217 relations: Abiogenic petroleum origin, Aboriginal Australians, Afghanistan, Aircraft engine, Alcohol fuel, Algeria, Alkane, Alkene, Alkylation, Alternative fuel, American English, American entry into World War I, American Petroleum Institute, Amine, Aniline, Antioxidant, Aromatic hydrocarbon, Aromaticity, ASTM International, Atkinson cycle, Atmosphere, Australia, Autogas, Autoignition temperature, Automobile Association of South Africa, Avgas, Aviation fuel, Barrel (unit), Baumé scale, Benzene, Biodiesel, BP, Brazil, British English, British thermal unit, Bromine number, BTX (chemistry), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, Burton process, Butanol fuel, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Carburetor, Carcinogen, Catalytic converter, Catalytic reforming, CBC.ca, Cetane number, Charles F. Kettering, ..., Clean Air Act (United States), Climate change, Coal gas, Cobourg Peninsula, Colorimetry, Combustion, Common ethanol fuel mixtures, Compressed natural gas, Compression (physics), Compression ratio, Consumer Reports, Cracking (chemistry), Crude oil assay, Cubic inch, Cubic metre, Cycloalkane, Davis Inlet, Deflagration, Density, Diesel engine, Diesel fuel, Directive on the Promotion of the use of biofuels and other renewable fuels for transport, Distillation, Drying oil, E85, Energy density, Engine knocking, Engine tuning, Enzyme, Ethanol, Ethanol fuel, Ether, Ethyl tert-butyl ether, Eugene Houdry, Euphoria, European Economic Community, Filling station, Finland, Flammability limit, Fluid catalytic cracking, Fractional distillation, Frederick Richard Simms, Fuel, Fuel dispenser, Fuel dyes, Fuel economy in automobiles, Fuel injection, Fuel saving device, Fuel tax, Gallon, Gasoline and diesel usage and pricing, Gasoline gallon equivalent, Gottlieb Daimler, Government of Australia, Government of India, Greenhouse gas, Heat of combustion, Heptane, Highveld, HowStuffWorks, Hydrocarbon, Hydrogen, Indigenous Australians, Inhalant, Internal combustion engine, Iraq, Isomer, Isomerization, Isopropyl alcohol, Jerrycan, Johannesburg, John Cassell, Joule, Kilogram, Lead, Liquefied natural gas, Liquefied petroleum gas, List of automotive fuel retailers, List of gasoline additives, Litre, Maize, Median lethal dose, Metal deactivator, Methanol, Methyl tert-butyl ether, Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl, Molecular mass, Myanmar, Naphtha, Naphthalene, National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels (Brazil), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Natuashish, Natural gasoline, Newfoundland and Labrador, North Korea, Northern Territory, Norway, Octane, Octane rating, Oil refinery, Opal (fuel), Operation Overlord, Organic compound, Organic peroxide, Organosulfur compounds, Otto cycle, Otto engine, Oxford English Dictionary, Oxygen, Oxygenate, Petrochem Carless Ltd, Petroleum, Petroleum naphtha, Phenylenediamine, Pikangikum First Nation, Pound (mass), Pre-ignition, Propane, Queensland, Redox, Reid vapor pressure, Renewable Fuel Standard (United States), Rolls-Royce Merlin, Safety data sheet, Sheshatshiu, Short ton, Smog, Soldier, South Africa, South Australia, Spark-ignition engine, Substance intoxication, Sugarcane, Sunlight, Supercharger, Sweden, Tesco, Tetraethyllead, The Daily Telegraph, The Guardian, The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, and Power, The Quest: Energy, Security, and the Remaking of the Modern World, The Straight Dope, The Times, Thomas Midgley Jr., Toluene, Top End, Top Tier Detergent Gasoline, United Kingdom, United States, United States customary units, United States Department of Energy, United States dollar, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Vapor pressure, Volatile organic compound, Water, Western Australia, White spirit, World oil market chronology from 2003, World War II, Xylene, Yemen, 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene, 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane. Expand index (167 more) » « Shrink index
Abiogenic petroleum origin is a term used to describe a number of different hypotheses which propose that petroleum and natural gas are formed by inorganic means rather than by the decomposition of organisms.
