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Abdulah Sidran (born 9 September 1944), often referred to by his hypocoristic nickname Avdo, is a Bosnian writer and poet who is known for his screenplays.
The Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film is an award given by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) as part of the Academy Awards annually since the 5th Academy Awards, covering the year 1931–32, to the present.
The Academy Awards, also known as the Oscars, are a set of 24 awards for artistic and technical merit in the American film industry, given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), to recognize excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership.
The Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian: Akademija nauka i umjetnosti Bosne i Hercegovine Cyrillic: Академија наука и умјетности Босне и Херцеговине) is the national academy of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The accession of Bosnia and Herzegovina to the European Union is the stated aim of the present relations between the two entities.
Ademir Kenović (born September 14, 1950) is a Bosnian film director and producer.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.
Advertising is an audio or visual form of marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.
Aida Begić (born 9 May 1976) is a Bosnian film director and screenwriter.
An air force, also known in some countries as an aerospace force or air army, is in the broadest sense, the national military branch that primarily conducts aerial warfare.
The Air Force of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnian: Zračne snage Bosne i Hercegovine, Croatian: Zračne snage Bosne i Hercegovine, Serbian: Vazdušne snage Bosne i Hercegovine) is part of the Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Ajvar (Albanian: ajvari; aйвар; aјвар; ajвар) is a pepper-based condiment made principally from red bell peppers and oil.
Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.
Al Jazeera Balkans (AJB) is an international news television station headquartered in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina aimed at the media markets of the countries that used to be constituent units of SFR Yugoslavia.
Aldin Kurić, known by his stage name Al'Dino, (born 21 July 1970) is a Bosnian singer, songwriter and composer.
The Alans (or Alani) were an Iranian nomadic pastoral people of antiquity.
Albanian (shqip, or gjuha shqipe) is a language of the Indo-European family, in which it occupies an independent branch.
An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.
Aleksa Šantić (Алекса Шантић; 27 May 1868 – 2 February 1924) was a Yugoslav poet.
Aleksandar Hemon (born September 9, 1964) is a Bosnian fiction writer, essayist, and critic.
Ali Fehmi Džabić (1853 – 5 August 1918) was a mufti of Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Ali-paša Rizvanbegović-Stočević (1783 – 20 March 1851) Turkish: Ali Rıdvanoğlu Paşa, was a Herzegovinian Ottoman captain (administrator) of Stolac from 1813 to 1833 and the semi-independent ruler (vizier) of the Herzegovina Eyalet from 1833 to 1851.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Ambasadori were a Yugoslav pop band from Sarajevo, SR Bosnia-Herzegovina, SFR Yugoslavia active from 1968 until 1980.
Amel Mekić (born 21 September 1981) is a retired Bosnian judoka.
Amel Tuka (born 9 January 1991) is a Bosnian middle-distance runner who specializes in the 800 metres.
Amer Delić (born June 30, 1982) is a Bosnian former professional tennis player.
The American University in Bosnia and Herzegovina (abbr. AUBiH) is a private university located in Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
The Antes or Antae (Áνται) were an early Slavic tribal polity which existed in the 6th century lower Danube and northwestern Black Sea region (modern-day Moldova and central Ukraine).
The Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia, known more commonly by its Yugoslav abbreviation AVNOJ (Serbo-Croatian: Antifašističko veće narodnog oslobođenja Jugoslavije – AVNOJ / Антифашистичко веће народног ослобођења Југославије – АВНОЈ), was the political umbrella organization for the national liberation councils of the Yugoslav resistance against the Axis occupation during World War II.
Anti-Serbian sentiment or Anti-Serb sentiment (антисрпска осећања / antisrpska osećanja) and also Anti-Serbism (антисрбизам / antisrbizam) or Anti-Serbdom (антисрпство / antisrpstvo) or Serbophobia (србофобија / srbofobija) is negative feeling in general towards Serbs as an ethnic group.
Antun Branko Šimić (18 November 1898 – 2 May 1925) was an expressionist poet from Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Appeasement in an international context is a diplomatic policy of making political or material concessions to an aggressive power in order to avoid conflict.
The Arab Spring (الربيع العربي ar-Rabīʻ al-ʻArabī), also referred to as Arab Revolutions (الثورات العربية aṯ-'awrāt al-ʻarabiyyah), was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups, foreign interventions, and civil wars in North Africa and the Middle East that began on 18 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Franz Ferdinand Carl Ludwig Joseph Maria (18 December 1863 – 28 June 1914) was an Archduke of Austria-Este, Austro-Hungarian and Royal Prince of Hungary and of Bohemia and, from 1896 until his death, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne.
The architecture of Bosnia and Herzegovina is largely influenced by four major periods where political and social changes determined the creation of distinct cultural and architectural habits of the region.
The Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina (OSBiH; Serbo-Croat-Bosnian: Oružane snage Bosne i Hercegovine/Оружане снаге Босне и Херцеговине, ОСБИХ) is the official military force of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
An army (from Latin arma "arms, weapons" via Old French armée, "armed" (feminine)) or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land.
The Army of Republika Srpska (Војска Републике Српске/Vojska Republike Srpske; ВРС/VRS), commonly referred to in English as the Bosnian Serb Army (BSA), was the military of Republika Srpska (RS), the self-proclaimed Serb secessionist republic, a territory within the newly independent Bosnia and Herzegovina (formerly part of Yugoslavia), which it defied, active during the Bosnian War (1992–95).
The Army of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnian: "Vojska Federacije Bosne i Hercegovine/Војска Федерације Босне и Херцеговине", Croatian: Vojska Federacije Bosne i Hercegovine) was the military of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina created after the 1995 Dayton Agreement.
Ars Aevi is a museum of contemporary art in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Asmir Begović (born 20 June 1987) is a Bosnian professional footballer who plays as a goalkeeper for Premier League club AFC Bournemouth and the Bosnia and Herzegovina national team, for which he is vice-captain.
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, occurred on 28 June 1914 in Sarajevo when they were mortally wounded by Gavrilo Princip.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs.
The Austro-Hungarian Army (Landstreitkräfte Österreich-Ungarns; Császári és Királyi Hadsereg) was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy from 1867 to 1918.
Bosnia and Herzegovina fell under Austro-Hungarian rule in 1878 when the Congress of Berlin approved the occupation of the Bosnia Vilayet, which officially remained part of the Ottoman Empire.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Ćevapi or ćevapčići (formal diminutive,, ћевапчићи) is a grilled dish of minced meat, a type of skinless sausage, found traditionally in the countries of southeastern Europe (the Balkans).
Časlav (Τζεέσθλαβος, Часлав; 890s – 960) was Prince of the Serbs from 927 until his death in 960.
Čvrsnica is a mountain in the Dinarides of Bosnia and Herzegovina, located in northern Herzegovina, most of the mountain is located in the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton municipalities of Mostar and Jablanica while the smaller part of the mountain, around 10% is located in the municipality of Posušje.
Đorđe Novković (2 September 1943 – 6 May 2007) was a songwriter who was known for his work in SFR Yugoslavia and Croatia.
ŠK Bosna, or Šahovski klub Bosna is a chess club from Sarajevo Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Šubić were one of the twelve tribes which constituted Croatian statehood in the Middle Ages; they held the county of Bribir (Varvaria) in inland Dalmatia.
Ženski košarkaški klub Jedinstvo Tuzla is a women's basketball club from Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The bağlama (bağlama, from bağlamak, "to tie") is a stringed musical instrument.
Bakir Izetbegović (born 28 June 1956) is a Bosnian politician.
The balance of trade, commercial balance, or net exports (sometimes symbolized as NX), is the difference between the monetary value of a nation's exports and imports over a certain period.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
Ban was a noble title used in several states in Central and Southeastern Europe between the 7th century and the 20th century.
Borić (1154–63) was the first known Ban of Bosnia as a Hungarian vassal.
Kulin (d. November 1204) was the Ban of Bosnia from 1180 to 1204, first as a vassal of the Byzantine Empire and then of the Kingdom of Hungary, but his state was de facto independent.
The Banate of Bosnia (Bosanska banovina, banovina Bosna/Босанска бановина, бановина Босна) was a medieval state based in what is today Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Banja Luka (Бања Лука) or Banjaluka (Бањалука), is the second largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the de facto capital of the Republika Srpska entity.
Banovina, formerly known as Banska krajina or Banija,Dalibor Brozović, Hrvatska enciklopedija (LZMK), 1.
The Banovina of Croatia or Banate of Croatia (Banovina Hrvatska, Бановина Хрватска) was an autonomous province (banovina) of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia between 1939 and 1941.
Basketball Category:Basketball at the European Youth Summer Olympic Festival Category:2015–16 in European basketball Category:2015–16 in Georgian basketball Category:International basketball competitions hosted by Georgia (country).
The Battle of Krbava Field (Bitka na Krbavskom polju, Korbávmezei csata, Krbava Muharebesi) was fought between the Ottoman Empire of Bayezid II and an army of the Kingdom of Croatia, at the time in personal union with the Kingdom of Hungary, on 9 September 1493, in the Krbava field, a part of the Lika region in Croatia.
The Battle of Mohács (Mohácsi csata, Mohaç Meydan Muharebesi) was one of the most consequential battles in Central European history.
Bauxite is a sedimentary rock with a relatively high aluminium content.
Bayer 04 Leverkusen Fußball GmbH, also known as Bayer 04 Leverkusen, Bayer Leverkusen, Leverkusen or simply Bayer, is a German football club based in Leverkusen, North Rhine-Westphalia.
Börek (also burek and other variants) is a family of baked filled pastries made of a thin flaky dough known as phyllo (or yufka), of Anatolian origins and also found in the cuisines of the Balkans, Levant, Mediterranean, and other countries in Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
A bean is a seed of one of several genera of the flowering plant family Fabaceae, which are used for human or animal food.
Belgrade (Beograd / Београд, meaning "White city",; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia.
The Bellum Batonianum (Latin for "war of the Batos") was a military conflict fought in the Roman province of Illyricum in which an alliance of native peoples of Illyricum revolted against the Romans.
Benjamin Filipović (1962 – 20 July 2006) was a Bosnian film director and academic.
BH Dani stands for Bosanskohercegovački Dani (English translation: Bosnian-Herzegovinian Days) is a Bosnian language weekly magazine published in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.
Bihać is a city and the administrative center of Una-Sana Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The White Fortress (Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian: Bijela Tabija / Бијела Табија) is an old fort overlooking the historic core of Sarajevo.
Bijeljina is a city located in Republika Srpska, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Bijelo Dugme (trans. White Button) was a Yugoslav rock band, based in Sarajevo.
Bjelašnica is a mountain in central Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Blaž "Baka" Slišković (born 30 May 1959) is a former Bosnia and Herzegovina footballer who was also capped for Yugoslavia in the late 1970s and early 1980s.
Blagaj is a village-town in the south-eastern region of the Mostar basin, in the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Bled (Veldes,Leksikon občin kraljestev in dežel zastopanih v državnem zboru, vol. 6: Kranjsko. 1906. Vienna: C. Kr. Dvorna in Državna Tiskarna, p. 146. in older sources also Feldes) is a town on Lake Bled in the Upper Carniolan region of northwestern Slovenia.
Bošnjani (singular: Bošnjanin), meaning Bosnians, is the archaic name for inhabitants of Bosnia during the Middle Ages.
Bojan Kurajica (born 15 November 1947 in Ljubljana, Yugoslavia) is a Bosnian chess grandmaster (GM).
