211 relations: A7V, Adolf Hitler, Aerial photography, Air supremacy, Aircraft, Aircrew, Aisne (river), Alberico Albricci, Albert I of Belgium, Albrecht, Duke of Württemberg, Alexander von Kluck, Allies of World War I, Alsace-Lorraine, American Expeditionary Forces, Anthony Fokker, Anti-aircraft warfare, Ardennes, Armistice Day, Armistice of 11 November 1918, Arras, Artillery, Asphyxia, Australia, Australian War Memorial, Barbed wire, Barrage (artillery), Battle of Albert (1916), Battle of Amiens (1918), Battle of Arras (1917), Battle of Cambrai (1917), Battle of Cantigny, Battle of Charleroi, Battle of Le Cateau, Battle of Liège, Battle of Loos, Battle of Messines (1917), Battle of Mons, Battle of Mulhouse, Battle of Neuve Chapelle, Battle of Passchendaele, Battle of St. Quentin (1914), Battle of the Frontiers, Battle of the Somme, Battle of the Yser, Battle of Verdun, Battle of Vimy Ridge, Bayonet, Belgium, Bloody April, Boezinge, ..., British Army, British Empire, British Expeditionary Force (World War I), Brussels, Canada, Canadian Corps, Castles of Steel, Central Powers, Chancellor of Germany, Chemical weapon, Chemical weapons in World War I, Chlorine, Coal mining, Commander-in-chief, Compiègne, Counterattack, Countermeasure, Defence in depth, Diphosgene, Division (military), Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig, E. Alexander Powell, Eastern Front (World War I), Eingreif division, Erich Ludendorff, Erich von Falkenhayn, Fascine, Ferdinand Foch, Field marshal, Fighter aircraft, First Battle of Passchendaele, First Battle of the Marne, First Battle of Ypres, First Portuguese Republic, Flying ace, Fokker E.I, Fokker Scourge, Fort Douaumont, Fort Vaux, Fortification, France, French Army, French colonial empire, French Third Republic, Friedrich Ebert, Front (military), Gas attacks at Hulluch, German Army (German Empire), German Empire, German Revolution of 1918–19, Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907, Helmuth von Moltke the Younger, Hundred Days Offensive, II ANZAC Corps, Infantry, Infiltration tactics, John French, 1st Earl of Ypres, John J. Pershing, Joseph Joffre, Karl von Bülow, Kiel Canal, La Ville-aux-Bois, Le Mort Homme, Luxembourg, Maginot Line, Manfred von Richthofen, Max Immelmann, Military organization, Military reserve force, Namur, National Film and Sound Archive, Nazism, Nieuport, Nieuwpoort, Belgium, Nivelle Offensive, North Sea, Noyon, Ober Ost, Office of Public Sector Information, Operation Hush, Panic, Paris Peace Conference, 1919, Patriotism, Paul von Hindenburg, Philippe Pétain, Phosgene, Picardy, Pig iron, Plan XVII, Prince Maximilian of Baden, Race to the Sea, Rape of Belgium, Reconnaissance, Robert Nivelle, Roland Garros (aviator), Royal Flying Corps, Roye, Somme, Russian Expeditionary Force in France, Saar (river), Saint-Quentin, Aisne, Salient (military), Scapa Flow, Schlieffen Plan, Scorched earth, Scuttling of the German fleet in Scapa Flow, Second Battle of Artois, Second Battle of Champagne, Second Battle of Passchendaele, Second Battle of the Aisne, Second Battle of the Marne, Second Battle of Ypres, Shell (projectile), Shell Crisis of 1915, Siege of Antwerp (1914), Siege of Maubeuge, Siege of Namur (1914), Somme (river), Spring Offensive, Stab-in-the-back myth, Steelmaking, Stormtrooper, Submarine, Sulfur mustard, Sweden, Switzerland, Synchronization gear, Tank, Tear gas, Technology during World War I, Tenth Army (France), Territory of the Saar Basin, Thailand, Theater (warfare), Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg, Third Battle of Artois, Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Treaty of London (1839), Treaty of Versailles, Trench warfare, Tunnelling companies of the Royal Engineers, Unrestricted submarine warfare, Valenciennes, Verdun, Vosges, War crime, War Office, Weimar Republic, West Flanders, Western Germany, Wilhelm Groener, Wilhelm II, German Emperor, Withdrawal (military), World War I, Ypres, Yser, Yser Front, 16th (Irish) Division, 1917 French Army mutinies, 1st Infantry Division (United States), 4th Army (German Empire), 5th Infantry Division (United Kingdom). Expand index (161 more) » « Shrink index
The A7V was a tank introduced by Germany in 1918, during World War I. One hundred chassis were ordered in early 1917, 10 to be finished as fighting vehicles with armoured bodies, and the remainder as Überlandwagen cargo carriers.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Aerial photography (or airborne imagery) is the taking of photographs from an aircraft or other flying object.