Aboriginal Australians are legally defined as people who are members "of the Aboriginal race of Australia" (indigenous to mainland Australia or to the island of Tasmania).
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
An aircraft engine is the component of the propulsion system for an aircraft that generates mechanical power.
Alcohols have been used as a fuel.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
In organic chemistry, an alkane, or paraffin (a historical name that also has other meanings), is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon.
In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.
Alkylation is the transfer of an alkyl group from one molecule to another.
Alternative fuels, known as non-conventional and advanced fuels, are any materials or substances that can be used as fuels, other than conventional fuels like; fossil fuels (petroleum (oil), coal, and natural gas), as well as nuclear materials such as uranium and thorium, as well as artificial radioisotope fuels that are made in nuclear reactors.
American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.
The American entry into World War I came in April 1917, after more than two and a half years of efforts by President Woodrow Wilson to keep the United States out of the war.
The American Petroleum Institute (API) is the largest U.S. trade association for the oil and natural gas industry.
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Aniline is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NH2.
Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.
An aromatic hydrocarbon or arene (or sometimes aryl hydrocarbon) is a hydrocarbon with sigma bonds and delocalized pi electrons between carbon atoms forming a circle.
In organic chemistry, the term aromaticity is used to describe a cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat) molecule with a ring of resonance bonds that exhibits more stability than other geometric or connective arrangements with the same set of atoms.
ASTM International is an international standards organization that develops and publishes voluntary consensus technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services.
The Atkinson-cycle engine is a type of internal combustion engine invented by James Atkinson in 1882.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Autogas is the common name for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) when it is used as a fuel in internal combustion engines in vehicles as well as in stationary applications such as generators.
The autoignition temperature or kindling point of a substance is the lowest temperature at which it spontaneously ignites in normal atmosphere without an external source of ignition, such as a flame or spark.
The Automobile Association of South Africa, often abbreviated AA is an automobile association that has been operating in South Africa since 1930.
Avgas (aviation gasoline, also known as aviation spirit in the UK), is an aviation fuel used in spark-ignited internal-combustion engines to propel aircraft.
Aviation fuel is a specialized type of petroleum-based fuel used to power aircraft.
A barrel is one of several units of volume applied in various contexts; there are dry barrels, fluid barrels (such as the UK beer barrel and US beer barrel), oil barrels and so on.
The Baumé scale is a pair of hydrometer scales developed by French pharmacist Antoine Baumé in 1768 to measure density of various liquids.
Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.
Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil- or animal fat-based diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl (methyl, ethyl, or propyl) esters.
BP plc (stylised as bp), formerly British Petroleum, is a British multinational oil and gas company headquartered in London, England.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.
The British thermal unit (Btu or BTU) is a traditional unit of heat; it is defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit.
Bromine number is the amount of bromine in grams absorbed by of a sample.
In the petroleum refining and petrochemical industries, the initialism BTX refers to mixtures of benzene, toluene, and the three xylene isomers, all of which are aromatic hydrocarbons.
The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) is a federal law enforcement organization within the United States Department of Justice.
The Burton process is a thermal cracking process invented by William Merriam Burton and Robert E. Humphreys, each of whom held a Ph.D. in chemistry from Johns Hopkins University.
Butanol may be used as a fuel in an internal combustion engine.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
A carburetor (American English) or carburettor (British English; see spelling differences) is a device that mixes air and fuel for internal combustion engines in the proper ratio for combustion.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
A catalytic converter is an exhaust emission control device that converts toxic gases and pollutants in exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine into less-toxic pollutants by catalyzing a redox reaction (an oxidation and a reduction reaction).
Catalytic reforming is a chemical process used to convert petroleum refinery naphthas distilled from crude oil (typically having low octane ratings) into high-octane liquid products called reformates, which are premium blending stocks for high-octane gasoline.
CBC.ca is the English-language online service of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.
Cetane number (cetane rating) is an indicator of the combustion speed of diesel fuel and compression needed for ignition.
Charles Franklin Kettering (August 29, 1876 – November 25, 1958) sometimes known as Charles "Boss" Kettering was an American inventor, engineer, businessman, and the holder of 186 patents.
The Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C.) is a United States federal law designed to control air pollution on a national level.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
Coal gas is a flammable gaseous fuel made from coal and supplied to the user via a piped distribution system.
