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Geodesy

Index Geodesy

Geodesy, also known as geodetics, is the earth science of accurately measuring and understanding three of Earth's fundamental properties: its geometric shape, orientation in space, and gravitational field. [1]

227 relations: Abel Foullon, Adrien-Marie Legendre, Al-Biruni, Al-Ma'mun, Alexander Ross Clarke, Alexis Clairaut, Alfred Wegener, Amsterdam Ordnance Datum, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Arabian Peninsula, Arne Bjerhammar, Astronomy, Atmosphere of Earth, Atmospheric pressure, Azimuth, Baghdad, Barcelona, Bavaria, Berlin, Bonn, Buckminster Fuller, Cambridge, Carl Friedrich Gauss, Carlos Ibáñez e Ibáñez de Ibero, Cartesian coordinate system, Cartography, Celestial pole, Celestial sphere, Charles Sanders Peirce, Christiaan Huygens, Conformal map, Continental collision, Coordinate system, Corner reflector, Crust (geology), Day, Differential equation, Distance, Earth, Earth science, Earth's rotation, ECEF, ED50, Egypt (Roman province), Electro-optics, Elevation, Equatorial bulge, Eratosthenes, European Terrestrial Reference System 1989, ..., Fault (geology), Felix Andries Vening Meinesz, Figure of the Earth, Fixed stars, Fredericton, Free fall, Friedrich Bessel, Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve, Friedrich Hopfner, Friedrich Robert Helmert, Geocentric model, Geodesic, Geodesics on an ellipsoid, Geodetic control network, Geodetic datum, Geodynamics, Geographic coordinate system, Geographic information system, Geographical distance, Geoid, Geomatics, Geopotential height, Georg Friedrich von Reichenbach, George Biddell Airy, George Everest, Gerardus Mercator, German language, Glacial period, Global Positioning System, Gravimeter, Gravitational field, Gravity, Graz, Great circle, Greater Khorasan, GRS 80, Gyroscope, Harold Jeffreys, Height, Heinrich Bruns, Heinrich Christian Schumacher, Hellmut Schmid, Helmert transformation, Henri Poincaré, Hervé Faye, Hipparchus, History of geodesy, Horizontal coordinate system, Horizontal position representation, Inō Tadataka, Inertial frame of reference, Interferometric synthetic-aperture radar, International Association of Geodesy, International Association of Oil & Gas Producers, International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service, International Federation of Surveyors, International Geodetic Student Organisation, International Organization for Standardization, International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, Iran, Irene Fischer, Johann Georg von Soldner, Johann Heinrich Lambert, Johann Jacob Baeyer, John A. O'Keefe (astronomer), John Fillmore Hayford, Karl Ramsayer, Karl-Rudolf Koch, Königsberg, Laser rangefinder, Latitude, Lénárt sphere, Least squares adjustment, Leiden, London, Longitude, Loránd Eötvös, Los Angeles, Lunar Laser Ranging experiment, Map, Map projection, March equinox, Martin Hotine, Meridian (geography), Meridian arc, Mesopotamia, Metres above sea level, Mikhail Molodenskii, Muhammad al-Idrisi, Munich, Nadir, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, Nautical mile, Normal height, North American Vertical Datum of 1988, Nutation, Ocean, Ocean current, Ocean surface topography, Orbital perturbation analysis, Orthometric height, Oxford English Dictionary, Paris, Pedro Nunes, Petr Vaníček, Petroleum, Physical geodesy, Pierre Bouguer, Pierre Louis Maupertuis, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Planet, Planetary science, Plate tectonics, Plumb bob, Polar motion, Polygon, Posidonius, Potsdam, Precession, Prime meridian (Greenwich), Ptolemy, Pulkovo Observatory, Pythagoras, Real-time kinematic, Reference ellipsoid, Regiomontanus, Reino Antero Hirvonen, Roger Joseph Boscovich, Roman Empire, Rome, Rotation, Russian Empire, Samanid Empire, Satellite geodesy, Satellite laser ranging, Satellite navigation, Schwerin, Sea level, Sea Level Datum of 1929, Seawater, Sidereal time, Sir George Stokes, 1st Baronet, Solar System, Space techniques, Spatial reference system, Spirit level, Stuttgart, Surveying, Tacheometry, Tadeusz Banachiewicz, Tartu Observatory, Thaddeus Vincenty, Theodolite, Tide, Time, Time dilation, Tokyo, Traverse (surveying), Triangulation, Trigonometry, U.S. National Geodetic Survey, Undulation of the geoid, United States Geological Survey, Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system, Vacuum tube, Veikko Aleksanteri Heiskanen, Very-long-baseline interferometry, Vienna, Vincenty's formulae, Volcano, Wilhelm Jordan (geodesist), Willebrord Snellius, William Bowie (engineer), William M. Kaula, World Geodetic System, Yrjö Väisälä, Zenith. Expand index (177 more) »

Abel Foullon

Abel Foullon; France, (1513–1563 or 1565) was an author, director of the Mint for Henry II of France and also an engineer to the king of France after Leonardo da Vinci.