Air supremacy is a position in war where a side holds complete control of air warfare and air power over opposing forces.
An aircraft is a machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air.
Aircrew, also called flight crew, are personnel who operate an aircraft while in flight.
The Aisne is a river in northeastern France.
Alberico Albricci (6 December 1864 – 2 April 1936) was an Italian general who led the 2nd Army Corps in France during the Second Battle of the Marne.
Albert I (8 April 1875 – 17 February 1934) reigned as the third King of the Belgians from 1909 to 1934.
Albrecht, Duke of Württemberg (Albrecht Herzog von Württemberg Albrecht Maria Alexander Philipp Joseph von Württemberg, 23 December 1865 – 31 October 1939) was the last Württemberger crown prince, German military commander of the First World War, and head of the Royal House of Württemberg from 1921 to his death in 1939.
Alexander Heinrich Rudolph von Kluck (20 May 1846 – 19 October 1934) was a German general during World War I.
The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.
The Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine (Reichsland Elsaß-Lothringen or Elsass-Lothringen, or Alsace-Moselle) was a territory created by the German Empire in 1871, after it annexed most of Alsace and the Moselle department of Lorraine following its victory in the Franco-Prussian War.
The American Expeditionary Forces (A. E. F., A.E.F. or AEF) was a formation of the United States Army on the Western Front of World War I. The AEF was established on July 5, 1917, in France under the command of Gen.
Anton Herman Gerard "Anthony" Fokker (6 April 1890 – 23 December 1939) was a Dutch aviation pioneer and aircraft manufacturer.
Anti-aircraft warfare or counter-air defence is defined by NATO as "all measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action."AAP-6 They include ground-and air-based weapon systems, associated sensor systems, command and control arrangements and passive measures (e.g. barrage balloons).
The Ardennes (L'Ardenne; Ardennen; L'Årdene; Ardennen; also known as the Ardennes Forest or Forest of Ardennes) is a region of extensive forests, rough terrain, rolling hills and ridges formed by the geological features of the Ardennes mountain range and the Moselle and Meuse River basins.
Armistice Day is commemorated every year on 11 November to mark the armistice signed between the Allies of World War I and Germany at Compiègne, France, for the cessation of hostilities on the Western Front of World War I, which took effect at eleven o'clock in the morning—the "eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month" of 1918.
The Armistice of 11 November 1918 was the armistice that ended fighting on land, sea and air in World War I between the Allies and their last opponent, Germany.
Arras (Atrecht) is the capital (chef-lieu/préfecture) of the Pas-de-Calais department, which forms part of the region of Hauts-de-France; prior to the reorganization of 2014 it was located in Nord-Pas-de-Calais.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
Asphyxia or asphyxiation is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body that arises from abnormal breathing.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Australian War Memorial is Australia's national memorial to the members of its armed forces and supporting organisations who have died or participated in wars involving the Commonwealth of Australia.
Barbed wire, also known as barb wire, less often as bob wire or, in the southeastern United States, bobbed wire, is a type of steel fencing wire constructed with sharp edges or points arranged at intervals along the strand(s).
A barrage is massed artillery fire aimed at points, typically apart, along one or more lines that can be from a few hundred to several thousand yards long.
The Battle of Albert (1–13 July 1916), comprised the first two weeks of Anglo-French offensive operations in the Battle of the Somme.
The Battle of Amiens, also known as the Third Battle of Picardy (3ème Bataille de Picardie), was the opening phase of the Allied offensive which began on 8 August 1918, later known as the Hundred Days Offensive, that ultimately led to the end of the First World War.