The Boreal Kingdom or Holarctic Kingdom (Holarctis) is a floristic kingdom identified by botanist Ronald Good (and later by Armen Takhtajan), which includes the temperate to Arctic portions of North America and Eurasia.
Borki Predojević (Борки Предојевић; born 6 April 1987 in Teslić) is a Bosnian Serb chess grandmaster, the youngest ever from his country.
Ballspielverein Borussia 09 e.V. Dortmund, commonly known as Borussia Dortmund, BVB, or simply Dortmund, is a German sports club based in Dortmund, North Rhine-Westphalia (Borussia is the Latin equivalent of Prussia).
Bosanska Krajina (Cyrillic: Босанска Крајина),; sometimes translated as Bosnian Frontier) or, sometimes, simply just Krajina, is a geographical region, a subregion of Bosnia, in western Bosnia and Herzegovina enclosed by a number of rivers, namely the Sava (north), Glina (northwest), Vrbanja and Vrbas (east and southeast, respectively). The region is also a historic, economic and cultural entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina, famous for its natural beauties and wildlife diversity. The largest city, and its historical center is Banja Luka. Other cities include Bihać, Cazin, Velika Kladuša, Prijedor, Sanski Most, Gradiška, Kozarska Dubica, Novi Grad, Bosanska Krupa, Ključ, Bosanski Petrovac, Kotor Varoš, Šipovo, Mrkonjić Grad, Drvar, Bosansko Grahovo, Gornji Vakuf, Bugojno, Donji Vakuf, Jajce, Kneževo, Bužim, Laktaši, and Čelinac. Bosanska Krajina is not a formal entity within the structure of Bosnia and Herzegovina; however it has a significant cultural and historical identity that was formed through several historic and economic events. The territory of Bosanska Krajina is currently divided between two entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Republika Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The river Bosna (Cyrillic: Босна) is the third longest river in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and is considered one of the country's three major internal rivers, along with the Neretva and the Vrbas; the other three major rivers of Bosnia and Herzegovina are the Una, to the northwest, the Sava, to the north, and the Drina, to the east.
Bosnia (Bosna/Босна) is the northern region of Bosnia and Herzegovina, encompassing roughly 81% of the country; the other eponymous region, the southern part, is Herzegovina.
The Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark (Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian: konvertibilna marka, Cyrillic: конвертибилна марка) is the currency of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Bosnia and Herzegovina cuisine (Bosanska kuhinja) is balanced between Western and Eastern influences.
The Bosnia and Herzegovina national football team (Bosnian: Nogometna/Fudbalska reprezentacija Bosne i Hercegovine; Cyrillic: Ногометна/Фудбалска репрезентација Боснe и Херцеговинe) represents Bosnia and Herzegovina in association football and is governed by the Football Association of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Bosnia and Herzegovina men's national under-16 and under-17 basketball team is the representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina in international basketball competitions, and it is formed and run by the Basketball Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Bosnia and Herzegovina women's national football team represents Bosnia and Herzegovina in international football and is controlled by the Football Association of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Eyalet of Bosnia (Eyalet-i Bosna, By Gábor Ágoston, Bruce Alan Masters Bosanski pašaluk) or Bosnia Beylerbeylik (Bosna Beylerbeyliği, Bosanski beglerbegluk) was an eyalet (also known as a beylerbeylik) of the Ottoman Empire, mostly based on the territory of the present-day state of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Bosniaks (Bošnjaci,; singular masculine: Bošnjak, feminine: Bošnjakinja) are a South Slavic nation and ethnic group inhabiting mainly the area of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Bosnian Church (Crkva Bosanska/Црква Босанска) was a Christian church in medieval Bosnia that was independent of and considered heretical by both the Roman Catholic and the Eastern Orthodox hierarchies.
The Bosnian language (bosanski / босански) is the standardized variety of Serbo-Croatian mainly used by Bosniaks.
The 'Bosnian pyramid complex' is a debunked, pseudoarchaeological notion to explain the formation of a cluster of natural hills in central Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Bosnian War was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995.
The Bosnian-Herzegovinian Infantry (Bosnisch-Hercegovinische Infanterie), commonly called the Bosniaken (German for Bosnians), were a branch of the Austro-Hungarian Army.
Bosnians (Serbo-Croatian: Bosanci/Босанци; singular: Bosnian (Bosanac/Босанац) are people who live in Bosnia, or who are of Bosnian descent. Bosnia is one of two main regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina. According to the latest official population census made in Bosnia and Herzegovina, most of the people identified with Bosniak, Croat or Serb nationality. Some people identified with "Bosnian" nationality, however these are listed under the category "Others" (along with all the other options such as Jews, Romas etc.). According to the latest population census (2013), there were around 2.7% "Others". According to some, a Bosnian can be anyone who holds citizenship of the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and thus is largely synonymous with the all-encompassing national demonym Bosnians and Herzegovinians. This includes, but is not limited to, members of the constituent ethnic groups of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Bosniaks, Serbs and Croats. Those who reside in the smaller geographical region of Herzegovina usually prefer to identify as Herzegovinians. CIA factbook, used in this article as a source for numbers, does not mention a sole "Bosnian" nationality. Instead it mentions "Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)" thereby emphasizing the regional significance and equity between the terms. Ethnic minorities in this territory, such as Jews, Roma, Albanians, Montenegrins and others, may consider Bosnian as an adjective modifying their ethnicity (e.g. Bosnian Roma) to indicate place of residence. Other times they use (with equal rights) the term Herzegovinians. In addition, a sizable population in Bosnia and Herzegovina believe that the term "Bosnians" defines a people who constitute a distinct collective cultural identity or ethnic group. According to the latest (2013) census however, this population does not rise above 2.7%. According to a study conducted by University of Montenegro, Faculty for Sport and Physical Education, Nikšić, Montenegro and University of Novi Sad in Serbia, Bosnian people are the tallest in the world.
Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined set of time in a boxing ring.
Brandy is a spirit produced by distilling wine.
Branislav Nušić (Бранислав Нушић,; – 19 January 1938) was a Serbian playwright, satirist, essayist, novelist and founder of modern rhetoric in Serbia.
Branko Mikulić (10 June 1928 – 12 April 1994) was a Yugoslavian statesman.
Brčko is a town, municipality and the administrative seat of Brčko District in northern Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Brčko District (Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian: Брчко Дистрикт/Brčko Distrikt) is a self-governing administrative unit in north-eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Breza is a town and municipality located in Zenica-Doboj Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
A briquette (or briquet) is a compressed block of coal dust or other combustible biomass material such as charcoal, sawdust, wood chips, peat, or paper used for fuel and kindling to start a fire.
The Presidency Building (or the Building of the Presidency; Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian: Zgrada Predsjedništva / Зграда Предсједништва) is the official residence of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina, located in the Centar Municipality of Sarajevo, in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Buna is a short river in Bosnia and Herzegovina; it is a left bank tributary of the Neretva.
The Bundesliga (lit. "Federal League", sometimes referred to as the Fußball-Bundesliga or 1. Bundesliga) is a professional association football league in Germany and the football league with the highest average stadium attendance worldwide.
The Business Anti-Corruption Portal (BACP) is a one-stop shop for business anti-corruption information offering tools on how to mitigate risks and costs of corruption when doing business abroad.
Butmir is a neighborhood in Ilidža municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Cabbage or headed cabbage (comprising several cultivars of Brassica oleracea) is a leafy green, red (purple), or white (pale green) biennial plant grown as an annual vegetable crop for its dense-leaved heads.
The ten cantons of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (kanton, županije; Serbian: Кантон), are the member states of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, one of the two political entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
A canyon (Spanish: cañón; archaic British English spelling: cañon) or gorge is a deep cleft between escarpments or cliffs resulting from weathering and the erosive activity of a river over geologic timescales.
A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.
Capsicum (also known as peppers) is a genus of flowering plants in the nightshade family Solanaceae.
A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.
A car seat is the seat used in automobiles.
Case White (Fall Weiss), also known as the Fourth Enemy Offensive (Četvrta neprijateljska ofenziva/ofanziva) was a combined Axis strategic offensive launched against the Yugoslav Partisans throughout occupied Yugoslavia during World War II.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
The Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian: Centralna banka Bosne i Hercegovine / Централна банка Босне и Херцеговине) is the central bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina, located in the capital city, Sarajevo.
Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+1) during the other part of the year.
Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
A cezve is a small long-handled pot with a pouring lip designed specifically to make Turkish coffee.
The Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina is the head of the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Chairman of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina is the presiding member of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which collectively serves as head of state of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.
The Chetnik Detachments of the Yugoslav Army, also known as the Yugoslav Army in the Homeland or The Ravna Gora Movement, commonly known as the Chetniks (Četnici, Четници,; Četniki), was a World War II movement in Yugoslavia led by Draža Mihailović, an anti-Axis movement in their long-term goals which engaged in marginal resistance activities for limited periods.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
The Circumboreal Region in phytogeography is a floristic region within the Holarctic Kingdom in Eurasia and North America, as delineated by such geobotanists as Josias Braun-Blanquet and Armen Takhtajan.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Clock towers are a specific type of building which houses a turret clock and has one or more clock faces on the upper exterior walls.
CNN International (CNNI), simply referred to on the channel as CNN, is an international 24-hour English language cable, satellite, IPTV and digital terrestrial television channel that is operated by CNN.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
The term "coalition" is the denotation for a group formed when two or more persons, faction, states, political parties, militaries etc.
Coca-Cola, or Coke (also Pemberton's Cola at certain Georgian vendors), is a carbonated soft drink produced by The Coca-Cola Company.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
The Congress of Berlin (13 June – 13 July 1878) was a meeting of the representatives of six great powers of the time (Russia, Great Britain, France, Austria-Hungary, Italy and Germany), the Ottoman Empire and four Balkan states (Greece, Serbia, Romania and Montenegro).
Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos or Porphyrogenitus ("the Purple-born", that is, born in the purple marble slab-paneled imperial bed chambers; translit; 17–18 May 905 – 9 November 959) was the fourth Emperor of the Macedonian dynasty of the Byzantine Empire, reigning from 913 to 959.
The Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian: Ustav Bosne i Hercegovine / Устав Босне и Херцеговине) is the highest legal document of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Continental climates are defined in the Köppen climate classification as having the coldest month with the temperature never rising above 0.0° C (32°F) all month long.
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
The Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnian/Croatian: Vijeće ministara Bosne i Hercegovina, Савјет министара Босне и Херцеговине), often called Bosnian Government (Vlada Bosne i Hercegovine) is the executive branch of the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Yugoslavia was a state concept among the South Slavic intelligentsia and later popular masses from the 17th to early 20th centuries that culminated in its realization after the 1918 collapse of Austria-Hungary at the end of World War I and the formation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
The Croat–Bosniak War was a conflict between the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the self-proclaimed Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia, supported by Croatia, that lasted from 18 October 1992 to 23 February 1994.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
The Croatian Defence Council (HVO; Hrvatsko vijeće obrane) was the official military formation of the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia, an unrecognized entity that existed in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1991 and 1996.
The Croatian Democratic Union (Hrvatska demokratska zajednica or HDZ, literally translated: Croatian Democratic Community) is a conservative political party and the main centre-right political party in Croatia.
Croatian (hrvatski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighboring countries.
The Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia (Hrvatska Republika Herceg-Bosna) was an unrecognised geopolitical entity and proto-state in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Croats (Hrvati) or Croatians are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Croatia.
The Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina, often referred to as the Bosnian Croats, are the third most populous ethnic group in that country after Bosniaks and Serbs, and are one of the constitutive nations of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Crvena jabuka ("Red apple") is a Bosnian rock/pop band that originated in 1985, and since then has remained very popular.
CSKA Moscow (ЦСКА Москва) is a major Russian sports club based in Moscow.
Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is a widely cultivated plant in the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae.
A cultural landscape, as defined by the World Heritage Committee, is the "cultural properties represent the combined works of nature and of man.".
The culture of Bosnia and Herzegovina encompasses the country's ancient heritage, architecture, literature, visual arts, music, cinema, sports and cuisine.
A currency board is a monetary authority which is required to maintain a fixed exchange rate with a foreign currency.
The Cvetković–Maček Agreement was a political agreement on the internal divisions in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia which was settled on August 26, 1939 by Yugoslav prime minister Dragiša Cvetković and Vladko Maček, a Croat politician.
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
Damat Ibrahim Pasha (Damat İbrahim Paşa, Damat Ibrahim-paša, Croatian: Damat Ibrahim-paša; 1517–1601) was an Ottoman military commander and statesman who held the office of grand vizier three times (the first time from 4 April to 27 October 1596; the second time from 5 December 1596 to 3 November 1597; and for the third and last time, from 6 January 1599 to 10 July 1601.İsmail Hâmi Danişmend, Osmanlı Devlet Erkânı, Türkiye Yayınevi, İstanbul, 1971 (Turkish) He is known as the conqueror of Kanije. He is also called with the title damat ("bridegroom"), because he was a bridegroom to the Ottoman dynasty by marrying Ayşe, one of the sultan's daughters. He is not to be confused with either Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha, illustrious grand vizier of Suleiman the Magnificent, another devşirme and "Damat" to the Ottoman court, or with Nevşehirli Damat Ibrahim Pasha, who held office in early 18th century during the Tulip Era in the Ottoman Empire.
Damir Džumhur (born 20 May 1992) is a Bosnian professional tennis player and currently Bosnia and Herzegovina's No.
Danis Tanović (born 20 February 1969) is a Bosnian film director and screenwriter.
The Danube Swabians (Donauschwaben) is a collective term for the German-speaking population who lived in various countries of southeastern Europe, especially in the Danube River valley.
Davor Jozić (born 22 September 1960) is a Bosnian-Herzegovinian former footballer.
Davorin Popović (23 September 1946 – 18 June 2001) was a Bosnian-Herzegovinian musician, well known throughout the former Yugoslavia.
The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, also known as the Dayton Agreement, Dayton Accords, Paris Protocol or Dayton–Paris Agreement, (Dejtonski mirovni sporazum, Dejtonski mirovni sporazum, Daytonski sporazum) is the peace agreement reached at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, United States, in November 1995, and formally signed in Paris, France, on 14 December 1995.
Džemal Bijedić (12 April 1917 – 18 January 1977) was a Yugoslav Communist politician from Bosnia and Herzegovina.
De Administrando Imperio ("On the Governance of the Empire") is the Latin title of a Greek work written by the 10th-century Eastern Roman Emperor Constantine VII.
Death in Sarajevo (Smrt u Sarajevu) is a 2016 Bosnian drama film directed by Danis Tanović.
In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term deciduous (/dɪˈsɪdʒuəs/) means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves, usually in the autumn; to the shedding of petals, after flowering; and to the shedding of ripe fruit.
The title Defence Minister, Minister for Defence, Minister of National Defense, Secretary of Defence, Secretary of State for Defense or some similar variation, is assigned to the person in a cabinet position in charge of a Ministry of Defence, which regulates the armed forces in sovereign states.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.
Denis Zvizdić (born 9 June 1964) is a Bosnian politician.
The Dinaric Alps, also commonly Dinarides, are a mountain range in Southern and Southeastern Europe, separating the continental Balkan Peninsula from the Adriatic Sea.
Edin Dervišhalidović (born 12 September 1962), known by his stage name Dino Merlin, is a Bosnian singer-songwriter, musician, producer and philantropist.
Edin Dino Zonić is a Bosnian composer and conductor.
A diploma is a certificate or deed issued by an educational institution, such as college or university, that testifies that the recipient has successfully completed a particular course of study.
The diplomatic corps or corps diplomatique is the collective body of foreign diplomats accredited to a particular country or body.
In economics, distribution is the way total output, income, or wealth is distributed among individuals or among the factors of production (such as labour, land, and capital).
Divlje jagode (trans. "Wild strawberries") are an ex-Yugoslav and Bosnian heavy metal band formed in 1977.
Dnevni Avaz (English: Daily Voice) is a daily newspaper in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Doboj is a city located in Republika Srpska, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Dolma is a family of stuffed vegetable dishes common in the Mediterranean cuisine and surrounding regions including the Balkans, the Caucasus, Russia, Central Asia and Middle East.
Dražen "Praja" Dalipagić (born November 27, 1951) is a Yugoslav-Serbian retired professional basketball player and head coach.
Dragan Čović (born 20 August 1956) is a Bosnian Croat politician and leader of the Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina (HDZ BiH) party.
The Drina (Serbian Cyrillic: Дрина) is a long international river, which forms a large portion of the border between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia.
Dušan Šestić (Душан Шестић; born in Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina, then Yugoslavia) is a Bosnian composer.
Dušan Bajević (Душан Бајевић,; Ντούσαν Μπάγεβιτς, Doúsan Báyevits; born 10 December 1948) is a football manager and former player from Mostar, SFR Yugoslavia.
Dušan Vukotić (7 February 1927 – 8 July 1998) was a Yugoslav and Croatian cartoonist, author and director of animated films of Montenegrin descent.
Dubioza Kolektiv, also known as Dubioza, is a Bosnian band known for their fresh take on hip-hop, reggae, dub, punk, rock and Bosnian folklore.
Dubrovnik (historically Ragusa) is a Croatian city on the Adriatic Sea.
Duklja (Διοκλεία, Diokleia; Dioclea; Serbian Cyrillic: Дукља) was a medieval Serb state which roughly encompassed the territories of present-day southeastern Montenegro, from the Bay of Kotor in the west to the Bojana river in the east, and to the sources of the Zeta and Morača rivers in the north.
The early Slavs were a diverse group of tribal societies who lived during the Migration Period and Early Middle Ages (approximately the 5th to the 10th centuries) in Eastern Europe and established the foundations for the Slavic nations through the Slavic states of the High Middle Ages.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
The term Eastern world refers very broadly to the various cultures or social structures and philosophical systems, depending on the context, most often including at least part of Asia or geographically the countries and cultures east of Europe, specifically in historical (pre-modern) contexts, and in modern times in the context of Orientalism.
An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone.
Ecotourism is a form of tourism involving visiting fragile, pristine, and relatively undisturbed natural areas, intended as a low-impact and often small scale alternative to standard commercial mass tourism.
Edin Džeko (born 17 March 1986) is a Bosnian professional footballer who plays as a forward for Serie A club Roma and the Bosnia and Herzegovina national team, for which he is captain.
Edin Osmić (born 22 December 1978), better known by his stage name Edo Maajka, is a Bosnian rapper, record producer and songwriter.
The EHF Champions League is the most important handball club competition for men's teams in Europe and involves the leading teams from the top European nations.
The EHF Cup, formerly known as the IHF Cup until 1993, is an official competition for men's handball clubs of Europe.
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.
Elisha Obed (born February 21, 1952 in Nassau, Bahamas) was a Bahamian boxer at middleweight.
Elvir Baljić (Elvir Baliç) (born 8 July 1974) is a Bosnian-Herzegovinian and Turkish football manager and former player.
Elvir Laković, also known as Laka, (born 15 March 1969) is a Bosnian rock singer-songwriter, born in Goražde, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Elvir Rahimić (born 4 April 1976) is a Bosnian-Herzegovinian former professional footballer who spent the majority of his career playing for Russian Premier League club PFC CSKA Moscow.
Emir Kusturica (Емир Кустурица, born 24 November 1954) is a Serbian filmmaker, actor and musician.
Emir Spahić (born 18 August 1980) is a Bosnian former professional footballer who played as a centre back.
The Emperor's Mosque (Bosnian: Careva Džamija, Turkish: Hünkâr Camii) is an important landmark in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, being the first mosque to be built (1457) after the Ottoman conquest of Bosnia.
Microsoft Encarta was a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation from 1993 to 2009.
Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) (also known as Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS), or IMT Single Carrier (IMT-SC), or Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution) is a digital mobile phone technology that allows improved data transmission rates as a backward-compatible extension of GSM.
Enlargement of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is the process of including new member states in NATO.
Ethnic cleansing is the systematic forced removal of ethnic or racial groups from a given territory by a more powerful ethnic group, often with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
More than 96% of population of Bosnia and Herzegovina belongs to one of its three autochthonous constituent nations: Bosniaks, Serbs and Croats.
EuroBasket, also commonly referred to as the European Basketball Championship, is the main international basketball competition that is contested biannually, by the senior men's national teams that are governed by FIBA Europe, which is the European zone within the International Basketball Federation.
Euroleague Basketball is the private company that runs and operates the top two continental-wide men's professional club basketball competitions in Europe, the first-tier EuroLeague, and the second-tier EuroCup.
The EuroLeague Women (officially FIBA EuroLeague Women) is the highest professional basketball league in Europe for women's clubs.
The European Amateur Boxing Championships is the highest competition for boxing amateurs in Europe, organised by the continent's governing body EUBC, which stands for the European Boxing Confederation.
The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe.
The European Chess Club Cup is an annual chess tournament for club teams from Europe.
The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR or ECtHR; Cour européenne des droits de l’homme) is a supranational or international court established by the European Convention on Human Rights.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
European Union Force Althea (EUFOR Althea) is a military deployment in Bosnia and Herzegovina to oversee the military implementation of the Dayton Agreement.
The European Union Police Mission (EUPM) was the European Union's mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina that aided the local police organizations, and was one of a number of European Union Police Missions worldwide.
Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg.
Mehmed Zilli (25 March 1611 – 1682), known as Evliya Çelebi (اوليا چلبى), was an Ottoman explorer who travelled through the territory of the Ottoman Empire and neighboring lands over a period of forty years, recording his commentary in a travelogue called the Seyahatname ("Book of Travel").
An executive officer (XO) is generally a person responsible for running an organization, although the exact nature of the role varies depending on the organization.
Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service company based in Menlo Park, California.
Faruk Hadžibegić (born 7 October 1957) is a Bosnian-Herzegovinian football manager and former player who is currently a free agent.
Futbol Club Barcelona, commonly known as Barcelona and familiarly as Barça, is a professional football club based in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
Fußball-Club Bayern München e.V., commonly known as FC Bayern München, FCB, Bayern Munich, or FC Bayern, is a German sports club based in Munich, Bavaria (Bayern).
A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government.
The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (abbreviated FB&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina (FBiH) / Федерација Боснa и Херцеговина (ФБиХ), Croatian: Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina (FBiH)) is one of the two political entities that compose Bosnia and Herzegovina, the other being Republika Srpska.
Ferhad Pasha Sokolović (Sokollu Ferhad Paşa, Ferhad-paša Sokolović) (died 1586) was an Ottoman general and statesman from Bosnia.
Ferhat Pasha Mosque (Ferhat-pašina džamija, Ferhad Paşa Camii), also known as the Ferhadija Mosque, is a central building in the city of Banja Luka and one of the greatest achievements of Bosnia and Herzegovina’s 16th century Ottoman Islamic architecture in Europe.
The FIBA Hall of Fame honors players, coaches, and administrators, who have greatly contributed to international competitive basketball.