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Adrien-Marie Legendre

Adrien-Marie Legendre (18 September 1752 – 10 January 1833) was a French mathematician.

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Al-Biruni

Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Bīrūnī (Chorasmian/ابوریحان بیرونی Abū Rayḥān Bērōnī; New Persian: Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī) (973–1050), known as Al-Biruni (البيروني) in English, was an IranianD.J. Boilot, "Al-Biruni (Beruni), Abu'l Rayhan Muhammad b. Ahmad", in Encyclopaedia of Islam (Leiden), New Ed., vol.1:1236–1238.

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Al-Ma'mun

Abu al-Abbas al-Maʾmūn ibn Hārūn al-Rashīd (أبو العباس المأمون; September 786 – 9 August 833) was the seventh Abbasid caliph, who reigned from 813 until his death in 833.

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Alexander Ross Clarke

Col Alexander Ross Clarke FRS FRSE (1828–1914) was a British geodesist, primarily remembered for his calculation of the Principal Triangulation of Britain (1858), the calculation of the Figure of the Earth (1858, 1860, 1866, 1880) and one of the most important text books of Geodesy (1880).

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Alexis Clairaut

Alexis Claude Clairaut (13 May 1713 – 17 May 1765) was a French mathematician, astronomer, and geophysicist.

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Alfred Wegener

Alfred Lothar Wegener (–) was a German polar researcher, geophysicist and meteorologist.

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Amsterdam Ordnance Datum

Amsterdam Ordnance Datum or Normaal Amsterdams Peil (NAP) is a vertical datum in use in large parts of Western Europe.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Arabian Peninsula

The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.

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Arne Bjerhammar

Arne Bjerhammar (September 15, 1917 – February 6, 2011) was a Swedish geodesist.

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Astronomy

Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.

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Atmosphere of Earth

The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.

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Atmospheric pressure

Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).

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Azimuth

An azimuth (from the pl. form of the Arabic noun "السَّمْت" as-samt, meaning "the direction") is an angular measurement in a spherical coordinate system.

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Baghdad

Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.

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Barcelona

Barcelona is a city in Spain.

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Bavaria

Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.

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Berlin

Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.

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Bonn

The Federal City of Bonn is a city on the banks of the Rhine in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, with a population of over 300,000.

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Buckminster Fuller

Richard Buckminster "Bucky" Fuller (July 12, 1895 – July 1, 1983) was an American architect, systems theorist, author, designer, inventor and futurist.

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Cambridge

Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London.

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Carl Friedrich Gauss

Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (Gauß; Carolus Fridericus Gauss; 30 April 177723 February 1855) was a German mathematician and physicist who made significant contributions to many fields, including algebra, analysis, astronomy, differential geometry, electrostatics, geodesy, geophysics, magnetic fields, matrix theory, mechanics, number theory, optics and statistics.

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Carlos Ibáñez e Ibáñez de Ibero

Carlos Ibáñez e Ibáñez de Ibero, 1st Marquis of Mulhacén, (April 14, 1825 - January 28 or 29, 1891) was a Spanish divisional general and geographer.

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Cartesian coordinate system

A Cartesian coordinate system is a coordinate system that specifies each point uniquely in a plane by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances to the point from two fixed perpendicular directed lines, measured in the same unit of length.

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Cartography

Cartography (from Greek χάρτης chartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps.

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Celestial pole

The north and south celestial poles are the two imaginary points in the sky where the Earth's axis of rotation, indefinitely extended, intersects the celestial sphere.

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Celestial sphere

In astronomy and navigation, the celestial sphere is an abstract sphere with an arbitrarily large radius concentric to Earth.

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Charles Sanders Peirce

Charles Sanders Peirce ("purse"; 10 September 1839 – 19 April 1914) was an American philosopher, logician, mathematician, and scientist who is sometimes known as "the father of pragmatism".

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Christiaan Huygens

Christiaan Huygens (Hugenius; 14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695) was a Dutch physicist, mathematician, astronomer and inventor, who is widely regarded as one of the greatest scientists of all time and a major figure in the scientific revolution.

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Conformal map

In mathematics, a conformal map is a function that preserves angles locally.

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Continental collision

Continental collision is a phenomenon of the plate tectonics of Earth that occurs at convergent boundaries.

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Coordinate system

In geometry, a coordinate system is a system which uses one or more numbers, or coordinates, to uniquely determine the position of the points or other geometric elements on a manifold such as Euclidean space.

