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The Act Zluky (Акт Злуки,, "Unification Act") was an agreement signed on January 22, 1919, by the Ukrainian People's Republic and the West Ukrainian People's Republic on the St. Sophia Square in Kiev.
Ukraine is divided into several levels of territorial entities.
AeroSvit Airlines private stock company (Приватне акціонерне товариство «Авіакомпанія АероСвіт»), operating as AeroSvit — Ukrainian Airlines / АероСвіт, was a Ukrainian private airline.
Alcohol intoxication, also known as drunkenness or alcohol poisoning, is negative behavior and physical effects due to the recent drinking of ethanol (alcohol).
Prince Alexander Andreyevich Bezborodko (Алекса́ндр Андре́евич Безборо́дко; Олександр Андрійович Безбородько; – 6 April 1799) was the Grand Chancellor of Russia and chief architect of Catherine the Great's foreign policy after the death of Nikita Panin.
Alexander Yurevich Borodai (p, Олександр Юрійович Бородай; born July 25, 1972) was Prime Minister of the self-proclaimed Donetsk People's Republic in 2014.
Alexander Petrovich Dovzhenko or Oleksander Petrovych Dovzhenko (Олександр Петрович Довженко, Oleksandr Petrovych Dovzhenko; Алекса́ндр Петро́вич Довже́нко, Aleksandr Petrovich Dovzhenko; November 25, 1956), was a Soviet screenwriter, film producer and director of Ukrainian origin.
Count Alexei Grigorievich Razumovsky (Алексе́й Григо́рьевич Разумо́вский, Олексій Григорович Розумовський, Oleksii Hryhorovych Rozumovskyi; 1709– 1771), was a Ukrainian-born Russian Registered Cossack who rose to become the lover and, it was even suggested, the morganatic spouse of the Russian Empress Elizaveta Petrovna.
The all-time medal table for all Olympic Games from 1896 to 2018, including Summer Olympic Games, Winter Olympic Games, and a combined total of both, is tabulated below.
The All-Ukrainian Union "Fatherland" or Batkivshchyna (Всеукраїнське об'єднання "Батьківщина", Vseukrayins'ke Obyednannya Bat'kivshchyna) is a political party in Ukraine, led by Yulia Tymoshenko.
Almaty (Алматы, Almaty; Алматы), formerly known as Alma-Ata (Алма-Ата) and Verny (Верный Vernyy), is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,797,431 people, about 8% of the country's total population.
Alushta (Ukrainian and Russian: Алу́шта; Aluşta) is a city of regional significance on the southern coast of the Crimean peninsula which, de facto, is within the Republic of Crimea, a federal subject of the Russian Federation but, de jure, is within the Autonomous Republic of Crimea within Ukraine.
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Andrew Wilson (born 1961) is a British historian and political scientist specializing in Eastern Europe, particularly Ukraine.
Andrey Vasilievich Kvasov (c. 1720 – c. 1770) was a notable Baroque architect who worked in Russia including the territory of modern Ukraine.
Andriy Melnyk (Андрій Ме́льник) (December 12, 1890 – November 1, 1964) was a Ukrainian military and political leader.
Andriy Volodymyrovych Parubiy (Андрій Володимирович Парубій) is a Ukrainian politician.
Andriy Mykolayovych Shevchenko (Андрій Миколайович Шевченко,; born 29 September 1976) is a politician, football manager and retired Ukrainian footballer who played for Dynamo Kyiv, Milan, Chelsea and the Ukraine national team as a striker.
The territory of Crimea, previously controlled by the Crimean Khanate, was annexed by the Russian Empire on.
The Crimean peninsula was annexed from Ukraine by the Russian Federation in February–March 2014.
The Antes or Antae (Áνται) were an early Slavic tribal polity which existed in the 6th century lower Danube and northwestern Black Sea region (modern-day Moldova and central Ukraine).
The Ukrainian anti-protest laws are a group of ten laws restricting freedom of speech and freedom of assembly.
Anton Ivanovich Denikin (p; 8 August 1947) was a Russian Lieutenant General in the Imperial Russian Army (1916) and afterwards a leading general of the White movement in the Russian Civil War.
Antonov State Company (Державне підприємство "Антонов"), formerly the Aeronautical Scientific-Technical Complex named Antonov (Antonov ASTC) (Авіаційний науково-технічний комплекс імені Антонова, (АНТК ім. Антонова)), and earlier the Antonov Design Bureau, is a Soviet, and later a Ukrainian aircraft manufacturing and services company.
Antonov Airlines is a Ukrainian cargo airline, a division of the Antonov aviation company.
The Antonov An-225 Mriya (Антонов Ан-225, lit, NATO reporting name: "Cossack") is a strategic airlift cargo aircraft that was designed by the Antonov Design Bureau in the Ukrainian SSR within the Soviet Union during the 1980s.
In Christianity, an archbishop (via Latin archiepiscopus, from Greek αρχιεπίσκοπος, from αρχι-, 'chief', and επίσκοπος, 'bishop') is a bishop of higher rank or office.
The medieval state of Kievan Rus' incorporated parts of what is now modern Ukraine, Russia, and Belarus, and was centered on Kiev and Novgorod.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
The Armed Forces of South Russia or AFSR were formed on 8 January 1919, it incorporated many of the smaller formations of the White Army in South of Russia (called "White South" in Soviet historiography), including the Volunteer Army (which was renamed the Caucasian Volunteer Army).
The Armed Forces of Ukraine (Збройні сили України (ЗСУ) Zbroyni Syly Ukrayiny, (ZSU)) is the military of Ukraine.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
The arms industry, also known as the defense industry or the arms trade, is a global industry responsible for the manufacturing and sales of weapons and military technology.
Arsen (Arseny) Sergeyevich Pavlov (Арсе́н Серге́евич Па́влов; 2 February 1983 – 16 October 2016), known by his nom de guerre Motorola (Моторо́ла), was a Russian citizen who led the Sparta Battalion, an armed group fighting the Ukrainian army, in the ongoing War in Donbass.
Arseniy Petrovych Yatsenyuk (Арсеній Петрович Яценюк,; born 22 May 1974) is a Ukrainian politician, economist and lawyer who served as the 15th Prime Minister of Ukraine from 27 February 2014 to 14 April 2016.
Artem (Artemy) Vedel (Ukrainian: Artemiĭ Vedelʹ) (c. 1767–1808) was one of the most prominent Ukrainian composers of the 18th century.
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
AtlasGlobal - Ukraine (АтласГлобал Україна) is the Ukrainian subsidiary of AtlasGlobal headquartered in Lviv.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
The Austro-Hungarian Army (Landstreitkräfte Österreich-Ungarns; Császári és Királyi Hadsereg) was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy from 1867 to 1918.
Autocephaly (from αὐτοκεφαλία, meaning "property of being self-headed") is the status of a hierarchical Christian Church whose head bishop does not report to any higher-ranking bishop (used especially in Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Independent Catholic churches).
An autonomous republic is a type of administrative division similar to a province or state.
The Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Автономна Республіка Крим, Avtonomna Respublika Krym; Автономная Республика Крым, Avtonomnaya Respublika Krym; Qırım Muhtar Cumhuriyeti, Къырым Мухтар Джумхуриети, Ҡырым Мухтар Җумхуриети) was an autonomous republic of Ukraine, encompassing most of Crimea, that was annexed by the Russian Federation in 2014.
AvtoZAZ (АвтоЗАЗ) is an automotive manufacturing company in Ukraine.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
Azur Air Ukraine, until October 2015 UTair-Ukraine, (ЮТейр-Україна, ЮТэйр-Украина) is a Ukrainian airline based at Boryspil International Airport.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
The Ballon d'Or ("Golden Ball") is an annual football award presented by France Football.
A bandura (банду́ра) is a Ukrainian, plucked string, folk instrument.
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
Baroque architecture is the building style of the Baroque era, begun in late 16th-century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion, often to express the triumph of the Catholic Church.
In trade, barter is a system of exchange where participants in a transaction directly exchange goods or services for other goods or services without using a medium of exchange, such as money.
Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.
The Battle of Berestechko (Bitwa pod Beresteczkiem; Берестецька битва, Битва під Берестечком) was fought between the Ukrainian Cossacks, led by Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky, aided by their Crimean Tatar allies, and a Polish army under King John II Casimir.
The First Battle of Kiev was the German name for the operation that resulted in a very large encirclement of Soviet troops in the vicinity of Kiev during World War II.
The Battle of Poltava (Slaget vid Poltava; Полта́вская би́тва; Полта́вська би́тва) on 27 June 1709 (8 July, N.S.) was the decisive victory of Peter I of Russia, also known as "the Great," over the Swedish forces under Field Marshal Carl Gustav Rehnskiöld, in one of the battles of the Great Northern War.
The Battle on the Irpin River is a semi-legendary battle between the armies of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Principality of Kiev.
Battleship Potemkin (Бронено́сец «Потёмкин», Bronenosets Potyomkin), sometimes rendered as Battleship Potyomkin, is a 1925 Soviet silent film directed by Sergei Eisenstein and produced by Mosfilm.
Batúryn (Бату́рин), is a historic town in Chernihiv Oblast (province) of northern Ukraine.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
BBC Ukrainian (Українська служба Бі-Бі-Сі) is the Ukrainian service of the BBC which conveys the latest political, social, economical and sport news relevant to Ukraine and the world.
BC Budivelnyk Kyiv (in Ukrainian: Будівельник Київ) is a Ukrainian professional basketball club based in Kyiv.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Belarusian (беларуская мова) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Ukraine and Russia.
Belarusians (беларусы, biełarusy, or Byelorussians (from the Byelorussian SSR), are an East Slavic ethnic group who are native to modern-day Belarus and the immediate region. There are over 9.5 million people who proclaim Belarusian ethnicity worldwide, with the overwhelming majority residing either in Belarus or the adjacent countries where they are an autochthonous minority.
Belarusians in Ukraine is the second biggest minority after Russians.
The Belavezha Accords (Беловежские соглашения, Белавежскае пагадненне, Біловезькі угоди) is the agreement that declared the Soviet Union effectively dissolved and established the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) in its place.
Bessarabia (Basarabia; Бессарабия, Bessarabiya; Besarabya; Бессара́бія, Bessarabiya; Бесарабия, Besarabiya) is a historical region in Eastern Europe, bounded by the Dniester river on the east and the Prut river on the west.
Black Guards (Чёрная Гвардия) were armed groups of workers formed after the February Revolution and before the final Bolshevik suppression of other leftwing groups.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Bloomberg News is an international news agency headquartered in New York, United States and a division of Bloomberg L.P. Content produced by Bloomberg News is disseminated through Bloomberg Terminals, Bloomberg Television, Bloomberg Radio, Bloomberg Businessweek, Bloomberg Markets, Bloomberg.com and Bloomberg's mobile platforms.
Zynoviy Bohdan Khmelnytsky (Ruthenian language: Ѕѣнові Богдан Хмелнiцкiи; modern Bohdan Zynoviy Mykhailovych Khmelnytsky; Bohdan Zenobi Chmielnicki; 6 August 1657) was a Polish–Lithuanian-born Hetman of the Zaporozhian Host of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (now part of Ukraine).
Bohdan Sylvestrovych Stupka (Богдан Сильвестрович Ступка; 27 August 1941 – 22 July 2012) was a popular Ukrainian actor and the minister of culture of Ukraine.
Bolesław-Jerzy II (1305/1310 – April 7, 1340) was a ruler of the Polish Piast dynasty who ruled the originally Ruthenian principality of Galicia.
The Bologna Process is a series of ministerial meetings and agreements between European countries to ensure comparability in the standards and quality of higher-education qualifications.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
Boris and Gleb (Борисъ и Глѣбъ, Borisŭ i Glěbŭ; Борис и Глеб, Boris i Gleb; Борис і Гліб, Borys i Hlib), Christian names Roman and David, respectively (Романъ, Давꙑдъ, Romanŭ, Davydŭ), were the first saints canonized in Kievan Rus' after the Christianization of the country.
Borscht is a sour soup popular in several Eastern European cuisines, including Ukrainian, Russian, Polish, Lithuanian, Belarusian, Romanian, Ashkenazi Jewish and Armenian cuisines.
Borys Illich Oliynyk (Борис Ілліч Олійник; Борис Ильич Олейник, Boris Ilich Oleynik; 22 October 1935 – 30 April 2017) was a Ukrainian poet, translator, and political activist.
Boryspil (Бориспіль, translit. Boryspil’, Борисполь; also referred to as Borispol) is a city of regional significance located in the Kiev Oblast (region) in northern (central) Ukraine.
Boryspil International Airport (Міжнародний аеропорт "Бориспіль") is an international airport in Boryspil, east of Kiev, the capital of Ukraine.
Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined set of time in a boxing ring.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
The breadbasket of a country is a region which, because of richness of soil and/or advantageous climate, produces large quantities of wheat or other grain.
Brian Glyn Williams is a professor of Islamic History at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth.
Bukovina (Bucovina; Bukowina/Buchenland; Bukowina; Bukovina, Буковина Bukovyna; see also other languages) is a historical region in Central Europe,Klaus Peter Berger,, Kluwer Law International, 2010, p. 132 divided between Romania and Ukraine, located on the northern slopes of the central Eastern Carpathians and the adjoining plains.
Bulgarians (българи, Bǎlgari) are a South Slavic ethnic group who are native to Bulgaria and its neighboring regions.
Bulgarians in Ukraine is the fifth biggest minority in the country primarily residing in the southern regions where they make up a significant minority living in the Odessa Oblast, the city of Bolhrad.
The Business Anti-Corruption Portal (BACP) is a one-stop shop for business anti-corruption information offering tools on how to mitigate risks and costs of corruption when doing business abroad.
Business Insider is an American financial and business news website that also operates international editions in the UK, Australia, China, Germany, France, South Africa, India, Italy, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Netherlands, Nordics, Poland, Spanish and Singapore.
Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire, also known as the Later Roman or Eastern Roman Empire.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Cabbage soup may refer to any of the variety of soups based on various cabbages, or on sauerkraut and known under different names in national cuisines.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Carousel voting (in Russian карусель (karusel, "carousel")) (ruchejok, brooklet)) --> is a method of vote rigging in elections, used particularly in Russia, and alluding to fairground carousels. Usually it involves "busloads of voters driven around to cast ballots multiple times". The term "carousel" refers to the circular movement made by the voters, from one polling station to the next.
The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a mountain range system forming an arc roughly long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe (after the Scandinavian Mountains). They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves, chamois, and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species.
Carpathian Ruthenia, Carpatho-Ukraine or Zakarpattia (Rusyn and Карпатська Русь, Karpats'ka Rus' or Закарпаття, Zakarpattja; Slovak and Podkarpatská Rus; Kárpátalja; Transcarpatia; Zakarpacie; Karpatenukraine) is a historic region in the border between Central and Eastern Europe, mostly located in western Ukraine's Zakarpattia Oblast, with smaller parts in easternmost Slovakia (largely in Prešov Region and Košice Region) and Poland's Lemkovyna.
Carpatho-Ukraine (Карпа́тська Украї́на, Karpats’ka Ukrayina) was an autonomous region within Czechoslovakia from late 1938 to March 15, 1939.
Casimir III the Great (Kazimierz III Wielki; 30 April 1310 – 5 November 1370) reigned as the King of Poland from 1333 to 1370.
A castle (from castellum) is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages by predominantly the nobility or royalty and by military orders.
Catherine II (Russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Yekaterina Alekseyevna; –), also known as Catherine the Great (Екатери́на Вели́кая, Yekaterina Velikaya), born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Church in Ukraine is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope in Rome.
A cell church is a Christian church structure centering on the regular gathering of cell groups.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
The Central Russian Upland (also Central Upland and East European Upland) is an upland area of the East European Plain and is an undulating plateau with an average elevation of.
Central Ukraine (Центральна Україна, Tsentralna Ukrayina) consists of historic regions of left-bank Ukraine and right-bank Ukraine that reference to the Dnieper river.
The Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine (Голова Верховної Ради України, Holova Verkhovnoyi Rady Ukrayiny) is the presiding officer of the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraine's unicameral parliament.
All-Russian Extraordinary Commission (Всероссийская Чрезвычайная Комиссия), abbreviated as VChK (ВЧК, Ve-Che-Ka) and commonly known as Cheka, (from the initialism ChK) was the first of a succession of Soviet secret police organizations.
The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals.
Cherkasy Oblast (Черкаська область, translit. Cherkas’ka oblast’,; also referred to as Черкащина, Cherkashchyna) is an oblast (province) of central Ukraine located along the Dnieper River.
Chernihiv (Чернігів) also known as Chernigov (p, Czernihów) is a historic city in northern Ukraine, which serves as the administrative center of the Chernihiv Oblast (province), as well as of the surrounding Chernihiv Raion (district) within the oblast.
Chernihiv Oblast (Чернігівська область, translit. Chernihivs’ka oblast’; also referred to as Chernihivshchyna - Чернігівщина) is an oblast (province) of northern Ukraine.
Chernivtsi Oblast (Чернівецька область, Černivećka oblasť, Regiunea Cernăuți) is an oblast (province) in western Ukraine, consisting of the northern parts of the regions of Bukovina and Bessarabia.
The Chernobyl disaster, also referred to as the Chernobyl accident, was a catastrophic nuclear accident.
The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant or Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station (Чорнобильська атомна електростанція, Чернобыльская АЭС) is a decommissioned nuclear power station near the city of Pripyat, Ukraine, northwest of the city of Chernobyl, from the Belarus–Ukraine border, and about north of Kiev.
Chernozem (r; "black soil") is a black-colored soil containing a high percentage of humus (4% to 16%), and high percentages of phosphoric acids, phosphorus and ammonia.
Chersonesus (Khersónēsos; Chersonesus; modern Russian and Ukrainian: Херсонес, Khersones; also rendered as Chersonese, Chersonesos), in medieval Greek contracted to Cherson (Χερσών; Old East Slavic: Корсунь, Korsun) is an ancient Greek colony founded approximately 2,500 years ago in the southwestern part of the Crimean Peninsula.
Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.
Chicken Kiev (котлета по-київськи, kotleta po-kyivsky, котлета по-киевски, kotleta po-kiyevski; literally "cutlet Kiev-style") is a dish of chicken fillet pounded and rolled around cold butter, then coated with eggs and bread crumbs, and either fried or baked.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The Christianization of Kievan Rus' took place in several stages.
