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Prokaryote

Index Prokaryote

A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle. [1]

124 relations: Abiogenesis, Adaptation, Antarctica, Archaea, Asexual reproduction, Associated Press, Bacillus (shape), Bacteria, Bacterial cell structure, Bacterial conjugation, Bacterial microcompartment, Bacteriophage, Basal metabolic rate, Biofilm, Biological dispersal, Biological life cycle, Biological membrane, Carboxysome, Carl Woese, Cell membrane, Cell nucleus, Cell signaling, Cell wall, Cellular compartment, Chemotaxis, Chloroplast, Chromosome, Circulatory system, Co-operation (evolution), Coccus, Colony (biology), Cryobiology, Cyanobacteria, Cytoplasm, Cytoplasmic inclusion, Cytosol, DNA, Domain (biology), Eukaryote, Evolution of sexual reproduction, Extremophile, Fission (biology), Flagellin, Flagellum, Fossil, FtsZ, Gene expression, Genome, Glycocalyx, Glycoprotein, ..., Greek language, Habitat, Halophile, Haloquadratum, Horizontal gene transfer, Hot spring, Hydrogen sulfide, Hydrothermal vent, Inclusive fitness, Inorganic compound, Johann Peter Gogarten, Kin selection, Kingdom (biology), Life on Mars, List of sequenced archaeal genomes, List of sequenced bacterial genomes, Lithotroph, Metabolite, Methanogen, Microcolony, Mitochondrion, Molecular evolution, Monera, MreB, Multicellular organism, Mycoplasma, Mycoplasma genitalium, Myxobacteria, Nanobacterium, Nanobe, Natural competence, Nuclear envelope, Nucleoid, Nut (fruit), Online Etymology Dictionary, Organelle, Organic compound, Oxidative phosphorylation, Parakaryon myojinensis, Pathogen, PH, Phagocytosis, Photosynthesis, Planctomycetes, Plankton, Plasmid, Polysaccharide, Programmed cell death, Prokaryotic cytoskeleton, Protein, Protocell, Quorum sensing, Radiation, Ribosome, RNA, Scientific American, Seed, Solubility, Spirochaete, Surface-area-to-volume ratio, Symbiogenesis, Symbiosis, Temperature, Thermophile, Thermoplasma, Thiomargarita namibiensis, Three-domain system, Transduction (genetics), Transformation (genetics), Translation (biology), Two-empire system, Unicellular organism, Vibrio, Virus. Expand index (74 more) »

Abiogenesis

Abiogenesis, or informally the origin of life,Compare: Also occasionally called biopoiesis.

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Adaptation

In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.

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Antarctica

Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.

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Archaea

Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.

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Asexual reproduction

Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.

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Associated Press

The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.

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Bacillus (shape)

A bacillus (plural bacilli) or bacilliform bacterium is a rod-shaped bacterium or archaeon.

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Bacteria

Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Bacterial cell structure

Bacteria, despite their simplicity, contain a well-developed cell structure which is responsible for some of their unique biological structures and pathogenicity.

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Bacterial conjugation

Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct cell-to-cell contact or by a bridge-like connection between two cells.

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Bacterial microcompartment

Bacterial microcompartments (BMCs) are organelles consisting of a protein shell that encloses enzymes and other proteins.

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Bacteriophage

A bacteriophage, also known informally as a phage, is a virus that infects and replicates within Bacteria and Archaea.

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Basal metabolic rate

Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest.

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Biofilm

A biofilm comprises any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often also to a surface.

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Biological dispersal

Biological dispersal refers to both the movement of individuals (animals, plants, fungi, bacteria, etc.) from their birth site to their breeding site ('natal dispersal'), as well as the movement from one breeding site to another ('breeding dispersal').

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Biological life cycle

In biology, a biological life cycle (or just life cycle when the biological context is clear) is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state.

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Biological membrane

A biological membrane or biomembrane is an enclosing or separating membrane that acts as a selectively permeable barrier within living things.

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Carboxysome

Carboxysomes are bacterial compartments consisting of polyhedral protein shells filled with the enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) -the predominant enzyme in carbon fixation and the rate limiting enzyme in the Calvin Cycle-and a carbonic anhydrase.

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Carl Woese

Carl Richard Woese (July 15, 1928 – December 30, 2012) was an American microbiologist and biophysicist.

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Cell membrane

The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).

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Cell nucleus

In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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Cell signaling

Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.

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Cell wall

A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane.

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Cellular compartment

Cellular compartments in cell biology comprise all of the closed parts within the cytosol of a eukaryotic cell, usually surrounded by a single or double lipid layer membrane.

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Chemotaxis

Chemotaxis (from chemo- + taxis) is the movement of an organism in response to a chemical stimulus.

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Chloroplast

Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized compartments, in plant and algal cells.

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Chromosome

A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.

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Circulatory system

The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.