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Corner reflector

A corner reflector is a retroreflector consisting of three mutually perpendicular, intersecting flat surfaces, which reflects waves back directly towards the source, but translated.

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Crust (geology)

In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.

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Day

A day, a unit of time, is approximately the period of time during which the Earth completes one rotation with respect to the Sun (solar day).

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Differential equation

A differential equation is a mathematical equation that relates some function with its derivatives.

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Distance

Distance is a numerical measurement of how far apart objects are.

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Earth

Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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Earth science

Earth science or geoscience is a widely embraced term for the fields of natural science related to the planet Earth.

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Earth's rotation

Earth's rotation is the rotation of Planet Earth around its own axis.

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ECEF

ECEF ("earth-centered, earth-fixed"), also known as ECR ("earth-centered rotational"), is a geographic coordinate system and Cartesian coordinate system, and is sometimes known as a "conventional terrestrial" system.

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ED50

ED50 ("European Datum 1950") is a geodetic datum which was defined after World War II for the international connection of geodetic networks.

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Egypt (Roman province)

The Roman province of Egypt (Aigyptos) was established in 30 BC after Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) defeated his rival Mark Antony, deposed Queen Cleopatra VII, and annexed the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt to the Roman Empire.

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Electro-optics

Electro-optics is a branch of electrical engineering, electronic engineering, materials science, and material physics involving components, devices (e.g. Lasers, LEDs, waveguides etc.) and systems which operate by the propagation and interaction of light with various tailored materials.

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Elevation

The elevation of a geographic location is its height above or below a fixed reference point, most commonly a reference geoid, a mathematical model of the Earth's sea level as an equipotential gravitational surface (see Geodetic datum § Vertical datum).

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Equatorial bulge

An equatorial bulge is a difference between the equatorial and polar diameters of a planet, due to the force exerted by its rotation.

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Eratosthenes

Eratosthenes of Cyrene (Ἐρατοσθένης ὁ Κυρηναῖος,; –) was a Greek mathematician, geographer, poet, astronomer, and music theorist.

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European Terrestrial Reference System 1989

The European Terrestrial Reference System 1989 (ETRS89) is an ECEF (Earth-Centered, Earth-Fixed) geodetic Cartesian reference frame, in which the Eurasian Plate as a whole is static.

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Fault (geology)

In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock-mass movement.

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Felix Andries Vening Meinesz

Felix Andries Vening Meinesz (The Hague July 30, 1887 – Amersfoort August 10, 1966) was a Dutch geophysicist and geodesist.

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Figure of the Earth

The figure of the Earth is the size and shape of the Earth in geodesy.

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Fixed stars

The fixed stars (stellae fixae) comprise the background of astronomical objects that appear to not move relative to each other in the night sky compared to the foreground of Solar System objects that do.

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Fredericton

Fredericton is the capital of the Canadian province of New Brunswick.

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Free fall

In Newtonian physics, free fall is any motion of a body where gravity is the only force acting upon it.

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Friedrich Bessel

Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (22 July 1784 – 17 March 1846) was a German astronomer, mathematician, physicist and geodesist.

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Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve

Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve (Василий Яковлевич Струве, trans. Vasily Yakovlevich Struve; 15 April 1793 –) was a German-Russian astronomer and geodesist from the famous Struve family.

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Friedrich Hopfner

Friedrich Hopfner (28 October 1881 – 5 September 1949) was an Austrian geodesist, geophysicist and planetary scientist.

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Friedrich Robert Helmert

Friedrich Robert Helmert (July 31, 1843 – June 15, 1917) was a German geodesist and an important writer on the theory of errors.

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Geocentric model

In astronomy, the geocentric model (also known as geocentrism, or the Ptolemaic system) is a superseded description of the universe with Earth at the center.

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Geodesic

In differential geometry, a geodesic is a generalization of the notion of a "straight line" to "curved spaces".

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Geodesics on an ellipsoid

The study of geodesics on an ellipsoid arose in connection with geodesy specifically with the solution of triangulation networks.

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Geodetic control network

A geodetic control network (also geodetic network, reference network, control point network, or control network) is a network, often of triangles, which are measured exactly by techniques of terrestrial surveying or by satellite geodesy.

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Geodetic datum

A geodetic datum or geodetic system is a coordinate system, and a set of reference points, used to locate places on the Earth (or similar objects).

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Geodynamics

Geodynamics is a subfield of geophysics dealing with dynamics of the Earth.

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Geographic coordinate system

A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.

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Geographic information system

A geographic information system (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present spatial or geographic data.

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Geographical distance

Geographical distance is the distance measured along the surface of the earth.