A chronicle (chronica, from Greek χρονικά, from χρόνος, chronos, "time") is a historical account of facts and events ranged in chronological order, as in a time line.
The Church of the Saviour at Berestovo (Церква Спаса на Берестові, Tserkva Spasa na Berestovi; Церковь Спаса на Берестове, Tserkov’ Spasa na Berestove) is a church located immediately north of the Monastery of the Caves in an area known as Berestove.
The Cimmerians (also Kimmerians; Greek: Κιμμέριοι, Kimmérioi) were an ancient people, who appeared about 1000 BC and are mentioned later in 8th century BC in Assyrian records.
City with special status (місто зі спеціальним статусом) (formerly, "city of republican subordinance") refers to two of Ukraine's 27 administrative regions, which are the cities of Kiev and Sevastopol.
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
The Soviet Union enforced the collectivization (Коллективизация) of its agricultural sector between 1928 and 1940 (in West - between 1948 and 1952) during the ascendancy of Joseph Stalin.
The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; r), also nicknamed the Russian Commonwealth (in order to distinguish it from the Commonwealth of Nations), is a political and economic intergovernmental organization of nine member states and one associate member, all of which are former Soviet Republics located in Eurasia (primarily in Central to North Asia), formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
A commune (the French word appearing in the 12th century from Medieval Latin communia, meaning a large gathering of people sharing a common life; from Latin communis, things held in common) is an intentional community of people living together, sharing common interests, often having common values and beliefs, as well as shared property, possessions, resources, and, in some communes, work, income or assets.
The Communist Party of Ukraine (Комуністична партія України, Komunistychna Partiya Ukrayiny, KPU) is a political party founded in 1993 as the successor to the Soviet-era Communist Party of Ukraine, which was banned in 1991 and again in 2015.
The Communist Party of Ukraine (Комуністична Партія України Komunistychna Partiya Ukrayiny, КПУ, KPU; Коммунистическая партия Украины), was the founding and ruling political party of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic operated as the Ukrainian branch of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU).
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.
The Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk (Конституція Пилипа Орлика (Konstytutsiya Pylypa Orlyka) or Pacts and Constitutions of Rights and Freedoms of the Zaporizhian Host Пакти і Конституції прав і вольностей Війська Запорозького (Pakty i Konstytutsii Prav i Volnostei Viyska Zaporozkoho), Pacta et Constitutiones Legum Libertatumque Exercitus Zaporoviensis) was a 1710 constitutional document written by Hetman Pylyp Orlyk, a Cossack of Ukraine.
The Constitution of Ukraine (Конституція України) is the nation's fundamental law.
The Constitutional Court of Ukraine (Конституційний Суд України) is the sole body of constitutional jurisdiction in Ukraine.
A Constitutional republic is a republic that operates under a system of separation of powers, where both the chief executive and members of the legislature are elected by the citizens and must govern within an existing written constitution.
A controlled-access highway is a type of highway which has been designed for high-speed vehicular traffic, with all traffic flow and ingress/egress regulated.
The conviction rate of a prosecutor or government is the number of convictions divided by the number of criminal cases brought.
Corruption is a widespread problem in Ukrainian society.
Transparency International (TI) has published the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) since 1995, annually ranking countries "by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys." The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit".
The Cossack Hetmanate (Гетьманщина), officially known as Zaporizhian Host (Військо Запорозьке), was a Cossack state in Central Ukraine between 1649 and 1764 (some sources claim until 1782).
Cossacks (козаки́, translit, kozaky, казакi, kozacy, Czecho-Slovak: kozáci, kozákok Pronunciations.
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
A crêpe or crepe (or,, Quebec French) is a type of very thin pastry.
Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.
The Crimea Germans (Krimdeutsche) were ethnic German settlers who were invited to settle in the Crimea as part of the East Colonization.
The Crimean Khanate (Mongolian: Крымын ханлиг; Crimean Tatar / Ottoman Turkish: Къырым Ханлыгъы, Qırım Hanlığı, rtl or Къырым Юрту, Qırım Yurtu, rtl; Крымское ханство, Krymskoje hanstvo; Кримське ханство, Krymśke chanstvo; Chanat Krymski) was a Turkic vassal state of the Ottoman Empire from 1478 to 1774, the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde.
The Crimean Mountains (translit. Krymski hory; Крымские горы, translit. Krymskie gory; Qırım dağları) are a range of mountains running parallel to the south-eastern coast of Crimea, between about 8–13 kilometers (5–8 miles) from the sea.
The Crimean Oblast (Кримська область, Kryms'ka oblast'; Крымская область, Krymskaya oblast'; Qırım vilâyeti) was an oblast (province) of the former Russian SFSR (1945–1954) and Ukrainian SSR (1954–1991) within the Soviet Union.
A controversial referendum on the status of Crimea was held on March 16, 2014, by the legislature of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and by the local government of Sevastopol (both subdivisions of Ukraine).
Crimean Tatar (Къырымтатарджа, Qırımtatarca; Къырымтатар тили, Qırımtatar tili), also called Crimean Turkish or simply Crimean, is a Kipchak Turkic language spoken in Crimea and the Crimean Tatar diasporas of Uzbekistan, Turkey, Romania and Bulgaria, as well as small communities in the United States and Canada.
Crimean Tatars or Crimeans (Crimean Tatar: Qırımtatarlar, qırımlar, Kırım Tatarları, Крымские Татары, крымцы, Кримськi Татари, кримцi) are a Turkic ethnic group that formed in the Crimean Peninsula during the 13th–17th centuries, primarily from the Turkic tribes that moved to the land now known as Crimea in Eastern Europe from the Asian steppes beginning in the 10th century, with contributions from the pre-Cuman population of Crimea.
The Crimean-Nogai raids were slave raids carried out by the Khanate of Crimea and by the Nogai Horde into the region of Rus' then controlled by the Grand Duchy of Moscow (until 1547), by the Tsardom of Russia (1547-1721), by the Russian Empire (1721 onwards) and by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569).
The Cucuteni–Trypillia culture (and), also known as the Tripolye culture, is a Neolithic–Eneolithic archaeological culture (5200 to 3500 BC) in Eastern Europe.
Dakh Daughters is a Ukrainian music and theater project started in 2012 in Kyiv.
DakhaBrakha is a Ukrainian folk quartet which combines the musical styles of several ethnic groups.
Daniel of Galicia (Данило Романович (Галицький): Danylo Romanovych (Halytskyi); Old Ruthenian: Данило Романовичъ: Danylo Romanovyčъ; Daniel I Romanowicz Halicki; 1201 – 1264) was a King of Ruthenia, Prince (Knyaz) of Galicia (Halych) (1205–1255), Peremyshl (1211), and Volodymyr (1212–1231).
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
The Danube Delta (Delta Dunării; Дельта Дунаю, Deľta Dunayu) is the second largest river delta in Europe, after the Volga Delta, and is the best preserved on the continent.
The Act of Declaration of Independence of Ukraine (Акт проголошення незалежності України, translit. Akt proholoshennya nezalezhnosti Ukrayiny) was adopted by the Ukrainian parliament on 24 August 1991.
The Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Russian SFSR (r) was a political act of the Russian SFSR (Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic), then part of the Soviet Union, which marked the beginning of constitutional reform in Russia.
The Declaration of State Sovereignty of Ukraine (Декларація про державний суверенітет України) was adopted on July 16, 1990 by the recently elected parliament of Ukrainian SSR by a vote of 355 for and four against.
The Declaration of Ukrainian Independence of June 30, 1941 was announced by the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) under the leadership of Stepan Bandera, who declared an independent Ukrainian State in Lviv.
The Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Areas (DCFTA) are three free trade areas established between the European Union, and Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine respectively.
Delirium is a 2013 Ukrainian film produced and directed by Ihor Podolchak, premiered in Director’s Week Competition in Fantasporto (Portugal, 2013), awarded with the "First Prize" at Baghdad International Film Festival (2013).
The term Deluge (pоtор szwedzki, švedų tvanas) denotes a series of mid-17th-century campaigns in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The demographics of Ukraine include statistics on population growth, population density, ethnicity, education level, health, economic status, religious affiliations, and other aspects of the population of Ukraine.
Descent from Genghis Khan (Алтан ураг Altan urag, meaning "Golden lineage"), generally called Genghisids, is traceable primarily in Mongolia, India, China, Russia, Southeast Asia and the Middle East.
Deutsche Welle ("German wave" in German) or DW is Germany's public international broadcaster.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
Saint Dimitry of Rostov (sometimes Latinized as Demetrius, sometimes referred to simply as Dmitri Rostovsky, Димитрій (Туптало)) was a leading opponent of the Caesaropapist reform of the Russian Orthodox church promoted by Feofan Prokopovich.
The Directorate, or Directory (Dyrektoriya) was a provisional collegiate revolutionary state committee of the Ukrainian People's Republic, initially formed on November 13–14, 1918 during a session of the Ukrainian National Union in rebellion against Skoropadsky's regime.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
District heating (also known as heat networks or teleheating) is a system for distributing heat generated in a centralized location for residential and commercial heating requirements such as space heating and water heating.
Dmytro Stepanovych Bortniansky (Дмитро Степанович Бортнянський) or Dmitry Stepanovych Bortniansky (Дмитрий Степанович Бортнянский,; alternative transcriptions of names are Dmitri, Bortnianskii, and Bortnyansky; 28 October 1751, Hlukhiv, Cossack Hetmanate) was a Ukrainian composer and conductor of Rusyn descent.
Dmytro Pavlychko (Павличко Дмитро Васильович; born September 28, 1929) is a Ukrainian poet, translator, scriptwriter, culturologist, political and public figure.
The Dnieper River, known in Russian as: Dnepr, and in Ukrainian as Dnipro is one of the major rivers of Europe, rising near Smolensk, Russia and flowing through Russia, Belarus and Ukraine to the Black Sea.
The Dniester or Dnister River is a river in Eastern Europe.
Dnipro (Дніпро), until May 2016 Dnipropetrovsk (Дніпропетро́вськ) also known as Dnepropetrovsk (Днепропетро́вск), is Ukraine's fourth largest city, with about one million inhabitants.
Dniproavia (Дніпроавіа) is an airline headquartered at Dnipro International Airport in Dnipro, Ukraine, operating scheduled and chartered passenger flights.
Dnipropetrovsk Oblast (Дніпропетро́вська о́бласть, Dnipropetrovs'ka oblast or Дніпропетровщина, Dnipropetrovshchyna, Днепропетро́вская о́бласть) is an oblast (province) of central Ukraine, the most important industrial region of the country.
A number of hypotheses exist on many of the key issues regarding the domestication of the horse.
The Donbass (Донба́сс) or Donbas (Донба́с) is a historical, cultural, and economic region in eastern Ukraine and southwestern Russia.
Referendums on the status of Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts, parts of Ukraine that together make up the Donbass region, took place on 11 May 2014 in many towns under the control of the self-proclaimed Donetsk and Luhansk People's Republics.
The Siverskyi Donets (Siverśkyj Doneć) or Seversky Donets (Severskij Donec), usually simply called the Donets, is a river on the south of the East European Plain.
Donetsk (Донецьк; Доне́цк; former names: Aleksandrovka, Hughesovka, Yuzovka, Stalino (see also: cities' alternative names)) is an industrial city in Ukraine on the Kalmius River.
Donetsk Sergey Prokofiev International Airport (Міжнародний аеропорт "Донецьк") is a nonoperational airport located northwest of Donetsk, Ukraine, that was destroyed in 2014 during the War in Donbass.
Donetsk Oblast (Доне́цька о́бласть, Donets'ka oblast', also referred to as Donechchyna, Донеччина Donechchyna, Доне́цкая о́бласть, Donetskaya oblast) is an oblast (province) of eastern Ukraine.
The Donetsk People's Republic (DPR or DNR, dɐˈnʲɛtskəjə nɐˈrodnəjə rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə, Донецька Народна Республіка) is a proto-state in the Donetsk Oblast of Ukraine recognized only by the partially recognized South Ossetia.
The Dovzhenko Film Studios (Національна кіностудія художніх фільмів імені О. Довженка, translit. Natsional'na kinostudiya khudozhnikh filmiv imeni O. Dovzhenka) is a former Soviet film production studio in Ukraine that was named after the Ukrainian film producer, Alexander Dovzhenko, in 1957.
The Drevlians (Drevliany) were a tribe of Early East Slavs between the 6th and the 10th century, which inhabited the territories of Polesia and Right-bank Ukraine, west of the eastern Polans and along the lower reaches of the rivers Teteriv, Uzh, Ubort, and Stviga.
Drohiczyn (Drohičinas, Дарагічын, Дорогочин, Дорогичин) is a town in Siemiatycze County, Podlaskie Voivodeship, Poland.
Throughout Russian history famines and droughts have been a common feature, often resulting in humanitarian crises traceable to political or economic instability, poor policy, environmental issues and war.
The Dulebs (Dulebes) or (more correctly) Dulibyh (Дуліби) were one of the tribal unions of Early East Slavs between the 6th (still questionable) and the 10th centuries.
A Duma (дума, plural dumy) is a sung epic poem which originated in Ukraine during the Hetmanate Era in the sixteenth century (possibly based on earlier Kievan epic forms).
A dynastic union is a kind of federation with only two different states that are governed by the same dynasty, while their boundaries, their laws and their interests remain distinct.
Dzerkalo Tyzhnia (Дзеркало тижня; Зеркало недели, Zerkalo Nedeli), usually referred to in English as the Mirror Weekly, is one of Ukraine’s most influential analytical newspapers published weekly in Kiev, the nation's capital.
The early 1990s recession describes the period of economic downturn affecting much of the Western world in the early 1990s.
The East Slavs are Slavic peoples speaking the East Slavic languages.
Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the Book of Common Prayer, "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher and Samuel Pepys and plain "Easter", as in books printed in,, also called Pascha (Greek, Latin) or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary 30 AD.
Easter eggs, also called Paschal eggs, are decorated eggs that are usually used as gifts on the occasion of Easter.
The Eastern Beskids and the Ukrainian Carpathians are a geological group of mountain ranges of the Outer Eastern Carpathians, mostly in Ukraine.
The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, and in some historical cases Uniate Churches, are twenty-three Eastern Christian particular churches sui iuris in full communion with the Pope in Rome, as part of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+02:00 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Eastern Ukraine or East Ukraine (Східна Україна, Skhidna Ukrayina; Восточная Украина, Vostochnaya Ukraina) generally refers to territories of Ukraine east of the Dnieper river, particularly Kharkiv, Luhansk and Donetsk oblasts.
EBSCO Industries is an American company headquartered in Birmingham, Alabama.
The economy of Ukraine is an emerging free market.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
Einsatzgruppen ("task forces" or "deployment groups") were Schutzstaffel (SS) paramilitary death squads of Nazi Germany that were responsible for mass killings, primarily by shooting, during World War II (1939–45).
Elections in Ukraine are held to choose the President (head of state), Verkhovna Rada (legislature body), and local governments.
Electoral fraud, election manipulation, or vote rigging is illegal interference with the process of an election, whether by increasing the vote share of the favored candidate, depressing the vote share of the rival candidates, or both.
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.
In economic terms, electricity (both power and energy) is a commodity capable of being bought, sold, and traded.
Elizabeth Petrovna (Елизаве́та (Елисаве́та) Петро́вна) (–), also known as Yelisaveta or Elizaveta, was the Empress of Russia from 1741 until her death.
Emergency medical services, also known as ambulance services or paramedic services (abbreviated to the initialism EMS, EMAS, EMARS or SAMU in some countries), are a type of emergency service dedicated to providing out-of-hospital acute medical care, transport to definitive care, and other medical transport to patients with illnesses and injuries which prevent the patient from transporting themselves.
Emergency Medicine Reform in Ukraine is a part of Ukrainian Health Reform from 2016 till now.
The Ems Ukaz, or Ems Ukase (Эмский указ, Emskiy ukaz; Емський указ, Ems’kyy ukaz), was a secret decree (ukaz) of Tsar Alexander II of Russia issued in 1876, banning the use of the Ukrainian language in print, with the exception of reprinting of old documents.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The Encyclopedia of Ukraine (Енциклопедія українознавства) is a fundamental work of Ukrainian Studies created under the auspices of the Shevchenko Scientific Society in Europe (Sarcelles, near Paris).
Energoatom, full name National Nuclear Energy Generating Company of Ukraine (Ukrainian: НАЕК "Енергоатом") is a Ukrainian state enterprise operating all four nuclear power stations in Ukraine.
The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System responsible for collecting, analyzing, and disseminating energy information to promote sound policymaking, efficient markets, and public understanding of energy and its interaction with the economy and the environment.
Approximately 330 to 360 million people speak English as their first language.
An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.
Esquire is an American men's magazine, published by the Hearst Corporation in the United States.
Ethnic cleansing is the systematic forced removal of ethnic or racial groups from a given territory by a more powerful ethnic group, often with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
The Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC), a post-Cold War NATO institution, is a multilateral forum created to improve relations between NATO and non-NATO countries in Europe and those parts of Asia on the European periphery.
EuroBasket 2013 was the 38th edition of the EuroBasket championship that is organized by FIBA Europe.
FIBA EuroBasket 2015 was the 39th annual edition of the EuroBasket championship that is organised by FIBA Europe.
The EuroLeague, also known as the Turkish Airlines EuroLeague for name sponsorship reasons, is the European-wide top-tier level professional basketball club competition that is organized by Euroleague Basketball, since 2000, for eligible European basketball clubs.
Euromaidan (Євромайдан, Евромайдан,, literally "Euro Square") was a wave of demonstrations and civil unrest in Ukraine, which began on the night of 21 November 2013 with public protests in Maidan Nezalezhnosti ("Independence Square") in Kiev.
Euronews is a multilingual news media service, headquartered in Lyon, France.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) is a foreign relations instrument of the European Union (EU) which seeks to tie those countries to the east and south of the European territory of the EU to the Union.
The European Single Market, Internal Market or Common Market is a single market which seeks to guarantee the free movement of goods, capital, services, and labour – the "four freedoms" – within the European Union (EU).
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
A European Union Association Agreement (for short, Association Agreement or AA) is a treaty between the European Union (EU), its Member States and a non-EU country that creates a framework for co-operation between them.
The Eurovision Song Contest 2005 was the 50th edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest.
The Eurovision Song Contest 2017 was the 62nd edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest.
Everything Is Illuminated is a 2005 biographical comedy-drama film, written and directed by Liev Schreiber and starring Elijah Wood and Eugene Hütz.
