler (Пётр Вениами́нович Сви́длер; born 17 June 1976) is a Russian chess grandmaster.
Peter Andreas Thiel (born October 11, 1967) is an American entrepreneur, venture capitalist, philanthropist, political activist, and author.
Young Pioneer Palaces or Palaces of Young Pioneers and Schoolchildren were youth centers designated for the creative work, sport training and extracurricular activities of Young Pioneers and other schoolchildren.
The politics of Russia (the Russian Federation) takes place in the framework of a federal semi-presidential republic.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
The Professional Chess Association (PCA), which existed between 1993 and 1996, was a rival organisation to FIDE, the international chess organization.
Pula or Pola (Italian and Istro-Romanian: Pola; Colonia Pietas Iulia Pola Pollentia Herculanea; Slovene and Chakavian: Pulj, Hungarian: Póla, Polei, Ancient Greek: Πόλαι, Polae) is the largest city in Istria County, Croatia and the eighth largest city in the country, situated at the southern tip of the Istria peninsula, with a population of 57,460 in 2011.
Pussy Riot is a Russian feminist protest punk rock group based in Moscow.
"Putin Must Go" is a Russian website and public campaign organised for the collection of signatures to an open letter demanding the resignation of President (formerly Prime Minister) Vladimir Putin.
The Queen's Gambit Declined (or QGD) is a chess opening in which Black declines a pawn offered by White in the Queen's Gambit: This is known as the Orthodox Line of the Queen's Gambit Declined.
The rainbow flag, commonly known as the gay pride flag or LGBT pride flag, is a symbol of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) pride and LGBT social movements.
Raymond Dennis Keene OBE (born 29 January 1948) is an English chess Grandmaster, a FIDE International Arbiter, a chess organiser, and a journalist and author.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.
In some countries, resisting arrest is a criminal charge against an individual who has committed, depending on the jurisdiction, at least one of the following acts.
Reykjavík is the capital and largest city of Iceland.
Robert Gabriel Mugabe (born 21 February 1924) is a former Zimbabwean politician and revolutionary who served as Prime Minister of Zimbabwe from 1980 to 1987 and then as President from 1987 to 2017.
The rule of law is the "authority and influence of law in society, especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior; (hence) the principle whereby all members of a society (including those in government) are considered equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes".
Ruslan Olegovich Ponomariov (Русла́н Оле́гович Пономарьо́в, Ruslan Olehovych Ponomar'ov; born 11 October 1983) is a Ukrainian chess grandmaster.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Vladimir Putin has served three terms and is currently in a fourth as President of Russia (2000–2004, 2004–2008, 2012–2018 and May 2018 to present) and was Acting President from 1999 to 2000, succeeding Boris Yeltsin after Yeltsin's resignation.
The Russian Chess Championship has taken various forms.
The Russian Chess Federation is the governing body for chess in Russia and the officially recognized arm of the FIDE in Russia.
The Russian federal law "for the Purpose of Protecting Children from Information Advocating for a Denial of Traditional Family Values", also known in English-language media as the "gay propaganda law" and the "anti-gay law", is a bill that was unanimously approved by the State Duma on 11 June 2013 (with just one MP abstaining—Ilya Ponomarev), and was signed into law by President Vladimir Putin on 30 June 2013.
Legislative elections were held in Russia on 4 December 2011.
Presidential elections were held in Russia on 2 March 2008.
Rustam Kasimdzhanov (Rustam Qosimjonov; Рустам Касымджанов; born 5 December 1979, Tashkent, Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic) is an Uzbek chess Grandmaster and former FIDE World Champion (2004-05).
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Samuel Herman Reshevsky (born Szmul Rzeszewski; November 26, 1911 – April 4, 1992) was a Polish chess prodigy and later a leading American chess grandmaster.
Ksawery Tartakower (also known as Saviely or Savielly Tartakower in English, less often Xavier Tartacover or Xavier Tartakover; 1887–1956) was a leading Polish and French chess grandmaster.
Sergei Rublevsky (born 15 October 1974) is a Russian chess grandmaster (1994).
Seville (Sevilla) is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville, Spain.
The Sicilian Defence is a chess opening that begins with the following moves: The Sicilian is the most popular and best-scoring response to White's first move 1.e4.
In chess, the Scheveningen Variation of the Sicilian Defence is an opening that is a line of the Open Sicilian characterised by Black setting up a "small centre" with pawns on d6 and e6.
Skara is a locality and the seat of Skara Municipality, Västra Götaland County, Sweden with 18,580 inhabitants in 2013.