Fudbalski klub Željezničar (English: Football Club Željezničar) is a professional football club, based in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Fudbalski klub Sarajevo (Sarajevo Football Club) is a Bosnian professional football club based in Sarajevo, the capital city of Bosnia and Herzegovina and is one of the most successful clubs in the country.
During the later stages of World War II and the post-war period, German citizens and people of German ancestry fled or were expelled from various Eastern and Central European countries and sent to the remaining territory of Germany and Austria.
Fojnica is a town and municipality located in Central Bosnia Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi.
Franjo Tuđman, also written as Franjo Tudjman (14 May 1922 – 10 December 1999) was a Croatian politician and historian.
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.
Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the principle that communication and expression through various media, including printed and electronic media, especially published materials, should be considered a right to be exercised freely.
Furniture refers to movable objects intended to support various human activities such as seating (e.g., chairs, stools, and sofas), eating (tables), and sleeping (e.g., beds).
Gabrijel Jurkić (24 March 1886 – 25 February 1974) was a Yugoslaw artist, born in Livno, now Bosnia and Herzegovina, and died at a Franciscan monastery near there in 1974.
Garlic (Allium sativum) is a species in the onion genus, Allium.
Gavrilo Princip (Гаврило Принцип,; 28 April 1918) was a Bosnian Serb member of Young Bosnia, a Yugoslavist organization seeking an end to Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Gazi Husrev-beg (غازى خسرو بك, Gāzī Ḫusrev Beğ; Modern Turkish: Gazi Hüsrev Bey; 1480–1541) was a Bosniak Ottoman sanjak-bey (governor) of the Sanjak of Bosnia in 1521—1525, 1526—1534, and 1536—1541.
The Gazi Husrev-beg Mosque (Gazi Husrev-begova Džamija, Gazi Hüsrev Bey Camii), is a mosque in the city of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Golden Bear (Goldener Bär) is the highest prize awarded for the best film at the Berlin International Film Festival.
Golden Globe Awards are accolades bestowed by the 93 members of the Hollywood Foreign Press Association beginning in January 1944, recognizing excellence in film and television, both domestic and foreign.
Goran Bregović (Горан Бреговић,, born 22 March 1950) is a Bosnian musician.
Goulash (gulyás) is a soup of meat and vegetables, seasoned with paprika and other spices.
Government debt (also known as public interest, public debt, national debt and sovereign debt) is the debt owed by a government.
The Grand Slam tournaments, also called majors, are the four most important annual tennis events.
In the Ottoman Empire, the Grand Vizier (Sadrazam) was the prime minister of the Ottoman sultan, with absolute power of attorney and, in principle, dismissible only by the sultan himself.
Grappa is an alcoholic beverage, a fragrant, grape-based pomace brandy of Italian origin that contains 35 to 60 percent alcohol by volume (70 to 120 US proof).
The Great Turkish War (Der Große Türkenkrieg) or the War of the Holy League (Kutsal İttifak Savaşları) was a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and the Holy League consisting of the Habsburg Empire, Poland-Lithuania, Venice and Russia.
Greater Croatia (Velika Hrvatska) is a term applied to certain currents within Croatian nationalism.
The term Greater Serbia or Great Serbia (Велика Србија / Velika Srbija) describes the Serbian nationalist and irredentist ideology of the creation of a Serb state which would incorporate all regions of traditional significance to Serbs, including regions outside Serbia that are populated by Serbs.
Greek cuisine (Ελληνική κουζίνα, Elliniki kouzina) is a Mediterranean cuisine.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Grmeč (Cyrillic: Грмеч) is a mountain in north-western Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
The gusle (гусле, гусла, lahuta, lăuta) is a single-stringed musical instrument (and musical style) traditionally used in the Dinarides region of Southeastern Europe.
A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, and providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and US preparatory high schools.
Count Gyula Andrássy de Csíkszentkirály et Krasznahorka (8 March 1823 – 18 February 1890) was a Hungarian statesman, who served as Prime Minister of Hungary (1867–1871) and subsequently as Foreign Minister of Austria-Hungary (1871–1879).
Hamburger Sport-Verein e.V., commonly known as Hamburger SV, Hamburg or HSV, is a German sport club based in Hamburg, its largest branch being its football department.
Hamdija Pozderac (15 January 1924 — 7 April 1988) was a Yugoslav communist politician and the president of Bosnia and Herzegovina from 1971 to 1974.
Hamza Alić (born 20 January 1979) is a Bosnian shot putter who competed at the World Championships in 2005 and 2007, the European Championships in 2002 and 2006, the World Indoor Championships in 2006 and 2008 as well as the 2008 Summer Olympics, but without reaching the final.
Handball (also known as team handball, fieldball, European handball or Olympic handball) is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each (six outfield players and a goalkeeper) pass a ball using their hands with the aim of throwing it into the goal of the other team.
Hari Mata Hari is a popular music band from Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Haris "Hari" Džinović (born 26 September 1951) is a popular Bosnian pop-folk singer-songwriter.
Hasan Salihamidžić (born 1 January 1977) is a Bosnian-Herzegovinian former professional footballer.
Herzegovina (or; Serbian: Hercegovina, Херцеговина) is the southern region of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Eyalet of Herzegovina (ایالت هرسك; Eyālet-i Hersek) was an Ottoman eyalet from 1833 to 1851.
The Herzegovina uprising (Hercegovački ustanak, Херцеговачки устанак) was an uprising led by ethnic Serbs against the Ottoman Empire, firstly and predominantly in Herzegovina (hence its name), from where it spread into Bosnia.
The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period of European history that commenced around 1000 AD and lasted until around 1250 AD.
The High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina, together with the Office of the High Representative (OHR) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, were created in 1995 immediately after the signing of the Dayton Agreement which ended the 1992–95 Bosnian War.
Bosnia and Herzegovina, sometimes referred to simply as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe on the Balkan Peninsula.
Holiday Inn is a British-owned American brand of hotels, and a subsidiary of InterContinental Hotels Group.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
The House of Peoples of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Dom naroda Bosne i Hercegovine/Дом народа Босне и Херцеговине) is one of the two chambers of the Parliamentary Assembly of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with the other chamber being the House of Representatives of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The House of Representatives (Bosnian: Predstavnički Dom, Croatian: Zastupnički Dom and Serbian Cyrillic: Представнички Дом), is one of the two chambers of the Parliamentary Assembly of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with the other being the House of Peoples of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Hrvatska riječ (lit. The Croatian Word) is a Croatian language weekly newspaper in Serbia.
HuffPost (formerly The Huffington Post and sometimes abbreviated HuffPo) is a liberal American news and opinion website and blog that has both localized and international editions.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe, between the 4th and 6th century AD.
Husein Gradaščević (31 August 1802–17 August 1834) was an Ottoman Bosnian and later independent Bosniak military commander who later led a rebellion against the Ottoman government, seeking autonomy for Bosnia.
A hydronym (from ὕδωρ, hydor, "water" and ὄνομα, onoma, "name") is a proper name of a body of water.
Ilidža (Илиџа) is a municipality located in Sarajevo Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
In classical antiquity, Illyria (Ἰλλυρία, Illyría or Ἰλλυρίς, Illyrís; Illyria, see also Illyricum) was a region in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula inhabited by the Illyrians.
The Illyrian languages are a group of Indo-European languages that were spoken in the western part of the Balkans in former times by groups identified as Illyrians: Ardiaei, Delmatae, Pannonii, Autariates, Taulantii (see list of ancient tribes in Illyria).
The Illyrians (Ἰλλυριοί, Illyrioi; Illyrii or Illyri) were a group of Indo-European tribes in antiquity, who inhabited part of the western Balkans.
Illyricum was a Roman province that existed from 27 BC to sometime during the reign of Vespasian (69–79 AD).
The IMF Stand-By Arrangement (SBA) is an economic program of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) involving financial aid to a member state in need of financial assistance, normally arising from a financial crisis.
The Implementation Force (IFOR) was a NATO-led multinational peace enforcement force in Bosnia and Herzegovina under a one-year mandate from 20 December 1995 to 20 December 1996 under the codename Operation Joint Endeavour.
The Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH; Unabhängiger Staat Kroatien; Stato Indipendente di Croazia) was a World War II fascist puppet state of Germany and Italy.
Indexi was a Bosnian and former Yugoslav rock band popular in Yugoslavia.
An indirect tax (such as sales tax, per unit tax, value added tax (VAT), or goods and services tax (GST)) is a tax collected by an intermediary (such as a retail store) from the person who bears the ultimate economic burden of the tax (such as the consumer).
The informal sector, informal economy, or grey economy is the part of an economy that is neither taxed nor monitored by any form of government.
The Inter-Entity Boundary Line (Međuentitetska linija, Међуентитеска линија), commonly abbreviated IEBL, divides Bosnia and Herzegovina into two entities, the Republika Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
An international airport is an airport that offers customs and immigration facilities for passengers travelling between countries.
International Burch University was established in 2008 in Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with the goal of presenting a unique opportunity to rethink the very idea of a modern university and formulate a blueprint for the future.
The International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River (ICPDR) is an international organisation with its permanent secretariat in Vienna.
The International Court of Justice (abbreviated ICJ; commonly referred to as the World Court) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN).
The International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991, more commonly referred to as the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), was a body of the United Nations established to prosecute serious crimes committed during the Yugoslav Wars, and to try their perpetrators.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was a NATO-led security mission in Afghanistan, established by the United Nations Security Council in December 2001 by Resolution 1386, as envisaged by the Bonn Agreement.
International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories.
The International University of Sarajevo (IUS) is a private university located in the capital city Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Isa-Beg Ishaković (İshakoğlu İsa Bey, Иса-Бег Исхаковић; 1439–70) was an Ottoman general and the governor of the Sanjak of Bosnia for most of his career.
Isak Samokovlija (3 September 1889 – 15 January 1955) was a prominent Bosnian Jewish writer.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islam is the most widespread religion in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Istočna Ilidža (Источна Илиџа, "East Ilidža") is a municipality of the city of Istočno Sarajevo located in Republika Srpska, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Istočni Stari Grad (Источни Стари Град) is a municipality of the city of Istočno Sarajevo located in Republika Srpska, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Istočno Novo Sarajevo (Источно Ново Сарајево) or East New Sarajevo, is a municipality of the city of Istočno Sarajevo located in Republika Srpska, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Istočno Sarajevo (Источно Сарајево) or East Sarajevo, is a city located in Republika Srpska, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Ivan Sokolov (Bosnian and Bulgarian: Иван Соколов) (born 13 June 1968) is a Dutch chess grandmaster.
Ivan "Ivica" Osim (born 6 May 1941) is a Bosnian-Herzegovinian former football player and manager.
Ivo Andrić (Иво Андрић,; born Ivan Andrić; 9 October 1892 – 13 March 1975) was a Yugoslav novelist, poet and short story writer who won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1961.
Jablanica is a town and municipality located in Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Jahorina (Cyrillic: Јахорина) is a mountain in Bosnia and Herzegovina, located near Pale in the Dinaric Alps.
Jajce is a town and municipality located in Central Bosnia Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Janissaries (يڭيچرى, meaning "new soldier") were elite infantry units that formed the Ottoman Sultan's household troops, bodyguards and the first modern standing army in Europe.
The Jasenovac concentration camp (Logor Jasenovac/Логор Јасеновац,; יאסענאוואץ) was an extermination camp established in Slavonia by the authorities of the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) during World War II.
Jasmila Žbanić (born 19 December 1974) is a Bosnian film director and screenwriter.
