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Lithium-ion battery

Index Lithium-ion battery

A lithium-ion battery or Li-ion battery (abbreviated as LIB) is a type of rechargeable battery in which lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during discharge and back when charging. [1]

248 relations: A123 Systems, Adam Heller, Aerospace, Aircraft, Akira Yoshino, Alan J. Heeger, Alan MacDiarmid, Altairnano, Aluminium, Aluminium-ion battery, Amorphous solid, Ampere hour, Anode, Apple Inc., Aqueous solution, Asahi Kasei, Battery electric vehicle, Battery management system, Battery pack, Bell Labs, Binghamton University, Boeing 787 Dreamliner battery problems, Bravais lattice, Camcorder, Capacity loss, Carbon, Cathode, Ceramic, Charge cycle, Chemical compound, Cobalt, Comparison of commercial battery types, Competition law, Conflagration, Constant current, Consumer electronics, Coordination complex, Counterfeit, Crystal structure, Curiosity (rover), Dell, Delta Air Lines, Dendrite, Diethyl carbonate, Digital camera, Dimethyl carbonate, Doping (semiconductor), Drill, Dubai, Electric battery, ..., Electric bicycle, Electric car, Electric current, Electric vehicle, Electrical energy, Electrical mobility, Electrochemical cell, Electrode, Electrolysis, Electrolyte, Electromagnetic induction, Electron, Electronic cigarette, Elsevier, Energy density, Ethylene carbonate, Express mail, Exxon, Faraday constant, Fast ion conductor, Flashlight, Fujitsu, Gasoline, Gigafactory 1, Glass, Glass battery, Graphite, Graphite intercalation compound, Grid energy storage, Half-reaction, Handheld game console, Hedge trimmer, Hideki Shirakawa, Hitachi, Hong Kong, Hybrid electric vehicle, Hybrid vehicle, Hydro-Québec, Hydrofluoric acid, Hydrogen, Incineration, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Intercalation (chemistry), Internal resistance, International Air Transport Association, Ion, Ionic conductivity (solid state), Ionic liquid, Jahn–Teller effect, Japan, Jeff Dahn, Jelly roll (battery), John B. Goodenough, Joule, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Kilogram, Kilowatt hour, Koichi Mizushima (scientist), Kyocera Communications, Landfill, Laptop, Lead–acid battery, Lenovo, Lewis acids and bases, LG Chem, LG Corporation, Liquid, List of battery sizes, List of battery types, Lithium, Lithium as an investment, Lithium battery, Lithium cobalt oxide, Lithium fluoride, Lithium hexafluorophosphate, Lithium hydroxide, Lithium ion manganese oxide battery, Lithium iron phosphate, Lithium iron phosphate battery, Lithium oxide, Lithium perchlorate, Lithium polymer battery, Lithium tetrafluoroborate, Lithium titanate, Lithium vanadium phosphate battery, Lithium-ion capacitor, Lithium-ion flow battery, Lithium–air battery, Lithium–silicon battery, Lithium–sulfur battery, Lithium–titanate battery, Litre, M Stanley Whittingham, Manganese, Manganese oxide, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Memory effect, Metal, Metal toxicity, Michael M. Thackeray, Mining industry of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mobile computing, Mobile phone, Model aircraft, Mole (unit), Motorized wheelchair, Nanoarchitectures for lithium-ion batteries, Nanotechnology, Nanowire battery, National Academy of Engineering, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NEC, Nickel–cadmium battery, Nickel–metal hydride battery, Niobium, Nissan, Nokia, Nokia N91, Olivine, Open-circuit voltage, Operating temperature, Organic compound, Oxide, Panasonic, Perovskite, Personal transporter, Philippines, Phoenix Motorcars, Phosphoric acid, Phosphoryl fluoride, Pin, Plug-in electric vehicle fire incidents, Plug-in hybrid, Polarizability, Polyelectrolyte, Potassium-ion battery, Power tool, Primary cell, Prism (geometry), Rachid Yazami, Radio-controlled model, Reactivity (chemistry), Rechargeable battery, Recycling, Redox, Research in lithium-ion batteries, Royal Mail, Safe operating area, Saft Groupe S.A., Salt (chemistry), Salt water battery, Samsung, Sander, Sanyo, Saw, Search for the Super Battery, Segway PT, Self-discharge, Sharp Corporation, Short circuit, Siemens (unit), Smartphone, Solid-state battery, Solvent, Sony, Spinel, Springer Science+Business Media, State of charge, String trimmer, Sulfate, Tablet computer, Targray, Technical University of Munich, Teknisk Ukeblad, Tesla Model S, Tesla, Inc., The Inquirer, The New York Times, Thermal runaway, Toshiba, Transesterification, Transition metal, United Airlines, United States Department of Defense, United States dollar, United States Postal Service, University of Oxford, University of Pennsylvania, University of Texas at Austin, UPS Airlines Flight 6, Valence Technology, Volt, Voltage, Voltage converter, Voltage source, Voltmeter, X-ray crystallography, Zirconium. Expand index (198 more) »