The Battle of Arras (also known as the Second Battle of Arras) was a British offensive on the Western Front during World War I. From 9 April to 16 May 1917, British troops attacked German defences near the French city of Arras on the Western Front.
The Battle of Cambrai (Battle of Cambrai, 1917, First Battle of Cambrai and Schlacht von Cambrai) was a British attack followed by the biggest German counter-attack against the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) since 1914, in the First World War.
The Battle of Cantigny, fought May 28, 1918 was the first major American battle and offensive of World War I. The U.S. 1st Division, the most experienced of the five American divisions then in France and in reserve for the French Army near the village of Cantigny, was selected for the attack.
The Battle of Charleroi (Bataille de Charleroi), or the Battle of the Sambre, was fought on 21 August 1914, by the French Fifth Army and the German 2nd and 3rd armies, during the Battle of the Frontiers.
The Battle of Le Cateau was fought on 26 August 1914, after the British and French retreated from the Battle of Mons and had set up defensive positions in a fighting withdrawal against the German advance at Le Cateau-Cambrésis.
The Battle of Liège (Bataille de Liège) was the opening engagement of the German invasion of Belgium and the first battle of the First World War.
The Battle of Loos was a battle that took place from 1915 in France on the Western Front, during the First World War.
The Battle of Messines was conducted by the British Second Army (General Sir Herbert Plumer), on the Western Front near the village of Messines in West Flanders, Belgium, during the First World War.
The Battle of Mons was the first major action of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) in the First World War.
The Battle of Mulhouse (Mülhausen), also called the Battle of Alsace (Bataille d'Alsace), which began on 7 August 1914, was the opening attack of World War I by the French Army against Germany.
The Battle of Neuve Chapelle (10–13 March 1915) took place in the First World War.
The Battle of Passchendaele (Flandernschlacht, Deuxième Bataille des Flandres), also known as the Third Battle of Ypres, was a campaign of the First World War, fought by the Allies against the German Empire.
The Battle of St.
The Battle of the Frontiers was a series of battles fought along the eastern frontier of France and in southern Belgium, shortly after the outbreak of the First World War.
The Battle of the Somme (Bataille de la Somme, Schlacht an der Somme), also known as the Somme Offensive, was a battle of the First World War fought by the armies of the British Empire and France against the German Empire.
The Battle of the Yser (Bataille de l'Yser, Slag om de IJzer) was a battle of World War I that took place in October 1914 between the towns on Nieuwpoort and Diksmuide, along a stretch of the Yser River and the Yperlee Canal, in Belgium.
The Battle of Verdun (Bataille de Verdun,, Schlacht um Verdun), fought from 21 February to 18 December 1916, was the largest and longest battle of the First World War on the Western Front between the German and French armies.
The Battle of Vimy Ridge was part of the Battle of Arras, in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region of France, during the First World War.
A bayonet (from French baïonnette) is a knife, sword, or spike-shaped weapon designed to fit on the end of a rifles muzzle, allowing it to be used as a pike.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Bloody April refers to April 1917, and is the name given to the (largely successful) British air support operations during the Battle of Arras, during which particularly heavy casualties were suffered by the Royal Flying Corps at the hands of the German Luftstreitkräfte.
Boezinge is a village north of the city of Ypres in West Flanders, Belgium, on the N369 road in the direction of Diksmuide.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) was the British Army sent to the Western Front during the First World War.
Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Canadian Corps was a World War I corps formed from the Canadian Expeditionary Force in September 1915 after the arrival of the 2nd Canadian Division in France.
Castles of Steel: Britain, Germany, and the Winning of the Great War at Sea is a work of non-fiction by Pulitzer Prize-winner Robert K. Massie.
The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
The title Chancellor has designated different offices in the history of Germany.
A chemical weapon (CW) is a specialized munition that uses chemicals formulated to inflict death or harm on humans.
The use of toxic chemicals as weapons dates back thousands of years, but the first large scale use of chemical weapons was during World War I. They were primarily used to demoralize, injure, and kill entrenched defenders, against whom the indiscriminate and generally very slow-moving or static nature of gas clouds would be most effective.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Coal mining is the process of extracting coal from the ground.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
Compiègne is a commune in the Oise department in northern France.
A counterattack is a tactic employed in response to an attack, with the term originating in "war games".
A countermeasure is a measure or action taken to counter or offset another one.