Jasmin Dizdar (born 8 June 1961) is a British-Bosnian film director, screenwriter and author best known for his feature film Beautiful People and his World War Two thriller Chosen.
The Jews of Bosnia and Herzegovina or Bosnian Jews have a rich and varied history, surviving World War II and the Yugoslav Wars, after having been established as a result of the Spanish Inquisition, and having been almost destroyed by the Holocaust.
John V. A. Fine Jr. (born 1939) is an American historian and author.
Josip Broz (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз,; 7 May 1892 – 4 May 1980), commonly known as Tito (Cyrillic: Тито), was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and political leader, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980.
Josip "Škija" Katalinski (12 May 1948 – 9 June 2011) was a Bosnian-Herzegovinian football player.
Jovan Dučić (Јован Дучић,; 17 February 1871 – 7 April 1943) was a Bosnian Serb poet, writer and diplomat.
Judaeo-Spanish or Judeo-Spanish (judeo-español, Hebrew script: גֿודֿיאו-איספאנייול, Cyrillic: Ђудео-Еспањол), commonly referred to as Ladino, is a Romance language derived from Old Spanish.
The Jury Grand Prix (also Grand Jury Prize, Grand Prize of the Jury) is a Silver Bear award given by the jury at the Berlin International Film Festival to one of the feature films in competition.
Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.
Jusuf Nurkić (born August 23, 1994) is a Bosnian professional basketball player for the Portland Trail Blazers of the National Basketball Association (NBA).
Karst is a topography formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite, and gypsum.
Kebabs (also kabobs or kababs) are various cooked meat dishes, with their origins in Middle Eastern cuisine.
Kemal Monteno (17 September 1948 – 21 January 2015) was a Bosnian singer-songwriter whose career stretched from the 1960s to the 2010s.
The Kingdom of Bosnia (Bosansko Kraljevstvo) was a South Slavic medieval Kingdom that evolved from the Banate of Bosnia (1154–1377).
The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920).
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croatian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija, Краљевина Југославија; Кралство Југославија) was a state in Southeast Europe and Central Europe, that existed from 1918 until 1941, during the interwar period and beginning of World War II.
Kiseljak is a town and municipality located in Central Bosnia Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
KK Bosna Royal (Košarkaški klub Bosna Royal) is a professional basketball team based in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, which became European champion by winning the 1978–79 FIBA European Champions Cup.
In Southeastern Europe, the South Slavic peoples traditionally dance the circle dance, known as Kolo (Коло/Kolo; Kolo; Kolo), named after the circle formed by the dancers.
Komitadji, Comitadjis, or Komitas (Bulgarian, Macedonian and Комити, Serbian Latin: Komiti, Comitagiu, Κομιτατζής, plural: Κομιτατζήδες, Komitacı, Komit) means in Turkish a "committee members".
Konjic is a town and municipality located in Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Kornelije "Bata" Kovač (Корнелије Ковач, Kovács Kornél; born 1 January 1942) is a famous Serbian composer.
The Kotromanić (Serbian Cyrillic: Котроманић, Kotromanići / Котроманићи) were members of a late medieval Bosnian noble and later royal dynasty.
Kozara (Козара) is a mountain in western Bosnia and Herzegovina, in the Bosanska Krajina region, bounded by the Sava River to the north, the Vrbas to the east, the Sana to the south, and the Una to the west.
Kozara National Park (Serbian Cyrillic: Национални парк Козара) is a national park that was proclaimed a protected national forest in 1967 by Josip Broz Tito.
Kreševo is a town and municipality located in Central Bosnia Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Lamb, hogget, and mutton are the meat of domestic sheep (species Ovis aries) at different ages.
A landline telephone (also known as land line, land-line, main line, home phone, landline, fixed-line, and wireline) is a phone that uses a metal wire or optical fiber telephone line for transmission as distinguished from a mobile cellular line, which uses radio waves for transmission.
Lazar Drljača (10 October 1882 – 13 July 1970) was a Bosnian and Yugoslav painter.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
The terms right-hand traffic (RHT) and left-hand traffic (LHT) refer to the practice, in bidirectional traffic situations, to keep to the right side or to the left side of the road, respectively.
Liberal democracy is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Byzantine Empire (or the Eastern Roman Empire), to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
This is a list of all the countries by the Human Development Index as included in a United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Report.
This is a list of countries or dependencies by income inequality metrics, including Gini coefficients.
This is a list of present-day cities by the time period over which they have been continuously inhabited.
This is a list of rulers of Bosnia, containing bans and kings of Medieval Bosnia.
Ljubljana (locally also; also known by other, historical names) is the capital and largest city of Slovenia.
Lonely Planet is the largest travel guide book publisher in the world.
Lukavac is a town and municipality located in Tuzla Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Macedonian (македонски, tr. makedonski) is a South Slavic language spoken as a first language by around two million people, principally in the Republic of Macedonia and the Macedonian diaspora, with a smaller number of speakers throughout the transnational region of Macedonia.
The Maclean Mission (MACMIS) was a World War II British mission to Yugoslav partisans HQ and Marshall Tito organised by the Special Operations Executive (SOE) in September 1943.
Madrasa (مدرسة,, pl. مدارس) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion), and whether a school, college, or university.
Maglić (Маглић) is the highest peak at an elevation of in the hill ranges of Plješevica, Grmeč, Cincar and Raduša in the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Mahmud II (Ottoman Turkish: محمود ثانى Mahmud-u sānī, محمود عدلى Mahmud-u Âdlî) (İkinci Mahmut) (20 July 1785 – 1 July 1839) was the 30th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 until his death in 1839.
Mehmedalija "Mak" Dizdar (17 October 1917 – 14 July 1971) was a Bosniak poet.
Man-portable air-defense systems (MANPADS or MPADS) are shoulder-launched surface-to-air missiles (SLSAMs).
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
Mara Lakić-Brčaninović (born 18 August 1963 in Gradačac, SFR Yugoslavia) is a Bosnian basketball coach and former basketball player.
A Marian apparition is a reported supernatural appearance by the Blessed Virgin Mary.
Marija Šestić (Марија Шестић, born 5 May 1987, Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina, then Yugoslavia) is a Bosnian singer and musician.
Marijan Beneš (Маријан Бенеш; born 11 June 1951) is a former Yugoslavian boxer from Bosnia and Herzegovina, still considered one of the best in Yugoslav history.
MARPAT (short for Marine pattern) is a multi-scale camouflage pattern in use with the United States Marine Corps, designed in 2001 and introduced between 2002 and 2004 with the Marine Corps Combat Utility Uniform (MCCUU), which replaced the Camouflage Utility Uniform.
Nasuh bin Karagöz bin Abdullah el-Visokavi el-Bosnavî, or Nasuh el-Matrakči ibn Karađoz ibn Abdullah el-Visokavi el-Bosnevi, commonly known as Matrakçı Nasuh for his competence in the game of Matrak, invented by himself, (also known as Nasuh el-Silâhî, Nasuh the Swordsman, because of his talent with weapons; 1480 – 1564) was a 16th-century Bosniak statesman of the Ottoman Empire, polymath, mathematician, teacher, historian, geographer, cartographer, swordmaster, navigator, inventor, painter, farmer, and miniaturist.
Matura or its translated terms (Mature, Matur, Maturita, Maturità, Maturität, Maturité, Mатура) is a Latin name for the secondary school exit exam or "maturity diploma" in various countries, including Albania, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Kosovo, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland and Ukraine.
Mehmed "Meša" Selimović (sr; 26 April 1910 – 11 July 1982) was a Yugoslav writer, whose novel Death and the Dervish is one of the most important literary works in post-Second World War Yugoslavia.
In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.
A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.
Mediterranean cuisine is the foods and methods of preparation by people of the Mediterranean Basin region.
Međugorje, or Medjugorje, is a town located in the Herzegovina region of Bosnia and Herzegovina, around southwest of Mostar and close to the border of Croatia.
Mehmed Baždarević (born 28 September 1960) is a Bosnian-Herzegovinian football manager and former player, who currently manages French Ligue 2 side Paris FC Baždarević played for Bosnian-Herzegovinian side Željezničar Sarajevo and French outfit Sochaux-Montbéliard, among others.
The Mehmed Paša Sokolović Bridge (Bosnian and Serbian: Most Mehmed-paše Sokolovića/Мост Мехмед-паше Соколовића; Sokollu Mehmet Paşa Köprüsü) is a historic bridge in Višegrad, over the Drina River in eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Mehmed Spaho (13 March 1883 – 29 June 1939) was a Yugoslav politician and leader of the Yugoslav Muslim Organization.
Mehmed "Meho" Kodro (born 12 January 1967) is a Bosnian retired footballer who played as a striker, and wast most recently the manager of Swiss club Servette FC.
Mersad Berber (1 January 1940 – 7 October 2012) was a Bosnian painter.
Mervana Jugić-Salkić (born 14 May 1980) is a retired tennis player from Bosnia.
The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about.
The Migration Period was a period during the decline of the Roman Empire around the 4th to 6th centuries AD in which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.
Milena Nikolić (born 6 July 1992) is a Bosnian football forward.
A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
Miljenko Jergović (born 28 May 1966) is a Bosnian-Herzegovinian and Croatian prose writer.
The Ministry of Defence of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnian, Serbian Latin: Ministarstvo odbrane Bosne i Hercegovine Serbian Cyrillic: Министарство одбране Босне и Херцеговине, Croatian: Ministarstvo obrane Bosne i Hercegovine) is the governmental department in charge of the Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina and protection of Bosnia and Herzegovina from invasion and threats.
Miralem Pjanić (born 2 April 1990) is a Bosnian professional footballer who plays as a midfielder for Serie A club Juventus and the Bosnia and Herzegovina national team.
Mirza Bašić (born 12 July 1991) is a Bosnian professional tennis player.
Mirza Delibašić (January 9, 1954 – December 8, 2001) was a Yugoslav and Bosnian professional basketball player.
Mirza Teletović (born September 17, 1985) is a Bosnian-Herzegovinian professional basketball player who last played for the Milwaukee Bucks of the National Basketball Association (NBA).
Mladen Ivanić (Младен Иванић,; born on 16 September 1958 in Sanski Most) is a Bosnian Serb politician who has been a member of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina since 2014.
Modrac Lake (Bosnian: Jezero Modrac) is an artificial lake of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Montenegrin (црногорски / crnogorski) is the variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used as the official language of Montenegro.
Montenegro (Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora, meaning "Black Mountain") is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
Mostar is a city and the administrative center of Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Motor oil, engine oil, or engine lubricant is any of various substances comprising base oils enhanced with additives, particularly antiwear additive plus detergents, dispersants and, for multi-grade oils viscosity index improvers.
Muhamed Bešić (born 10 September 1992) is a Bosnian professional footballer who plays as a defensive midfielder for Premier League club Everton and the Bosnia and Herzegovina national team.
Muhamed Hevaji Uskufi Bosnevi (Muhamed Hevaija Uskufija Bosnevi, Mehmet Hevayi Uskufi, born c. 1600 in Dobrnja near Tuzla, died after 1651) was a Bosniak poet and writer of Aljamiado literature.
A mushroom, or toadstool, is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source.
Like the surrounding Balkan countries, Bosnia and Herzegovina has had a turbulent past marked by frequent foreign invasions and occupation.
A musical ensemble, also known as a music group or musical group, is a group of people who perform instrumental or vocal music, with the ensemble typically known by a distinct name.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
N1 is a 24-hour cable news channel launched on 30 October 2014.