A123 Systems

A123 Systems, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of the chinese Wanxiang Group, is a developer and manufacturer of lithium iron phosphate batteries and energy storage systems.

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Adam Heller

Adam Heller (born June 25, 1933) is an Israeli-American engineer and Research Professor of the John J. McKetta Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Texas at Austin.

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Aerospace is the human effort in science, engineering and business to fly in the atmosphere of Earth (aeronautics) and surrounding space (astronautics).

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An aircraft is a machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air.

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Akira Yoshino

is a Japanese chemist.

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Alan J. Heeger

Alan Jay Heeger (born January 22, 1936) is an American physicist, academic and Nobel Prize laureate in chemistry.

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Alan MacDiarmid

Alan Graham MacDiarmid, ONZ FRS (14 April 1927 – 7 February 2007) was a New Zealand-born American chemist, and one of three recipients of the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 2000.

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Altair Nanotechnologies Inc. is a company specializing in the development and manufacturing of energy storage systems for efficient power and energy management.

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Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.

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Aluminium-ion battery

Aluminium-ion batteries are a class of rechargeable battery in which aluminium ions provide energy by flowing from the negative electrode of the battery, the cathode, to the positive electrode, the anode.

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Amorphous solid

In condensed matter physics and materials science, an amorphous (from the Greek a, without, morphé, shape, form) or non-crystalline solid is a solid that lacks the long-range order that is characteristic of a crystal.

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Ampere hour

An ampere hour or amp hour (symbol Ah; also denoted A⋅h or A h) is a unit of electric charge, having dimensions of electric current multiplied by time, equal to the charge transferred by a steady current of one ampere flowing for one hour, or 3600 coulombs.

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An anode is an electrode through which the conventional current enters into a polarized electrical device.

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Apple Inc.

Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.

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Aqueous solution

An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water.

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Asahi Kasei

is a global Japanese chemical company.

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Battery electric vehicle

A battery electric vehicle (BEV), or all-electric vehicle is a type of electric vehicle (EV) that uses chemical energy stored in rechargeable battery packs.

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Battery management system

A battery management system (BMS) is any electronic system that manages a rechargeable battery (cell or battery pack), such as by protecting the battery from operating outside its Safe Operating Area, monitoring its state, calculating secondary data, reporting that data, controlling its environment, authenticating it and / or balancing it.

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Battery pack

A battery pack is a set of any number of (preferably) identical batteries or individual battery cells.

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Bell Labs

Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia.

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Binghamton University

The State University of New York at Binghamton, commonly referred to as Binghamton University or SUNY Binghamton, is a public research university with campuses in Binghamton, Vestal, and Johnson City, New York, United States.

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Boeing 787 Dreamliner battery problems

In 2013, the first year of service for the Boeing 787 Dreamliner, a widebody jet airliner, at least four aircraft suffered from electrical system problems stemming from its lithium-ion batteries.

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Bravais lattice

In geometry and crystallography, a Bravais lattice, named after, is an infinite array of discrete points in three dimensional space generated by a set of discrete translation operations described by: where ni are any integers and ai are known as the primitive vectors which lie in different directions and span the lattice.

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A camcorder is an electronic device originally combining a video camera and a videocassette recorder.

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Capacity loss

Capacity loss or capacity fading is a phenomenon observed in rechargeable battery usage where the amount of charge a battery can deliver at the rated voltage decreases with use.

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Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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A cathode is the electrode from which a conventional current leaves a polarized electrical device.

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A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.

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Charge cycle

A charge cycle is the process of charging a rechargeable battery and discharging it as required into a load.

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Chemical compound

A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.

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Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.

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Comparison of commercial battery types

No description.