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Geoid

The geoid is the shape that the surface of the oceans would take under the influence of Earth's gravity and rotation alone, in the absence of other influences such as winds and tides.

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Geomatics

Geomatics (including geomatics engineering), also known as surveying engineering or geospatial science (including geospatial engineering and geospatial technology), is the discipline of gathering, storing, processing, and delivering geographic information or spatially referenced information.

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Geopotential height

Geopotential height is a vertical coordinate referenced to Earth's mean sea level, an adjustment to geometric height (elevation above mean sea level) using the variation of gravity with latitude and elevation.

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Georg Friedrich von Reichenbach

Georg Friedrich von Reichenbach (24 August 1771 – 21 May 1826), German scientific instrument maker, was born at Durlach in Baden on 24 August 1771.

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George Biddell Airy

Sir George Biddell Airy (27 July 18012 January 1892) was an English mathematician and astronomer, Astronomer Royal from 1835 to 1881.

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George Everest

Colonel Sir George Everest CB FRS FRAS FRGS (4 July 1790 – 1 December 1866) was a British surveyor and geographer who served as Surveyor General of India from 1830 to 1843.

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Gerardus Mercator

Gerardus Mercator (5 March 1512 – 2 December 1594) was a 16th-century German-Flemish cartographer, geographer and cosmographer.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Glacial period

A glacial period (alternatively glacial or glaciation) is an interval of time (thousands of years) within an ice age that is marked by colder temperatures and glacier advances.

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Global Positioning System

The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force.

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Gravimeter

A gravimeter is an instrument used to measure gravitational acceleration.

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Gravitational field

In physics, a gravitational field is a model used to explain the influence that a massive body extends into the space around itself, producing a force on another massive body.

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Gravity

Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

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Graz

Graz is the capital of Styria and the second-largest city in Austria after Vienna.

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Great circle

A great circle, also known as an orthodrome, of a sphere is the intersection of the sphere and a plane that passes through the center point of the sphere.

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Greater Khorasan

Khorasan (Middle Persian: Xwarāsān; خراسان Xorāsān), sometimes called Greater Khorasan, is a historical region lying in northeast of Greater Persia, including part of Central Asia and Afghanistan.

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GRS 80

GRS 80, or Geodetic Reference System 1980, is a geodetic reference system consisting of a global reference ellipsoid and a gravity field model.

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Gyroscope

A gyroscope (from Ancient Greek γῦρος gûros, "circle" and σκοπέω skopéō, "to look") is a device used for measuring or maintaining orientation and angular velocity.

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Harold Jeffreys

Sir Harold Jeffreys, FRS (22 April 1891 – 18 March 1989) was a British mathematician, statistician, geophysicist, and astronomer.

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Height

Height is the measure of vertical distance, either how "tall" something or someone is, or how "high" the position is.

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Heinrich Bruns

Ernst Heinrich Bruns (4 September 1848 – 23 September 1919) was a German mathematician and astronomer, who also contributed to the development of the field of theoretical geodesy.

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Heinrich Christian Schumacher

Prof Heinrich Christian Schumacher FRS(For) FRSE (September 3, 1780 – December 28, 1850) was a German-Danish astronomer and mathematician.

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Hellmut Schmid

Hellmut H. Schmid (12 September 1914 – 27 April 1998) was Professor of geodesy and photogrammetry on the ETH Zürich (Switzerland), where he emerited in 1985.

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Helmert transformation

The Helmert transformation (named after Friedrich Robert Helmert, 1843–1917) is a transformation method within a three-dimensional space.

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Henri Poincaré

Jules Henri Poincaré (29 April 1854 – 17 July 1912) was a French mathematician, theoretical physicist, engineer, and philosopher of science.

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Hervé Faye

Hervé Auguste Étienne Albans Faye (&ndash) was a French astronomer, born at Saint-Benoît-du-Sault (Indre) and educated at the École Polytechnique, which he left in 1834, before completing his course, to accept a position in the Paris Observatory to which he had been appointed on the recommendation of M. Arago.

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Hipparchus

Hipparchus of Nicaea (Ἵππαρχος, Hipparkhos) was a Greek astronomer, geographer, and mathematician.

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History of geodesy

Geodesy (/dʒiːˈɒdɨsi/), also named geodetics, is the scientific discipline that deals with the measurement and representation of the Earth.

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Horizontal coordinate system

The horizontal coordinate system is a celestial coordinate system that uses the observer's local horizon as the fundamental plane.

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Horizontal position representation

A position representation is the parameters used to express a position relative to a reference.

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Inō Tadataka

Inō Tadataka (伊能 忠敬 February 11, 1745 - May 17, 1818) was a Japanese surveyor and cartographer.