Defence in depth (also known as deep or elastic defence) is a military strategy that seeks to delay rather than prevent the advance of an attacker, buying time and causing additional casualties by yielding space.
Diphosgene is a chemical compound with the formula ClCO2CCl3.
A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers.
Field Marshal Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig, (19 June 1861 – 29 January 1928), was a senior officer of the British Army.
The Eastern Front or Eastern Theater of World War I (Восточный фронт, Vostochnıy front, sometimes called the Second Fatherland War or Second Patriotic War (Вторая Отечественная война, Vtoraya Otechestvennaya voyna) in Russian sources) was a theatre of operations that encompassed at its greatest extent the entire frontier between the Russian Empire and Romania on one side and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire and the German Empire on the other. It stretched from the Baltic Sea in the north to the Black Sea in the south, included most of Eastern Europe and stretched deep into Central Europe as well. The term contrasts with "Western Front", which was being fought in Belgium and France. During 1910, Russian General Yuri Danilov developed "Plan 19" under which four armies would invade East Prussia. This plan was criticised as Austria-Hungary could be a greater threat than the German Empire. So instead of four armies invading East Prussia, the Russians planned to send two armies to East Prussia, and two Armies to defend against Austro-Hungarian forces invading from Galicia. In the opening months of the war, the Imperial Russian Army attempted an invasion of eastern Prussia in the northwestern theater, only to be beaten back by the Germans after some initial success. At the same time, in the south, they successfully invaded Galicia, defeating the Austro-Hungarian forces there. In Russian Poland, the Germans failed to take Warsaw. But by 1915, the German and Austro-Hungarian armies were on the advance, dealing the Russians heavy casualties in Galicia and in Poland, forcing it to retreat. Grand Duke Nicholas was sacked from his position as the commander-in-chief and replaced by the Tsar himself. Several offensives against the Germans in 1916 failed, including Lake Naroch Offensive and the Baranovichi Offensive. However, General Aleksei Brusilov oversaw a highly successful operation against Austria-Hungary that became known as the Brusilov Offensive, which saw the Russian Army make large gains. The Kingdom of Romania entered the war in August 1916. The Entente promised the region of Transylvania (which was part of Austria-Hungary) in return for Romanian support. The Romanian Army invaded Transylvania and had initial successes, but was forced to stop and was pushed back by the Germans and Austro-Hungarians when Bulgaria attacked them in the south. Meanwhile, a revolution occurred in Russia in February 1917 (one of the several causes being the hardships of the war). Tsar Nicholas II was forced to abdicate and a Russian Provisional Government was founded, with Georgy Lvov as its first leader, who was eventually replaced by Alexander Kerensky. The newly formed Russian Republic continued to fight the war alongside Romania and the rest of the Entente until it was overthrown by the Bolsheviks in October 1917. Kerensky oversaw the July Offensive, which was largely a failure and caused a collapse in the Russian Army. The new government established by the Bolsheviks signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the Central Powers, taking it out of the war and making large territorial concessions. Romania was also forced to surrender and signed a similar treaty, though both of the treaties were nullified with the surrender of the Central Powers in November 1918.
Eingreif division is a term for a type of German Army formation of World War I, which developed in 1917, which was responsible for engaging in immediate counter-attacks (''Gegenstoße'') against enemy troops who broke through a defensive position being held by a front-holding division (Stellungsdivision).
Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (9 April 1865 – 20 December 1937) was a German general, the victor of the Battle of Liège and the Battle of Tannenberg.
General Erich Georg Anton von Falkenhayn (11 September 1861 – 8 April 1922) was the Chief of the German General Staff during the First World War from September 1914 until 29 August 1916.
A fascine is a rough bundle of brushwood or other material used for strengthening an earthen structure, or making a path across uneven or wet terrain.
Marshal Ferdinand Jean Marie Foch (2 October 1851 – 20 March 1929) was a French general and military theorist who served as the Supreme Allied Commander during the First World War.
Field marshal (or field-marshal, abbreviated as FM) is a very senior military rank, ordinarily senior to the general officer ranks.
A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat against other aircraft, as opposed to bombers and attack aircraft, whose main mission is to attack ground targets.
The First Battle of Passchendaele took place on 12 October 1917, in the Ypres Salient of the Western Front, west of Passchendaele village.