A national anthem (also state anthem, national hymn, national song, etc.) is generally a patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nation's government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people.
"The National Anthem of Bosnia and Herzegovina" (Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian: Državna himna Bosne i Hercegovine / Државна химна Босне и Херцеговине) is the name of the official national anthem of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
National Assembly politically is either a legislature, or the lower house of a bicameral legislature in some countries.
The National Assembly of Republic of Srpska (Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian: Народна скупштина Републике Српске/Narodna skupština Republike Srpske), abbreviated as NSRS (НСРС), is the legislative body of the Republika Srpska, one of two entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.
A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) that has some connection—de facto or de jure—with people and the territory they occupy.
A national sport is considered to be an intrinsic part of the culture of a nation.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
A natural border is a border between states or their subdivisions which is concomitant with natural formations such as rivers, mountain ranges, or deserts.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
The Neretva (Неретва), also known as the Narenta, is the largest river of the eastern part of the Adriatic basin.
Neum (Неум) is a town and municipality located in Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Nihad Đedović (anglicized: Nihad Djedovic) (born January 12, 1990) is a Bosnian professional basketball player for Bayern Munich of the Basketball Bundesliga (BBL).
No Man's Land (Ničija zemlja) is a 2001 war film that is set in the midst of the Bosnian War.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.
Non-denominational Muslims is an umbrella term that has been used for and by Muslims who do not belong to or do not self-identify with a specific Islamic denomination.
Novi Plamen (New Flame) was a left-wing journal for political, social and cultural issues primarily aimed at intellectual audiences in the former Yugoslavia and the related diaspora.
An oblast is a type of administrative division of Belarus, Bulgaria, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Ukraine, and the former Soviet Union and Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
An old-growth forest — also termed primary forest, virgin forest, primeval forest, or late seral forest— is a forest that has attained great age without significant disturbance and thereby exhibits unique ecological features and might be classified as a climax community.
Operation Deliberate Force was a sustained air campaign conducted by the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), in concert with the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) ground operations, to undermine the military capability of the Bosnian Serb Army (VRS), which had threatened and attacked UN-designated "safe areas" in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Bosnian War with the Srebrenica and Markale massacres, precipitating the intervention.
The Organised persecution of ethnic Germans refers to systematic activity against groups of ethnic Germans based on their ethnicity.
Oslobođenje (English: Liberation) is a newspaper in Bosnia and Herzegovina based in the capital city Sarajevo.
Osman Gradaščević (1765–died 1812) or Captain Osman (Osman-kapetan) was an Ottoman Bosnian captain of the military captaincy of Gradačac, which he was in control of since 1765.
Ostrožac Castle is a castle located in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the Una-Sana Canton just outside the town of Cazin, near the village of Ostrožac.
The Ostrogoths (Ostrogothi, Austrogothi) were the eastern branch of the later Goths (the other major branch being the Visigoths).
The Ottoman conquest of Bosnia and Herzegovina was a process that started roughly in 1386, when the first Ottoman attacks on the Kingdom of Bosnia took place.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Ottoman wars in Europe were a series of military conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and various European states dating from the Late Middle Ages up through the early 20th century.
Our Lady of Medjugorje (also called Queen of Peace and Mother of the Redeemer) is the title given to the Blessed Virgin Mary by those who believe that she appeared in 1981 to six Herzegovinian children in Medjugorje, Bosnia and Herzegovina (at the time in SFR Yugoslavia).
The location of Bosnia and Herzegovina An enlargeable map of the Bosnia and Herzegovina The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Bosnia and Herzegovina: Bosnia and Herzegovina – country in Southwestern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Palme d'Or (Golden Palm) is the highest prize awarded at the Cannes Film Festival.
The Pannonian Basin, or Carpathian Basin, is a large basin in Central Europe.
Paprika (US English more commonly, British English more commonly) is a ground spice made from dried red fruits of the larger and sweeter varieties of the plant Capsicum annuum, called bell pepper or sweet pepper.
A paramilitary is a semi-militarized force whose organizational structure, tactics, training, subculture, and (often) function are similar to those of a professional military, but which is not included as part of a state's formal armed forces.
The Parliamentary Assembly of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian: Parlamentarna skupština Bosne i Hercegovine / Парламентарна скупштина Босне и Херцеговине) is the bicameral legislative body of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
The partition of Bosnia and Herzegovina was discussed and attempted during the 20th century.
Pasha or Paşa (پاشا, paşa), in older works sometimes anglicized as bashaw, was a higher rank in the Ottoman political and military system, typically granted to governors, generals, dignitaries and others.
The Peace Implementation Council (PIC) is an international body charged with implementing the Dayton Peace Agreement for Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Perućica (Перућица) is one of the last remaining primeval forests in Europe.
Petar Šain (1885–1965) was a Bosnian artist.
Petar Kočić (Петар Кочић; 29 June 1877 – 27 August 1916) was a Bosnian Serb writer, playwright, poet and politician.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
Phytogeography (from Greek φυτό, phyto.
Pilaf or pilau is a dish in which rice is cooked in a seasoned broth.
Pjer Žalica (born 7 May 1964 in Sarajevo) is a Bosnian film director and a professor at the Academy of Performing Arts in Sarajevo.
Plavi orkestar (Blue Orchestra) is a Bosnian pop/rock band from Sarajevo.
A plum is a fruit of the subgenus Prunus of the genus Prunus. The subgenus is distinguished from other subgenera (peaches, cherries, bird cherries, etc.) in the shoots having terminal bud and solitary side buds (not clustered), the flowers in groups of one to five together on short stems, and the fruit having a groove running down one side and a smooth stone (or pit).
Počitelj is a village in the Čapljina municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Political history is the narrative and analysis of political events, ideas, movements, organs of government, voters, parties and leaders.
A political spectrum is a system of classifying different political positions upon one or more geometric axes that symbolize independent political dimensions.
The Politics of Bosnia and Herzegovina takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democracy, whereby executive power is exercised by the Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Posavina (Posavina/Посавина) is the Slavic name for the region of the Sava river basin in Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Serbia that is adjacent or near the Sava river itself.
Predrag Nikolić (born 11 September 1960 in Bosanski Šamac) is a Bosnian chess grandmaster.
Predrag Pašić (born 18 October 1958) is a former Bosnian-Herzegovinian footballer.
Prenj is a mountain range in the Dinaric Alps of southern Bosnia and Herzegovina, located in eastern Herzegovina near Mostar, Jablanica and Konjic.
The Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina is the three-member body which collectively serves as head of state of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Prijedor (Приједор)) is a city located in Republika Srpska, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. As of 2013, it has a population of 89,397 inhabitants within its administrative limits. Prijedor is situated in the Bosanska Krajina region. It is an economically prosperous municipality hosting a wide range of industries, services and educational institutions. The city's geographical location close to major European capitals has made it an important industrial and commercial hub nationally. Prijedor is known for its Catholic, Eastern Orthodox Christian and Islamic heritage. Historic buildings from the Ottoman and Austrian-Hungarian periods are a feature of the urban landscape. The city underwent extensive renovation between 2006–2009.
Prokoško Lake is a lake of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions into an electorate are reflected proportionately into the elected body.
The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage from 264 BC to 146 BC.
Radimlja is a stećak necropolis located near Stolac, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Rafting and white water rafting are recreational outdoor activities which use an inflatable raft to navigate a river or other body of water.
Rakitnica is the main tributary of the first section of the Neretva river, also called Upper Neretva (Gornja Neretva).
Razija Mujanović (born 15 April 1967 in Čelić, SFR Yugoslavia) is a retired Bosnian women's basketball player.
Real Sociedad de Fútbol, S.A.D., more commonly referred to as Real Sociedad (Royal Society) or La Real, is a Spanish football club based in the city of San Sebastián, Basque Country, founded on 7 September 1909.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
The Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Republika Bosna i Hercegovina / Република Босна и Херцеговина) was the direct legal predecessor to the modern-day state of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Republika Srpska (Република Српскa,; literally "Serb Republic") is one of two constitutional and legal entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the other being the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Republika Srpska Air Force was the air force of Republika Srpska and was used primarily during the Bosnian war.
The Resolution of Sarajevo Muslims or Muslim Resolution of 1941 (Sarajevska rezolucija/Сарајевска резолуција) was one of the Resolutions of Muslims from Bosnia and Herzegovina (then parts of the Independent State of Croatia) declared by 108 notable Muslim citizens of Sarajevo during the Second World War in Sarajevo on October 12, 1941.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Right of passage, in international law, means (approximately) a country's right for its ships to pass through the territorial seas of foreign states and straits used for international navigation.
Rukometni klub Borac Banjaluka (Serbian Cyrillic: Рукометни клуб Бopaц Бања Лука) is a handball club from Banja Luka, Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Roman Petrović (Donji Vakuf, 1896–1947) was a Bosnian artist.
Romani (also Romany; romani čhib) is any of several languages of the Romani people belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
The Romani people in Bosnia and Herzegovina are the largest of the 17 national minority in the country, although—due to the stigma attached to the label—this is often not reflected in statistics and censuses.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
Romanija (Романија) is a mountain and geographical region in eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina, including the main towns of Pale, Sokolac, and Han Pijesak.
The Ronchetti Cup (called till 1996 European Cup Liliana Ronchetti) was an annual women’s basketball European club competition held by FIBA between the years 1972 and 2002.
Rumelia (روم ايلى, Rūm-ėli; Rumeli), also known as Turkey in Europe, was a historical term describing the area in southeastern Europe that was administered by the Ottoman Empire, mainly the Balkan Peninsula.
Rusyns, also known as Ruthenes (Rusyn: Русины Rusynŷ; also sometimes referred to as Руснакы Rusnakŷ – Rusnaks), are a primarily diasporic ethnic group who speak an East Slavic language known as Rusyn.
Saša "Loša" Lošić (born 19 July 1964, Banja Luka, SR Bosnia and Herzegovina, SFR Yugoslavia) is one of the most recognizable composers of the Balkans and the leader of the band Plavi Orkestar, which is one of the most popular music bands of the former Yugoslav Pop and Rock scene.
Saša Toperić, also written as Sasha Toperich (born 1972) is a concert pianist, diplomat, and human rights advocate.
Safet Sušić (born 13 April 1955) is a Bosnian football manager and former player, who currently manages Turkish club Akhisarspor.
Safet Zec (born 5 December 1943) is a Bosnian painter and graphic designer.
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
Sana is a river in the north-western part of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Sandžak (Санџак) or Sanjak is a historical geo-political region, now divided by the border between Serbia and Montenegro.
The Sanjak of Herzegovina (Hersek Sancağı) was an Ottoman administrative unit established in 1470.
The Sanjak of Novi Pazar (Novopazarski sandžak; Новопазарски санџак; Yeni Pazar sancağı) was an Ottoman sanjak (second-level administrative unit) that was created in 1865.
The Sanjak of Smederevo (Semendire Sancağı; Смедеревски санџак/Smederevski sandžak), also known in historiography as the Pashalik of Belgrade (Belgrad Paşalığı; Београдски пашалук/Beogradski pašaluk), was an Ottoman administrative unit (sanjak), that existed between the 15th and the outset of the 19th centuries.
Sarajevo (see names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a population of 275,524 in its current administrative limits.
The Sarajevo Canton, officially the Canton of Sarajevo (Kanton Sarajevo, Sarajevska županija, Сарајевски кантон) is one of 10 cantons of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Sarajevo Film Festival is the premier and largest film festival in Southeast Europe, and is one of the largest film festivals in Europe.