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Co-operation (evolution)

In evolution, co-operation is the process where groups of organisms work or act together for common or mutual benefits.

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Coccus

A coccus (plural cocci) is any bacterium or archaeon that has a spherical, ovoid, or generally round shape.

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Colony (biology)

In biology, a colony is composed of two or more conspecific individuals living in close association with, or connected to, one another.

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Cryobiology

Cryobiology is the branch of biology that studies the effects of low temperatures on living things within Earth's cryosphere or in science.

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Cyanobacteria

Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.

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Cytoplasm

In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.

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Cytoplasmic inclusion

Cytoplasmic inclusions are diverse intracellularShively, J. M. (ed.). (2006).

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Cytosol

The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.

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DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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Domain (biology)

In biological taxonomy, a domain (Latin: regio), also superkingdom or empire, is the highest taxonomic rank of organisms in the three-domain system of taxonomy designed by Carl Woese, an American microbiologist and biophysicist.

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Eukaryote

Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).

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Evolution of sexual reproduction

The evolution of sexual reproduction describes how sexually reproducing animals, plants, fungi and protists evolved from a common ancestor that was a single celled eukaryotic species.

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Extremophile

An extremophile (from Latin extremus meaning "extreme" and Greek philiā (φιλία) meaning "love") is an organism that thrives in physically or geochemically extreme conditions that are detrimental to most life on Earth.

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Fission (biology)

Fission, in biology, is the division of a single entity into two or more parts and the regeneration of those parts into separate entities resembling the original.

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Flagellin

Flagellin is a globular protein that arranges itself in a hollow cylinder to form the filament in a bacterial flagellum.

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Flagellum

A flagellum (plural: flagella) is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain bacterial and eukaryotic cells.

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Fossil

A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.

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FtsZ

FtsZ is a protein encoded by the ftsZ gene that assembles into a ring at the future site of the septum of bacterial cell division.

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Gene expression

Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.

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Genome

In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.

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Glycocalyx

The glycocalyx, also known as the pericellular matrix, is a glycoprotein and glycolipid covering that surrounds the cell membranes of some bacteria, epithelia, and other cells.

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Glycoprotein

Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Habitat

In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.

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Halophile

Halophiles are organisms that thrive in high salt concentrations.

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Haloquadratum

Haloquadratum is a halophilic genus of the family Halobacteriaceae.

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Horizontal gene transfer

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring.

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Hot spring

A hot spring is a spring produced by the emergence of geothermally heated groundwater that rises from the Earth's crust.

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Hydrogen sulfide

Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.

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Hydrothermal vent

A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planet's surface from which geothermally heated water issues.

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Inclusive fitness

In evolutionary biology, inclusive fitness is one of two metrics of evolutionary success as defined by W. D. Hamilton in 1964.

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Inorganic compound

An inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks C-H bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound, but the distinction is not defined or even of particular interest.

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Johann Peter Gogarten

Johann Peter Gogarten is a German-American biologist studying the early evolution of life.

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Kin selection

Kin selection is the evolutionary strategy that favours the reproductive success of an organism's relatives, even at a cost to the organism's own survival and reproduction.

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Kingdom (biology)

In biology, kingdom (Latin: regnum, plural regna) is the second highest taxonomic rank, just below domain.

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Life on Mars

The possibility of life on Mars is a subject of significant interest to astrobiology due to its proximity and similarities to Earth.

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List of sequenced archaeal genomes

This list of sequenced archaeal genomes contains all the archaea known to have publicly available complete genome sequences that have been assembled, annotated and deposited in public databases.

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List of sequenced bacterial genomes

This list of sequenced eubacterial genomes contains all the eubacteria known to have publicly available complete genome sequences.

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Lithotroph

Lithotrophs are a diverse group of organisms using inorganic substrate (usually of mineral origin) to obtain reducing equivalents for use in biosynthesis (e.g., carbon dioxide fixation) or energy conservation (i.e., ATP production) via aerobic or anaerobic respiration.

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Metabolite

A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.

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Methanogen

Methanogens are microorganisms that produce methane as a metabolic byproduct in anoxic conditions.

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Microcolony

No description.

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Mitochondrion

The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.

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Molecular evolution

Molecular evolution is the process of change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations.

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Monera

Monera (Greek - μονήρης (monḗrēs), "single", "solitary") is a kingdom that contains unicellular organisms with a prokaryotic cell organization (having no nuclear membrane), such as bacteria.

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MreB

MreB is a protein found in bacteria that has been identified as a homologue of actin, as indicated by similarities in tertiary structure and conservation of active site peptide sequence.

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Multicellular organism

Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.

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Mycoplasma

Mycoplasma is a genus of bacteria that lack a cell wall around their cell membrane.

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Mycoplasma genitalium

Mycoplasma genitalium, commonly known as Mgen, is a sexually transmitted, small and pathogenic bacterium that lives on the ciliated epithelial cells of the urinary and genital tracts in humans.