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Competition law

Competition law is a law that promotes or seeks to maintain market competition by regulating anti-competitive conduct by companies.

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A conflagration is a large and destructive fire that threatens human life, animal life, health, and/or property.

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Constant current

A constant current (steady current, time-independent current, stationary current) is a type of Direct Current (DC) that does not change its intensity with time.

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Consumer electronics

Consumer electronics or home electronics are electronic (analog or digital) equipments intended for everyday use, typically in private homes.

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Coordination complex

In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.

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The counterfeit means to imitate something.

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Crystal structure

In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.

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Curiosity (rover)

Curiosity is a car-sized rover designed to explore Gale Crater on Mars as part of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission (MSL).

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Dell (stylized as DELL) is an American multinational computer technology company based in Round Rock, Texas, United States, that develops, sells, repairs, and supports computers and related products and services.

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Delta Air Lines

Delta Air Lines, Inc., commonly referred to as Delta, is a major United States airline, with its headquarters and largest hub at Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport in Atlanta, Georgia.

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Dendrites (from Greek δένδρον déndron, "tree"), also dendrons, are branched protoplasmic extensions of a nerve cell that propagate the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project.

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Diethyl carbonate

Diethyl carbonate (sometimes abbreviated DEC) is a carbonate ester of carbonic acid and ethanol with the formula OC(OCH2CH3)2.

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Digital camera

A digital camera or digicam is a camera that captures photographs in digital memory.

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Dimethyl carbonate

Dimethyl carbonate (DMC) is an organic compound with the formula OC(OCH3)2.

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Doping (semiconductor)

In semiconductor production, doping is the intentional introduction of impurities into an intrinsic semiconductor for the purpose of modulating its electrical properties.

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A drill is a tool fitted with a cutting tool attachment or driving tool attachment, usually a drill bit or driver bit, used for boring holes in various materials or fastening various materials together.

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Dubai (دبي) is the largest and most populous city in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

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Electric battery

An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars.

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Electric bicycle

An electric bicycle, also known as an e-bike, powerbike or booster bike, is a bicycle with an integrated electric motor which can be used for propulsion.

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Electric car

An electric car is a plug-in electric automobile that is propelled by one or more electric motors, using energy typically stored in rechargeable batteries.

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Electric current

An electric current is a flow of electric charge.

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Electric vehicle

An electric vehicle, also called an EV, uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion.

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Electrical energy

Electrical energy is the energy newly derived from electric potential energy or kinetic energy.

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Electrical mobility

Electrical mobility is the ability of charged particles (such as electrons or protons) to move through a medium in response to an electric field that is pulling them.

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Electrochemical cell

An electrochemical cell (EC) is a device capable of either generating electrical energy from chemical reactions or using electrical energy to cause chemical reactions.

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An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor, an electrolyte, a vacuum or air).

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In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.

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An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.

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Electromagnetic induction

Electromagnetic or magnetic induction is the production of an electromotive force (i.e., voltage) across an electrical conductor in a changing magnetic field.

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The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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Electronic cigarette

An electronic cigarette or e-cigarette is a handheld electronic device that simulates the feeling of tobacco smoking.

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Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.

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Energy density

Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume.

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Ethylene carbonate

Ethylene carbonate (sometimes abbreviated EC) is the organic compound with the formula (CH2O)2CO.

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Express mail

Express mail is an accelerated mail delivery service for which the customer pays a surcharge and receives faster delivery.

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Exxon was the brand name of oil and natural resources company Exxon Corporation, prior to 1972 known as Standard Oil Company of New Jersey.

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Faraday constant

The Faraday constant, denoted by the symbol and sometimes stylized as ℱ, is named after Michael Faraday.

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Fast ion conductor

In materials science, fast ion conductors are solids with highly mobile ions.

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A flashlight (more often called a torch outside North America) is a portable hand-held electric light.

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is a Japanese multinational information technology equipment and services company headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.

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Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.

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Gigafactory 1

The Tesla Gigafactory 1 is a lithium-ion battery factory under construction, primarily for Tesla, Inc., at the Tahoe Reno Industrial Center (TRIC) in Storey County (near the community of Clark, Nevada, United States).

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Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.

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Glass battery

The Glass battery is a type of solid state battery.

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Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.

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Graphite intercalation compound

Graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) are complex materials having a formula CXm where the ion Xn+ or Xn− is inserted (intercalated) between the oppositely charged carbon layers.