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Inertial frame of reference

An inertial frame of reference in classical physics and special relativity is a frame of reference in which a body with zero net force acting upon it is not accelerating; that is, such a body is at rest or it is moving at a constant speed in a straight line.

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Interferometric synthetic-aperture radar

Interferometric synthetic aperture radar, abbreviated InSAR (or deprecated IfSAR), is a radar technique used in geodesy and remote sensing.

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International Association of Geodesy

The International Association of Geodesy is a constituent Association of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics.

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International Association of Oil & Gas Producers

The International Association of Oil & Gas Producers (IOGP) is the petroleum industry's global forum in which members identify and share best practices to achieve improvements in health, safety, the environment, security, social responsibility, engineering and operations.

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International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service

The International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS), formerly the International Earth Rotation Service, is the body responsible for maintaining global time and reference frame standards, notably through its Earth Orientation Parameter (EOP) and International Celestial Reference System (ICRS) groups.

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International Federation of Surveyors

International Federation of Surveyors (abbreviated FIG, after the Fédération Internationale des Géomètres) is the UN-recognized global organization for the profession of surveying and related disciplines.

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International Geodetic Student Organisation

The International Geodetic Student Organisation (also known as IGSO) is an international, independent, non-political, non-profit organisation run by and for geodesy students and young geodesists.

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International Organization for Standardization

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.

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International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics

The International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG; Union géodésique et géophysique internationale, UGGI) is an international non-governmental organisation dedicated to the scientific study of the Earth and its space environment using geophysical and geodetic techniques.

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Iran

Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Irene Fischer

Irene Kaminka Fischer (born July 27, 1907 in Vienna, died October 22, 2009 in Boston) was a mathematician, geodesist, National Academy of Engineering Member; Fellow International Geophysical Union, Inductee of the National Imagery and Mapping Agency Hall of Fame.

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Johann Georg von Soldner

Johann Georg von Soldner (16 July 1776 in Feuchtwangen, Ansbach – 13 May 1833 in Bogenhausen, Munich) was a German physicist, mathematician and astronomer, first in Berlin and later in 1808 in Munich.

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Johann Heinrich Lambert

Johann Heinrich Lambert (Jean-Henri Lambert in French; 26 August 1728 – 25 September 1777) was a Swiss polymath who made important contributions to the subjects of mathematics, physics (particularly optics), philosophy, astronomy and map projections.

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Johann Jacob Baeyer

Johann Jacob Baeyer (born 5 November 1794 in Berlin, died 10 September 1885 in Berlin) was a German geodesist and a lieutenant-general in the Royal Prussian Army.

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John A. O'Keefe (astronomer)

John Aloysius O'Keefe III (1916–2000) was an expert in planetary science and astrogeology with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) from 1958 to 1995.

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John Fillmore Hayford

John Fillmore Hayford (May 19, 1868 – March 10, 1925) was an eminent United States geodesist.

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Karl Ramsayer

Karl Ramsayer (29 September 1911, Schwäbisch Gmünd – 24 December 1982, near Stuttgart) was a German geodesist and is well known as one of the most important scientists in geodetic astronomy and in electronic navigation.

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Karl-Rudolf Koch

Karl-Rudolf Koch (born 30 July 1935 in Hilchenbach, Province of Westphalia) is a German geodesist and professor at the University of Bonn (FRG).

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Königsberg

Königsberg is the name for a former German city that is now Kaliningrad, Russia.

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Laser rangefinder

A laser rangefinder is a rangefinder that uses a laser beam to determine the distance to an object.

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Latitude

In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.

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Lénárt sphere

A Lénárt sphere is a teaching and educational research model for spherical geometry.

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Least squares adjustment

Least squares adjustment is a model for the solution of an overdetermined system of equations based on the principle of least squares of observation residuals.

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Leiden

Leiden (in English and archaic Dutch also Leyden) is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands.

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London

London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Longitude

Longitude, is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.

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Loránd Eötvös

Baron Loránd Eötvös de Vásárosnamény (vásárosnaményi báró Eötvös Loránd Ágoston or Loránd Eötvös,; 27 July 1848 – 8 April 1919), more commonly called Baron Roland von Eötvös in English literature, was an Austro-Hungarian physicist of ethnic Hungarian origin.

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Los Angeles

Los Angeles (Spanish for "The Angels";; officially: the City of Los Angeles; colloquially: by its initials L.A.) is the second-most populous city in the United States, after New York City.

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Lunar Laser Ranging experiment

The ongoing Lunar Laser Ranging experiment measures the distance between Earth and the Moon using laser ranging.

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Map

A map is a symbolic depiction emphasizing relationships between elements of some space, such as objects, regions, or themes.

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Map projection

A map projection is a systematic transformation of the latitudes and longitudes of locations from the surface of a sphere or an ellipsoid into locations on a plane.