Sarajevo Graduate School of Business (SGSB) is a private university located in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Sarajevo International Airport (Međunarodni aerodrom Sarajevo/Међународни аеродром Сарајево);, also known as Butmir Airport, is the main international airport in Bosnia and Herzegovina, serving Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Sarajevo metropolitan area is the largest agglomeration in Bosnia and Herzegovina representing the wider area of the capital Sarajevo with an estimated population of 555,210 people.
Sarajevo School of Science and Technology (SSST) is a private university, located in metropolitan Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, within the municipality of Ilidža.
Sarı Süleyman Paşa (Sari Sulejman-paša; died 14 October 1687) was the grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire from 18 November 1685 to 18 September 1687.
Sarma (from Turkish word "sarmak", meaning "to roll") is a dish of grape, cabbage, monk's rhubarb or chard leaves rolled around a filling usually based on minced meat, or a sweet dish of filo dough wrapped around a filling often of various kinds of chopped nuts.
The Sava (Сава) is a river in Central and Southeastern Europe, a right tributary of the Danube.
The Schutzkorps (Šuckor; lit. "Protection Corps") was an auxiliary volunteer militia established by Austro-Hungarian authorities in the newly annexed province of Bosnia and Herzegovina to track down Bosnian Serb opposition (members of the Chetniks and the Komiti), while its main victims were civilians.
The Sclaveni (in Latin) or (in Greek) were early Slavic tribes that raided, invaded and settled the Balkans in the Early Middle Ages and eventually became known as the ethnogenesis of the South Slavs.
Semezdin Mehmedinović (born 1960 in Kiseljak, near Tuzla, SR Bosnia and Herzegovina, SFR Yugoslavia) is a Bosnian writer, filmmaker, and magazine editor.
The Serb Democratic Party (Српска демократска странка/Srpska demokratska stranka or СДС/SDS) is a Serb political party in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Serbia and Montenegro (Srbija i Crna Gora, Србија и Црна Гора; SCG, СЦГ), officially the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro (Državna Zajednica Srbija i Crna Gora, Државна Заједница Србија и Црна Гора), was a country in Southeast Europe, created from the two remaining federal republics of Yugoslavia after its breakup in 1992.
Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.
The Serbian Orthodox Church (Српска православна црква / Srpska pravoslavna crkva) is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Christian Churches.
Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.
The Serbs (Срби / Srbi) are a South Slavic ethnic group that formed in the Balkans.
The Serbs of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Serbian and Bosnian: Срби у Босни и Херцеговини / Srbi u Bosni i Hercegovini) are one of the three constitutive nations (State-forming nations) of the country, predominantly residing in the political-territorial entity of Republika Srpska.
Sergej Barbarez (born 17 September 1971) is a Bosnian-Herzegovinian former professional footballer who played for several clubs in the German Bundesliga and the Bosnia and Herzegovina national team.
Sevdalinka (also known as Sevdah music) is a traditional genre of folk music from Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
Sinan Alimanović (born February 11, 1954) is a Bosnian pianist, organist, composer, conductor, and arranger.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Slobodan Milošević (Слободан Милошевић; 20 August 1941 – 11 March 2006) was a Yugoslav and Serbian politician and the President of Serbia (originally the Socialist Republic of Serbia, a constituent republic within the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) from 1989 to 1997 and President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1997 to 2000.
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
Slovene or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) belongs to the group of South Slavic languages.
Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
Smetana is one of the names for a range of sour creams from Central and Eastern Europe.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a socialist state led by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.
Sokollu Mehmed Pasha (سوکلو محمد پاشا, Sokollu Mehmet Paşa in modern Turkish; Мехмед-паша Соколовић, Arebica: مەحمەد-پاشا سۉقۉلۉوٖىݘ,; 1506 – 11 October 1579) was an Ottoman statesman.
Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe is a geographical region of Europe, consisting primarily of the coterminous Balkan peninsula.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) is an edible flowering plant in the family Amaranthaceae native to central and western Asia.
Sport (British English) or sports (American English) includes all forms of competitive physical activity or games which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants, and in some cases, entertainment for spectators.
Srđan Vuletić (born 1971) is a Bosnian filmmaker.
The Srebrenica massacre, also known as the Srebrenica genocide (Masakr u Srebrenici; Genocid u Srebrenici), was the July 1995 genocide of more than 8,000Potocari Memorial Center Preliminary List of Missing Persons from Srebrenica '95 Muslim Bosniaks, mainly men and boys, in and around the town of Srebrenica during the Bosnian War.
In talks with countries and territories that have expressed a wish to join the European Union, the EU typically concludes Association Agreements in exchange for commitments to political, economic, trade, or human rights reform in that country or territory.
A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.
Stari Most (literally, "Old Bridge") is a rebuilt 16th-century Ottoman bridge in the city of Mostar in Bosnia and Herzegovina that crosses the river Neretva and connects the two parts of the city.
Start was a short-lived daily tabloid published in Belgrade between late 2005 and early 2006.
The State Anti-fascist Council for the National Liberation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Zemaljsko antifašističko vijeće narodnog oslobođenja Bosne i Hercegovine, ZAVNOBiH) was formed as the highest governing organ of the anti-fascist movement in Bosnia and Herzegovina and during World War II developed to be bearer of Bosnian statehood.
Stećak (plural: Stećci, Стећци) is the name for monumental medieval tombstones that lie scattered across Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the border parts of Croatia, Montenegro and Serbia.
Stephen II (Stjepan/Stefan, Стефан/Стјепан) was the Bosnian Ban from 1314, but in reality from 1322 to 1353 together with his brother, Vladislav Kotromanić in 1326–1353.
Stjepan Vukčić Kosača (Cyrillic: Стјепан Вукчић Косача; 1404–1466) was the most powerful and for the most part unruly vassal in the Kingdom of Bosnia.
Stolac is a town and municipality located in Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The subscription business model is a business model where a customer must pay a subscription price to have access to a product or service.
Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, commonly known as Suetonius (c. 69 – after 122 AD), was a Roman historian belonging to the equestrian order who wrote during the early Imperial era of the Roman Empire.
Sufi philosophy includes the schools of thought unique to Sufism, a mystical branch within Islam, also termed as Tasawwuf or Faqr according to its adherents.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
A surface-to-air missile (SAM, pronunced), or ground-to-air missile (GTAM, pronounced), is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft or other missiles.
Surogat (known in English as Ersatz and The Substitute) is a 1961 Yugoslav short animated film by a Croatian director Dušan Vukotić, produced by Zagreb Film, then a Yugoslav film production company.
The Sutjeska National Park (Bosnian, Serbian and Montenegrin: Nacionalni park Sutjeska, Национални парк Сутјеска) is a national park located in Bosnia and Herzegovina Established in 1962, it is Bosnia and Herzegovina's oldest national park.
Tallinn (or,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Estonia.
The Tara (Cyrillic: Тара) is a river in Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Tara River Canyon (Montenegrin: Кањон ријеке Таре / Kanjon rijeke Tare), also known as the Tara River Gorge, is a canyon on the Tara River in Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Tešanj is a town and municipality located in Zenica-Doboj Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The country calling code of Bosnia and Herzegovina is +387.
Hasan Predojević (1530 – 22 June 1593), also known as Telli Hasan Pasha (Telli Hasan Paşa), was the fifth Ottoman beylerbey (vali) of Bosnia and a notable Ottoman Bosnian military commander, who led an invasion of the Habsburg Kingdom of Croatia during the Ottoman wars in Europe.
Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest is a temperate climate terrestrial biome, with broadleaf tree ecoregions, and with conifer and broadleaf tree mixed coniferous forest ecoregions.
Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles).
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
Tomislav Knez (born 9 June 1938 in Banja Luka) is a former footballer from Yugoslavia.
In modern mapping, a topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief, usually using contour lines, but historically using a variety of methods.
Tourism in Bosnia and Herzegovina is a fast-growing sector making up an important part in the economy of the country.
A transition economy or transitional economy is an economy which is changing from a centrally planned economy to a market economy.
Travnik is a town and municipality and the administrative center of Central Bosnia Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Treaty of Berlin (formally the Treaty between Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Russia, and the Ottoman Empire for the Settlement of Affairs in the East) was signed on July 13, 1878.
The Treaty of Karlowitz was signed on 26 January 1699 in Sremski Karlovci, in modern-day Serbia, concluding the Austro-Ottoman War of 1683–97 in which the Ottoman side had been defeated at the Battle of Zenta.
Trebišnjica (Требишњица) is a river in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Trebižat is a river in the southern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and major right tributary of the Neretva river.
Trebinje (Требиње) is a city located in Republika Srpska, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Treskavica is a mountain range in Bosnia and Herzegovina, situated in Trnovo municipality just south of city of Sarajevo.
The Tripartite Pact, also known as the Berlin Pact, was an agreement between Germany, Italy and Japan signed in Berlin on 27 September 1940 by, respectively, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Galeazzo Ciano and Saburō Kurusu.
Turkish coffee (Türk kahvesi) is a method of preparing very finely ground unfiltered coffee.
Turkish cuisine (Turkish: Türk mutfağı) is largely the heritage of Ottoman cuisine, which can be described as a fusion and refinement of Central Asian, Middle Eastern, Eastern European and Balkan cuisines.
Turkish delight, lokum or rahat lokum and many other transliterations (رَاحَة الْحُلْقُوم rāḥat al-ḥulqūm, Lokum or rahat lokum, from colloquial راحة الحلقوم rāḥat al-ḥalqūm, Azerbaijani) is a family of confections based on a gel of starch and sugar.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
Tuzla is the third largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the administrative center of Tuzla Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Stephen Tvrtko I (Stjepan/Stefan Tvrtko, Стефан/Стјепан Твртко; 1338 – 10 March 1391) was the first King of Bosnia.
The UEFA Champions League is an annual continental club football competition organised by the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) and contested by top-division European clubs.
The UEFA Europa League is an annual football club competition organised by UEFA since 1971 for eligible European football clubs.
The Una is a river in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The Union for the Mediterranean (UfM; Union pour la Méditerranée, الاتحاد من أجل المتوسط) is an intergovernmental organization of 43 member states from Europe and the Mediterranean Basin: the 28 EU member states and 15 Mediterranean partner countries from North Africa, Western Asia and Southern Europe.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
University Džemal Bijedić of Mostar (Univerzitet "Džemal Bijedić" u Mostaru/Универзитет "Џемал Биједић" у Мостару) is a public university lcoated in Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The University of Banja Luka (Универзитет у Бањој Луци, Univerzitet u Banjoj Luci) is a public university located in Banja Luka, Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
University of East Sarajevo (UES; Универзитет у Источном Сарајеву) is a public university located in East Sarajevo, Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The University of Mostar (Sveučilište u Mostaru; Universitas Studiorum Mostariensis) is a public university located in Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The University of Sarajevo (Bosnian: Univerzitet u Sarajevu / Универзитет у Сарајеву) is a public university located in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
University of Tuzla (Univerzitet u Tuzli) is a public university located in Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The University of Washington (commonly referred to as UW, simply Washington, or informally U-Dub) is a public research university in Seattle, Washington.
Urban culture is the culture of towns and cities.
The Ustasha – Croatian Revolutionary Movement (Ustaša – Hrvatski revolucionarni pokret), commonly known as Ustashe (Ustaše), was a Croatian fascist, racist, ultranationalist and terrorist organization, active, in its original form, between 1929 and 1945.