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Grid energy storage

Grid energy storage (also called large-scale energy storage) is a collection of methods used to store electrical energy on a large scale within an electrical power grid.

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A half reaction is either the oxidation or reduction reaction component of a redox reaction.

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Handheld game console

A handheld game console is a small, portable self-contained video game console with a built-in screen, game controls, and speakers.

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Hedge trimmer

A hedge trimmer, shrub trimmer, or bush trimmer, is a gardening tool or machine used for trimming (cutting, pruning) hedges or solitary shrubs (bushes).

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Hideki Shirakawa

Hideki Shirakawa (白川 英樹 Shirakawa Hideki, born August 20, 1936) is a Japanese chemist, engineer, and Professor Emeritus at the University of Tsukuba and Zhejiang University.

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() is a Japanese multinational conglomerate company headquartered in Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan.

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Hong Kong

Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.

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Hybrid electric vehicle

A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is a type of hybrid vehicle that combines a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) system with an electric propulsion system (hybrid vehicle drivetrain).

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Hybrid vehicle

A hybrid vehicle uses two or more distinct types of power, such as internal combustion engine to drive an electric generator that powers an electric motor, e.g. in diesel-electric trains using diesel engines to drive an electric generator that powers an electric motor, and submarines that use diesels when surfaced and batteries when submerged.

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Hydro-Québec is a public utility that manages the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity in Quebec.

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Hydrofluoric acid

Hydrofluoric acid is a solution of hydrogen fluoride (HF) in water.

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Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of organic substances contained in waste materials.

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Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey.

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Intercalation (chemistry)

In chemistry, intercalation is the reversible inclusion or insertion of a molecule (or ion) into materials with layered structures.

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Internal resistance

A practical electrical power source which is a linear electric circuit may, according to Thévenin's theorem, be represented as an ideal voltage source in series with an impedance.

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International Air Transport Association

The International Air Transport Association (IATA) is a trade association of the world’s airlines.

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An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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Ionic conductivity (solid state)

Ionic conduction (denoted by -lambda) is the movement of an ion from one site to another through defects in the crystal lattice of a solid or aqueous solution.

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Ionic liquid

An ionic liquid (IL) is a salt in the liquid state.

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Jahn–Teller effect

The Jahn–Teller effect (JT effect or JTE) is an important mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking in molecular and solid-state systems which has far-reaching consequences for different fields, and it is related to a variety of applications in spectroscopy, stereochemistry and crystal chemistry, molecular and solid-state physics, and materials science.

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Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Jeff Dahn

Jeff Dahn (born in 1957 in the United States and emigrated to Nova Scotia, Canada in 1970) is a Professor in the Department of Physics & Atmospheric Science and the Department of Chemistry at Dalhousie University.

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Jelly roll (battery)

The jelly roll or Swiss roll design is the design used in the majority of cylindrical rechargeable batteries, including nickel-cadmium (NiCd), nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) and lithium-ion (Li-ion).

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John B. Goodenough

John Bannister Goodenough (born 25 July 1922 in Jena, Germany) is a German-born American professor and solid-state physicist.

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The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.

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Karlsruhe Institute of Technology

The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Karlsruher Institut für Technologie) is a public research university and one of the largest research and educational institutions in Germany.

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The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK, also known as "Le Grand K" or "Big K"), a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Saint-Cloud, France.

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Kilowatt hour

The kilowatt hour (symbol kWh, kW⋅h or kW h) is a unit of energy equal to 3.6 megajoules.

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Koichi Mizushima (scientist)

is a Japanese researcher known for discovering LiCoO and related materials for the Li-ion battery.

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Kyocera Communications

Kyocera Communications, Inc. (pronounced like: key-oh-sarah) is an American manufacturer of mobile phones for wireless service providers in the United States and Canada.

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A landfill site (also known as a tip, dump, rubbish dump, garbage dump or dumping ground and historically as a midden) is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial.

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A laptop, also called a notebook computer or just notebook, is a small, portable personal computer with a "clamshell" form factor, having, typically, a thin LCD or LED computer screen mounted on the inside of the upper lid of the "clamshell" and an alphanumeric keyboard on the inside of the lower lid.

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Lead–acid battery

The lead–acid battery was invented in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Planté and is the oldest type of rechargeable battery.