The term Executed Renaissance (Розстріляне відродження, Rozstrilyane vidrodzhennya) is used to describe the generation of Ukrainian writers and artists of 1920s and early 1930s who were performing in the Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic and were executed or repressed by Stalin's totalitarian regime.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
Family medicine (FM), formerly family practice (FP), is a medical specialty devoted to comprehensive health care for people of all ages; the specialist is named a family physician or family doctor.
A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.
The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (субъекты Российской Федерации subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects of the federation (субъекты федерации subyekty federatsii), are the constituent entities of Russia, its top-level political divisions according to the Constitution of Russia.
The FIAPF (Fédération Internationale des Associations de Producteurs de Films; International Federation of Film Producers Associations) based in Paris, created in 1933, is an organization composed with 36 member associations from 30 of the leading audiovisual production countries.
The World Chess Federation, FIDE (Fédération Internationale des Échecs), awards several performance-based titles to chess players, up to and including the highly prized Grandmaster title.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
The first Czechoslovak Republic (Czech / Československá republika) was the Czechoslovak state that existed from 1918 to 1938.
The first five-year plan (I пятилетний план, первая пятилетка) of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a list of economic goals, created by General Secretary Joseph Stalin and based on his policy of Socialism in One Country.
The five-year plans for the development of the national economy of the Soviet Union (USSR) (Пятиле́тние пла́ны разви́тия наро́дного хозя́йства СССР, Pjatiletnije plany razvitiya narodnogo khozyaystva SSSR) consisted of a series of nationwide centralized economic plans in the Soviet Union, beginning in the late 1920s.
Focus («Еженедельник Фокус») is a national Ukrainian weekly news magazine in Russian language published in Kiev and distributed throughout the country.
A folk costume (also regional costume, national costume, or traditional garment) expresses an identity through costume, which is usually associated with a geographic area or a period of time in history.
Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.
Forced settlements in the Soviet Union took several forms.
A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.
Foreign Policy is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and international policy.
Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli (Russian: Франче́ско Бартоломе́о (Варфоломе́й Варфоломеевич) Растрелли) (1700 in Paris, Kingdom of France — 29 April 1771 in Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire) was a Russian architect of Italian origin.
The Free Territory (Вільна територія vilna terytoriya; Вольная территория volnaya territoriya) or Makhnovia (Махновщина Makhnovshchyna) resulted from an attempt to form a stateless anarchistNoel-Schwartz, Heather.
Freedom House is a U.S.-based 501(c)(3) U.S. government-funded non-governmental organization (NGO) that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom, and human rights.
The was an energy accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Ōkuma, Fukushima Prefecture, initiated primarily by the tsunami following the Tōhoku earthquake on 11 March 2011.
Full communion is a communion or relationship of full understanding among different Christian denominations that they share certain essential principles of Christian theology.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
The Gagauz language (Gagauz dili, Gagauzça) is a Turkic language spoken by the Gagauz people of Moldova, Ukraine, Russia, and Turkey, and it is the official language of the Autonomous Region of Gagauzia in Moldova.
Galicia (Ukrainian and Галичина, Halyčyna; Galicja; Czech and Halič; Galizien; Galícia/Kaliz/Gácsország/Halics; Galiția/Halici; Галиция, Galicija; גאַליציע Galitsiye) is a historical and geographic region in Central Europe once a small Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia and later a crown land of Austria-Hungary, the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, that straddled the modern-day border between Poland and Ukraine.
Galicia–Volhynia Wars were several wars fought in the years 1340–1392 over the succession in the Principality of Galicia–Volhynia (in modern Poland and Ukraine).
Gediminas (– December 1341) was Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1315 or 1316 until his death.
Gene Sharp (January 21, 1928 – January 28, 2018) was the founder of the Albert Einstein Institution, a non-profit organization dedicated to advancing the study of nonviolent action, and a retired professor of political science at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth.
The General Secretariat of Ukraine (Генеральний секретаріат УЦР—УНР) was the autonomous Ukrainian executive government of the Russian Republic from June 28, 1917 to January 22, 1918.
Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
George Soros, Hon (Soros György,; born György Schwartz; August 12, 1930) is a Hungarian-American investor, business magnate, philanthropist, political activist and author.
The Georgians or Kartvelians (tr) are a nation and Caucasian ethnic group native to Georgia.
Georgiy Ruslanovich Gongadze (Георгій Русланович Ґонґадзе; გიორგი ღონღაძე; 21 May 1969 – 17 September 2000) was a Georgian politician and Ukrainian journalist and film director who was kidnapped and murdered in 2000.
During World War II, Nazi Germany engaged in a policy of deliberate maltreatment of Soviet prisoners of war (POWs), in contrast to their treatment of British and American POWs.
In economics, the Gini coefficient (sometimes expressed as a Gini ratio or a normalized Gini index) is a measure of statistical dispersion intended to represent the income or wealth distribution of a nation's residents, and is the most commonly used measurement of inequality.
In the Russian language the word glasnost (гла́сность) has several general and specific meanings.
Gleb Olegovich Pavlovsky (Глеб Оле́гович Павло́вский, born 5 March 1951, Odessa) is a Russian political scientist (he describes himself as a "political technologist").
Global Policy is a peer-reviewed academic journal based at Durham University focusing on the "point where ideas and policy meet", published in association with Wiley-Blackwell.
Gołąbki is the Polish name of a dish popular in cuisines of Central and Eastern Europe, made from boiled cabbage leaves wrapped around a filling of minced pork or beef, chopped onions, and rice or barley.
The Golden Gates of Kyiv (Золоті ворота, Zoloti vorota) was the main gate in the 11th century fortifications of Kyiv, the capital of Kievan Rus'.
The Golden Horde (Алтан Орд, Altan Ord; Золотая Орда, Zolotaya Orda; Алтын Урда, Altın Urda) was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire.
Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic or neo-Gothic) is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England.
The Goths (Gut-þiuda; Gothi) were an East Germanic people, two of whose branches, the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, played an important role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire through the long series of Gothic Wars and in the emergence of Medieval Europe.
The Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine (Кабінет Міністрів України, Kabinet ministriv Ukrayiny; shortened to CabMin), commonly referred to as the Government of Ukraine (Уряд України, Uryad Ukrayiny), is the highest body of state executive power in Ukraine.
The grain trade refers to the local and international trade in cereals and other food grains such as wheat, maize, and rice.
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century up to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria.
The title Grandmaster (GM) is awarded to chess players by the world chess organization FIDE.
The Gravettian was an archaeological industry of the European Upper Paleolithic that succeeded the Aurignacian circa 33,000 years BP..
The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.
The Great Purge or the Great Terror (Большо́й терро́р) was a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union which occurred from 1936 to 1938.
The Great Recession was a period of general economic decline observed in world markets during the late 2000s and early 2010s.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Green Ukraine, also known as Zeleny Klyn (Zelenyj Klyn, Zeljonyj Klin, literally: "the green gore/wedge"), also known as Transcathay (Zakytajščyna), is a historical Ukrainian name for the land in the Russian Far East area between the Amur River and the Pacific Ocean.
The GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development (Организация за демократию и экономическое развитие — ГУАМ) is a regional organization of four post-Soviet states: '''G'''eorgia, '''U'''kraine, '''A'''zerbaijan, and '''M'''oldova.
Hacı I Giray, Melek Haji Girai (بیر-حاجى كراى; Melek Hacı Geray, ملک خاجى كراى‎; died 1466) was the founder and the first ruler of the Crimean Khanate.
Haifa (חֵיפָה; حيفا) is the third-largest city in Israel – after Jerusalem and Tel Aviv– with a population of in.
Harper's Bazaar is an American women's fashion magazine, first published in 1867.
Hazardous waste is waste that has substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
Heavy industry is industry that involves one or more characteristics such as large and heavy products; large and heavy equipment and facilities (such as heavy equipment, large machine tools, and huge buildings); or complex or numerous processes.
Helsinki (or;; Helsingfors) is the capital city and most populous municipality of Finland.
Hero City is a Soviet honorary title awarded for outstanding heroism during World War II (the Eastern Front is known in most countries of the former Soviet Union as The Great Patriotic War).
Hertza region (Край Герца, Kraj Herca; Ținutul Herța) is a border region within an administrative district (raion) of Hertsa (Herța) in the southern part of Chernivtsi Oblast in southwestern Ukraine, near Romania.
reason (translit; hejtman; hatman) is a political title from Central and Eastern Europe, historically assigned to military commanders.
Hetman of Zaporizhian Cossacks is a historical term that has multiple meanings.
Higher education in Ukraine operates several levels, all of which are regulated by the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Hinduism is a minority religion in Ukraine.
The history of architecture traces the changes in architecture through various traditions, regions, overarching stylistic trends, and dates.
The German minority in Russia, Ukraine and the Soviet Union was created from several sources and in several waves.
Jewish communities have existed in the territory of Ukraine from the time of Kievan Rus' (one of Kiev city gates was called Judaic) and developed many of the most distinctive modern Jewish theological and cultural traditions such as Hasidism.
The "History of Soviet Russia and the Soviet Union" reflects a period of change for both Russia and the world.
The history of the Soviet Union between 1927 and 1953 covers the period in Soviet history from establishment of Stalinism through victory in the Second World War and down to the death of Joseph Stalin in 1953.
Prehistoric Ukraine, as part of the Pontic steppe, has played an important role in Eurasian cultural contacts, including the spread of the Chalcolithic, the Bronze Age, Indo-European expansion and the domestication of the horse.
Hlukhiv (Глу́хів, Głuchów) or Glukhov (Глухов) is a small historic town on the Esman River.
The Holodomor (Голодомо́р); (derived from морити голодом, "to kill by starvation"), also known as the Terror-Famine and Famine-Genocide in Ukraine, and—before the widespread use of the term "Holodomor", and sometimes currently—also referred to as the Great Famine, and The Ukrainian Genocide of 1932–33—was a man-made famine in Soviet Ukraine in 1932 and 1933 that killed millions of Ukrainians that was part of the wider Soviet famine of 1932–33, which affected the major grain-producing areas of the country.
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
Horilka (горілка, гарэлка) is a Ukrainian alcoholic beverage.
Hospitality refers to the relationship between a guest and a host, wherein the host receives the guest with goodwill, including the reception and entertainment of guests, visitors, or strangers.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
Mount Hoverla (Говерла, Hoverla; Hóvár; Hovârla; Goverla, Howerla) at, is the highest mountain in Ukraine and part of the Carpathian Mountains.
The Human Development Report (HDR) is an annual milestone published by the Human Development Report Office of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.
The Hungarians in Ukraine number 156,600 people according to the Ukrainian census of 2001 and are the fifth largest national minority in the country.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe, between the 4th and 6th century AD.
The Hutsul Republic was a short-lived state, formed in the aftermath of World War I. The republic was declared on January 8, 1919, when original plans to unite this area with the Western Ukrainian People's Republic failed and the territory was occupied by Hungarian police.
Hydropower or water power (from ύδωρ, "water") is power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes.
In economics, hyperinflation is very high and typically accelerating inflation.
Igor Ivanovich (or Ihor Ivanovych) Belanov (Ігор Іванович Беланов; born 25 September 1960) is a retired Soviet and Ukrainian footballer who played as an attacking midfielder or second striker.
The National Technical University of Ukraine "Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute" (NTUU "KPI") (Національний технічний університет України «Київський політехнічний інститут імені Ігоря Сікорського») is a major university in Kiev, Ukraine.
Igor Ivanovich Strelkov, born Igor Vsevolodovich Girkin (p, p), born on 17 December 1970 is a Russian army artillery veteran who played a key role in the Russian occupation of Crimea, and later the War in Donbass as an organizer of the Donetsk People's Republic's militant groups.
Ihor Podolchak (Ігор Подольчак, Igor Podolczak) (born April 9, 1962) is a Ukrainian filmmaker and visual artist.
Income inequality metrics or income distribution metrics are used by social scientists to measure the distribution of income, and economic inequality among the participants in a particular economy, such as that of a specific country or of the world in general.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.
Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.
The intelligentsia (/ɪnˌtelɪˈdʒentsiə/) (intelligentia, inteligencja, p) is a status class of educated people engaged in the complex mental labours that critique, guide, and lead in shaping the culture and politics of their society.
Interfax Ltd. (Интерфакс) is a privately-held independent major news agency in Russia (along with state-operated TASS and RIA Novosti) and information services company headquartered in Moscow.
The Interfax-Ukraine News Agency (Інтерфакс-Україна) is a Kiev-based Ukrainian news agency founded in 1992.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
The International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES) was introduced in 1990 by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in order to enable prompt communication of safety-significant information in case of nuclear accidents.
The International Republican Institute (IRI) describes itself as "a nonprofit, nonpartisan organization committed to advancing freedom and democracy worldwide by helping political parties to become more issue-based and responsive, assisting citizens to participate in government planning, and working to increase the role of marginalized groups in the political process – including women and youth.", loaded on October 10, 2015.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
Internet access is the ability of individuals and organizations to connect to the Internet using computer terminals, computers, and other devices; and to access services such as email and the World Wide Web.
The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign (Kampania wrześniowa) or the 1939 Defensive War (Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss ("Case White"), was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
Islam is the fourth-largest religion in Ukraine, representing 0.6%–0.9% of the population.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
The Italy national football team (Nazionale di calcio dell'Italia) represents Italy in association football and is controlled by the Italian Football Federation (FIGC), the governing body for football in Italy.
Ivan Dorn (born 17 October 1988) is a Ukrainian singer.
Ivan Fedorovych Drach (Іва́н Фе́дорович Драч, 17 October 1936 – 19 June 2018) was a Ukrainian poet, screenwriter, literary critic, politician, and political activist.
Ivan Petrovych Kotliarevsky (Іван Петрович Котляревський) (in Poltava – in Poltava, Russian Empire, now Ukraine), was a Ukrainian writer, poet and playwright, social activist, regarded as the pioneer of modern Ukrainian literature.
Ivan Stepanovych Mazepa (Іван Степанович Мазепа, Jan Mazepa Kołodyński). Retrieved 10 July 2015 served as the Hetman of Zaporizhian Host in 1687–1708.
Prince (1831) Ivan Fyodorovich Paskevich (Ива́н Фёдорович Паске́вич; &ndash) was an imperial Russian military leader.
Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast (Івано-Франківська область, translit. Ivano-Frankivs’ka oblast’; also referred to as Prykarpattia – Прикарпаття or formerly as Stanislavshchyna or Stanislavivshchyna – Ukrainian: Станіславщина or Станиславівщина) is an oblast (region) in western Ukraine.
The Jamestown Foundation is a Washington, D.C.-based institute for research and analysis, founded in 1984 as a platform to support Soviet defectors.
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
John II Casimir (Jan II Kazimierz Waza; Johann II.; Jonas Kazimieras Vaza; 22 March 1609 – 16 December 1672) was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania during the era of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Duke of Opole in Upper Silesia, and titular King of Sweden 1648–1660.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
Josef Hlávka (15 February 183111 March 1908) was a Czech architect, builder, philanthropist and founder of the oldest Czech foundation for sciences and arts.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
Kamianets-Podilskyi (Kamyanets-Podilsky, Kamieniec Podolski, Camenița, Каменец-Подольский, קאמענעץ־פאדאלסק) is a city on the Smotrych River in western Ukraine, to the north-east of Chernivtsi.
Kamianets-Podilskyi Castle (Кам'янець-Подільська фортеця; twierdza w Kamieńcu Podolskim; Каменец-Подольская крепость; Kamaniçe Kalesi) is a former Ruthenian-Lithuanian castle and a later three-part Polish fortress located in the historic city of Kamianets-Podilskyi, Ukraine, in the historic region of Podolia in the western part of the country.
Karel Cornelis Berkhoff (born 1965) is a senior researcher at NIOD Institute for War, Holocaust and Genocide Studies in Amsterdam.
Kharkiv (Ха́рків), also known as Kharkov (Ха́рьков) from Russian, is the second-largest city in Ukraine.
Kharkiv International Airport (Міжнародний аеропорт "Харків"), is an airport located in Kharkiv, Ukraine.
Kharkiv Oblast (Харківська область, translit. Charkivśka oblastj; also referred to as Kharkivshchyna – Харківщина, Charkivščyna, Харьковская область) is an oblast (province) in eastern Ukraine.
The National Technical University "Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute" (NTU "KhPI") ((Національний технічний університет "Харківський політехнічний інститут")), in the city of Kharkiv, is the largest and oldest technical university in eastern Ukraine.
The Khazars (خزر, Xəzərlər; Hazarlar; Хазарлар; Хәзәрләр, Xäzärlär; כוזרים, Kuzarim;, Xazar; Хоза́ри, Chozáry; Хаза́ры, Hazáry; Kazárok; Xazar; Χάζαροι, Cházaroi; p./Gasani) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people, who created what for its duration was the most powerful polity to emerge from the break-up of the Western Turkic Khaganate.
Kherson is a city in southern Ukraine.
Kherson Oblast (Херсонська область, translit. Khersons’ka oblast’; also referred to as Khersonshchyna – Херсонщина) is an oblast (province) in southern Ukraine, just north of Crimea.
The Khmelnytsky Uprising (Powstanie Chmielnickiego; Chmelnickio sukilimas; повстання Богдана Хмельницького; восстание Богдана Хмельницкого; also known as the Cossack-Polish War, Chmielnicki Uprising, or the Khmelnytsky insurrection) was a Cossack rebellion within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1648–1657, which led to the creation of a Cossack Hetmanate in Ukrainian lands.
Khmelnytskyi Oblast (Хмельницька область, translit. Khmel’nyts’ka oblast’; also referred to as Khmelnychchyna—Хмельниччина) is an oblast (province) of western Ukraine.
Khortytsa or Khortytsia (Хортиця) is a Ukrainian company based in Zaporizhia.
Khreshchatyk (Хрещатик, Khreshchatyk) is the main street of Kyiv, Ukraine.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
A Kiev cake or Kyiv cake is a brand of dessert cake, made in Kiev, Ukraine, since December 6, 1956 by the Karl Marx Confectionery Factory (now a subsidiary of the Roshen corporation).
Kiev International Institute of Sociology, KIIS (Київський міжнародний інститут соціології, КМІС) is a Ukrainian organization conducting sociological research in the following fields.
Kiev Oblast or Kyiv Oblast (Київська область, translit. Kyivs’ka oblast’; also referred to as Kyivshchyna – Київщина) is an oblast (province) in central Ukraine.