The Cobourg Peninsula is located 350 km east of Darwin in the Northern Territory, Australia.
Colorimetry is "the science and technology used to quantify and describe physically the human color perception." It is similar to spectrophotometry, but is distinguished by its interest in reducing spectra to the physical correlates of color perception, most often the CIE 1931 XYZ color space tristimulus values and related quantities.
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
Several common ethanol fuel mixtures are in use around the world.
Compressed natural gas (CNG) (methane stored at high pressure) is a fuel which can be used in place of gasoline (petrol), Diesel fuel and propane/LPG.
In mechanics, compression is the application of balanced inward ("pushing") forces to different points on a material or structure, that is, forces with no net sum or torque directed so as to reduce its size in one or more directions.
The static compression ratio of an internal combustion engine or external combustion engine is a value that represents the ratio of the volume of its combustion chamber from its largest capacity to its smallest capacity.
Consumer Reports is an American magazine published since 1930 by Consumers Union, a nonprofit organization dedicated to unbiased product testing, consumer-oriented research, public education, and advocacy.
In petrochemistry, petroleum geology and organic chemistry, cracking is the process whereby complex organic molecules such as kerogens or long-chain hydrocarbons are broken down into simpler molecules such as light hydrocarbons, by the breaking of carbon-carbon bonds in the precursors.
A crude oil assay is the chemical evaluation of crude oil feedstocks by petroleum testing laboratories.
The cubic inch (symbol in3) is a unit of measurement for volume in the Imperial units and United States customary units systems.
The cubic metre (in British English and international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures) or cubic meter (in American English) is the SI derived unit of volume.
In organic chemistry, the cycloalkanes (also called naphthenes, but distinct from naphthalene) are the monocyclic saturated hydrocarbons.
Davis Inlet was a Naskapi community in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, formerly inhabited by the Mushuau Innu First Nation.
Deflagration (Lat: de + flagrare, "to burn down") is subsonic combustion propagating through heat transfer; hot burning material heats the next layer of cold material and ignites it.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
The diesel engine (also known as a compression-ignition or CI engine), named after Rudolf Diesel, is an internal combustion engine in which ignition of the fuel which is injected into the combustion chamber is caused by the elevated temperature of the air in the cylinder due to mechanical compression (adiabatic compression).
Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel.
The Directive on the Promotion of the use of biofuels and other renewable fuels for transport, officially 2003/30/EC and popularly better known as the biofuels directive is a European Union directive for promoting the use of biofuels for EU transport.
Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation.
A drying oil is an oil that hardens to a tough, solid film after a period of exposure to air.
E85 is an abbreviation typically referring to an ethanol fuel blend of 85% ethanol fuel and 15% gasoline or other hydrocarbon by volume.
Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume.
Knocking (also knock,, spark knock, pinging or pinking) in spark-ignition internal combustion engines occurs when combustion of some of the air/fuel mixture in the cylinder does not result from propagation of the flame front ignited by the spark plug, but one or more pockets of air/fuel mixture explode outside the envelope of the normal combustion front.
Engine tuning is an adjustment, modification of the internal combustion engine, or modification to its control unit, otherwise known as its ECU (Engine Control Unit).
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Ethanol fuel is ethyl alcohol, the same type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, used as fuel.
Ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group—an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups.
Ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) is commonly used as an oxygenate gasoline additive in the production of gasoline from crude oil.
Eugène Jules Houdry (Domont, April 18, 1892 – Upper Darby, Pennsylvania, July 18, 1962) was a French, later naturalised American, mechanical engineer (graduated from École Nationale Supérieure d'Arts et Métiers in 1911) who invented catalytic cracking of petroleum feed stocks.
Euphoria is an affective state in which a person experiences pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
A filling station is a facility that sells fuel and engine lubricants for motor vehicles.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
Mixtures of dispersed combustible materials (such as gaseous or vaporised fuels, and some dusts) and air will burn only if the fuel concentration lies within well-defined lower and upper bounds determined experimentally, referred to as flammability limits or explosive limits.
Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is one of the most important conversion processes used in petroleum refineries.
Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions.