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March equinox

The March equinox or Northward equinox is the equinox on the Earth when the subsolar point appears to leave the southern hemisphere and cross the celestial equator, heading northward as seen from Earth.

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Martin Hotine

Brigadier Martin Hotine CMG CBE (17 June 1898 – 12 November 1968) was the head of the Trigonometrical and Levelling Division of the Ordnance Survey responsible for the 26-year-long retriangulation of Great Britain (1936–1962) and was the first Director General of the Directorate of Overseas Surveys (1946–1985).

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Meridian (geography)

A (geographical) meridian (or line of longitude) is the half of an imaginary great circle on the Earth's surface, terminated by the North Pole and the South Pole, connecting points of equal longitude.

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Meridian arc

In geodesy, a meridian arc measurement is the distance between two points with the same longitude, i.e., a segment of a meridian curve or its length.

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Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

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Metres above sea level

Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL) or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m a.s.l.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level.

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Mikhail Molodenskii

Mikhail Sergeevich Molodenskii (Михаил Серге́евич Молоденский, – November 12, 1991) was a famous Soviet physical geodesist.

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Muhammad al-Idrisi

Abu Abdullah Muhammad al-Idrisi al-Qurtubi al-Hasani as-Sabti, or simply al-Idrisi (أبو عبد الله محمد الإدريسي القرطبي الحسني السبتي; Dreses; 1100 – 1165), was an Arab Muslim geographer, cartographer and Egyptologist who lived in Palermo, Sicily at the court of King Roger II.

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Munich

Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.

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Nadir

The nadir (from نظير / ALA-LC: naẓīr, meaning "counterpart") is the direction pointing directly below a particular location; that is, it is one of two vertical directions at a specified location, orthogonal to a horizontal flat surface there.

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National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency

The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) is both a combat support agency under the United States Department of Defense and an intelligence agency of the United States Intelligence Community, with the primary mission of collecting, analyzing, and distributing geospatial intelligence (GEOINT) in support of national security.

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Nautical mile

A nautical mile is a unit of measurement defined as exactly.

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Normal height

Normal heights are heights above sea level, one of several types of height which are all computed slightly differently.

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North American Vertical Datum of 1988

The North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88) is the vertical control datum of orthometric height established for vertical control surveying in the United States of America based upon the General Adjustment of the North American Datum of 1988.

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Nutation

Nutation (from Latin nūtātiō, "nodding, swaying") is a rocking, swaying, or nodding motion in the axis of rotation of a largely axially symmetric object, such as a gyroscope, planet, or bullet in flight, or as an intended behavior of a mechanism.

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Ocean

An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.

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Ocean current

An ocean current is a seasonal directed movement of sea water generated by forces acting upon this mean flow, such as wind, the Coriolis effect, breaking waves, cabbing, temperature and salinity differences, while tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the Sun and Moon.

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Ocean surface topography

The ocean surface has highs and lows, similar to the hills and valleys of Earth's land surface depicted on a topographic map.

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Orbital perturbation analysis

Orbital perturbation analysis is the activity of determining why a satellite's orbit differs from the mathematical ideal orbit.

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Orthometric height

The orthometric height of a point is the distance H along a plumb line from the point to a reference height.

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Oxford English Dictionary

The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.

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Paris

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.

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Pedro Nunes

Pedro Nunes (Latin: Petrus Nonius; 1502 – 11 August 1578) was a Portuguese mathematician, cosmographer, and professor, from a New Christian (of Jewish origin) family.

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Petr Vaníček

Petr Vaníček (born 1935 in Sušice, Czechoslovakia, today in Czech Republic) is a Czech Canadian geodesist and theoretical geophysicist who has made important breakthroughs in theory of spectral analysis and geoid computation.

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Petroleum

Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.

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Physical geodesy

Physical geodesy is the study of the physical properties of the gravity field of the Earth, the geopotential, with a view to their application in geodesy.

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Pierre Bouguer

Pierre Bouguer (16 February 1698, Croisic – 15 August 1758, Paris) was a French mathematician, geophysicist, geodesist, and astronomer.

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Pierre Louis Maupertuis

Pierre Louis Moreau de Maupertuis (1698 – 27 July 1759) was a French mathematician, philosopher and man of letters.

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Pierre-Simon Laplace

Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace (23 March 1749 – 5 March 1827) was a French scholar whose work was important to the development of mathematics, statistics, physics and astronomy.

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Planet

A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.

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Planetary science

Planetary science or, more rarely, planetology, is the scientific study of planets (including Earth), moons, and planetary systems (in particular those of the Solar System) and the processes that form them.

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Plate tectonics

Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.