The 1920 Kiev Offensive (or Kiev Operation), sometimes considered to have started the Soviet-Polish War, was an attempt by the armed forces of the newly re-emerged Poland led by Józef Piłsudski, in alliance with the Ukrainian leader Symon Petliura, to seize the territories of modern-day Ukraine which fell under the Soviet control after the Bolshevik Revolution.
Kievan Rus' (Рѹ́сь, Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia) was a loose federationJohn Channon & Robert Hudson, Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia (Penguin, 1995), p.16.
Kínburn Foreland or Kinburn Spit – a spit in Ochakiv Raion (district) of Mykolaiv Oblast at the Black Sea in Ukraine.
The Kingdom or Principality of Galicia–Volhynia (Old East Slavic: Галицко-Волинскоє князство, Галицько-Волинське князівство, Regnum Galiciae et Lodomeriae), also known as the Kingdom of Ruthenia (Old East Slavic: Королѣвство Русь, Королівство Русі, Regnum Russiae) since 1253, was a state in the regions of Galicia and Volhynia, of present-day western Ukraine, which was formed after the conquest of Galicia by the Prince of Volhynia Roman the Great, with the help of Leszek the White of Poland.
"Kingdom of Poland" (Polish: Królestwo Polskie, Latin: Regnum Poloniae) was the name of Poland under a series of former monarchial governments, from c.1000/1025 CE to 1795.
Kira Heorhiyivna Muratova (Кіра Георгіївна Мура́това; née Korotkova, 5 November 1934 – 6 June 2018) was a Ukrainian award-winning film director, screenwriter and actress, known for her unusual directorial style.
Kirill Karabits (Кирилл Карабиц, Кирило Карабиць, Kyrylo Karabyts) (born 26 December 1976, in Kiev) is a Ukrainian conductor.
Count Kirill Grigoryevich Razumovsky (Кирилл Григорьевич Разумовский, Кирило Григорович Розумовський, Kyrylo Hryhorovych Rozumovsky, Polish: Kiriłł Grigorjewicz Razumowski) (March 18, 1728 – January 1, 1803) was a Ukrainian Cossack-born Russian state figure from the Kozelets county of Kiev Regiment in Russian Empire, who served as the last Hetman of Little Russia on both sides of Dnieper until 1764 and then as Field marshal of Russian Imperial Army.
Kirovohrad Oblast (Кіровоградська область, translit. Kirovohrads’ka oblast’; also referred to as Kirovohradschyna - Кіровоградщина) is an oblast (province) of Ukraine.
Knyaz or knez is a historical Slavic title, used both as a royal and noble title in different times of history and different ancient Slavic lands.
The kobza (кобза) (also called bandurka (кобза) is a Ukrainian folk music instrument of the lute family (Hornbostel-Sachs classification number 321.321-5+6), a relative of the Central European mandora. The term kobza however, has also been applied to a number of other Eastern European instruments distinct from the Ukrainian kobza.
Koktebel (Коктебéль, Коктебéль, Köktöbel), formerly known as Planerskoye, is an urban-type settlement and one of the most popular resort townlets in South-Eastern Crimea.
Koliyivshchyna (Коліївщина, koliszczyzna) was a major haidamaka rebellion that broke out in Right-bank Ukraine in June 1768, caused by the dissatisfaction of the peasants because of the serfdom oppression, the anti-nobility and anti-Polish moods among the Cossacks and peasants.
Kolomyia or Kolomyya, formerly known as Kolomea (Kolomyja, Kołomyja, Коломыя, Kolomea, Colomeea, קאלאמיי), is a city located on the Prut River in the Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast (province), in western Ukraine.
Kompot is a non-alcoholic sweet beverage of Slavic origin, that may be served hot or cold, depending on tradition and season.
Korenizatsiya (p, "putting down roots") was an early policy of the Soviet Union for the integration of the non–Russian nationalities into the governments of their specific soviet republic.
Korrespondent (Корреспондент; Кореспондент; literally: Correspondent) is a weekly printed magazine published in Ukraine in the Russian and Ukrainian languages.
Kosovo (Kosova or Kosovë; Косово) is a partially recognised state and disputed territory in Southeastern Europe that declared independence from Serbia in February 2008 as the Republic of Kosovo (Republika e Kosovës; Република Косово / Republika Kosovo).
Kozelets (Козелець,; Козелец) is an urban-type settlement in Chernihiv Oblast (province) of northern Ukraine.
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
KrAZ (Кременчуцький автомобільний завод, Kremenchutskyi Avtomobilnyi Zavod, Kremenchuk Automobile Plant) (АвтоКрА́З or AvtoKrAZ) is a Ukrainian factory that produces trucks and other special-purpose vehicles in Kremenchuk, Ukraine; particularly heavy-duty off-road models.
The Krivichs (Kryvichs) (Крывічы, Kryvičý,; p) was one of the tribal unions of Early East Slavs between the 6th and the 12th centuries.
Kyiv International Film Festival "Molodist" (Київський Міжнародний Кінофестиваль "Молодість") is an international film festival which takes place every October in Kyiv, Ukraine.
The Kyiv Post is Ukraine's oldest English language newspaper.
Kyivstar (Київстар) is a Ukrainian telecommunications company, provides communication services and data transmission based on a broad range of fixed and mobile technologies, including 3G and 4G (LTE).
Language policy in Ukraine is based on its Constitution, international obligations, and from 2012 until February 2018 on the law "On the principles of the state language policy" (before 2012, the 1989 law "On the languages in the Ukrainian SSR" was in force).
Larisa Efimovna Shepitko (Лари́са Ефи́мовна Шепи́тько; Лариса Юхимівна Шепітько; 6 January 1938 – 2 July 1979) was a Soviet film director, screenwriter and actress.
The Latin Church, sometimes called the Western Church, is the largest particular church sui iuris in full communion with the Pope and the rest of the Catholic Church, tracing its history to the earliest days of Christianity.
Latin liturgical rites are Christian liturgical rites of Latin tradition, used mainly by the Catholic Church as liturgical rites within the Latin Church, that originated in the area where the Latin language once dominated.
A launch vehicle or carrier rocket is a rocket used to carry a payload from Earth's surface through outer space, either to another surface point (suborbital), or into space (Earth orbit or beyond).
Lazar Moiseyevich Kaganovich (Ла́зарь Моисе́евич Кагано́вич; – 25 July 1991) was a Soviet politician and administrator and one of the main associates of Joseph Stalin.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
The terms right-hand traffic (RHT) and left-hand traffic (LHT) refer to the practice, in bidirectional traffic situations, to keep to the right side or to the left side of the road, respectively.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
Leon Trotsky (born Lev Davidovich Bronstein; – 21 August 1940) was a Russian revolutionary, theorist, and Soviet politician.
Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (a; Леоні́д Іллі́ч Бре́жнєв, 19 December 1906 (O.S. 6 December) – 10 November 1982) was a Soviet politician who led the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982 as the General Secretary of the Central Committee (CC) of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), presiding over the country until his death and funeral in 1982.
Leonid Fedorovich Bykov (Леонид Фёдорович Быков, 11 December 1928 in Znamenka village, Artemivsk Okruha, USSR - 11 April 1979 in Kiev Oblast, USSR) was a Soviet actor, film director, and script writer.
Leonid Makarovych Kravchuk (Леонід Макарович Кравчук; born 10 January 1934) is a former Ukrainian politician and the first President of Ukraine, who served from 5 December 1991, until his resignation on 19 July 1994.
Leonid Danylovych Kuchma (Леонід Данилович Кучма, born 9 August 1938) is a Ukrainian politician who was the second President of independent Ukraine from 19 July 1994 to 23 January 2005.
Leonid Osyka (Леонід Осика) (March 8, 1940 in Kyiv – September 16, 2001 in Kyiv) was a Ukrainian movie director, producer, and screen writer.
Lesya Ukrainka (Леся Українка) (born Larysa Petrivna Kosach-Kvitka (Лариса Петрівна Косач-Квітка) (–) is one of Ukrainian literature's foremost writers, best known for her poems and plays. She also was an active political, civil, and feminist activist. Among her most well-known works are the collections of poems On the wings of songs (1893), Thoughts and Dreams (1899), Echos (1902), the epic poem Ancient fairy tale (1893), One word (1903), plays Princess (1913), Cassandra (1903—1907), In the Catacombs (1905), and Forest song (1911).
Libertarian socialism (or socialist libertarianism) is a group of anti-authoritarian political philosophies inside the socialist movement that rejects socialism as centralized state ownership and control of the economy.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi in a symbiotic relationship.
Lina Vasylivna Kostenko (Ліна Василівна Костенко, born 19 March 1930 in Rzhyshchiv, Kiev Oblast, in the Ukrainian SSR of the Soviet Union) is a Ukrainian poet and writer, recipient of the Shevchenko Award (1987).
The Lisbon Protocol to the 1991 Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty was an agreement by representatives of Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan that all nuclear weapons of the former Soviet Union on the soil of those four states would be destroyed or transferred to the control of Russia.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.
This article includes a list of countries by their forecasted estimated gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity, abbreviated GDP (PPP).
This is a list of countries by rail usage.
This list of cultural icons of Ukraine is a list of links to potential cultural icons of Ukraine.
The Mongol invasion of Europe from the east took place over the course of three centuries, from the Middle Ages to the early modern period.
Since November 2015 Ukrainian authorities, state agencies and local government authorities are forbidden to act as founders (or cofounders) of printed media outlets.
These are lists of countries by foreign-born population (immigrants) and lists of countries by number native-born persons living in a foreign country (emigrants).
Ukraine has diverse geographic features, including several waterfalls.
Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.
Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group, according to its beliefs, customs and traditions.
A local government is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state.
Luhansk (Luhans'k) or Lugansk (Луганск), formerly known as Voroshilovgrad (1935–1958 and 1970–1990) is a city near the eastern border of Ukraine and western Russia.
Luhansk Oblast (Луганська область, translit. Luhanśka oblastj, Луганская область, translit. Luganskaja oblastj; also referred to as Luhanshchyna, translit) is the easternmost oblast (province) of Ukraine.
The Luhansk People's Republic (Луганська Народна Республіка), also known as Lugansk People's Republic (lʊˈɡanskəjə nɐˈrodnəjə rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə), usually abbreviated as LPR or LNR, is a landlocked proto-state in eastern Ukraine.
Lviv (Львів; Львов; Lwów; Lemberg; Leopolis; see also other names) is the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh-largest city in the country overall, with a population of around 728,350 as of 2016.
Lviv Danylo Halytskyi International Airport (Міжнародний аеропорт "Львів" імені Данила Галицького) is an international airport in Lviv, Ukraine.
Lviv Oblast (Львівська область, translit. L’vivs’ka oblast’; also referred to as L’vivshchyna, Львівщина) is an oblast (province) in western Ukraine.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
Maidan Nezalezhnosti (Майдан Незалежності, literally: Independence Square) is the central square of Kiev, the capital city of Ukraine.
Maksym Sozontovych Berezovsky (Максим Созонтович Березовський) (c.27 October 1745 – 2 April 1777) was a Ukrainian composer, opera singer, and violinist.
Man with a Movie Camera (Человек с кино-аппаратом (Chelovek s kinoapparatom), Людина з кіноапаратом (Liudyna z Kinoaparatom) – sometimes called A Man with a Movie Camera, The Man with the Movie Camera, The Man with a Camera, The Man with the Kinocamera, or Living Russia) – is an experimental 1929 Soviet silent documentary film, directed by Dziga Vertov and edited by his wife Elizaveta Svilova.
Mariana Sadovska (born 1972, Lviv, Ukraine) is a German-based Ukrainian actress, singer, musician, recording artist, and composer.
Mariyinsky Palace (Маріїнський палац, Mariyins'kyi palats) is the official ceremonial residence of the President of Ukraine in Kiev and adjoins the neo-classical building of the Verkhovna Rada (parliament) of Ukraine.
A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
Mass graves in the Soviet Union were used for the burial of mass numbers of citizens and foreigners executed by the government of the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin.
The Massacre of Humań, or massacre of Uman (rzeź humańska; уманська різня or взяття Умані) was the 1768 massacre of the Jews, Poles and Ukrainian Uniates by haidamaks at the town of Humań (now Uman) in the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland.
The massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia (rzeź wołyńska, literally: Volhynian slaughter; Волинська трагедія., Volyn tragedy), were part of an ethnic cleansing operation carried out in Nazi German-occupied Poland by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) against Poles in the area of Volhynia, Polesia, Lublin region and Eastern Galicia beginning in 1943 and lasting up to 1945.
Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study.
Metropolitan France (France métropolitaine or la Métropole), also known as European France or Mainland France, is the part of France in Europe.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.
Milena Markovna "Mila" Kunis (born August 14, 1983) is an American actress.
The military history of the Russian Empire encompasses the history of armed conflict in which the Russian Empire participated.
Militsiya (mʲɪˈlʲitsɨjə, міліцыя, miilits, միլիցիա, милиция, milicija, milicija, milicja, miliția, milicija/милиција, milica, милитсия, міліція, militsiya or милиция), often confused with militia, was the name of the police forces in the Soviet Union and several Warsaw Pact countries, as well as in the non-aligned SFR Yugoslavia, and the term is still commonly used in some of the individual former Soviet republics such as Belarus, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, as well as in the unrecognized republics of Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Transnistria.
Milica Bogdanovna Jovovich (born December 17, 1975), known professionally as Milla Jovovich, is an American actress, model and musician.
The Ministry of Defence of Ukraine (Міністерство оборони України) was established on 24 September 1991, one month after Ukraine's declaration of independence resolution.
The Ministry of Energy and Coal Mining of Ukraine (Міністерство палива та енергетики України) is the main body in the system of central government responsible for realization of electric power-generating state policies; nuclear-industrial, and oil-gas complexes often referred simply as the Fuel-Energy Complex.
The Ministry of Healthcare of Ukraine (Міністерство охорони здоров'я України, МОЗ) is the main healthcare body in the system of central government.
The Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine (Ministerstvo vnutrishnikh sprav Ukrayiny, MVS) executes state policy for the protection of rights and liberties of citizens, investigates unlawful acts against the interest of society and state, fights crime, provides civil order, ensures civil security, traffic safety, and protects the security and protection of important individuals.
Modern rock is an umbrella term describing rock music made between the late 1970s to present day.
The Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Moldovan/Romanian: Republica Autonomă Sovietică Socialistă Moldovenească, or Република Аутономэ Советикэ Cочиалистэ Молдовеняскэ in Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet), shortened to Moldavian ASSR, was an autonomous republic of the Ukrainian SSR between 12 October 1924 and 2 August 1940, encompassing modern Transnistria (now, de jure, in Moldova, de facto, a breakaway state) and a number of territories that are now part of Ukraine.
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic (shortly: Moldavian SSR, abbr.: MSSR; Republica Sovietică Socialistă Moldovenească, in Cyrillic alphabet: Република Советикэ Сочиалистэ Молдовеняскэ; Молда́вская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика Moldavskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), also known to as Soviet Moldavia or Soviet Moldova, was one of the fifteen republics of the Soviet Union existed from 1940 to 1991.
Moldova (or sometimes), officially the Republic of Moldova (Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south (by way of the disputed territory of Transnistria).
Moldovans or Moldavians (in Moldovan/Romanian moldoveni; Moldovan Cyrillic: Молдовень) are the largest population group of the Republic of Moldova (75.1% of the population, as of 2014), and a significant minority in Ukraine and Russia.
Moldovans in Ukraine are the third biggest minority recorded in the 2001 All Ukrainian Census after Russians and Belarusians.
A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.
As part of the Mongol invasion of Europe, the Mongol Empire invaded Kievan Rus' in the 13th century, destroying numerous cities, including Ryazan, Kolomna, Moscow, Vladimir and Kiev.
Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (18 January 1689 – 10 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French judge, man of letters, and political philosopher.
Moorish Revival or Neo-Moorish is one of the exotic revival architectural styles that were adopted by architects of Europe and the Americas in the wake of the Romanticist fascination with all things oriental.
Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.
The Motor Sich Public Joint Stock Company (ВАТ «Мотор Січ») in Zaporizhia is one of the largest engine manufacturers for airplanes and helicopters worldwide.
Mstislav I Vladimirovich the Great (Мстислав Владимирович Великий, Мстислав Володимирович Великий, Мсціслаў Уладзіміравіч Вялікі) (June 1, 1076, Turov – April 14, 1132, Kiev) was the Grand Prince of Kiev (1125–1132), the eldest son of Vladimir II Monomakh by Gytha of Wessex.
The Multi-National Force – Iraq (MNF–I), often referred to as the coalition forces, was a military command during the 2003 invasion of Iraq and much of the ensuing Iraq War, led by the United States of America (Operation Iraqi Freedom), United Kingdom (Operation TELIC), Australia, Spain and Poland, responsible for conducting and handling military operations.
A municipality is usually a single urban or administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and state laws to which it is subordinate.
The content of Ukrainian music covers diverse and multiple component elements of the music that is found in the Western and Eastern musical civilization.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Mykhailo Petrovych Drahomanov (Михайло Петрович Драгоманов; September 18, 1841 in Hadiach – July 2, 1895 in Sofia) was a Ukrainian political theorist, economist, historian, philosopher, ethnographer and public figure in Kyiv.
Mykhaylo Vasylovich Semenko (Миха́йло Васи́льович Семе́нко) was a Ukrainian poet, the prominent representative of the Ukrainian futuristic poetry of 1920s.
Mykola Khvylovy (– May 13, 1933) was a Ukrainian writer and poet of the early Communist era Ukrainian Renaissance (1920–1930).
Mykola Kulish (Микола Гурович Куліш) (19 December 1892 – 3 November 1937) was a Ukrainian prose writer, playwright, pedagogue, veteran of World War I, and Red Army veteran.
Mykola Oleksiyovych Skrypnyk (Микола Олексійович Скрипник, also known as Nikolai Alekseevich Skrypnik, 25 January [O.S. 13 January, 1872 – 7 July 1933) was a Ukrainian Bolshevik leader who was a proponent of the Ukrainian Republic's independence, and led the cultural Ukrainization effort in Soviet Ukraine.
Mykolaiv (Микола́їв), also known as Nikolaev or Nikolayev (Никола́ев), is a city in southern Ukraine, the administrative center of the Mykolaiv Oblast.