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Lenovo Group Ltd. or Lenovo PC International, often shortened to Lenovo (formerly stylized as lenovo), is a Chinese multinational technology company with headquarters in Beijing, China and Morrisville, North Carolina.

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Lewis acids and bases

A Lewis acid is a chemical species that contains an empty orbital which is capable of accepting an electron pair from a Lewis base to form a Lewis adduct.

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LG Chem

LG Chem Ltd. (Korean: LG화학), often referred to as LG Chemical, is the largest Korean chemical company and is headquartered in Seoul, South Korea.

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LG Corporation

LG Corporation (Korean: 주식회사 LG), formerly Lucky-GoldStar (Korean: Leogki Geumseong 럭키금성/樂喜金星), is a South Korean multinational conglomerate corporation.

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A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.

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List of battery sizes

This article lists the sizes, shapes, and general characteristics of some common primary and secondary battery types in household and light industrial use.

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List of battery types

This page is a list of notable battery types grouped by types of battery.

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Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.

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Lithium as an investment

As widespread economic turmoil in the first decade of the 21st century resulted in the broad destabilization of many traditional investment products and venues alternative investment options began to realize an increase in popularity among investors who may not have otherwise strayed from established investment practices under previous markets.

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Lithium battery

Lithium batteries are primary batteries that have lithium as an anode.

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Lithium cobalt oxide

Lithium cobalt oxide, sometimes called lithium cobaltateA.

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Lithium fluoride

Lithium fluoride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula LiF.

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Lithium hexafluorophosphate

Lithium hexafluorophosphate is an inorganic compound with the formula LiPF6.

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Lithium hydroxide

Lithium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula LiOH.

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Lithium ion manganese oxide battery

A Lithium ion manganese oxide battery is a lithium ion cell that uses manganese dioxide,, as the primary cathode material.

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Lithium iron phosphate

Lithium iron phosphate, also known as LFP, is an inorganic compound with the formula.

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Lithium iron phosphate battery

The lithium iron phosphate battery, also called LFP battery (with "LFP" standing for "lithium ferrophosphate"), is a type of rechargeable battery, specifically a lithium-ion battery, which uses 4 as a cathode material, and a graphitic carbon electrode with a metallic current collector grid as the anode.

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Lithium oxide

Lithium oxide (2O) or lithia is an inorganic chemical compound.

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Lithium perchlorate

Lithium perchlorate is the inorganic compound with the formula LiClO4.

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Lithium polymer battery

A lithium polymer battery, or more correctly lithium-ion polymer battery (abbreviated as LiPo, LIP, Li-poly, lithium-poly and others), is a rechargeable battery of lithium-ion technology using a polymer electrolyte instead of a liquid electrolyte.

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Lithium tetrafluoroborate

Lithium tetrafluoroborate is an inorganic compound with the formula LiBF4.

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Lithium titanate

Lithium titanate (full name lithium metatitanate) is a compound containing lithium and titanium.

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Lithium vanadium phosphate battery

A lithium vanadium phosphate (LVP) battery is a proposed type of lithium ion battery that uses a vanadium phosphate in the cathode.

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Lithium-ion capacitor

A lithium-ion capacitor (LIC) is a hybrid type of capacitor out of the family of the supercapacitors.

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Lithium-ion flow battery

A lithium-ion flow battery is a flow battery that uses a form of lightweight lithium as its charge carrier.

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Lithium–air battery

The lithium-air battery (Li-air) is a metal–air electrochemical cell or battery chemistry that uses oxidation of lithium at the anode and reduction of oxygen at the cathode to induce a current flow.

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Lithium–silicon battery

Lithium–silicon batteries are a lithium-ion battery technology that employ a silicon anode and lithium ions as the charge carriers.

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Lithium–sulfur battery

The lithium–sulfur battery (Li–S battery) is a type of rechargeable battery, notable for its high specific energy.

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Lithium–titanate battery

The lithium–titanate battery is a type of rechargeable battery which has the advantage of being faster to charge than other lithium-ion batteries.