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Plumb bob

A plumb bob, or plummet, is a weight, usually with a pointed tip on the bottom, suspended from a string and used as a vertical reference line, or plumb-line.

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Polar motion

Polar motion of the Earth is the motion of the Earth's rotational axis relative to its crust.

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Polygon

In elementary geometry, a polygon is a plane figure that is bounded by a finite chain of straight line segments closing in a loop to form a closed polygonal chain or circuit.

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Posidonius

Posidonius (Ποσειδώνιος, Poseidonios, meaning "of Poseidon") "of Apameia" (ὁ Ἀπαμεύς) or "of Rhodes" (ὁ Ῥόδιος) (c. 135 BCE – c. 51 BCE), was a Greek Stoic philosopher, politician, astronomer, geographer, historian and teacher native to Apamea, Syria.

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Potsdam

Potsdam is the capital and largest city of the German federal state of Brandenburg.

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Precession

Precession is a change in the orientation of the rotational axis of a rotating body.

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Prime meridian (Greenwich)

A prime meridian, based at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, in London, England, was established by Sir George Airy in 1851.

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Ptolemy

Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.

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Pulkovo Observatory

The Pulkovo Astronomical Observatory (Пу́лковская астрономи́ческая обсервато́рия, official name The Central Astronomical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences at Pulkovo, Гла́вная (Пу́лковская) астрономи́ческая обсервато́рия Росси́йской акаде́мии нау́к; formerly Imperial Observatory at Pulkowo), the principal astronomical observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences, located 19 km south of Saint Petersburg on Pulkovo Heights above sea level.

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Pythagoras

Pythagoras of Samos was an Ionian Greek philosopher and the eponymous founder of the Pythagoreanism movement.

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Real-time kinematic

Real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning is a satellite navigation technique used to enhance the precision of position data derived from satellite-based positioning systems (global navigation satellite systems, GNSS) such as GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and BeiDou.

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Reference ellipsoid

In geodesy, a reference ellipsoid is a mathematically defined surface that approximates the geoid, the truer figure of the Earth, or other planetary body.

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Regiomontanus

Johannes Müller von Königsberg (6 June 1436 – 6 July 1476), better known as Regiomontanus, was a mathematician and astronomer of the German Renaissance, active in Vienna, Buda and Nuremberg.

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Reino Antero Hirvonen

Reino Antero Hirvonen (1908–1989) was a famous Finnish physical geodesist, also well known for contributions in mathematical and astronomical geodesy.

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Roger Joseph Boscovich

Roger Joseph Boscovich (Ruđer Josip Bošković,, Ruggiero Giuseppe Boscovich, Rodericus Iosephus Boscovicus; 18 May 1711 – 13 February 1787) was a Ragusan physicist, astronomer, mathematician, philosopher, diplomat, poet, theologian, Jesuit priest, and a polymath, Fairchild University website.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Rome

Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).

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Rotation

A rotation is a circular movement of an object around a center (or point) of rotation.

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Russian Empire

The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

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Samanid Empire

The Samanid Empire (سامانیان, Sāmāniyān), also known as the Samanian Empire, Samanid dynasty, Samanid Emirate, or simply Samanids, was a Sunni Iranian empire, ruling from 819 to 999.

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Satellite geodesy

Satellite geodesy is geodesy by means of artificial satellites — the measurement of the form and dimensions of Earth, the location of objects on its surface and the figure of the Earth's gravity field by means of artificial satellite techniques.

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Satellite laser ranging

In satellite laser ranging (SLR) a global network of observation stations measures the round trip time of flight of ultrashort pulses of light to satellites equipped with retroreflectors.

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Satellite navigation

A satellite navigation or satnav system is a system that uses satellites to provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning.

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Schwerin

Schwerin (or; Mecklenburgian: Swerin; Polish: Swarzyn or Zwierzyn; Latin: Suerina) is the capital and second-largest city of the northeastern German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.

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Sea level

Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.

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Sea Level Datum of 1929

The Sea Level Datum of 1929 was the vertical control datum established for vertical control surveying in the United States of America by the General Adjustment of 1929.

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Seawater

Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.

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Sidereal time

Sidereal time is a timekeeping system that astronomers use to locate celestial objects.

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Sir George Stokes, 1st Baronet

Sir George Gabriel Stokes, 1st Baronet, (13 August 1819 – 1 February 1903), was an Irish physicist and mathematician.

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Solar System

The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.

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Space techniques

In Aerospace Engineering, the term Space Techniques is related with the planning and design process of future space missions.

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Spatial reference system

A spatial reference system (SRS) or coordinate reference system (CRS) is a coordinate-based local, regional or global system used to locate geographical entities.

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Spirit level

A spirit level, bubble level or simply a level is an instrument designed to indicate whether a surface is horizontal (level) or vertical (plumb).