Mykolaiv Oblast (Миколаївська область, Mykolajivśka oblasť; also referred to as Mykolaivshchyna, Миколаївщина), also known as Nikolaev or Nikolayev Oblast (Николаевская область, Nikoláyevskaya óblasť), is an oblast (province) of Ukraine.
Myroslav Mykhailovych Slaboshpytskyi (Мирослав Михайлович Слабошпицький; born October 17, 1974) is a Ukrainian film director.
Naftogaz of Ukraine (НАК "Нафтогаз України", Naftogaz Ukrayiny; literally "Petro-Gas of Ukraine") is the national oil and gas company of Ukraine.
The name "Ukraine" (Україна Ukrayina,Vkrayina) was first used to define part of the territory of Kievan Rus' in the 12th century.
All EU and EEA states and all the associated countries in Central and Eastern Europe and Cyprus have a designated National Academic Recognition Information Centre (NARIC), which provides a way to compare academic qualifications as part of the Bologna Process.
National Bank of Ukraine (Національний банк України) or NBU (НБУ) is the central bank of Ukraine – a government body responsible for unified state policy in the field of country's monetary circulation, including strengthening of national currency unit – hryvnia.
The National Democratic Institute (NDI), or National Democratic Institute for International Affairs, is a non-partisan, non-profit organization that works with partners in developing countries to increase the effectiveness of democratic institutions.
The National Endowment for Democracy (NED) is a U.S. non-profit soft power organization that was founded in 1983 with the stated goal of promoting democracy abroad.
National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.
Oleksandr Dovzhenko National Centre is a state enterprise that integrates the State Film Archive of Feature Films and the Film Copying Laboratory.
The Karazin University (Каразінський університет) or officially the V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University (Харківський національний університет імені В. Н. Каразіна) is one of the major universities in Ukraine, and earlier in the Russian Empire and Soviet Union.
National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy (NaUKMA) (Національний університет «Києво-Могилянська академія» (НаУКМА), Natsional'nyi universytet "Kyyevo-Mohylians'ka akademiya") is a national, coeducational research university located in Kiev, Ukraine.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
A nature reserve (also called a natural reserve, bioreserve, (natural/nature) preserve, or (national/nature) conserve) is a protected area of importance for wildlife, flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Neanderthals (also; also Neanderthal Man, taxonomically Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, who lived in Eurasia during at least 430,000 to 38,000 years ago.
Nemiroff was established in the year of 1992 as one of the first enterprises in Ukraine with foreign investments in the production of vodka.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Nestor Ivanovych Makhno or Bat'ko ("Father") Makhno (Не́стор Івáнович Махно́; October 26, 1888 (N.S. November 7) – July 25, 1934) was a Ukrainian anarcho-communist revolutionary and the commander of an independent anarchist army in Ukraine in 1917–22.
A neutral country is a state, which is either neutral towards belligerents in a specific war, or holds itself as permanently neutral in all future conflicts (including avoiding entering into military alliances such as NATO).
Newsweek is an American weekly magazine founded in 1933.
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.
Nikolai Ivanovich Yezhov,; May 1, 1895 – February 4, 1940) was a Soviet secret police official under Joseph Stalin who was head of the NKVD from 1936 to 1938, during the most active period of the Great Purge. Having presided over mass arrests and executions during the Great Purge, Yezhov eventually fell from Stalin's favour and power. He was arrested, confessed to a range of anti-Soviet activity, later claiming he was tortured into making these confessions, and was executed in 1940. By the beginning of World War II, his status within the Soviet Union had become that of enemy of the people.
Nizhyn Gogol State University (Ніжинський державний університет ім.) is an academic institution in Ukraine, located in Nizhyn, Chernihiv Oblast.
The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Народный комиссариат внутренних дел, Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del), abbreviated NKVD (НКВД), was the interior ministry of the Soviet Union.
Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.
Nonviolent resistance (NVR or nonviolent action) is the practice of achieving goals such as social change through symbolic protests, civil disobedience, economic or political noncooperation, satyagraha, or other methods, while being nonviolent.
North Caucasus Krai (Се́веро-Кавка́зский край, Severo-Kavkazskiy kray) was an administrative division (krai) within the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic of the Soviet Union.
The Novgorod Slavs or Ilmen Slavs (Ильменские словене, Il'menskiye slovene) were the northernmost tribe of the Early East Slavs, which inhabited the shores of Lake Ilmen and the basin of the rivers of Volkhov, Lovat, Msta, and the upper stream of the Mologa River in the 8th to 10th centuries.
Novorossiya (a; Noua Rusie), literally New Russia but sometimes called South Russia, is a historical term of the Russian Empire denoting a region north of the Black Sea (Now part of Ukraine).
Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.
A nuclear power plant or nuclear power station is a thermal power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
Prior to 1991, Ukraine was part of the Soviet Union and had Soviet nuclear weapons in its territory.
An oblast is a type of administrative division of Belarus, Bulgaria, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Ukraine, and the former Soviet Union and Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
An oblast (область), in English referred to as a region, refers to one of Ukraine's 24 primary administrative units.
Ochakiv also known as Ochakov (Очаків, Очаков, Özü, Oceacov and Vozia, and Alektor (Ἀλέκτορος in Greek) is a small city in Mykolaiv Oblast (region) of southern Ukraine. Serving as the administrative center of Ochakiv Raion (district), the city itself does not belong to the raion and is designated as a city of regional significance. Population: For many years the city-fortress served as a capital of the Ottoman province (eyalet).
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
Odesa International Film Festival (Одéський міжнарóдний кінофестивáль) is an annual film festival held in the middle of the July in Odesa, Ukraine.
Odessa (Оде́са; Оде́сса; אַדעס) is the third most populous city of Ukraine and a major tourism center, seaport and transportation hub located on the northwestern shore of the Black Sea.
Odessa International Airport (Міжнародний аеропорт «Одеса») is an international airport of Odessa, the third largest city of Ukraine, located southwest from its city centre.
Odessa Oblast (Одеська область, Odes’ka oblast’, Одесская область, Odesskaya oblast’) is an oblast or province of southwestern Ukraine located along the northern coast of the Black Sea, consisting of the eastern part of the historical region of Novorossiya, and the southern part of the historical region of Bessarabia (also known as Budjak), the latter being a former oblast incorporated into the Odessa Oblast, in 1954.
Odesa I. I. Mechnikov National University (Одеський національний університет імені І. І. Мечникова, Одесский национальный университет имени И. И. Мечникова), located in Odessa, Ukraine, is one of the country's major universities, named after the scientist Élie Metchnikoff (who studied immunology, microbiology, and evolutionary embryology), a Nobel prizewinner in 1908.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Okean Elzy (Океан Ельзи, translation: Elza's Ocean) is one of the most successful and popular Ukrainian rock bands.
Pontic Olbia (Ὀλβία Ποντική, Ольвія) or simply Olbia is an archaeological site of an ancient Greek city on the shore of the Southern Bug estuary (Hypanis or Ὕπανις) in Ukraine, near village of Parutyne.
Old Church Slavonic, also known as Old Church Slavic (or Ancient/Old Slavonic often abbreviated to OCS; (autonym словѣ́ньскъ ѩꙁꙑ́къ, slověnĭskŭ językŭ), not to be confused with the Proto-Slavic, was the first Slavic literary language. The 9th-century Byzantine missionaries Saints Cyril and Methodius are credited with standardizing the language and using it in translating the Bible and other Ancient Greek ecclesiastical texts as part of the Christianization of the Slavs. It is thought to have been based primarily on the dialect of the 9th century Byzantine Slavs living in the Province of Thessalonica (now in Greece). It played an important role in the history of the Slavic languages and served as a basis and model for later Church Slavonic traditions, and some Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches use this later Church Slavonic as a liturgical language to this day. As the oldest attested Slavic language, OCS provides important evidence for the features of Proto-Slavic, the reconstructed common ancestor of all Slavic languages.
Old Great Bulgaria or Great Bulgaria (Byzantine Greek: Παλαιά Μεγάλη Βουλγαρία, Palaiá Megálē Voulgaría), also often known by the Latin names Magna Bulgaria) and Patria Onoguria ("Onogur land"), was a 7th Century state formed by the Onogur Bulgars on the western Pontic Steppe (modern southern Ukraine and south-west Russia). Great Bulgaria was originally centred between the Dniester and lower Volga. The original capital was Phanagoriaon the Taman peninsula between the Black and Azov seas. In the mid-7th century, Great Bulgaria expanded west to include Avar territory and was centered in Poltava. During the late 7th century, however, an Avar-Slavic alliance in the west, and Khazars in the east, defeated the Bulgars and the Great Bulgaria disintegrated. Successor states included Volga Bulgaria and the First Bulgarian Empire.
Lviv's Old Town (translit; Stare Miasto we Lwowie) is the historic centre of the city of Lviv, within the Lviv Oblast (province) in Ukraine, recognized as the State Historic-Architectural Sanctuary in 1975.
Oleh Volodymyrovych Blokhin (Оле́г Володи́мирович Блохі́н, Оле́г Влади́мирович Блохи́н; born 5 November 1952 in Kiev) is a former Ukrainian football player and manager.
Oleksandr Valentynovych Turchynov (Олександр Валентинович Турчинов; born 31 March 1964) is a Ukrainian politician, screenwriter, Baptist minister and economist.
Oleksandr (Oles) Terentiyovych Honchar (Олесь Гончар) (April 3, 1918 in near Katerynoslav – December 12, 1995 in Kiev), was a Ukrainian and Soviet writer and public figure fighting for the reinstatement of the Ukrainian culture in the Soviet society after its abolition by the establishment.
Olga Konstantynivna Kurylenko (born 14 November 1979) is a French actress and model.
Open Society Foundations (OSF), formerly the Open Society Institute, is an international grantmaking network founded by business magnate George Soros.
openDemocracy is a United Kingdom-based political website.
EU NAVFOR Somalia, also known as Operation Atalanta, is a current counter-piracy military operation at sea off the Horn of Africa and in the Western Indian Ocean, that is the first undertaken by the European Union Naval Force.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
Oral literature or folk literature corresponds in the sphere of the spoken (oral) word to literature as literature operates in the domain of the written word.
The Orange Revolution (Помаранчева революція, Pomarancheva revolyutsiya) was a series of protests and political events that took place in Ukraine from late November 2004 to January 2005, in the immediate aftermath of the run-off vote of the 2004 Ukrainian presidential election, which was claimed to be marred by massive corruption, voter intimidation and direct electoral fraud.
Orest Subtelny (О́рест Субте́льний, 7 May 1941 – 24 July 2016) was a Polish-Canadian historian.
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization.
The Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) (Організація Українських Націоналістів, (ОУН), Orhanizatsiya Ukrayins'kykh Natsionalistiv) was a Ukrainian nationalist political organization established in 1929 in Vienna; it first operated in Western Ukraine (at the time part of interwar Poland).
Orthodoxy (from Greek ὀρθοδοξία orthodoxía "right opinion") is adherence to correct or accepted creeds, especially in religion.
Ostarbeiter ("Eastern worker") was a Nazi German designation for foreign slave workers gathered from occupied Central and Eastern Europe to perform forced labor in Germany during World War II.
Ostroh (Остро́г; Остро́г, Ostrog; Ostróg) is a historic city located in Rivne Oblast (province) of western Ukraine, on the Horyn River.
Ostroh Academy was an academy located in Ostroh, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Ottoman wars in Europe were a series of military conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and various European states dating from the Late Middle Ages up through the early 20th century.
The Our Ukraine–People's Self-Defense Bloc (Блок Наша Україна–Народна Самооборона, Blok Nasha Ukrayina-Narodna Samooborona, NUNS; until 2007 named Our Ukraine Bloc) was an electoral alliance active in Ukraine from 2001 until 2012, associated with former President Viktor Yushchenko.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Ukraine: Ukraine – country in Eastern Europe.
Oxford Analytica is an international consulting firm providing strategic analysis of world events.
The Oxford Institute for Energy Studies is an energy research institution which was founded in 1982, and serves a worldwide audience with its research, guides understanding of all major energy issues.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Paris Peace Treaties (Traité de Paris) was signed on 10 February 1947, as the outcome of the Paris Peace Conference, held from 29 July to 15 October 1946.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.
The Partnership for Peace (PfP) is a North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) program aimed at creating trust between NATO and other states in Europe and the former Soviet Union; 21 states are members.
The Party of Regions (Партія регіонів, pronounced; Партия регионов) is a pro-Russia political party of Ukraine created in late 1997 that then grew to be the biggest party of Ukraine between 2006 and 2014.
A political party platform or program is a formal set of principle goals which are supported by a political party or individual candidate, in order to appeal to the general public, for the ultimate purpose of garnering the general public's support and votes about complicated topics or issues.
Paska (Ukrainian: Пáска "Easter", Georgian: პასკა "Easter", ultimately from פסחא "Passover") is a Ukrainian Easter bread eaten in Eastern European countries including Ukraine, south Russia, Armenia, Romania, Moldova, Slovakia, Georgia and parts of Bulgaria as well as the Assyrian–Chaldean–Syriac diaspora.
Paul Robert Magocsi (born January 26, 1945, Englewood, New Jersey, United States) is an American professor of history, political science, and Chair of Ukrainian Studies at the University of Toronto.
Pavol Demeš (born in 1956) is a Transatlantic Fellow at the German Marshall Fund's Bratislava office.
The Peace of Riga, also known as the Treaty of Riga (Traktat Ryski), was signed in Riga on 18 March 1921, between Poland, Soviet Russia (acting also on behalf of Soviet Belarus) and Soviet Ukraine.
Peacekeeping refers to activities intended to create conditions that favour lasting peace.
Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi (Перея́слав-Хмельни́цький, translit. Pereyáslav-Khmel′nýts′kyi; also referred to as Pereyaslav-Khmelnytskyy) is an ancient city in the Kiev Oblast (province) of central Ukraine, located on the confluence of Alta and Trubizh rivers some south of the nation's capital Kiev.
The Pereyaslav Council (Переяславская рада), was an official meeting that convened for ceremonial pledge of allegiance by Cossacks to the Tsar of Muscovy in the town of Pereyaslav (now Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi in central Ukraine) in January 1654.
Petro Dorofeyevych Doroshenko (Петро Дорошенко, Пётр Дорофе́евич Дороше́нко, Piotr Doroszenko; 1627–1698) was a Cossack political and military leader, Hetman of Right-bank Ukraine (1665–1672) and a Russian voyevoda.
Petro Oleksiyovych Poroshenko (Петро́ Олексі́йович Пороше́нко,; born 26 September 1965) is the fifth and current President of Ukraine (excluding acting president Oleksandr Turchynov), in office since 2014.
The Petro Poroshenko Bloc "Solidarity" (Блок Петра Порошенка «Солідарність», Blok Petra Poroshenka «Solidarnist'»), is a political party in Ukraine, formed on 27 August 2014.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
PFTS index is a benchmark index of PFTS Ukraine Stock Exchange, Ukraine's leading bourse.
The PFTS Stock Exchange is a leading stock exchange in Ukraine that for a long time (until 2006) legally was considered as a trading system, hence its name the First Stock Trading System (PFTS).
Physical education, also known as Phys Ed., PE, gym, or gym class, and known in many Commonwealth countries as physical training or PT, is an educational course related of maintaining the human body through physical exercises (i.e. calisthenics).
Pierogi (singular pieróg), also known as varenyky, are filled dumplings of Eastern European origin made by wrapping unleavened dough around a savory or sweet filling and cooking in boiling water.
A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic and production plans.
Podolia or Podilia (Подíлля, Podillja, Подо́лье, Podolʹje., Podolya, Podole, Podolien, Podolė) is a historic region in Eastern Europe, located in the west-central and south-western parts of Ukraine and in northeastern Moldova (i.e. northern Transnistria).
The Podole Voivodeship (Województwo podolskie, Подільське воєводство) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Kingdom of Poland, since 1434 until 1793/1795, except for the period of Ottoman occupation (1672–1699) as Podolia Eyalet.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Polans (Polyany), also Polianians, were an East Slavic tribe between the 6th and the 9th century, which inhabited both sides of the Dnieper river from Liubech to Rodnia and also down the lower streams of the rivers Ros', Sula, Stuhna, Teteriv, Irpin', Desna and Pripyat.
Pole vaulting is a track and field event in which a person uses a long flexible pole (which today is usually made either of fiberglass or carbon fiber) as an aid to jump over a bar.
The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
The Polish minority in Ukraine officially numbers about 144,130 (according to the 2001 census), (Розподіл населення окремих національностей за іншими мовами, крім рідної, якими володіють), Ukrainian Statistical Bureau (Державний комітет статистики України).
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
The Polish–Lithuanian–Ruthenian Commonwealth (Rzeczpospolita Trojga Narodów, Commonwealth of Three Nations) was a proposed (but never actually formed) European state in the 17th century that would have replaced the existing Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Polish–Ukrainian Peace Force Battalion (POLUKRBAT) or Ukrainian-Polish Peace Force Battalion (UKRPOLBAT) is a Polish-Ukrainian peacekeeping battalion, formed in the late 1990s expressly "for participation in international peace-keeping and humanitarian operations under the auspices of international organizations".
The Polish–Ukrainian War of 1918 and 1919 was a conflict between the Second Polish Republic and Ukrainian forces (both West Ukrainian People's Republic and Ukrainian People's Republic).
Polonization (or Polonisation; polonizacja)In Polish historiography, particularly pre-WWII (e.g., L. Wasilewski. As noted in Смалянчук А. Ф. (Smalyanchuk 2001) Паміж краёвасцю і нацыянальнай ідэяй. Польскі рух на беларускіх і літоўскіх землях. 1864–1917 г. / Пад рэд. С. Куль-Сяльверставай. – Гродна: ГрДУ, 2001. – 322 с. (2004). Pp.24, 28.), an additional distinction between the Polonization (polonizacja) and self-Polonization (polszczenie się) has been being made, however, most modern Polish researchers don't use the term polszczenie się.
Poltava (Полтава; Полтава) is a city located on the Vorskla River in central Ukraine.
Poltava Oblast (Полтавська область, translit. Poltavs’ka oblast’; also referred to as Poltavshchyna – Полтавщина) is an oblast (province) of central Ukraine.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Populated places in Ukraine (Населенні пункти) are systematized into two major categories: urban and rural.
Population transfer in the Soviet Union refers to forced transfer of various groups from the 1930s up to the 1950s ordered by Joseph Stalin and may be classified into the following broad categories: deportations of "anti-Soviet" categories of population (often classified as "enemies of workers"), deportations of entire nationalities, labor force transfer, and organized migrations in opposite directions to fill the ethnically cleansed territories.