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The litre (SI spelling) or liter (American spelling) (symbols L or l, sometimes abbreviated ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre. A cubic decimetre (or litre) occupies a volume of 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm (see figure) and is thus equal to one-thousandth of a cubic metre. The original French metric system used the litre as a base unit. The word litre is derived from an older French unit, the litron, whose name came from Greek — where it was a unit of weight, not volume — via Latin, and which equalled approximately 0.831 litres. The litre was also used in several subsequent versions of the metric system and is accepted for use with the SI,, p. 124. ("Days" and "hours" are examples of other non-SI units that SI accepts.) although not an SI unit — the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3). The spelling used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures is "litre", a spelling which is shared by almost all English-speaking countries. The spelling "liter" is predominantly used in American English. One litre of liquid water has a mass of almost exactly one kilogram, because the kilogram was originally defined in 1795 as the mass of one cubic decimetre of water at the temperature of melting ice. Subsequent redefinitions of the metre and kilogram mean that this relationship is no longer exact.

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M Stanley Whittingham


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Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.

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Manganese oxide

Manganese oxide is any of a variety of manganese oxides and hydroxides.

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Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.

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Memory effect

Memory effect, also known as battery effect, lazy battery effect, or battery memory, is an effect observed in nickel-cadmium and nickel–metal hydride rechargeable batteries that causes them to hold less charge.

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A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.

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Metal toxicity

Metal toxicity or metal poisoning is the toxic effect of certain metals in certain forms and doses on life.

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Michael M. Thackeray

Michael Makepeace Thackeray is a chemist and battery materials researcher.

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Mining industry of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

The Mining industry of the Democratic Republic of the Congo is a significant factor in the world's production of cobalt, copper, diamond, tantalum, tin, and gold as well.

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Mobile computing

Mobile computing is human–computer interaction by which a computer is expected to be transported during normal usage, which allows for transmission of data, voice and video.

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Mobile phone

A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.

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Model aircraft

A model aircraft is a small sized unmanned aircraft or, in the case of a scale model, a replica of an existing or imaginary aircraft.

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Mole (unit)

The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.

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Motorized wheelchair

A motorized wheelchair, powerchair, electric wheelchair or electric-powered wheelchair (EPW) is a wheelchair that is propelled by means of an electric motor rather than manual power.

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Nanoarchitectures for lithium-ion batteries

Nanoarchitectures for lithium-ion batteries are attempts to employ nanotechnology to improve the design of lithium-ion batteries.

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Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale.

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Nanowire battery

A nanowire battery uses nanowires to increase the surface area of one or both of its electrodes.

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National Academy of Engineering

The National Academy of Engineering (NAE) is an American nonprofit, non-governmental organization.

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National Renewable Energy Laboratory

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), located in Golden, Colorado, specializes in renewable energy and energy efficiency research and development.

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is a Japanese multinational provider of information technology (IT) services and products, headquartered in Minato, Tokyo, Japan.

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Nickel–cadmium battery

The nickel–cadmium battery (NiCd battery or NiCad battery) is a type of rechargeable battery using nickel oxide hydroxide and metallic cadmium as electrodes.

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Nickel–metal hydride battery

A nickel metal hydride battery, abbreviated NiMH or Ni–MH, is a type of rechargeable battery.

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Niobium, formerly known as columbium, is a chemical element with symbol Nb (formerly Cb) and atomic number 41.

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, usually shortened to Nissan (or; Japanese), is a Japanese multinational automobile manufacturer headquartered in Nishi-ku, Yokohama.

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Nokia is a Finnish multinational telecommunications, information technology, and consumer electronics company, founded in 1865.

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Nokia N91

The Nokia N91 was a smartphone produced by Nokia as part of their Nseries line of portable devices.

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The mineral olivine is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg2+, Fe2+)2SiO4.

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Open-circuit voltage

Open-circuit voltage (abbreviated as OCV or VOC) is the difference of electrical potential between two terminals of a device when disconnected from any circuit.

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Operating temperature

An operating temperature is the temperature at which an electrical or mechanical device operates.

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Organic compound

In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.

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An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.

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, formerly known as, is a Japanese multinational electronics corporation headquartered in Kadoma, Osaka, Japan.

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Perovskite (pronunciation) is a calcium titanium oxide mineral composed of calcium titanate (Ca Ti O3).

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Personal transporter

A personal transporter (also electric rideable, personal light electric vehicle, personal mobility device, etc) is a class of compact, electric or internal combustion vehicle for transporting an individual at speeds that do not normally exceed.

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The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

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Phoenix Motorcars

Phoenix Cars LLC., d.b.a. Phoenix Motorcars based in Ontario, California, is a leading developer of zero emission, all-electric vehicles (EV), focused on the deployment of light- and medium-duty EVs into the fleet and transit markets.