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Stuttgart

Stuttgart (Swabian: italics,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of the German state of Baden-Württemberg.

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Surveying

Surveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional positions of points and the distances and angles between them.

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Tacheometry

Tacheometry (from Greek for "quick measure"), is a system of rapid surveying, by which the horizontal and vertical positions of points on the earth's surface relative to one another are determined without using a chain or tape, or a separate levelling instrument.

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Tadeusz Banachiewicz

Tadeusz Banachiewicz (13 February 1882, Warsaw, Congress Poland, Russian Empire – 17 November 1954, Kraków) was a Polish astronomer, mathematician and geodesist.

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Tartu Observatory

The Tartu Observatory (Tartu Observatoorium) is the largest astronomical observatory in Estonia.

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Thaddeus Vincenty

Thaddeus Vincenty (born Tadeusz Szpila; 27 October 1920 – 6 March 2002) was a Polish American geodesist who worked with the U.S. Air Force and later the National Geodetic Survey to adapt three-dimensional adjustment techniques to NAD 83.

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Theodolite

A theodolite is a precision instrument for measuring angles in the horizontal and vertical planes.

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Tide

Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun and the rotation of Earth.

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Time

Time is the indefinite continued progress of existence and events that occur in apparently irreversible succession from the past through the present to the future.

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Time dilation

According to the theory of relativity, time dilation is a difference in the elapsed time measured by two observers, either due to a velocity difference relative to each other, or by being differently situated relative to a gravitational field.

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Tokyo

, officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and has been the capital since 1869.

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Traverse (surveying)

Traverse is a method in the field of surveying to establish control networks.

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Triangulation

In trigonometry and geometry, triangulation is the process of determining the location of a point by forming triangles to it from known points.

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Trigonometry

Trigonometry (from Greek trigōnon, "triangle" and metron, "measure") is a branch of mathematics that studies relationships involving lengths and angles of triangles.

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U.S. National Geodetic Survey

The National Geodetic Survey (NGS), formerly the United States Survey of the Coast (1807–1836), United States Coast Survey (1836–1878), and United States Coast and Geodetic Survey (USC&GS) (1878–1970), is a United States federal agency that defines and manages a national coordinate system, providing the foundation for transportation and communication; mapping and charting; and a large number of applications of science and engineering.

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Undulation of the geoid

Undulation of the geoid is the height of the geoid relative to a given ellipsoid of reference.

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United States Geological Survey

The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.

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Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system

The Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) conformal projection uses a 2-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system to give locations on the surface of the Earth.

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Vacuum tube

In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube, or just a tube (North America), or valve (Britain and some other regions) is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container.

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Veikko Aleksanteri Heiskanen

Veikko Aleksanteri Heiskanen (23 July 1895, in Kangaslampi – 23 October 1971, in Helsinki) was a famous Finnish geodesist.

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Very-long-baseline interferometry

Very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) is a type of astronomical interferometry used in radio astronomy.

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Vienna

Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.

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Vincenty's formulae

Vincenty's formulae are two related iterative methods used in geodesy to calculate the distance between two points on the surface of a spheroid, developed by Thaddeus Vincenty (1975a).

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Volcano

A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

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Wilhelm Jordan (geodesist)

Wilhelm Jordan (1 March 1842, Ellwangen, Württemberg – 17 April 1899, Hanover) was a German geodesist who conducted surveys in Germany and Africa and founded the German geodesy journal.

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Willebrord Snellius

Willebrord Snellius (born Willebrord Snel van Royen) (13 June 158030 October 1626) was a Dutch astronomer and mathematician, known in the English-speaking world as Snell.

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William Bowie (engineer)

William Bowie, B.S., C.E., M.A. (May 6, 1872 – August 28, 1940) was an American geodetic engineer.

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William M. Kaula

William M. Kaula (May 19, 1926 – April 1, 2000) was an Australian-born American geophysicist and professor at the University of California, Los Angeles.

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World Geodetic System

The World Geodetic System (WGS) is a standard for use in cartography, geodesy, and satellite navigation including GPS.

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Yrjö Väisälä

Yrjö Väisälä (6 September 1891 in Utra, Kontiolahti, Grand Duchy of Finland – 21 July 1971 in Rymättylä, Finland) was a Finnish astronomer and physicist.

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Zenith

The zenith is an imaginary point directly "above" a particular location, on the imaginary celestial sphere.

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Erdmessung, Geodesey, Geodesist, Geodesist Engineer, Geodesist engineer, Geodetic Engineering, Geodetic Science, Geodetic and Geomatic Engineering, Geodetic line, Geodetic survey, Geodetic surveying, Geodetics, Geodetics engineering, Geodosy, Surveyors' tools.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geodesy

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