Pora! (Пора!), meaning It's time! in Ukrainian, is a civic youth organization (Black Pora!) and political party in Ukraine (Yellow Pora!) espousing nonviolent resistance and advocating increased national democracy.
The Port of Odessa or Odessa Sea Port (Одеський морський порт, Odes'kyi morskyi port) — located near Odessa — is the largest Ukrainian seaport and one of the largest ports in the Black Sea basin, with a total annual traffic capacity of 40 million tonnes (15 million tonnes dry bulk and 25 million tonnes liquid bulk).
The post-Soviet states, also collectively known as the former Soviet Union (FSU) or former Soviet Republics, are the states that emerged and re-emerged from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its breakup in 1991, with Russia internationally recognised as the successor state to the Soviet Union after the Cold War.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
The President of Ukraine (Президент України, Prezydent Ukrayiny) is the Ukrainian head of state.
President of the Ukrainian People's Republic in exile (Президент УНР в екзилі) was an official position of the Ukrainian government-in-exile after World War II.
The Tale of Past Years (Повѣсть времѧньныхъ лѣтъ, Pověstĭ Vremęnĭnyhŭ Lětŭ) or Primary Chronicle is a history of Kievan Rus' from about 850 to 1110, originally compiled in Kiev about 1113.
The Prime Minister of Ukraine (Прем'єр-міністр України, Prem'ier-ministr Ukrayiny) is Ukraine's head of government, presiding over the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, which is the highest body of the executive branch of the Ukrainian government.
A principality (or princedom) can either be a monarchical feudatory or a sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a monarch with the title of prince or by a monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince.
Principality of Halych (Галицьке князівство, Галицкоє кънѧжьство, Cnezatul Halici) was a Kievan Rus' principality established by members of the oldest line of Yaroslav the Wise descendants.
Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
PrivatBank (ПриватБанк) is the largest commercial bank in Ukraine, in terms of the number of clients, assets value, loan portfolio and taxes paid to the national budget.
Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.
A prosecutor is a legal representative of the prosecution in countries with either the common law adversarial system, or the civil law inquisitorial system.
The Prosecutor General of Ukraine (also Attorney General of Ukraine, Генеральний прокурор України) heads the system of official prosecution in courts known as the Office of the Prosecutor General of Ukraine (Генеральна прокуратура України).
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Protestants in Ukraine number about 600,000 to 700,000 (2007), about 2% of the total population.
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
Pylyp Stepanovych Orlyk (Пилип Степанович Орлик, Filip Orlik) (born on October 11, 1672 in Kosuta, Ashmyany county, Grand Duchy of Lithuania (today in Vileyka Raion, Belarus), died on May 26, 1742 in Jassy, Principality of Moldavia (today Iaşi, Romania) was a Zaporozhian Cossack starshyna, Hetman of Ukraine in exile, diplomat, secretary and close associate of Hetman Ivan Mazepa. Founder of the first Constitution in Europe.
A pysanka (писанка, plural: pysanky) is a Ukrainian Easter egg, decorated with traditional Ukrainian folk designs using a wax-resist method.
Robert William "Bob" Davies, best known as R. W. Davies, (born 23 April 1925) is professor emeritus of Soviet Economic Studies, University of Birmingham.
The Radimichs (also Radimichi) (Radymicze in Polish, Радзiмiчы in Belarusian, Радимичи in Russian; Радимичі in Ukrainian) were a Slavic tribe of the last few centuries of the 1st millennium, which inhabited upper east parts of the Dnieper down the Sozh River and its tributaries.
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a broadcasting organization that broadcasts and reports news, information, and analysis to countries in Eastern Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East where it says that "the free flow of information is either banned by government authorities or not fully developed".
UA:Radio Ukraine (UA:Українське радіо) is the part of UA:PBC of radio broadcasting, which was the publicly funded radio broadcaster in Ukraine which has merged with the country's national broadcaster.
Rail freight transport is the use of railroads and trains to transport cargo as opposed to human passengers.
Rail transport in Ukraine is a mode of transport by railroad in Ukraine.
A raion (also rayon) is a type of administrative unit of several post-Soviet states (such as part of an oblast).
Razumkov Centre (Центр Разумкова), or fully the Ukrainian Centre for Economic and Political Studies named after Olexander Razumkov (Український центр економічних і політичних досліджень імені Олександра Разумкова), is a Ukrainian non-governmental public policy think tank.
Real Gross Domestic Product (real GDP) is a macroeconomic measure of the value of economic output adjusted for price changes (i.e., inflation or deflation).
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Registered Cossacks (Kozacy rejestrowi) comprised special Cossack units of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth army in the 16th and 17th centuries.
During World War II, Reichskommissariat Ukraine (abbreviated as RKU), was the civilian occupation regime (Reichskommissariat) of much of Nazi German-occupied Ukraine (which included adjacent areas of modern-day Belarus and pre-war Second Polish Republic).
Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.
Research & Branding Group (Дослідницька та бренд-консалтингова компанія) is a Ukrainian non-governmental marketing and sociological research company.
The Residence of Bukovinian and Dalmatian Metropolitans in Chernivtsi, Ukraine was built between the years 1864 - 1882 to the designs of the Czech architect Josef Hlávka.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
The Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine (Революційна Повстанська Армія України), also known as the Black Army or simply as Makhnovshchyna (Махновщина.), was an anarchist army formed largely of Ukrainian peasants and workers under the command of the famous anarchist Nestor Makhno during the Russian Civil War of 1917–1922.
Rinat Leonidovych Akhmetov (Ріна́т Леоні́дович Ахме́тов, Рина́т Леони́дович Ахме́тов, Ринат Леонид улы Әхмәтов; Rinat Leonid ulı Äxmätov; born on 21 September 1966) is a Ukrainian businessman, philanthropist, and oligarch.
Rivne Oblast (Рівненська область, translit. Rivnenska oblast, Obwód rówieński) is an oblast (province) of Ukraine.
Roman Mstislavich (Роман Мстиславич; Роман Мстиславич/Roman Mstyslavych), known as Roman the Great (c. 1152 – Zawichost, 19 June 1205) was a Rus’ prince, Grand Prince of Kiev (a member of the Rurik dynasty).
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
The Romanians (români or—historically, but now a seldom-used regionalism—rumâni; dated exonym: Vlachs) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to Romania, that share a common Romanian culture, ancestry, and speak the Romanian language, the most widespread spoken Eastern Romance language which is descended from the Latin language. According to the 2011 Romanian census, just under 89% of Romania's citizens identified themselves as ethnic Romanians. In one interpretation of the census results in Moldova, the Moldovans are counted as Romanians, which would mean that the latter form part of the majority in that country as well.Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook By David Levinson, Published 1998 – Greenwood Publishing Group.At the time of the 1989 census, Moldova's total population was 4,335,400. The largest nationality in the republic, ethnic Romanians, numbered 2,795,000 persons, accounting for 64.5 percent of the population. Source:: "however it is one interpretation of census data results. The subject of Moldovan vs Romanian ethnicity touches upon the sensitive topic of", page 108 sqq. Romanians are also an ethnic minority in several nearby countries situated in Central, respectively Eastern Europe, particularly in Hungary, Czech Republic, Ukraine (including Moldovans), Serbia, and Bulgaria. Today, estimates of the number of Romanian people worldwide vary from 26 to 30 million according to various sources, evidently depending on the definition of the term 'Romanian', Romanians native to Romania and Republic of Moldova and their afferent diasporas, native speakers of Romanian, as well as other Eastern Romance-speaking groups considered by most scholars as a constituent part of the broader Romanian people, specifically Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians, Istro-Romanians, and Vlachs in Serbia (including medieval Vlachs), in Croatia, in Bulgaria, or in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
This article represents an overview on the history of Romanians in Ukraine, including those Romanians of Northern Bukovina, Zakarpattia Oblast, and Budjak in Odessa Oblast, but also those Romanophones in the territory between the Dniester River and the Southern Bug River, who traditionally have not inhabited any Romanian state (nor Transnistria), but have been an integral part of the history of modern Ukraine, and are considered natives to the area.
Romantic nationalism (also national romanticism, organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of nationalism in which the state derives its political legitimacy as an organic consequence of the unity of those it governs.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
Rosatom, (r) stylized as ROSATOM and also known as the Rosatom State Nuclear Energy Corporation, the State Atomic Energy Corporation Rosatom, or the Rosatom State Corporation, is a Russian state corporation headquartered in Moscow that specializes in nuclear energy.
Roshen Confectionery Corporation (Kondyterska Korporatsiya «Roshen») is a Ukrainian confectionery manufacturing group, controlled by Petro Poroshenko.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Royal Dutch Shell plc, commonly known as Shell, is a British–Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in the Netherlands and incorporated in the United Kingdom.
Rugby league football is a full-contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular field.
The Rurik dynasty, or Rurikids (Рю́риковичи, Ryúrikovichi; Рю́риковичі, Ryúrykovychi; Ру́рыкавічы, Rúrykavichi, literally "sons of Rurik"), was a dynasty founded by the Varangian prince Rurik, who established himself in Novgorod around the year AD 862.
The Rus (Русь, Ῥῶς) were an early medieval group, who lived in a large area of what is now Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and other countries, and are the ancestors of modern East Slavic peoples.
Rushnyk, Rushnik (рушник, ручнік, ručnik, рушник, ручник) is a ritual cloth embroidered with symbols and cryptograms of the ancient world.
Ruslan Olegovich Ponomariov (Русла́н Оле́гович Пономарьо́в, Ruslan Olehovych Ponomar'ov; born 11 October 1983) is a Ukrainian chess grandmaster.
Ruslana Stepanivna Lyzhychko (Руслана Степанівна Лижичко, Ruslana Lyžyčko; born 24 May 1973), known mononymously as Ruslana, is a World Music Award and Eurovision Song Contest winning artist, holding the title of People's Artist of Ukraine.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russia–Ukraine gas disputes refer to a number of disputes between Ukrainian oil and gas company Naftohaz Ukrayiny and Russian gas supplier Gazprom over natural gas supplies, prices, and debts.
Russia–Ukraine relations (Українсько-російські відносини, Российско-украинские отношения) are Bilateral relations or Foreign relations between the sovereign states of Russia and Ukraine.
Russian architecture follows a tradition whose roots were in war Kievan Rus'.
The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian famine of 1921–22, also known as Povolzhye famine, was a severe famine in Russia which began in early spring of 1921 and lasted through 1922.
The Russian Far East (p) comprises the Russian part of the Far East - the extreme eastern territory of Russia, between Lake Baikal in Eastern Siberia and the Pacific Ocean.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Russian language is the most common first language in the Donbass and Crimea regions of Ukraine, and the predominant language in large cities in the East and South of the country.
The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.
The Russian Republic (p) was a short-lived state that controlled, de jure, the territory of the former Russian Empire between its proclamation by the Russian Provisional Government on 1 September (14 September) in a decree signed by Alexander Kerensky as Minister-President and Alexander Zarudny as Minister of Justice.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
Russians in Ukraine (Росіяни в Україні, Rosiyany v Ukrayini; Русские в Украине, Russkiye v Ukrainye) – the largest ethnic minority in the country, which community forms the largest single Russian diaspora in the world.
Russification (Русификация), or Russianization, is a form of cultural assimilation process during which non-Russian communities, voluntarily or not, give up their culture and language in favor of the Russian one.
The Russo-Crimean Wars were fought between the forces of Muscovy and the Tatars of the Crimean Khanate during the 16th century over the region around Volga River.
The Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774 was an armed conflict that brought Kabardia, the part of the Yedisan between the rivers Bug and Dnieper, and Crimea into the Russian sphere of influence.
Russophilia (literally love of Russia or Russians) is individual or collective admiration of Russia and Russian culture.
Ruthenia (Рѹ́сь (Rus) and Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ (Rus'kaya zemlya), Ῥωσία, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia, Roxolania, Garðaríki) is a proper geographical exonym for Kievan Rus' and other, more local, historical states.
Rybalskyi Island (Рибальський півострів, translit.; literally: Fisherman's island) is a misnomer for an actual peninsula on the Dnieper River, located in the right-bank Podil neighborhood and Kiev Harbour of the city of Kiev.
Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kiev is an outstanding architectural monument of Kievan Rus'.
Sanoma Corporation (Finnish: Sanoma Oyj, formerly SanomaWSOY) is a leading media group in the Nordic countries with operations in over 10 European countries, based in Helsinki.
The Sarmatians (Sarmatae, Sauromatae; Greek: Σαρμάται, Σαυρομάται) were a large Iranian confederation that existed in classical antiquity, flourishing from about the 5th century BC to the 4th century AD.
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Scythia (Ancient Greek: Σκυθική, Skythikē) was a region of Central Eurasia in classical antiquity, occupied by the Eastern Iranian Scythians, encompassing Central Asia and parts of Eastern Europe east of the Vistula River, with the eastern edges of the region vaguely defined by the Greeks.
or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.
The Sea of Azov (Азо́вское мо́ре, Azóvskoje móre; Азо́вське мо́ре, Azóvśke móre; Azaq deñizi, Азакъ денъизи, ازاق دﻩﯕىزى) is a sea in Eastern Europe.
The second Azarov government (Другий уряд Миколи Азарова Druhyi uryad Mykoly Azarova) was Ukraine's government from December 24, 2012 to January 28, 2014.
The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).
Second Yanukovych Government was a governing coalition of the Party of Regions, the Communist Party and the Socialist Party in Ukraine after the Ukrainian parliamentary election, 2006 and the 2006 Ukrainian political crisis.
The term secret police (or political police)Ilan Berman & J. Michael Waller, "Introduction: The Centrality of the Secret Police" in Dismantling Tyranny: Transitioning Beyond Totalitarian Regimes (Rowman & Littlefield, 2006), p. xv.
The Security Service of Ukraine (Служба Безпеки України (СБУ); Sluzhba Bezpeky Ukrayiny) or SBU, is Ukraine's law-enforcement authority and main government security agency in the areas of counterintelligence activity and combatting terrorism.
The Sejm of the Republic of Poland (Sejm Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) is the lower house of the Polish parliament.
A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible for the legislature of a state.
The separation of powers is a model for the governance of a state.
Serfdom is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism.
Sergei Fedorovich Bondarchuk (Серге́й Фё́дорович Бондарчу́к; Ukrainian: Сергі́й Фе́дорович Бондарчу́к, Serhiy Fedorovych Bondarchuk; 25 September 192020 October 1994) was a Soviet film director, screenwriter and actor.
Sergei Loznitsa (Сяргей Уладзіміравіч Лазніца, Серге́й Влади́мирович Лозни́ца, Сергій Володимирович Лозниця) (born 5 September 1964) is a Ukrainian director known for his documentary as well as dramatic films.
Sergei Parajanov (Սերգեյ Փարաջանով; Серге́й Ио́сифович Параджа́нов; სერგო ფარაჯანოვი; Сергій Йо́сипович Параджа́нов; sometimes spelled Paradzhanov or Paradjanov; January 9, 1924 – July 20, 1990) was a Soviet film director and artist of Armenian descent who made significant contributions to Soviet cinematography through Ukrainian, Georgian, and Armenian cinema.
Sergei Nikolayevich Popkov (Серге́й Николаевич Попков; born July 28, 1963) is a Russian professional football coach and a former player.
Serhii Nazarovych Bubka (Сергій Назарович Бубка; Сергей Назарович Бубка, Sergey Nazarovich Bubka; born 4 December 1963) is a Ukrainian former pole vaulter.
Sevastopol (Севастополь; Севасто́поль; Акъяр, Aqyar), traditionally Sebastopol, is the largest city on the Crimean Peninsula and a major Black Sea port.
The Seven Natural Wonders of Ukraine (Сім природніх чудес України, Sim pryrodnikh Tchudes Ukrainy) is the selection of the most popular and unique natural landmarks in Ukraine, as the second stage of the Seven Wonders of Ukraine national program.
The Seven Wonders of Ukraine (Сім чудес України) are the seven historical and cultural monuments of Ukraine, which were chosen in the Seven Wonders of Ukraine contest held in July, 2007.
The Severians or Severyans or Siverians (Северяне; Сiверяни; Севяране; Сeверяни) were a tribe or tribal union of early East Slavs occupying areas to the east of the middle Dnieper river, and Danube.
Shale gas is natural gas that is found trapped within shale formations.
Shche ne vmerly Ukrainy ni slava ni volya (ˈʃtʃɛ ne u̯merˈlɪ ukrɐˈjina ni slɐˈβɑ ni ˈβɔlʲɐ|lit.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
The Siege of Kiev by the Mongols took place between November 28 and December 6, 1240, and resulted in a Mongol victory.
Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa.
Skiing can be a means of transport, a recreational activity or a competitive winter sport in which the participant uses skis to glide on snow.
Slave raiding is a military raid for the purpose of capturing people and bringing them out of the raid area to serve as slaves.
Slavutych (Славу́тич) is a city in northern Ukraine, purposely built for the evacuated personnel of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant after the 1986 disaster that occurred near the city of Pripyat.
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
Smetana is one of the names for a range of sour creams from Central and Eastern Europe.
In hydrology, snowmelt is surface runoff produced from melting snow.
Socialist realism is a style of idealized realistic art that was developed in the Soviet Union and was imposed as the official style in that country between 1932 and 1988, as well as in other socialist countries after World War II.
RATING (РЕЙТИНГ), or fully the Sociological group "RATING" (Соціологічнна група «Рейтинг»), is a Ukrainian non-governmental polling organization.
Solar energy is radiant light and heat from the Sun that is harnessed using a range of ever-evolving technologies such as solar heating, photovoltaics, solar thermal energy, solar architecture, molten salt power plants and artificial photosynthesis.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
The South Slavs are a subgroup of Slavic peoples who speak the South Slavic languages.
South Sudan, officially known as the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa.
Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe is a geographical region of Europe, consisting primarily of the coterminous Balkan peninsula.
The Southern Bug, also called Southern Buh (Південний Буг, Pivdennyi Buh; Южный Буг, Yuzhny Bug), and sometimes Boh River, is a navigable river located in Ukraine.
Southern Ukraine (Південна Україна, Pivdenna Ukrayina) refers, generally, to the territories in the South of Ukraine.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
Soviets (singular: soviet; sovét,, literally "council" in English) were political organizations and governmental bodies, primarily associated with the Russian Revolutions and the history of the Soviet Union, and which gave the name to the latter state.