Frederick Richard Simms (12 August 1863 – 22 April 1944)M.I.M.E., M.I.A.E., M.I.Ae.E., M.S.E.; Member of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Member of the Institution of Automobile Engineers, Member of the Institution of Aeronautical Engineers, Member of the Society of Engineers was a British mechanical engineer, businessman, prolific inventor and motor industry pioneer.
A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work.
A fuel dispenser is a machine at a filling station that is used to pump gasoline, petrol, diesel, CNG, CGH2, HCNG, LPG, LH2, ethanol fuel, biofuels like biodiesel, kerosene, or other types of fuel into vehicles.
Fuel dyes are dyes added to fuels, as in some countries it is required by law to dye a low-tax fuel to deter its use in applications intended for higher-taxed ones.
The fuel economy of an automobile is the relationship between the distance traveled and the amount of fuel consumed by the vehicle.
Fuel injection is the introduction of fuel in an internal combustion engine, most commonly automotive engines, by the means of an injector.
Fuel saving devices are sold on the aftermarket with claims to improve the fuel economy and/or the exhaust emissions of any purport to optimize ignition, air flow, or fuel flow in some way.
A fuel tax (also known as a petrol, gasoline or gas tax, or as a fuel duty) is an excise tax imposed on the sale of fuel.
The gallon is a unit of measurement for fluid capacity in both the US customary units and the British imperial systems of measurement.
The usage and pricing of gasoline (or petrol) results from factors such as crude oil prices, processing and distribution costs, local demand, the strength of local currencies, local taxation, and the availability of local sources of gasoline (supply).
Gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE) or gasoline-equivalent gallon (GEG) is the amount of alternative fuel it takes to equal the energy content of one liquid gallon of gasoline.
Gottlieb Wilhelm Daimler (17 March 1834 – 6 March 1900) was an engineer, industrial designer and industrialist born in Schorndorf (Kingdom of Württemberg, a federal state of the German Confederation), in what is now Germany.
The Government of the Commonwealth of Australia (also referred to as the Australian Government, the Commonwealth Government, or the Federal Government) is the government of the Commonwealth of Australia, a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy.
The Government of India (IAST), often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
The heating value (or energy value or calorific value) of a substance, usually a fuel or food (see food energy), is the amount of heat released during the combustion of a specified amount of it.
n-Heptane is the straight-chain alkane with the chemical formula H3C(CH2)5CH3 or C7H16.
The Highveld (Afrikaans: Hoëveld) is the portion of the South African inland plateau which has an altitude above roughly 1500 m, but below 2100 m, thus excluding the Lesotho mountain regions to the south-east of the Highveld.
HowStuffWorks is an American commercial educational website founded by Marshall Brain to provide its target audience an insight into the way many things work.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to British colonisation.
Inhalants are a broad range of household and industrial chemicals whose volatile vapors or pressurized gases are concentrated and breathed in via the nose or mouth to produce intoxication (called "getting high" in slang), in a manner not intended by the manufacturer.
An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
An isomer (from Greek ἰσομερής, isomerès; isos.
In chemistry isomerization (also isomerisation) is the process by which one molecule is transformed into another molecule which has exactly the same atoms, but the atoms have a different arrangement e.g. A-B-C → B-A-C (these related molecules are known as isomers). In some molecules and under some conditions, isomerization occurs spontaneously.
Isopropyl alcohol (IUPAC name propan-2-ol; commonly called isopropanol) is a compound with the chemical formula C3H8O.
A jerrycan (also written as jerry can or jerrican) is a robust liquid container made from pressed steel.
Johannesburg (also known as Jozi, Joburg and Egoli) is the largest city in South Africa and is one of the 50 largest urban areas in the world.
John Cassell (23 January 1817 – 2 April 1865) was an English publisher, printer, writer and editor, who founded the firm Cassell & Co, famous for its educational books and periodicals, and which pioneered the serial publication of novels.
The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.
The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK, also known as "Le Grand K" or "Big K"), a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Saint-Cloud, France.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas (predominantly methane, CH4, with some mixture of ethane C2H6) that has been converted to liquid form for ease and safety of non-pressurized storage or transport.
Liquefied petroleum gas or liquid petroleum gas (LPG or LP gas), also referred to as simply propane or butane, are flammable mixtures of hydrocarbon gases used as fuel in heating appliances, cooking equipment, and vehicles.