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Phosphoric acid

Phosphoric acid (also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid) is a mineral (inorganic) and weak acid having the chemical formula H3PO4.

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Phosphoryl fluoride

Phosphoryl fluoride (commonly called phosphorus oxyfluoride) is a compound with the chemical formula POF3.

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A pin is a device used for fastening objects or material together.

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Plug-in electric vehicle fire incidents

Several plug-in electric vehicle fire incidents have taken place since the introduction of mass-production plug-in electric vehicles in 2010.

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Plug-in hybrid

A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is a hybrid electric vehicle whose battery can be recharged by plugging it in to an external source of electric power as well by its on-board engine and generator.

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Polarizability is the ability to form instantaneous dipoles.

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Polyelectrolytes are polymers whose repeating units bear an electrolyte group.

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Potassium-ion battery

A potassium-ion battery or K-ion battery (abbreviated as KIB) is a type of battery and analogue to lithium-ion batteries, using potassium ions for charge transfer instead of lithium ions.

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Power tool

A power tool is a tool that is actuated by an additional power source and mechanism other than the solely manual labor used with hand tools.

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Primary cell

A primary cell is a battery that is designed to be used once and discarded, and not recharged with electricity and reused like a secondary cell (rechargeable battery).

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Prism (geometry)

In geometry, a prism is a polyhedron comprising an n-sided polygonal base, a second base which is a translated copy (rigidly moved without rotation) of the first, and n other faces (necessarily all parallelograms) joining corresponding sides of the two bases.

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Rachid Yazami

Rachid Yazami is a Moroccan scientist best known for his research on lithium ion batteries and on fluoride ion batteries.

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Radio-controlled model

A radio-controlled model (or RC model) is a model that is steerable with the use of radio control.

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Reactivity (chemistry)

In chemistry, reactivity is the impetus for which a chemical substance undergoes a chemical reaction, either by itself or with other materials, with an overall release of energy.

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Rechargeable battery

A rechargeable battery, storage battery, secondary cell, or accumulator is a type of electrical battery which can be charged, discharged into a load, and recharged many times, as opposed to a disposable or primary battery, which is supplied fully charged and discarded after use.

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Recycling is the process of converting waste materials into new materials and objects.

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Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.

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Research in lithium-ion batteries

Research in lithium-ion batteries has produced many proposed refinements of lithium-ion batteries.

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Royal Mail

Royal Mail plc (Post Brenhinol; a' Phuist Rìoghail) is a postal service and courier company in the United Kingdom, originally established in 1516.

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Safe operating area

For power semiconductor devices (such as BJT, MOSFET, thyristor or IGBT), the safe operating area (SOA) is defined as the voltage and current conditions over which the device can be expected to operate without self-damage.

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Saft Groupe S.A.

Saft is a company involved in the design, the development and the manufacturing of batteries used in transport, industry and defense.

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Salt (chemistry)

In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.

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Salt water battery

A salt water battery employs a concentrated saline solution as its electrolyte.

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Samsung is a South Korean multinational conglomerate headquartered in Samsung Town, Seoul.

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A sander is a power tool used to smooth surfaces by abrasion with sandpaper.

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is a Japanese major electronics company and formerly a member of the Fortune Global 500 whose headquarters was located in Moriguchi, Osaka prefecture, Japan.

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A saw is a tool consisting of a tough blade, wire, or chain with a hard toothed edge.

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Search for the Super Battery

Search for the Super Battery: discover the powerful world of batteries is a 2017 American documentary film about energy storage and how it may help provide an environmentally friendly, or green, future.

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Segway PT

The Segway PT (originally Segway HT) is a two-wheeled, self-balancing personal transporter by Segway Inc. Invented by Dean Kamen and brought to market in 2001.

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Self-discharge is a phenomenon in batteries in which internal chemical reactions reduce the stored charge of the battery without any connection between the electrodes.

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Sharp Corporation

is a Japanese multinational corporation that designs and manufactures electronic products, headquartered in Sakai-ku, Sakai.

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Short circuit

A short circuit (sometimes abbreviated to short or s/c) is an electrical circuit that allows a current to travel along an unintended path with no or a very low electrical impedance.

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Siemens (unit)

The siemens (symbol: S) is the derived unit of electric conductance, electric susceptance and electric admittance in the International System of Units (SI).