On the basis of a secret clause of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, the Soviet Union invaded Poland on September 17, 1939, capturing the eastern provinces of the Second Polish Republic.
The Soviet Army (SA; Советская Армия, Sovetskaya Armiya) is the name given to the main land-based branch of the Soviet Armed Forces between February 1946 and December 1991, when it was replaced with the Russian Ground Forces, although it was not taken fully out of service until 25 December 1993.
Soviet montage theory is an approach to understanding and creating cinema that relies heavily upon editing (montage is French for "assembly" or "editing").
The Soviet partisans were members of resistance movements that fought a guerrilla war against the Axis forces in the Soviet Union, the previously Soviet-occupied territories of interwar Poland in 1941–45 and eastern Finland.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Soviet Union national football team (сбо́рная Сове́тского Сою́за по футбо́лу, sbornaya Sovyetskogo Soyuza po futbolu) was the national football team of the Soviet Union.
The specialist degree is an academic degree conferred by a college or university.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
The speckled ground squirrel or spotted souslik (Spermophilus suslicus) is a species of rodent in the family Sciuridae.
Sports such as football and wrestling have been popular in Ukraine since the 19th century.
The Saint Andrew's Church (Андріївська церква, Andriyivs'ka tserkva; Андреевская церковь, Andreyevskaya tserkov) is a major Baroque church located in Kiev, the capital of Ukraine.
Stalinist architecture, also referred to as Stalinist Empire style or Socialist Classicism, is a term given to architecture of the Soviet Union under the leadership of Joseph Stalin, between 1933, when Boris Iofan's draft for Palace of the Soviets was officially approved, and 1955, when Nikita Khrushchev condemned "excesses" of the past decades and disbanded the Soviet Academy of Architecture.
Staraya Ladoga (p); Vanha Laatokka; Aldeigjuborg) is a rural locality (a selo) in Volkhovsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the Volkhov River near Lake Ladoga, north of the town of Volkhov, the administrative center of the district. It used to be a prosperous trading outpost in the 8th and 9th centuries. A multi-ethnic settlement, it was dominated by Scandinavians who were called by the name of Rus'. For that reason, it is sometimes called the first capital of Russia.
State Border Guard Service of Ukraine (Державна Прикордонна Служба України, Derzhavna Prykordonna Sluzhba Ukrayiny; abbr. ДПСУ, DPSU) or SBGS is the border guard of Ukraine.
State Border of Ukraine (Державний кордон України, Derzhavnyi Kordon Ukrayiny, for brevity - DerzhKordon) is an international boundary of the state territory of Ukraine.
The State Political Directorate (also translated as the State Political Administration) (GPU) was the intelligence service and secret police of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) from February 6, 1922 to December 29, 1922 and the Soviet Union from December 29, 1922 until November 15, 1923.
The State Space Agency of Ukraine (SSAU; Державне космічне агентство України, Derzhavne kosmichne ahentstvo Ukrayiny, ДКАУ, DKAU) is the Ukrainian government agency responsible for space policy and programs.
State Statistics Committee of Ukraine (Державний Комітет Статистики України, Derzhavnyi Komitet Statystyky Ukrainy) is the government agency responsible for collection and dissemination of statistics in Ukraine.
A stateless society is a society that is not governed by a state, or, especially in common American English, has no government.
Status quo is a Latin phrase meaning the existing state of affairs, particularly with regard to social or political issues.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
Stefan Yavorsky (Стефа́н Яво́рский, Стефа́н Яво́рський), born Simeon Ivanovich Yavorsky (Симеон Иванович Яворский) (1658), was an archbishop and statesman in the Russian Empire and the first president of the Most Holy Synod.
Stephen G. Wheatcroft (born 1 June 1947) is professor of the School of Historical Studies, University of Melbourne.
In physical geography, a steppe (p) is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes.
The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and temperate zones (normally referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator.
The Summer Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques d'été) or the Games of the Olympiad, first held in 1896, is an international multi-sport event that is hosted by a different city every four years.
Sumy Oblast (Сумська область, translit. Sums’ka oblast; also referred to as Sumshchyna – Сумщина) is an oblast (province) in the northeastern part of Ukraine.
The Supreme Court of Ukraine (Верховний Суд України, Verkhovny Sud Ukrayiny) is the highest judicial body in the system of courts of general jurisdiction in Ukraine.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
The szlachta (exonym: Nobility) was a legally privileged noble class in the Kingdom of Poland, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Ruthenia, Samogitia (both after Union of Lublin became a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth) and the Zaporozhian Host.
Taras Hryhorovych Shevchenko (–) was a Ukrainian poet, writer, artist, public and political figure, as well as folklorist and ethnographer.
The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
The Taurida Governorate (Таврическая губернія, modern spelling Таврическая губерния, Tavricheskaya guberniya; Таврiйська губернія, Tavrijśka gubernija; Tavrida guberniyası, Таврида губерниясы) or the Government of Taurida was an historical governorate of the Russian Empire.
On 14 October 2009, Ukraine switched to the dialing conventions common in the European Union.
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
Ternopil Oblast (Тернопільська область, translit. Ternopilska oblast; also referred to as Ternopilshchyna - Тернопільщина, Obwód Tarnopolski) is an oblast (province) of Ukraine.
A territorial dispute is a disagreement over the possession/control of land between two or more territorial entities or over the possession or control of land, usually between a new state and the occupying power.
Tertiary education, also referred to as third stage, third level, and postsecondary education, is the educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education.
Textile arts are arts and crafts that use plant, animal, or synthetic fibers to construct practical or decorative objects.
Den (День, The Day) is a Kiev-based, centrist daily broadsheet newspaper.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The New York Review of Books (or NYREV or NYRB) is a semi-monthly magazine with articles on literature, culture, economics, science and current affairs.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Ruin (translit) is a historical term introduced by the Cossack chronicle writer Samiylo Velychko (1670-1728) for the political situation in Ukrainian history during the second half of 17th century.
The Spirit of the Laws (French: De l'esprit des lois, originally spelled De l'esprit des loix; also sometimes translated The Spirit of Laws) is a treatise on political theory, as well as a pioneering work in comparative law, published in 1748 by Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu.
The Ukrainian Week (Український Тиждень, Тиждень.ua) is an illustrated weekly magazine covering politics, economics and the arts and aimed at the socially engaged Ukrainian-language reader.
The Ukrainian Weekly is the oldest English-language newspaper of the Ukrainian diaspora in the United States, and North America.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
Feofan/Theophan Prokopovich (18 June 1681, Kiev, Cossack Hetmanate, protectorate of Tsardom of Russia — 19 September 1736, St. Petersburg, Russian Empire) was a Ukrainian-born Russian theologian, writer, poet, mathematician, philosopher, rector of the Kiev-Mogila Academy, and Archbishop of Novgorod.
A thermal power station is a power station in which heat energy is converted to electric power.
A think tank, think factory or policy institute is a research institute/center and organisation that performs research and advocacy concerning topics such as social policy, political strategy, economics, military, technology, and culture.
Timothy David Snyder (born 1969) is an American author and historian specializing in the history of Central and Eastern Europe, and the Holocaust.
The Tivertsi (Тиверці, Тиверцы, Tiverți), were a tribe of early East Slavs or of the ancestors of Romanians which lived in the lands near the Dniester, and probably the lower Danube, that is in modern-day western Ukraine and Moldova and possibly in eastern Romania and southern Odessa oblast of Ukraine.
The torban (торбан, also teorban or Ukrainian theorbo) is a Ukrainian musical instrument that combines the features of the Baroque Lute with those of the psaltery.
Total war is warfare that includes any and all civilian-associated resources and infrastructure as legitimate military targets, mobilizes all of the resources of society to fight the war, and gives priority to warfare over non-combatant needs.
The track on a railway or railroad, also known as the permanent way, is the structure consisting of the rails, fasteners, railroad ties (sleepers, British English) and ballast (or slab track), plus the underlying subgrade.
The Trans-Siberian Railway (TSR, p) is a network of railways connecting Moscow with the Russian Far East.
A Treaty of Perpetual Peace (also "Treaty of Eternal Peace"; Polish: Pokój wieczysty or Pokój Grzymułtowskiego, Russian: Вечный мир) between the Tsardom of Russia and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was signed on 6 May 1686 in Moscow by Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth envoys: voivod of Poznań Krzysztof Grzymułtowski and chancellor (kanclerz) of Lithuania Marcjan Ogiński and Russian knyaz Vasily Vasilyevich Golitsyn These parties were moved to cooperate after a major geopolitical intervention in Ukraine on the part of the Ottoman Empire.
The original Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) was negotiated and concluded during the last years of the Cold War and established comprehensive limits on key categories of conventional military equipment in Europe (from the Atlantic to the Urals) and mandated the destruction of excess weaponry.
The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, is an international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament.
The Triple Entente (from French entente "friendship, understanding, agreement") refers to the understanding linking the Russian Empire, the French Third Republic, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente on 31 August 1907.
Trypillia (Трипiлля, Триполье, Tripolye) is a village in the Obukhiv Raion (district) of the Kiev Oblast in central Ukraine, with 2800 inhabitants (as of 1 January 2005).
The Tsardom of Russia (Русское царство, Russkoye tsarstvo or Российское царство, Rossiyskoye tsarstvo), also known as the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the name of the centralized Russian state from assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter the Great in 1721.
Tsarist autocracy (царское самодержавие, transcr. tsarskoye samoderzhaviye) is a form of autocracy (later absolute monarchy) specific to the Grand Duchy of Moscow, which later became Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire.
Tyras (Τύρας) was an ancient Greek city on the northern coast of the Black Sea.
The 2012 UEFA European Championship, commonly referred to as UEFA Euro 2012 or simply Euro 2012, was the 14th European Championship for men's national football teams organised by UEFA.
Ukraine first participated at the Olympic Games as an independent nation in 1994, and has sent athletes to compete in every Summer Olympic Games and Winter Olympic Games since then.
Ukraine Crisis Media Center (UCMC) is a non-governmental organization that provides information about events in Ukraine, challenges and threats in the national security, in particular in the military, political, economic, energy and humanitarian spheres.
Ukraine International Airlines PJSC, often shortended to UIA (Авіакомпанія Міжнародні Авіалінії України, Aviakompaniya Mizhnarodni Avialiniyi Ukrayiny), is the flag carrier and the largest airline of Ukraine, with its head office in Kiev with its main hub at Boryspil International Airport outside Kiev.
The Ukrainian national basketball team is the national men's basketball team of Ukraine.
The Ukraine–European Union Association Agreement is a European Union Association Agreement between the European Union (EU), Euratom, Ukraine and the EU's 28 member states (which are separate parties in addition to the EU and Euratom).
Relations between the European Union (EU) and Ukraine are shaped through the Ukraine–European Union Association Agreement and the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (DCFTA).
Relations between Ukraine and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) started in 1994.
The Ukrainian alphabet is the set of letters used to write Ukrainian, the official language of Ukraine.
Ukrainian architecture has initial roots in the Eastern Slavic state of Kievan Rus'.
The Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church (UAOC; Ukrayinska avtokefalna pravoslavna tserkva (UAPC)) is one of the three major Orthodox Churches in Ukraine.
Ukrainian Baroque or Cossack Baroque or Mazepa baroque is an architectural style that emerged in Ukraine during the Hetmanate era, in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Ukrainian Canadians (translit) are Canadian citizens of Ukrainian descent or Ukrainian-born people who immigrated to Canada.
The first Ukrainian census was carried out by State Statistics Committee of Ukraine on 5 December 2001, twelve years after the last Soviet Union census in 1989 and was so far the only census held in independent Ukraine.
Ukrainian culture and customs of Ukraine and ethnic Ukrainians.
The Ukrainian diaspora is the global community of ethnic Ukrainians, especially those who maintain some kind of connection, even if ephemeral, to the land of their ancestors and maintain their feeling of Ukrainian national identity within their own local community.
Ukrainian embroidery (вишивка, vyshyvka) occupies an important place among the various branches of Ukrainian decorative arts.
Ukrainian folklore is the folk tradition which has developed in Ukraine and among ethnic Ukrainians.
Ukrainian Galician Army (translit, UHA), was the Ukrainian military of the West Ukrainian National Republic during and after the Polish-Ukrainian War.
The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church (UGCC) (Ecclesia Graeco-Catholica Ucrainae) is a Byzantine Rite Eastern Catholic Church in full communion with the Holy See.
The hryvnia, sometimes hryvnya (гривня,, abbr.: грн (hrn in the Latin alphabet)); sign: ₴, code: UAH), has been the national currency of Ukraine since 2 September 1996. The hryvnia is subdivided into 100 kopiyky. It is named after a measure of weight used in medieval Kievan Rus'.
A referendum on the Act of Declaration of Independence was held in Ukraine on 1 December 1991.
The UNIAN or Ukrainian Independent Information Agency of News (Українське Незалежне Інформаційне Агентство Новин, УНІАН; Ukrayins'ke Nezalezhne Informatsiyne Ahentstvo Novyn) is a Kiev-based Ukrainian news agency.
The Ukrainian Insurgent Army (Українська повстанська армія, УПА, Ukrayins’ka Povstans’ka Armiya, UPA) was a Ukrainian nationalist paramilitary and later partisan army that engaged in a series of guerrilla conflicts during World War II against Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, and both Underground and Communist Poland.
The karbovanets or karbovanet (translit, plural: карбованці, karbovantsi for 2–4, or карбованців, karbovantsiv for 5 or more), also known as kupon (translit, plural: купони, kupony) or coupon, has been a distinct unit of currency in Ukraine during three separate periods of the 20th century.
The Ukrainian Liberation Army (Українське Визвольне Військо, УВВ; Ukrainske Vyzvolne Viysko, UVV) was an umbrella organization created in 1943, providing collective name for all Ukrainian units serving with the German Army during World War II.
Ukrainian literature is literature written in the Ukrainian language.
Ukrainian nationalism refers to the Ukrainian version of nationalism.
The Ukrainian oligarchs are a group of business oligarchs that quickly appeared on the economic and political scene of Ukraine after its independence in 1991, just as happened in neighboring post-Soviet state Russia.
The Ukrainian Orthodox Church (UOC; Ukrayinsʹka Pravoslavna Tserkva, Ukrainskaya Pravoslavnaya Tserkov') is a self-governing church of the Russian Orthodox Church in Ukraine.
Ukrainian Orthodox Church – Kyiv Patriarchate (UOC-KP; Ukrayínsʹka Pravoslávna Tsérkva – Kýyivsʹkyy Patriarkhát (UPT-KP)) is the biggest one of the three major Orthodox churches in Ukraine, alongside the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate), and the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church.
Early parliamentary elections in Ukraine took place on 30 September 2007.
A snap election of the Verkhovna Rada took place on 26 October 2014.
The Ukrainian People's Republic, or Ukrainian National Republic (abbreviated to УНР), was a predecessor of modern Ukraine declared on 10 June 1917 following the Russian Revolution.
The Ukrainian Premier League ("Прем'єр-ліга") or UPL is the highest division of Ukrainian annual football championship.
A presidential election was held in Ukraine on 1 December 1991.
The Ukrainian presidential election, 2004 was held on October 31, November 21 and December 26, 2004.
The Ukrainian presidential election of 2010 was Ukraine's fifth presidential election since declaring independence from the Soviet Union in 1991.
Presidential elections were held in Ukraine on 25 May 2014, resulting in Petro Poroshenko being elected President of Ukraine.
Ukrainian Railways (Укрзалізниця, Ukrzaliznytsia) is a state owned enterprise of rail transport in Ukraine, a monopoly that controls vast majority of the railroad transportation in the country with a combined total tracks length of over 23,000 km, making it the 14th largest in the world.
Ukrainian Red Cross Society (Товариство Червоного Хреста України, Tovarystvo Chervonoho Khresta Ukrayiny) is a non-profit humanitarian and charitable association of Ukraine.
Ukrainian Sea Guard (Морська охорона, Mors’ka Okhorona; full name Морська охорона Державної прикордонної служби України, Sea Guard of the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine) is the coast guard service of Ukraine, subordinated to its Border Guard Service.
The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian SSR or UkrSSR or UkSSR; Украї́нська Радя́нська Соціалісти́чна Респу́бліка, Украї́нська РСР, УРСР; Украи́нская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика, Украи́нская ССР, УССР; see "Name" section below), also known as the Soviet Ukraine, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union from the Union's inception in 1922 to its breakup in 1991. The republic was governed by the Communist Party of Ukraine as a unitary one-party socialist soviet republic. The Ukrainian SSR was a founding member of the United Nations, although it was legally represented by the All-Union state in its affairs with countries outside of the Soviet Union. Upon the Soviet Union's dissolution and perestroika, the Ukrainian SSR was transformed into the modern nation-state and renamed itself to Ukraine. Throughout its 72-year history, the republic's borders changed many times, with a significant portion of what is now Western Ukraine being annexed by Soviet forces in 1939 from the Republic of Poland, and the addition of Zakarpattia in 1946. From the start, the eastern city of Kharkiv served as the republic's capital. However, in 1934, the seat of government was subsequently moved to the city of Kiev, Ukraine's historic capital. Kiev remained the capital for the rest of the Ukrainian SSR's existence, and remained the capital of independent Ukraine after the breakup of the Soviet Union. Geographically, the Ukrainian SSR was situated in Eastern Europe to the north of the Black Sea, bordered by the Soviet republics of Moldavia, Byelorussia, and the Russian SFSR. The Ukrainian SSR's border with Czechoslovakia formed the Soviet Union's western-most border point. According to the Soviet Census of 1989 the republic had a population of 51,706,746 inhabitants, which fell sharply after the breakup of the Soviet Union. For most of its existence, it ranked second only to the Russian SFSR in population, economic and political power.
The Ukrainian State (Українська держава, Ukrajinśka Deržava), sometimes also called the Hetmanate (Гетьманат, Hetmanat), was an anti-socialist government that existed on most of the modern territory of Ukraine (except for West Ukraine) from April 29 to December 14, 1918.
The Ukrainian War of Independence was a period of sustained warlike conflict lasting from 1917 to 1921, which resulted in the establishment and development of a Ukrainian republic, later a part of the Soviet Union as the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.
Ukrainian wedding is the traditional marriage ceremony in Ukrainian culture, both in Ukraine and in the Ukrainian diaspora.
Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.
Ukrainization (also spelled Ukrainisation or Ukrainianization) is a policy of increasing the usage and facilitating the development of the Ukrainian language and promoting other elements of Ukrainian culture, in various spheres of public life such as education, publishing, government and religion.