Skellefteå is a city and the seat of Skellefteå Municipality in Västerbotten County, Sweden, with 32,775 inhabitants in 2010.
Slate is an online magazine that covers current affairs, politics, and culture in the United States from a liberal perspective.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a socialist state led by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Speech recognition is the inter-disciplinary sub-field of computational linguistics that develops methodologies and technologies that enables the recognition and translation of spoken language into text by computers.
Stephen Tyrone Colbert (born May 13, 1964) is an American comedian, writer, producer, actor, and television host.
Stephen Frand Cohen (born November 25, 1938) is an American scholar and professor emeritus of Russian studies at Princeton University and New York University.
Tamerlan Anzorovich Tsarnaev (October 21, 1986 – April 19, 2013)Тамерла́н Анзо́рович Царна́ев; Царнаев Анзор-кIант Тамерлан Carnayev Anzor-khant Tamerlan was a Russian-Kyrgyz terrorist of Chechen descent who, with his brother Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, planted bombs at the Boston Marathon on April 15, 2013.
Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.
Tel Aviv University (TAU) (אוּנִיבֶרְסִיטַת תֵּל-אָבִיב Universitat Tel Aviv) is a public research university in the neighborhood of Ramat Aviv in Tel Aviv, Israel.
The Daily Beast is an American news and opinion website focused on politics and pop culture.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Moscow Times is an English-language weekly newspaper published in Moscow, with a circulation of 55,000 copies.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Other Russia (Другая Россия – Drugaya Rossiya), sometimes cited as Another Russia, was an umbrella coalition (2006–2008/2009/2010) that gathered opponents of President Vladimir Putin and was known as an organizer of Dissenters' Marches.
The Oxford Companion to Chess is a reference book on the game of chess, written by David Hooper and Kenneth Whyld.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
The Week in Chess (TWIC) is one of the first, if not the first, Internet-based chess news services.
Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη, Thessaloníki), also familiarly known as Thessalonica, Salonica, or Salonika is the second-largest city in Greece, with over 1 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, and the capital of Greek Macedonia, the administrative region of Central Macedonia and the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace.
Tibor Károlyi (born 15 November 1961) is a Hungarian chess International Master, International Arbiter (1997), coach, theoretician, and author.
Tigran Vartanovich Petrosian (Тигра́н Варта́нович Петрося́н; Տիգրան Պետրոսյան; June 17, 1929 – August 13, 1984) was a Soviet Armenian Grandmaster, and World Chess Champion from 1963 to 1969.
Tilburg is a city in the Netherlands, in the southern province of North Brabant.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
A time control is a mechanism in the tournament play of almost all two-player board games so that each round of the match can finish in a timely way and the tournament can proceed.
Twitter is an online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets".
U.S. News & World Report is an American media company that publishes news, opinion, consumer advice, rankings, and analysis.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Ukrayinska Pravda (Українська правда, literally Ukrainian Truth) is a popular Ukrainian Internet newspaper, founded by Georgiy R. Gongadze in April, 2000 (the day of the Ukrainian constitutional referendum).
UN Watch is a Geneva-based non-governmental organization whose stated mission is "to monitor the performance of the United Nations by the yardstick of its own Charter".
The Union of Right Forces political party, or SPS (Сою́з Пра́вых Сил, СПС/Soyuz Pravykh Sil), is a Russia political public organization and former party, initially founded as an electoral bloc in 1999 and associated with free market reforms, privatization, and the legacy of the "young reformers" of the 1990s: Anatoly Chubais, Boris Nemtsov, and Yegor Gaidar.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.
United Civil Front (Объединённый Гражданский Фронт, Obyedinyónnïy Grazhdánskiy Front) is a social movement in Russia founded and led by chess grandmaster Garry Kasparov.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The United States presidential election of 2016 was the 58th quadrennial American presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 2016.
The presidential primary elections and caucuses held in the various states, the District of Columbia, and territories of the United States form part of the nominating process of candidates for United States presidential elections.
The USSR Chess Championship was played from 1921 to 1991.
Valencia, officially València, on the east coast of Spain, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre.