The Battle of the Marne (Première bataille de la Marne, also known as the Miracle of the Marne, Le Miracle de la Marne) was a World War I battle fought from It resulted in an Allied victory against the German armies in the west.
The First Battle of Ypres (Première Bataille des Flandres Erste Flandernschlacht, was a battle of the First World War, fought on the Western Front around Ypres, in West Flanders, Belgium, during October and November 1914.
The First Portuguese Republic (Primeira República Portuguesa; officially: República Portuguesa, Portuguese Republic) spans a complex 16-year period in the history of Portugal, between the end of the period of constitutional monarchy marked by the 5 October 1910 revolution and the 28 May ''coup d'état'' of 1926.
A flying ace, fighter ace or air ace is a military aviator credited with shooting down several enemy aircraft during aerial combat.
The Fokker E.I was the first fighter aircraft to enter service with the ''Deutsches Heer'''s ''Fliegertruppe'' air service in World War I. Its arrival at the front in mid-1915 marked the start of a period known as the "Fokker Scourge" during which the E.I and its successors achieved a measure of air superiority over the Western Front.
The Fokker Scourge (or Fokker Scare) occurred during the First World War from August 1915 to early 1916, when the Imperial German Flying Corps (''Die Fliegertruppen''), equipped with Fokker ''Eindecker'' fighters, gained an advantage over the Royal Flying Corps (RFC) and the French ''Aéronautique Militaire''.
Fort Douaumont (French Fort de Douaumont) was the largest and highest fort on the ring of 19 large defensive works which had protected the city of Verdun, France since the 1890s.
Fort Vaux, in Vaux-Devant-Damloup, Meuse, France was built from 1881–1884 for 1,500,000 Francs and housed a garrison of 150 men.
A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare; and is also used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The French Army, officially the Ground Army (Armée de terre) (to distinguish it from the French Air Force, Armée de L'air or Air Army) is the land-based and largest component of the French Armed Forces.
The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
Friedrich Ebert (4 February 1871 28 February 1925) was a German politician of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) and the first President of Germany from 1919 until his death in office in 1925.
A military front or battlefront is a contested armed frontier between opposing forces.
The Gas Attacks at Hulluch were two German cloud gas attacks on British troops during World War I, from 1916, near the village of Hulluch, north of Loos in northern France.
The Imperial German Army (Deutsches Heer) was the name given to the combined land and air forces of the German Empire (excluding the Marine-Fliegerabteilung maritime aviation formations of the Imperial German Navy).
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
The German Revolution or November Revolution (Novemberrevolution) was a civil conflict in the German Empire at the end of the First World War that resulted in the replacement of the German federal constitutional monarchy with a democratic parliamentary republic that later became known as the Weimar Republic.
The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 are a series of international treaties and declarations negotiated at two international peace conferences at The Hague in the Netherlands.
Helmuth Johann Ludwig Graf von Moltke (23 May 1848 – 18 June 1916), also known as Moltke the Younger, was a nephew of Generalfeldmarschall (Field Marshal) Helmuth Karl Bernhard von Moltke and served as the Chief of the German General Staff from 1906 to 1914.
The Hundred Days Offensive was the final period of the First World War, during which the Allies launched a series of offensives against the Central Powers on the Western Front from 8 August to 11 November 1918, beginning with the Battle of Amiens.
The II ANZAC Corps (Second Anzac Corps) was an Australian and New Zealand First World War army corps formed in Egypt in February 1916 as part of the reorganization of the Australian Imperial Force following the evacuation of Gallipoli in November 1915, under the command of William Birdwood.
Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.
In warfare, infiltration tactics involve small independent light infantry forces advancing into enemy rear areas, bypassing enemy front-line strongpoints, possibly isolating them for attack by follow-up troops with heavier weapons.
Field Marshal John Denton Pinkstone French, 1st Earl of Ypres, (28 September 1852 – 22 May 1925), known as Sir John French from 1901 to 1916, and as The Viscount French between 1916 and 1922, was a senior British Army officer.
General of the Armies John Joseph "Black Jack" Pershing (September 13, 1860 – July 15, 1948) was a senior United States Army officer.
Marshal Joseph Jacques Césaire Joffre (12 January 1852 – 3 January 1931), was a French general who served as Commander-in-Chief of French forces on the Western Front from the start of World War I until the end of 1916.