Ukrayinska Pravda (Українська правда, literally Ukrainian Truth) is a popular Ukrainian Internet newspaper, founded by Georgiy R. Gongadze in April, 2000 (the day of the Ukrainian constitutional referendum).
UkrFerry Shipping Company (СК Укрферрі) is a ferry operator at the Black Sea, with ferry services serving Ukraine, Bulgaria, Turkey, and Georgia.
The National News Agency of Ukraine (Українське національне інформаційне агентство) or Ukrinform (Укрінформ) is a state information and news agency of Ukraine.
Ulana Suprun is an American-Ukrainian medical doctor and has been Acting Minister of Healthcare of Ukraine since July 2016.
The Uliches or Ugliches (Уличи (Угличи) in Russian, Уличі (Угличі) in Ukrainian) were a tribe of Early East Slavs who, between the eighth and the tenth centuries, inhabited (along with the Tivertsi) Bessarabia, and the territories along the Lower Dnieper, Bug River and the Black Sea littoral.
The UN Chronicle (formerly the UN Monthly Chronicle) is a quarterly publication of the Outreach Division of the United Nations Department of Public Information, reporting on issues such as human rights, economic development, peacekeeping, health, refugees, programs and activities of the UN and regional issues.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations (UN) program headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.
In a strict sense, the Union of Krewo or "Act of Krėva" (also spelled "Union of Krevo", "Act of Kreva"; Krėvos sutartis) was a set of prenuptial promises made in the Kreva Castle on 14 August 1385 by Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania, in exchange for marriage to the underage reigning Queen Jadwiga of Poland.
The Union of Lublin (unia lubelska; Liublino unija) was signed on 1 July 1569, in Lublin, Poland, and created a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.
United Nations General Assembly Resolution 68/262 was adopted on March 27, 2014 by the sixty-eighth session of the United Nations General Assembly in response to the Russian annexation of Crimea and entitled "Territorial integrity of Ukraine".
The United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (قوة الأمم المتحدة المؤقتة في لبنان), or UNIFIL (يونيفيل) and also known as the UN, is a demilitarized zone created by the United Nations, with the adoption of Security Council Resolution 425 and 426 on 19 March 1978, to confirm Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon which Israel had invaded five days prior, restore international peace and security, and help the government of Lebanon restore its effective authority in the area.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is an independent agency of the United States federal government that is primarily responsible for administering civilian foreign aid and development assistance.
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
Universal health care (also called universal health coverage, universal coverage, universal care, or socialized health care) is a health care system that provides health care and financial protection to all citizens of a particular country.
Chernivtsi National University (full name Yurii Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University, Чернівецький національний університет імені Юрія Федьковича) is a public university in the City of Chernivtsi in Western Ukraine.
The University of Lviv (Львівський університет, Uniwersytet Lwowski, Universität Lemberg, briefly known as the Theresianum in the early 19th-century), presently the Ivan Franko National University of Lviv (Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка) is the oldest university foundation in Ukraine, dating from 1661 when the Polish King, John II Casimir, granted it its first royal charter.
The University of North Carolina is a multi-campus public university system composed of all 16 of North Carolina's public universities, as well as the NC School of Science and Mathematics, the nation's first public residential high school for gifted students.
The University of Toronto Press is a Canadian scholarly publisher and book distributor founded in 1901.
The Urals (Ура́л) are a geographical region located around the Ural Mountains, between the East European and West Siberian plains.
Urban-type settlement (посёлок городско́го ти́па - posyolok gorodskogo tipa, abbreviated: п.г.т. - p.g.t.; селище міського типу – selyshche mis'koho typu, abbreviated: с.м.т. - s.m.t.; пасёлак гарадскога тыпу; osiedle typu miejskiego; селище от градски тип – selishte ot gradski tip) is an official designation for a semi-urban settlement (or a former town).
Valentin Mikhaylovich Falin (Baлeнтин Mиxaйлoвич Фaлин) (3 April 1926 – 22 February 2018) was a Soviet diplomat and politician.
Valerian Pidmohylny (Валеріан Підмогильний, February 2, 1901 - November 3, 1937) was an important Ukrainian novelist, most famous for the realist novel Misto (The City).
Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht (V&R) is a scholarly publishing house based in Göttingen, Germany.
The Varangians (Væringjar; Greek: Βάραγγοι, Várangoi, Βαριάγοι, Variágoi) was the name given by Greeks, Rus' people and Ruthenians to Vikings,"," Online Etymology Dictionary who between the 9th and 11th centuries, ruled the medieval state of Kievan Rus', settled among many territories of modern Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, and formed the Byzantine Varangian Guard.
Varna (Варна, Varna) is the third-largest city in Bulgaria and the largest city and seaside resort on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast.
Vasyl Semenovych Stus (Васи́ль Семе́нович Стус; 6 January 1938, Rakhnivka, Ukrainian SSR – 4 September 1985, Perm-36, Kuchino, Russian SFSR) was a Ukrainian poet, translator, literary critic, journalist, and an active member of the Ukrainian dissident movement.
Vasyl Symonenko (Василь Андрійович Симоненко; January 8, 1935 – 1963) a well-known Ukrainian poet, journalist, activist of dissident movement.
The Venice Commission is an advisory body of the Council of Europe, composed of independent experts in the field of constitutional law.
Vera Vasilyevna Kholodnaya (Russian: Вера Васильевна Холодная; 30 August 1893 – 16 February 1919) was the first star of Russian silent cinema.
The Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine (Верхо́вна Ра́да Украї́ни, Ukrainian abbreviation ВРУ; literally Supreme Council of Ukraine), often simply Verkhovna Rada or just Rada, is the unicameral parliament of Ukraine.
Verhovna Rada of Crimea or the Supreme Council of Crimea, officially the Supreme Council of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Verhovna Rada Avtonomnoï Respubliky Krym; Verkhovny Sovet Avtonomnoy Respubliki Krym; Qırım Muhtar Cumhuriyetiniñ Yuqarı Radası) was a Ukrainian legislative body of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea before the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation in 2014.
A vernacular, or vernacular language, is the language or variety of a language used in everyday life by the common people of a specific population.
Vernacular architecture is an architectural style that is designed based on local needs, availability of construction materials and reflecting local traditions.
Victory DayДень Победы, Den' Pobedy День Перемоги, Den' Peremohy Дзень Перамогі, Dzień Pieramohi Gʻalaba kuni, Ғалаба куни Жеңіс Күні, Jeñis Küni გამარჯვების დღე, gamarjvebis dghe Qələbə Günü Ziua Victoriei, Зиуа Викторией Uzvaras diena Жеңиш майрамы, Jengish Mayramy Рӯзи Ғалаба, Rūzi Ghalaba Հաղթանակի օրը, Haght’anaki ory Ýeňişlar Harçlaarsiň, Йеңишлар Харчлаарсиң Võidupüha ("Victory Holiday") Ciñü köne Dan pobjede/pobede, Дан победе/побједе יום הניצחון, Yóm HaNicaħón عيد النصر, ʿīd al-Naṣir is a holiday that commemorates the surrender of Nazi Germany in 1945.
Viktor Fedorovych Yanukovych (Ві́ктор Фе́дорович Януко́вич,; born 9 July 1950) is a Ukrainian politician who was elected as the fourth President of Ukraine on 7 February 2010.
Viktor Andriyovych Yushchenko (Віктор Андрійович Ющенко,; born February 23, 1954) is a Ukrainian politician who was the third President of Ukraine from January 23, 2005 to February 25, 2010.
Vinnytsia Oblast (Вінницька область, translit. Vinnyts’ka oblast’; also referred to as Vinnychchyna - Вінниччина) is an oblast of Ukraine.
Vitali Volodymyrovych Klitschko (Віта́лій Володи́мирович Кличко́,; born 19 July 1971) is a Ukrainian politician and former professional boxer.
Vladimir II Monomakh (Old East Slavic: Володимѣръ Мономахъ, Volodimer Monomakh; Christian name: Vasiliy, or Basileios) (1053 – 19 May 1125) reigned as Grand Prince of Kievan Rus' from 1113 to 1125.
Vladimir the Great (also (Saint) Vladimir of Kiev; Володимѣръ Свѧтославичь, Volodiměrъ Svętoslavičь, Old Norse Valdamarr gamli; c. 958 – 15 July 1015, Berestove) was a prince of Novgorod, grand prince of Kiev, and ruler of Kievan Rus' from 980 to 1015.
The Volga Region (Поволжье, Povolzhye, literally: "along the Volga") is an historical region in Russia that encompasses the drainage basin of the Volga River, the longest river in Europe, in central and southern European Russia.
Volhynia, also Volynia or Volyn (Wołyń, Volýn) is a historic region in Central and Eastern Europe straddling between south-eastern Poland, parts of south-western Belarus, and western Ukraine.
Volhynian-Podolian Upland (Волинсько-Поділська височина) is a system of uplands in West Ukraine and Right-bank Ukraine.
Volodymyr Borysovych Groysman, sometimes transliterated as Volodymyr Borysovych Hroisman (Володи́мир Бори́сович Гро́йсман וואָלאָדימיר באָריסאָוויטש גרויסמאַן) (born 20 January 1978), is a Ukrainian politician of Jewish descent who has been the Prime Minister of Ukraine since 14 April 2016.
Volodymyr-Volynskyi (Володимир-Волинський, Włodzimierz Wołyński, Влади́мир-Волы́нский, לודמיר, Lodomeria) is a small city located in Volyn Oblast, in north-western Ukraine.
A volunteer military or all-volunteer military is one which derives its manpower from volunteers rather than conscription or mandatory service.
Volyn Oblast (Волинська область, translit. Volyns’ka oblast’, Obwód wołyński; also referred to as Volyn’ or Wołyń) is an oblast (province) in north-western Ukraine.
Vopli Vidopliassova (also VV) (Воплі Відоплясова, ВВ) is a Ukrainian rock band.
The Vorontsov Palace (Воронцовський палац; Воронцо́вский дворе́ц) or the Alupka Palace is an historic palace situated at the foot of the Crimean Mountains near the town of Alupka in Crimea.
The Water-Water Energetic Reactor (VVER), or WWER (from Водо-водяной энергетический реактор; transliterates as Vodo-Vodyanoi Energetichesky Reaktor; Water-Water Power Reactor) is a series of pressurised water reactor designs originally developed in the Soviet Union, and now Russia, by OKB Gidropress.
The War in Donbass is an armed conflict in the Donbass region of Ukraine.
Weaving is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
The West Ukrainian People's Republic (Західноукраїнська Народна Республіка., Zakhidnoukrayins’ka Narodna Respublika, ZUNR) was a short-lived republic that existed in late 1918 and early 1919 in eastern Galicia.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
The Western Front was a front of the Red Army, one of the Red Army Fronts during World War II.
Western Ukraine or West Ukraine (Західна Україна) is a geographical and historical relative term used in reference to the western territories of Ukraine.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
Westinghouse Electric Company LLC is a US based nuclear power company formed in 1998 from the nuclear power division of the original Westinghouse Electric Corporation.
White Croats (Bijeli Hrvati, Biali Chorwaci, Bílí Chorvati, Білі хорвати tr. Bili Khorvaty) were a group of Slavic tribes who lived among other West and East Slavic tribes in the area of Bohemia, Lesser Poland, Galicia (north of Carpathian Mountains) and modern-day Western Ukraine.
The white stork (Ciconia ciconia) is a large bird in the stork family Ciconiidae.
Wikisource is an online digital library of free content textual sources on a wiki, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation.
Wilderness or wildland is a natural environment on Earth that has not been significantly modified by human activity.
William Brockenbrough Taylor (born 1947) is an American diplomat and a former United States ambassador to Ukraine.
Windrose Airlines, legally Wind Rose Aviation Company, is a Ukrainian charter airline based at Boryspil International Airport.
The Winter Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques d'hiver) is a major international sporting event held once every four years for sports practised on snow and ice.
Winter on Fire: Ukraine's Fight for Freedom (Ukrainian: Зима у вогні: Боротьба України за свободу, Zyma y vohni: Borot'ba Ukrayini za svobodu) is a 2015 documentary film about the Euromaidan protests in Ukraine, a coproduction of Ukraine, the United States, and the United Kingdom.
Wladimir Wladimirowitsch Klitschko (born 25 March 1976) is a Ukrainian former professional boxer who competed from 1996 to 2017.
Women's rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls worldwide, and formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the nineteenth century and feminist movement during the 20th century.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Bank Group (WBG) (Groupe de la Banque mondiale) is a family of five international organizations that make leveraged loans to developing countries.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
The World Justice Project (WJP) is an American independent, multidisciplinary organization with the stated mission of "working to advance the rule of law around the world".
The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) is the United Nations agency responsible for the promotion of responsible, sustainable and universally accessible tourism.
The World Tourism rankings are compiled by the United Nations World Tourism Organization as part of their World Tourism Barometer publication, which is released three times throughout the year.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
World War II fatalities of the Soviet Union from all related causes numbered more than 20,000,000, both civilian and military, although the exact figures are disputed.
The Yalta Conference, also known as the Crimea Conference and code named the Argonaut Conference, held from 4 to 11 February 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union for the purpose of discussing Germany and Europe's postwar reorganization.
Yaroslav I, Grand Prince of Rus, known as Yaroslav the Wise or Iaroslav the Wise (tr; Jaroslav Mudryj; Jaroslav Mudryj; Jarizleifr Valdamarsson;; Iaroslaus Sapiens; c. 978 – 20 February 1054) was thrice grand prince of Veliky Novgorod and Kiev, uniting the two principalities for a time under his rule.
Yefim Georgievich Yevdokimov (Ефи́м Гео́ргиевич Евдоки́мов, – 2 February 1940) was a Soviet politician and member of the Cheka.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
Yulia Volodymyrivna Tymoshenko (Ю́лія Володи́мирівна Тимоше́нко,, née Hrihyan, Грігян, by Askold Krushelnycky, Harvill Secker, 2006,, p. 169. born 27 November 1960) is a Ukrainian politician.
Yuriy Illienko (18 July 1936 – 15 June 2010) was a Soviet film director and screenwriter.
The Production Association Yuzhny Machine-Building Plant named after A.M. Makarov, PA Pivdenmash or PA Yuzhmash (Виробниче Об'єднання Південний Машинобудівний Завод імені О. М. Макарова) is a Ukrainian state-owned aerospace manufacturer.
The Zakarpattia Oblast (Закарпатська область, translit.; see other languages) is an administrative oblast (province) located in southwestern Ukraine, coterminous with the historical region of Carpathian Ruthenia.
The Zaporizhia Nuclear Power Station (Запорізька АЕС) in Enerhodar, Ukraine, is the largest nuclear power plant in Europe and among the top 10 largest in the world.
Zaporizhia Oblast (Запорізька область, translit. Zaporiz'ka oblast’; Запорожская область); also referred to as Zaporizhzhya (Запоріжжя), is an oblast (province) of southern Ukraine.
The Zaporozhian Sich or Zaporozhian Sich (Запорозька Січ, Запорізька Січ, Zaporoz'ka Sich, Zaporiz'ka Sich; Sicz Zaporoska; Запорожская Сечь) was a semi-autonomous polity of Cossacks in the 16th to 18th centuries, centred in the region around today's Kakhovka Reservoir spanning the lower Dnieper river in Ukraine.
The Zaporozhian Cossacks, Zaporozhian Cossack Army, Zaporozhian Host (Військо Запорізьке, Войско Запорожское) or simply Zaporozhians (translit) were Cossacks who lived beyond the rapids of the Dnieper River, the land also known under the historical term Wild Fields in today's Central Ukraine.
Zaporozhian Host (or Zaporizhian Host) is a term for a military force inhabiting or originating from Zaporizhia, the territory beyond the rapids of the Dnieper River in what is Central Ukraine today, from the 15th to the 18th centuries.
Zhytomyr Oblast (Житомирська область, translit. Zhytomyrs’ka oblast’; also referred to as Zhytomyrshchyna - Житомирщина) is an oblast (province) of northern Ukraine.
The domain name.укр (romanized as.ukr; abbreviation of Україна, tr. Ukrayina) is an approved internationalized country code top-level domain (IDN ccTLD) for Ukraine.
.ua is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Ukraine.
The transfer of the Crimean Oblast in 1954 was an administrative action of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union which transferred the government of the Crimean Peninsula from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic to the Ukrainian SSR.
The 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, also known as the August Coup (r "August Putsch"), was an attempt by members of the Soviet Union's government to take control of the country from Soviet President and General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev.
The 1994 Winter Olympics (Olympiske vinterleker 1994), officially known as the XVII Olympic Winter Games (French: Les XVIIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver), was a winter multi-sport event celebrated from 12 to 27 February 1994 in and around Lillehammer, Norway.
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a polychlorinated dibenzo''-p-''dioxin (sometimes shortened, though inaccurately, to simply "dioxin") with the chemical formula.
The 2006 FIFA World Cup was the 18th FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international football world championship tournament.
The 2008 Bucharest Summit or the 20th NATO Summit was a NATO summit organized in the Palace of the Parliament, Bucharest, Romania on 2 – 4 April 2008.
Ukraine was hit heavily by the late-2000s recession, the World Bank expects Ukraine's economy to shrink 15% in 2009 with inflation being 16.4%.
The 2014 FIBA Basketball World Cup was the 17th edition of the FIBA Basketball World Cup, the tournament previously known as the FIBA World Championship.
The Ukrainian revolution of 2014 (also known as the Euromaidan Revolution or Revolution of Dignity; Революція гідності, Revoliutsiia hidnosti) took place in Ukraine in February 2014, when a series of violent events involving protesters, riot police, and unknown shooters in the capital, Kiev, culminated in the ousting of the democratically elected Ukrainian President, Viktor Yanukovych, and the overthrow of the Ukrainian Government.
The meridian 22° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The meridian 41° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Asia, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 44th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 44 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 53rd parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 53 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
1930 in Ukraine, ISO 3166-1:UA, Kiev compromise, Renewable energy in Ukraine, Republic of Ukraine, The ukrane, UKR, UKRAINE, Ucraine, Ucrania, Ukarine, Ukra'jina, Ukraien, Ukraime, Ukraina, Ukraine during World War II, Ukrainia, Ukrainian territory, Ukrajina, Ukrane, Ukrania, Ukrayina, Ukraïne, Ukraˈjina, Ukriane, Ykpaiha, Украина, Україна.