Vahid Halilhodžić; born 15 October 1952) is a Bosnian former professional footballer and former manager. Regarded as one of the best Yugoslav players in the 1970s and 1980s, Halilhodžić had successful playing spells with Velež Mostar and French clubs Nantes and Paris Saint-Germain before retiring in the mid-1980s. During that time, he earned 15 full international caps for Yugoslavia and was part of national squads who won the 1978 European Under-21 Championship and played at the 1982 FIFA World Cup. In the early 1990s, he turned to coaching and, after a short managing stint at his hometown club Velež, permanently moved to France in 1993. Since then, he managed a number of teams in French-speaking countries and his achievements include winning the 1997 CAF Champions League with Moroccan side Raja Casablanca, leading the French side Lille from second level to third place in Ligue 1 in less than three years, and winning the 2004 Coupe de France with Paris Saint-Germain. He also qualified for the 2010 World Cup with the Ivory Coast (although he was sacked only months before the final tournament) and the 2014 World Cup with Algeria, with whom he reached Round of 16, Algeria's best result in history. Later, he qualified for the 2018 World Cup with Japan, but again was fired just prior to the tournament.
Valentin Inzko (born 22 May 1949) is an Austrian diplomat currently serving as the High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina, a role which he assumed on 26 March 2009.
Vedad Ibišević (born 6 August 1984) is a Bosnian professional footballer who plays as a forward for Bundesliga club Hertha BSC.
Vedran Smailović (born 11 November 1956), known as the "Cellist of Sarajevo", is a musician from Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Velimir Sombolac (Serbian Cyrillic: Beлимиp Сомболац; 27 February 1939 – 22 May 2016) was a Serb footballer and manager.
Višegrad (Вишеград) is a town and municipality located in eastern Republika Srpska, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Visoko is a town and municipality located in Zenica-Doboj Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Archaeological excavations proved that the Visoko Valley was the center of a medieval Bosnian state and later kingdom.
A vizier (rarely; وزير wazīr; وازیر vazīr; vezir; Chinese: 宰相 zǎixiàng; উজির ujira; Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu): वज़ीर or وزیر vazeer; Punjabi: ਵਜ਼ੀਰ or وزير vazīra, sometimes spelt vazir, vizir, vasir, wazir, vesir or vezir) is a high-ranking political advisor or minister.
Vlašić is a mountain in the very center of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Vocational education is education that prepares people to work in various jobs, such as a trade, a craft, or as a technician.
Vogošća (Вогошћа) is a secondary suburb and municipality of Sarajevo, Sarajevo Canton, the capital of Bosnia, located about 6 kilometers north of the city center and covering some 72 km².
Volkswagen, shortened to VW, is a German automaker founded on 28 May 1937 by the German Labour Front under Adolf Hitler and headquartered in Wolfsburg.
Volleyball at the 2004 Summer Paralympics was staged at the Helliniko Fencing Hall from 21 to 27 September.
Volleyball at the 2012 Summer Paralympics was held from 30 August to 8 September at the ExCeL Exhibition Centre in London.
Vratnik, also Stari grad Vratnik (Стари град Вратник, English: The old Vratnik town), is one of the oldest neighborhoods in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Vrbas is a major river with a length of, in western Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Vrelo Bune is the natural and architectural ensemble at the Buna river spring near Blagaj kasaba (village-town) and a part of the wider "Townscape ensemble of the town of Blagaj - Historical and Natural Heritage of Bosnia and Herzegovina", southeast of Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Washington Agreement was a ceasefire agreement between the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the unrecognized Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia, signed in Washington on 18 March 1994 and Vienna.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire.
William Miller (8 December 1864, Wigton, England – 23 October 1945, Durban, South Africa) was a British-born medievalist and journalist.
Wood processing is an engineering discipline comprising the production of forest products, such as pulp and paper, construction materials, and tall oil.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) is the United Nations agency responsible for the promotion of responsible, sustainable and universally accessible tourism.
A world war, is a large-scale war involving many of the countries of the world or many of the most powerful and populous ones.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The World War II persecution of Serbs, includes the extermination, expulsion and forced religious conversion of large numbers of ethnic Serbs by the Ustashe regime in the Independent State of Croatia (NDH), as well as killings and expulsions of Serbs by the various Axis forces and their local supporters in occupied Yugoslavia.
The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961, working in the field of the wilderness preservation, and the reduction of human impact on the environment.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
Young Bosnia (Mlada Bosna/Млада Босна) was a revolutionary movement active in the Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina before World War I. The members were predominantly school students, primarily Bosnian Serbs, but also Bosniaks and Bosnian Croats.
The Yugoslav Chess Championship is a tournament with great tradition, held to determine the national champion.
The Yugoslav coup d'état of 27 March 1941 in Belgrade, Kingdom of Yugoslavia, replaced the regency led by Prince Paul and installed King Peter II.
The Yugoslav Handball Championship was the highest level competition in men's team handball in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, played regularly for almost four decades between 1953 and 1991, before being abandoned due to the breakup of Yugoslavia.
The Yugoslav Partisans,Serbo-Croatian, Macedonian, Slovene: Partizani, Партизани or the National Liberation Army,Narodnooslobodilačka vojska (NOV), Народноослободилачка војска (НОВ); Народноослободителна војска (НОВ); Narodnoosvobodilna vojska (NOV) officially the National Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia,Narodnooslobodilačka vojska i partizanski odredi Jugoslavije (NOV i POJ), Народноослободилачка војска и партизански одреди Југославије (НОВ и ПОЈ); Народноослободителна војска и партизански одреди на Југославија (НОВ и ПОЈ); Narodnoosvobodilna vojska in partizanski odredi Jugoslavije (NOV in POJ) was the Communist-led resistance to the Axis powers (chiefly Germany) in occupied Yugoslavia during World War II.
The Yugoslav People's Army (Jugoslovenska narodna armija / Југословенска народна армија / Jugoslavenska narodna armija; also Yugoslav National Army), often referred-to simply by the initialism JNA, was the military of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
Yugoslav Railways (Jugoslavenske željeznice; Југословенски железници, Jugoslovenski železnici; Југословенске железнице, Jugoslovenske železnice; Jugoslovanske železnice), with standard acronym JŽ (ЈЖ in Cyrillic), was the state railway company of Yugoslavia, operational from the 1920s to the 1990s.
The SFR Yugoslavian national basketball team (Košarkaška reprezentacija Jugoslavije / Кошаркашка репрезентација Југославије; Jugoslovenska košarkaška reprezentacija; Кошаркашка репрезентација на Југославија) represented Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1943 until 1992 in international basketball matches and was controlled by the Basketball Federation of Yugoslavia (KSJ).
The Yugoslavia national football team represented the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1918–1941, until 1929 as Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes), and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1943–1992, until November 29, 1945 as Democratic Federal Yugoslavia, 29 November 1945–1963 as Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia) in association football.
Zabranjeno Pušenje (Bosnian for No Smoking) is a Bosnian rock band from Sarajevo.
Zachlumia or Zachumlia (Zahumlje / Захумље), also Hum, was a medieval principality located in the modern-day regions of Herzegovina and southern Dalmatia (today parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia, respectively).
Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of Croatia.
Zdravko Čolić (Здравко Чолић,; born 30 May 1951) is a Bosnian-born Serbian pop singer, who is popular across the area of former Yugoslavia.
Zenica is the fourth largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the administrative center of the Zenica-Doboj Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Zlatko Topčić (born 30 April 1955) is a Bosnian writer who is renowned for his dramas, novels and screenplays.
Zlatko Vujović (Златко Вујовић,; born 26 August 1958) is a Yugoslav footballer who played as a striker.
The zucchini (American English) or courgette (British English) is a summer squash which can reach nearly in length, but is usually harvested when still immature at about.
.ba is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The 13th Waffen Mountain Division of the SS "Handschar" (1st Croatian) was a mountain infantry division of the Waffen-SS, an armed branch of the German Nazi Party that served alongside but was never formally part of the Wehrmacht during World War II.
The meridian 15° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 1946 Yugoslav Constitution was the first constitution of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia.
The 1975–76 European Cup was the 16th edition of Europe's premier club handball tournament.
The 1978–79 FIBA European Champions Cup was the 22nd season of the European top-tier level professional basketball club competition FIBA European Champions Cup (now called EuroLeague).
The 1984 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XIV Olympic Winter Games (XIVes Jeux olympiques d'hiver; XIV. / XIV Зимске олимпијске игре; XIV Зимски олимписки игри), was a winter multi-sport event which took place from 8–19 February 1984 in Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina, SFR Yugoslavia.
The 1991 population census in Bosnia and Herzegovina was the last census of the population undertaken in the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina before the Bosnian War.
The 2000–01 Bundesliga was the 38th season of the Bundesliga, Germany's premier football league.
The 2005 UEFA Cup Final was the final match of the 2004–05 UEFA Cup, the 34th season of the UEFA Cup, UEFA's second-tier club football tournament.
The 2011 European Judo Championships are the 22nd edition of the European Judo Championships, organised by the European Judo Union, and were held at the Abdi İpekçi Arena in Istanbul, Turkey, from April 21 to April 24, 2011.
The 32nd European Athletics Indoor Championships were held at Scandinavium and Svenska Mässan in Gothenburg, Sweden, on 1–3 March 2013.
The men's shot put event at the 2013 European Athletics Indoor Championships was held on 28 February 2013 at 19:00 (qualification) and 1 March, 18:45 (final) local time.
The most recent census of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the 2013 census (Popis stanovništva u Bosni i Hercegovini 2013.), took place from 1 October until 15 October 2013 with a reference date of census 30 September 2013 at 24:00 hours (midnight), 22 years after the previous census.
The 2013–14 UEFA Women's Champions League was the 13th edition of the European women's championship for football clubs.
The 2014 FIFA World Cup was the 20th FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial world championship for men's national football teams organized by FIFA.
The 2015 FIBA Europe Under-16 Championship was 29th edition of the European Under-16 Basketball Championship.
The fifteenth edition of the IAAF World Championships was held 22–30 August 2015 in Beijing, China.
The men's 800 metres at the 2015 World Championships in Athletics was held at the Beijing National Stadium on 22, 23 and 25 August.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
The meridian 20° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Atlantic and Indian oceans, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 31st Chess Olympiad, organized by FIDE and comprising an open and a women's tournament, took place between November 30 and December 17, 1994, in Moscow, Russia.
3G, short for third generation, is the third generation of wireless mobile telecommunications technology.
The 42nd parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 42 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 46th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 46 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
BOSNIAN, BiH, Bosna i Hercegovina, Bosnia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Bosnia (country), Bosnia And Herzegovina, Bosnia Hercegovina, Bosnia Herzegovina, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovena, Bosnia and Herzegovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina/Archive1, Bosnia and Herzegovina: Federation, Bosnia and Herzegovina: Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegowina, Bosnia and Herzgegovina, Bosnia and Herzgovina, Bosnia and Herzigovina, Bosnia and hercegovina, Bosnia and herzegovina, Bosnia herzegovina, Bosnia-Hercegovina, Bosnia-Hercegovnia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bosnia-Herzegovina state, Bosnia-Herzegovinia, Bosnia-Herzegowina, Bosnia-herzegovina, Bosniah, Bosnia–Herzegovina, Bosnie-Herzegovine, Bosnie-Herzégovine, Bosnija, Boznia, Boznia and Herzegovina, Etymology of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Herzeg-Bosnia Region, ISO 3166-1:BA, Name of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republic of Bosnia, State of Bosnia and Herzegovina, БиХ, Босна, Босна и Херцеговина, Република Босна и Херцеговина, Херцеговина.