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A smartphone is a handheld personal computer with a mobile operating system and an integrated mobile broadband cellular network connection for voice, SMS, and Internet data communication; most, if not all, smartphones also support Wi-Fi.

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Solid-state battery

Solid-state battery is a battery technology that uses both solid electrodes and solid electrolytes, instead of the liquid or polymer electrolytes found in Lithium-ion or Lithium polymer batteries.

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A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.

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is a Japanese multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Kōnan, Minato, Tokyo.

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Spinel is the magnesium aluminium member of the larger spinel group of minerals.

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Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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State of charge

State of charge (SoC) is the equivalent of a fuel gauge for the battery pack in a battery electric vehicle (BEV), hybrid vehicle (HV), or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV).

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String trimmer

A string trimmer, also called a "weed-whip", "whipper-snipper", "weed-whacker", a "weed eater", a "line trimmer" (in Australia) or a "strimmer" (in the UK and Ireland), is a tool which uses a flexible monofilament line instead of a blade for cutting grass and other plants near objects, or on steep or irregular terrain.

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The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.

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Tablet computer

A tablet computer, commonly shortened to tablet, is a portable personal computer, typically with a mobile operating system and LCD touchscreen display processing circuitry, and a rechargeable battery in a single thin, flat package.

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Targray Technology International Inc., commonly referred to as Targray, is a Canadian multinational chemical and electronic materials corporation headquartered in Kirkland, Quebec that supplies advanced materials and supply chain solutions to the international biofuel, lithium-ion battery, energy storage, and photovoltaics industries.

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Technical University of Munich

Technical University of Munich (TUM) (Technische Universität München) is a research university with campuses in Munich, Garching and Freising-Weihenstephan.

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Teknisk Ukeblad

Teknisk Ukeblad (TU, Technical Weekly Magazine) is Norwegian engineering magazine.

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Tesla Model S

The Tesla Model S is a full-sized / mid-size luxury all-electric five-door liftback Q-car (for P models), produced by Tesla, Inc., and introduced on June 22, 2012.

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Tesla, Inc.

Tesla, Inc. (formerly Tesla Motors) was founded in 2003, and is an American multinational corporation based in Palo Alto, California, that specializes in electric vehicles, lithium-ion battery energy storage and solar panel manufacturing (through the subsidiary company SolarCity).

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The Inquirer

The Inquirer is a British technology tabloid website founded by Mike Magee after his departure from The Register (of which he was one of the founding members) in 2001.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Thermal runaway

Thermal runaway occurs in situations where an increase in temperature changes the conditions in a way that causes a further increase in temperature, often leading to a destructive result.

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, commonly known as Toshiba, is a Japanese multinational conglomerate headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.

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In organic chemistry, transesterfication is the process of exchanging the organic group R″ of an ester with the organic group R′ of an alcohol.

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Transition metal

In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.

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United Airlines

United Airlines, Inc., commonly referred to as United, is a major United States airline headquartered in Chicago, Illinois.

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United States Department of Defense

The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.

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United States dollar

The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.

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United States Postal Service

The United States Postal Service (USPS; also known as the Post Office, U.S. Mail, or Postal Service) is an independent agency of the United States federal government responsible for providing postal service in the United States, including its insular areas and associated states.

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University of Oxford

The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.

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University of Pennsylvania

The University of Pennsylvania (commonly known as Penn or UPenn) is a private Ivy League research university located in University City section of West Philadelphia.

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University of Texas at Austin

The University of Texas at Austin (UT, UT Austin, or Texas) is a public research university and the flagship institution of the University of Texas System.

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UPS Airlines Flight 6

UPS Airlines Flight 6 was a cargo flight operated by UPS Airlines.

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Valence Technology

Valence Technology, Inc. develops and manufactures lithium iron phosphate cathode material as well as lithium ion battery modules and packs.

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The volt (symbol: V) is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force.

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Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.

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Voltage converter

A voltage converter is an electric power converter which changes the voltage of an electrical power source.

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Voltage source

A voltage source is a two-terminal device which can maintain a fixed voltage.

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A voltmeter is an instrument used for measuring electrical potential difference between two points in an electric circuit.

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X-ray crystallography

X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.

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Zirconium is a chemical element with symbol Zr and atomic number 40.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lithium-ion_battery

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