Valentina Ivanovna Matviyenko (p, Валентина Іванівна Матвієнко, (née Tyutina (Тю́тина;, Тютіна); born 7 April 1949), is a Russian politician serving as the Senator from Saint Petersburg and Chairwoman of the Federation Council since 2011. As Chairwoman Matviyenko attained the highest rank of any female politician in Russia and became the most powerful woman in Russia since Catherine the Great. Previously she was Governor of Saint Petersburg from 2003 to 2011. Born in Ukraine, Matviyenko started her political career in the 1980s in Leningrad (now called Saint Petersburg), and was the First Secretary of the Krasnogvardeysky District Communist Party of the City from 1984 to 1986. at petersburgcity.com In the 1990s, Matviyenko served as the Russian Ambassador to Malta (1991–1995), and to Greece (1997–1998). From 1998 to 2003, Matviyenko was Deputy Prime Minister for Welfare, and briefly the Presidential Envoy to the Northwestern Federal District in 2003. By that time, Matviyenko was firmly allied with Russian President Vladimir Putin, an alliance which secured her a victory in the gubernatorial elections in Saint Petersburg, Putin's native city. Matviyenko became the first female leader of Saint Petersburg. RIAN Since the start of Matviyenko's service as governor, a significant share of taxation money was transferred from the federal budget to the local budget, and along with the booming economy and improving investment climate the standard of living significantly increased in the City, making income levels much closer to Moscow, and far above most other Russian federal subjects. The profile of Saint Petersburg in Russian politics has risen, marked by the transfer of the Constitutional Court of Russia from Moscow in 2008. Matviyenko developed a large number of megaprojects in housing and infrastructure, such as the construction of the Saint Petersburg Ring Road, including the Big Obukhovsky Bridge (the only non-draw bridge over the Neva River in the city), completion of the Saint Petersburg Dam aimed to put an end to the infamous Saint Petersburg floods, launching Line 5 of Saint Petersburg Metro, and starting land reclamation in the Neva Bay for the new Marine Facade of the city (the largest European waterfront development project) Official website containing the Passenger Port of St. Petersburg. Several major auto-producing companies were drawn to Saint Petersburg or its vicinity, including Toyota, General Motors, Nissan, Hyundai Motor, Suzuki, Magna International, Scania, and MAN SE (all having plants in the Shushary industrial zone), thus turning the city into an important center of automotive industry in Russia, specializing in foreign brands. Another development of Matviyenko's governorship was tourism; by 2010 the number of tourists in Saint Petersburg doubled and reached 5.2 million, which placed the city among the top five tourist centers in Europe. RIAN Some actions and practices of Governor Matviyenko have drawn significant criticisms from the Saint Petersburg public, the media, and opposition groups. In particular, new construction in already heavily built-up areas and several building projects were deemed to conflict with the classical architecture of the city, where the entire centre is a UNESCO World Heritage site. Some projects eventually were cancelled or modified, such as the controversial design of a 400-metre-tall Okhta Center skyscraper, planned to be built adjacent to the historical center of the city; however, after a public campaign and the personal involvement of Russian President Dmitry Medvedev, it was relocated from Okhta to the Lakhta suburb. Another major point of criticism was Matviyenko's handling of the city's snow removal problems during the unusually cold and snowy winters of 2009–10 and 2010–11. On 22 August 2011, soon after completion of the Saint Petersburg Dam, Matviyenko resigned from office. As a member of the ruling United Russia Party, on 21 September 2011, Matviyenko was elected as Chairwoman of the Federation Council, RIAN the country's third-highest elected office.
Valletta is the capital city of Malta, colloquially known as "Il-Belt" (lit. "The City") in Maltese.
Vasily Vasilyevich Smyslov (Василий Васильевич Смыслов; 24 March 1921 – 27 March 2010) was a Soviet and Russian chess grandmaster, who was World Chess Champion from 1957 to 1958.
Vassily Mykhaylovych Ivanchuk, also transliterated as Vasyliy or Vasyl (Василь Михайлович Іванчук; born March 18, 1969), is a Ukrainian chess grandmaster and a former World Rapid Chess Champion.
Václav Havel (5 October 193618 December 2011) was a Czech statesman, writer and former dissident, who served as the last President of Czechoslovakia from 1989 until the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1992 and then as the first President of the Czech Republic from 1993 to 2003.
Veselin Aleksandrov Topalov (pronounced; Весели́н Александров Топа́лов; born 15 March 1975) is a Bulgarian chess grandmaster and former FIDE World Chess Champion.
Viktor Lvovich Korchnoi (p; 23 March 1931 – 6 June 2016) was a Soviet (until 1976) and Swiss (since 1994) chess grandmaster and writer.
Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.
Viswanathan "Vishy" Anand (born 11 December 1969) is an Indian chess grandmaster, a former World Chess Champion, and the current World Rapid Chess Champion.
Vladimir Borisovich Kramnik (Влади́мир Бори́сович Кра́мник; born 25 June 1975) is a Russian chess grandmaster.
Vladimir Andreevich Makogonov (Влади́мир Андре́евич Макого́нов, August 27, 1904 – January 2, 1993) was a chess player from Azerbaijan.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Posner (also spelled Pozner; Влади́мир Влади́мирович По́знер; born 1 April 1934) is a French-born Russian-American journalist and broadcaster best known in the West for appearing on television to represent and explain the views of the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.