This is a list of automotive fuel retailers ("petrol" or "gasoline", "diesel", etc.) and their controlling oil companies.
Gasoline additives increase gasoline's octane rating or act as corrosion inhibitors or lubricants, thus allowing the use of higher compression ratios for greater efficiency and power.
The litre (SI spelling) or liter (American spelling) (symbols L or l, sometimes abbreviated ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre. A cubic decimetre (or litre) occupies a volume of 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm (see figure) and is thus equal to one-thousandth of a cubic metre. The original French metric system used the litre as a base unit. The word litre is derived from an older French unit, the litron, whose name came from Greek — where it was a unit of weight, not volume — via Latin, and which equalled approximately 0.831 litres. The litre was also used in several subsequent versions of the metric system and is accepted for use with the SI,, p. 124. ("Days" and "hours" are examples of other non-SI units that SI accepts.) although not an SI unit — the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3). The spelling used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures is "litre", a spelling which is shared by almost all English-speaking countries. The spelling "liter" is predominantly used in American English. One litre of liquid water has a mass of almost exactly one kilogram, because the kilogram was originally defined in 1795 as the mass of one cubic decimetre of water at the temperature of melting ice. Subsequent redefinitions of the metre and kilogram mean that this relationship is no longer exact.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
In toxicology, the median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for "lethal dose, 50%"), LC50 (lethal concentration, 50%) or LCt50 is a measure of the lethal dose of a toxin, radiation, or pathogen.
Metal deactivators, or metal deactivating agents (MDA) are fuel additives and oil additives used to stabilize fluids by deactivating (usually by sequestering) metal ions, mostly introduced by the action of naturally occurring acids in the fuel and acids generated in lubricants by oxidative processes with the metallic parts of the systems.
Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).
Methyl tert-butyl ether (also known as MTBE and tert-butyl methyl ether) is an organic compound with a structural formula (CH3)3COCH3.
Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT or MCMT) is an organomanganese compound with the formula (C5H4CH3)Mn(CO)3.
Relative Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Naphtha is a flammable liquid hydrocarbon mixture.
Naphthalene is an organic compound with formula.
The Brazilian National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels (Agência Nacional do Petróleo, Gás Natural e Biocombustíveis - ANP) is the federal government agency linked to the Ministry of Mines and Energy responsible for the regulation of the oil sector.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.
Natuashish is an Innu community in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
Natural gasoline is a natural gas liquid with a vapor pressure intermediate between natural gas condensate (drip gas) and liquefied petroleum gas and has a boiling point within the range of gasoline.
Newfoundland and Labrador (Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador; Akamassiss; Newfoundland Irish: Talamh an Éisc agus Labradar) is the most easterly province of Canada.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
The Northern Territory (abbreviated as NT) is a federal Australian territory in the central and central northern regions of Australia.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Octane is a hydrocarbon and an alkane with the chemical formula C8H18, and the condensed structural formula CH3(CH2)6CH3.
An octane rating, or octane number, is a standard measure of the performance of an engine or aviation fuel.
Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils.
Opal is a variety of low-aromatic 91 RON petrol developed in 2005 by BP Australia to combat the rising use of petrol as an inhalant in remote Indigenous Australian communities.
Operation Overlord was the codename for the Battle of Normandy, the Allied operation that launched the successful invasion of German-occupied Western Europe during World War II.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Organic peroxides are organic compounds containing the peroxide functional group (ROOR′).
Organosulfur compounds are organic compounds that contain sulfur.
An Otto cycle is an idealized thermodynamic cycle that describes the functioning of a typical spark ignition piston engine.
The Otto engine was a large stationary single-cylinder internal combustion four-stroke engine designed by Nikolaus Otto.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Oxygenated chemical compounds contain oxygen as a part of their chemical structure.
Petrochem Carless Ltd is the present-day continuation of one of the earliest oil companies.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
Petroleum naphtha is an intermediate hydrocarbon liquid stream derived from the refining of crude oil with CAS-no 64742-48-9.
Phenylenediamine may refer to.