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Myxobacteria

The myxobacteria ("slime bacteria") are a group of bacteria that predominantly live in the soil and feed on insoluble organic substances.

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Nanobacterium

Nanobacterium (pl. nanobacteria) is the unit or member name of a proposed class of living organisms, specifically cell-walled microorganisms with a size much smaller than the generally accepted lower limit for life (about 200 nm for bacteria, like mycoplasma).

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Nanobe

A nanobe is a tiny filamental structure first found in some rocks and sediments.

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Natural competence

In microbiology, genetics, cell biology, and molecular biology, competence is the ability of a cell to alter its genetics by taking up extracellular ("naked") DNA from its environment in the process called transformation.

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Nuclear envelope

The nuclear envelope, also known as the nuclear membrane, is made up of two lipid bilayer membranes which surrounds the nucleus, and in eukaryotic cells it encases the genetic material.

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Nucleoid

The nucleoid (meaning nucleus-like) is an irregularly shaped region within the cell of a prokaryote that contains all or most of the genetic material, called genophore.

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Nut (fruit)

A nut is a fruit composed of an inedible hard shell and a seed, which is generally edible.

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Online Etymology Dictionary

The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary written and compiled by Douglas Harper that describes the origins of English-language words.

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Organelle

In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.

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Organic compound

In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.

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Oxidative phosphorylation

Oxidative phosphorylation (or OXPHOS in short) (UK, US) is the metabolic pathway in which cells use enzymes to oxidize nutrients, thereby releasing energy which is used to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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Parakaryon myojinensis

Parakaryon myojinensis is a single-celled organism known from a single specimen, described in 2012.

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Pathogen

In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.

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PH

In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.

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Phagocytosis

In cell biology, phagocytosis is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal compartment known as a phagosome.

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Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).

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Planctomycetes

Planctomycetes are a phylum of aquatic bacteria and are found in samples of brackish, and marine and fresh water.

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Plankton

Plankton (singular plankter) are the diverse collection of organisms that live in large bodies of water and are unable to swim against a current.

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Plasmid

A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently.

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Polysaccharide

Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.

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Programmed cell death

Programmed cell death (or PCD) is the death of a cell in any form, mediated by an intracellular program.

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Prokaryotic cytoskeleton

The prokaryotic cytoskeleton is the collective name for all structural filaments in prokaryotes.

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Protein

Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protocell

A protocell (or protobiont) is a self-organized, endogenously ordered, spherical collection of lipids proposed as a stepping-stone to the origin of life.

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Quorum sensing

In biology, quorum sensing is the ability to detect and to respond to cell population density by gene regulation.

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Radiation

In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.

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Ribosome

The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).

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RNA

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

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Scientific American

Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.

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Seed

A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.

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Solubility

Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.

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Spirochaete

A spirochaete or spirochete is a member of the phylum Spirochaetes, which contains distinctive diderm (double-membrane) bacteria, most of which have long, helically coiled (corkscrew-shaped or spiraled, hence the name) cells.

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Surface-area-to-volume ratio

The surface-area-to-volume ratio, also called the surface-to-volume ratio and variously denoted sa/vol or SA:V, is the amount of surface area per unit volume of an object or collection of objects.

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Symbiogenesis

Symbiogenesis, or endosymbiotic theory, is an evolutionary theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotic organisms, first articulated in 1905 and 1910 by the Russian botanist Konstantin Mereschkowski, and advanced and substantiated with microbiological evidence by Lynn Margulis in 1967.

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Symbiosis

Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.

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Temperature

Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

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Thermophile

A thermophile is an organism—a type of extremophile—that thrives at relatively high temperatures, between.

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Thermoplasma

In taxonomy, Thermoplasma is a genus of the Thermoplasmataceae.

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Thiomargarita namibiensis

Thiomargarita namibiensis is a gram-negative coccoid Proteobacterium, found in the ocean sediments of the continental shelf of Namibia.

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Three-domain system

The three-domain system is a biological classification introduced by Carl Woese et al. in 1977 that divides cellular life forms into archaea, bacteria, and eukaryote domains.

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Transduction (genetics)

Transduction is the process by which foreign DNA is introduced into a cell by a virus or viral vector.

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Transformation (genetics)

In molecular biology, transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake and incorporation of exogenous genetic material from its surroundings through the cell membrane(s).

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Translation (biology)

In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.

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Two-empire system

The two-empire system (two-superkingdom system) was the top-level biological classification system in general use before the establishment of the three-domain system.

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Unicellular organism

A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism that consists of only one cell, unlike a multicellular organism that consists of more than one cell.

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Vibrio

Vibrio is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria, possessing a curved-rod shape (comma shape), several species of which can cause foodborne infection, usually associated with eating undercooked seafood.

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Virus

A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prokaryote

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