Wesley Barbasa So (born October 9, 1993) is a Filipino-American chess grandmaster.
Wilhelm (later William) Steinitz (May 17, 1836 – August 12, 1900) was an Austrian and later American chess master, and the first undisputed World Chess Champion, from 1886 to 1894.
Wolf Isaac Blitzer (born March 22, 1948) is an American journalist, television news anchor and author who has been a CNN reporter since 1990.
The World Chess Championship (sometimes abbreviated as WCC) is played to determine the World Champion in chess.
The World Chess Championship 1984 was a match between challenger Garry Kasparov and defending champion Anatoly Karpov in Moscow from 10 September 1984 to 15 February 1985 for the World Chess Championship title.
The 1985 World Chess Championship was played between Anatoly Karpov and Garry Kasparov in Moscow from September 3 to November 9, 1985.
The World Chess Championship 1993 was one of the most controversial matches in chess history, with incumbent World Chess Champion Garry Kasparov, and official challenger Nigel Short, splitting from FIDE, the official world governing body of chess, and playing their title match under the auspices of the Professional Chess Association.
The World Chess Championship 2010 match pitted the defending world champion, Viswanathan Anand, against challenger Veselin Topalov, for the title of World Chess Champion.
The World Chess Hall of Fame (WCHOF) is a nonprofit, collecting institution situated in the Central West End neighborhood of St. Louis, Missouri, United States.
The World Junior Chess Championship is an under-20 chess tournament (players must have been under 20 years old on 1 January in the year of competition) organized by the World Chess Federation (FIDE).
The original World Trade Center was a large complex of seven buildings in Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States.
X3D Fritz was a version of the Fritz chess program, which in November 2003 played a four-game Human–computer chess match against world number one Grandmaster Garry Kasparov.
The Russian United Democratic Party "Yabloko" (Росси́йская объединённая демократи́ческая па́ртия «Я́блоко» Rossiyskaya obyedinyonnaya demokraticheskaya partiya "Yabloko") is a Russian social-liberal political party founded by Grigory Yavlinsky and currently led by Emilia Slabunova.
Yasser Seirawan (ياسر سيروان; born March 24, 1960) is an American chess grandmaster and four-time United States champion.
Yevgeniy Vladimirov (Евгений Владимиров; born 20 January 1957) is a chess Grandmaster and trainer from Kazakhstan.
Zoltán Ribli (born September 6, 1951 in Mohács) is a Hungarian chess grandmaster and International Arbiter (1995).
The 24th Chess Olympiad, organized by FIDE and comprising an open and a women's tournament, as well as several other events designed to promote the game of chess, took place between November 20 and December 6, 1980, in Valletta, Malta.
The 25th Chess Olympiad, organized by FIDE and comprising an open and a women's tournament, as well as several other events designed to promote the game of chess, took place between October 29 and November 16, 1982, in Lucerne, Switzerland.
The 27th Chess Olympiad, organized by FIDE and comprising an open and a women's tournament, as well as several other events designed to promote the game of chess, took place between November 14 and December 2, 1986, in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.
The 28th Chess Olympiad, organized by FIDE and comprising an open and a women's tournament, as well as several other events designed to promote the game of chess, took place between November 12 and November 30, 1988, in Thessaloniki, Greece.
The 30th Chess Olympiad, organized by FIDE and comprising an open and a women's tournament, as well as several other events designed to promote the game of chess, took place between June 7 and June 25, 1992, at the Philippine International Convention Center in Manila, Philippines.
The 31st Chess Olympiad, organized by FIDE and comprising an open and a women's tournament, took place between November 30 and December 17, 1994, in Moscow, Russia.
The 32nd Chess Olympiad, organized by FIDE and comprising an open and a women's tournament, took place between September 15 and October 2, 1996, in Yerevan, Armenia.
The 35th Chess Olympiad, organized by the Fédération Internationale des Échecs and comprising an open and women's tournament, took place between October 25 and November 11, 2002, in Bled, Slovenia.
Gari Kasparov, Gari Weinstein, Garri Kasparov, Garri Kasparow, Garry Kasparoff, Garry Kazparov, Garry Kimovich, Garry Kimovich Kasparov, Garry Weinstein, Gary Kasparoff, Gary Kasparov, Gary Kimovich Kasparov, Harry Kasparov, Kasparov, Kasparov versus Deep Thought, Kasparovian, Kasparow, Kazparov, Га́рри Ки́мович Каспа́ров.