The Pikangikum First Nation (Ojibwe: pointed: ᐱᑳᐣᒋᑲᒦᐣᐠ ᐯᒫᑎᓯᐚᐨ; unpointed: ᐱᑲᒋᑲᒥᑭ ᐯᒪᑎᓯᐘᒋ; Bigaanjigamiing Bemaadiziwaaj; locally: Beekahncheekahmeeng Paymahteeseewahch) is an Ojibwe First Nation located on the Pikangikum 14 Reserve, in Unorganized Kenora District in Northwestern Ontario, Canada.
The pound or pound-mass is a unit of mass used in the imperial, United States customary and other systems of measurement.
Pre-ignition (or preignition) in a spark-ignition engine is a technically different phenomenon from engine knocking, and describes the event wherein the air/fuel mixture in the cylinder ignites before the spark plug fires.
Propane is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8.
Queensland (abbreviated as Qld) is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Reid vapor pressure (RVP) is a common measure of the volatility of gasoline.
The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) is an American federal program that requires transportation fuel sold in the United States to contain a minimum volume of renewable fuels.
The Rolls-Royce Merlin is a British liquid-cooled V-12 piston aero engine of 27-litres (1,650 cu in) capacity.
A safety data sheet (SDS), material safety data sheet (MSDS), or product safety data sheet (PSDS) is an important component of product stewardship, occupational safety and health, and spill-handling procedures.
Sheshatshiu is an Innu Federal Reserve in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, located approximately 30 kilometres north of Goose Bay.
The short ton is a unit of weight equal to.
Smog is a type of air pollutant.
A soldier is one who fights as part of an army.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a state in the southern central part of Australia.
A spark-ignition engine (SI engine) is an internal combustion engine, generally a petrol engine, where the combustion process of the air-fuel mixture is ignited by a spark from a spark plug.
Substance intoxication is a type of substance use disorder which is potentially maladaptive and impairing, but reversible, and associated with recent use of a substance.
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.
Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.
A supercharger is an air compressor that increases the pressure or density of air supplied to an internal combustion engine.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Tesco plc, trading as Tesco, is a British multinational groceries and general merchandise retailer with headquarters in Welwyn Garden City, Hertfordshire, England, United Kingdom.
Tetraethyllead (commonly styled tetraethyl lead), abbreviated TEL, is an organolead compound with the formula (CH3CH2)4Pb.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, and Power is Daniel Yergin's history of the global petroleum industry from the 1850s through 1990.
The Quest: Energy, Security, and the Remaking of the Modern World is an international bestselling book by energy expert Daniel Yergin.
"The Straight Dope" was an online question-and-answer newspaper column published from 1973 to 2018 in the Chicago Reader and syndicated in eight newspapers in the United States.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
Thomas Midgley Jr. (May 18, 1889 – November 2, 1944) was an American mechanical and chemical engineer.
Toluene, also known as toluol, is an aromatic hydrocarbon.
The Top End of Australia's Northern Territory is a geographical region encompassing the northernmost section of the Northern Territory, which aside from the Cape York Peninsula is the northernmost part of the Australian continent.
Top Tier Detergent Gasoline and Top Tier Diesel Fuel are performance specifications and trademarks designed and supported by several major automakers — BMW, General Motors, Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, Ford, Honda, Toyota, Volkswagen, Mercedes-Benz, and Audi.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
United States customary units are a system of measurements commonly used in the United States.
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
Vapor pressure or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at ordinary room temperature.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia.
White spirit (UK)Primarily in the United Kingdom.
From the mid-1980s to September 2003, the inflation adjusted price of a barrel of crude oil on NYMEX was generally under $25/barrel.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Xylene (from Greek ξύλο, xylo, "wood"), xylol or dimethylbenzene is any one of three isomers of dimethylbenzene, or a combination thereof.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene, also known as pseudocumene, is an organic compound with the chemical formula C6H3(CH3)3.
2,2,4-Trimethylpentane, also known as isooctane or iso-octane, is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)3CCH2CH(CH3)2.
Commercial gasoline, Ethyl Gasoline, Fuel stabilizer, GASOLINE, Gaslone, Gasolene, Gasouline, Lead Replacement Petrol, Lead replacement petrol, Leaded gasoline, Motor gasoline, Motor spirit, Petrogasoline, Petrol, Petroleum gasoline, Petroul, Unleaded, Unleaded Gasoline, Unleaded Petrol, Unleaded gas, Unleaded gasoline, Unleaded petrol, White gasoline.