Karl Wilhelm Paul von Bülow (24 March 1846 – 31 August 1921) was a German field marshal commanding the German 2nd Army during World War I from 1914 to 1915.
The Kiel Canal (Nord-Ostsee-Kanal, literally "North--Baltic Sea canal", formerly known as the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Kanal) is a long freshwater canal in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein.
La Ville-aux-Bois is a commune in the Aube department in north-central France.
The heights of Le Mort Homme or Dead Man's Hill (Toter Mann) lie within the French municipality of Cumières-le-Mort-Homme around 10 kilometres northwest of the town of Verdun in France.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
The Maginot Line (Ligne Maginot), named after the French Minister of War André Maginot, was a line of concrete fortifications, obstacles, and weapon installations built by France in the 1930s to deter invasion by Germany and force them to move around the fortifications.
Manfred Albrecht Freiherr von Richthofen (2 May 1892 – 21 April 1918), also known as the "Red Baron", was a fighter pilot with the German Air Force during World War I. He is considered the ace-of-aces of the war, being officially credited with 80 air combat victories.
Max Immelmann (21 September 1890 – 18 June 1916) PLM was the first German World War I flying ace.
Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed forces of a state so as to offer military capability required by the national defense policy.
A military reserve force is a military organisation composed of citizens of a country who combine a military role or career with a civilian career.
Namur (Dutch:, Nameur in Walloon) is a city and municipality in Wallonia, Belgium.
The National Film and Sound Archive of Australia (NFSA) is Australia’s audiovisual archive, responsible for developing, preserving, maintaining, promoting and providing access to a national collection of copies of film, television, sound, and radio audiovisual materials and related items.
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
Nieuport, later Nieuport-Delage, was a French aeroplane company that primarily built racing aircraft before World War I and fighter aircraft during World War I and between the wars.
Nieuwpoort (West Flemish: Nieuwpôort) (French: Nieuport) is a municipality located in Flanders, one of the three regions of Belgium, and in the Flemish province of West Flanders.
The Nivelle Offensive of 1917, was a Franco-British offensive on the Western Front in the First World War.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
Noyon (Noviomagus Veromanduorum, Noviomagus of the Veromandui) is a commune in the Oise department in northern France.
Ober Ost is short for Oberbefehlshaber der gesamten Deutschen Streitkräfte im Osten, German for "Supreme Commander of All German Forces in the East" during World War I. It also has an implied double meaning, as in its own right, "Ober Ost" translates into "Upper East," which describes its geographic region in reference to the German Empire.
The Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI) is the body responsible for the operation of Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO) and of other public information services of the United Kingdom.
Operation Hush was a British plan to make amphibious landings on the Belgian coast in 1917 during World War I, supported by an attack from Nieuwpoort and the Yser bridgehead, which were a legacy of the Battle of the Yser (1914).
Panic is a sudden sensation of fear, which is so strong as to dominate or prevent reason and logical thinking, replacing it with overwhelming feelings of anxiety and frantic agitation consistent with an animalistic fight-or-flight reaction.
The Paris Peace Conference, also known as Versailles Peace Conference, was the meeting of the victorious Allied Powers following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers.
Patriotism or national pride is the ideology of love and devotion to a homeland, and a sense of alliance with other citizens who share the same values.
Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known generally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a Generalfeldmarschall and statesman who commanded the German military during the second half of World War I before later being elected President of the Weimar republic in 1925.
Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain (Maréchal Pétain), was a French general officer who attained the position of Marshal of France at the end of World War I, during which he became known as The Lion of Verdun, and in World War II served as the Chief of State of Vichy France from 1940 to 1944.
Phosgene is the chemical compound with the formula COCl2.
Picardy (Picardie) is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France.
Pig iron is an intermediate product of the iron industry.
Plan XVII was the name of a "scheme of mobilization and concentration" that was adopted by the French Conseil Supérieur de la Guerre (the peacetime title of the French General Staff) from 1912–1914, to be put into effect by the French Army in the event of war between France and Germany.
Maximilian, Margrave of Baden (Maximilian Alexander Friedrich Wilhelm; 10 July 1867 – 6 November 1929),Almanach de Gotha.
The Race to the Sea took place from about 1914, after the Battle of the Frontiers and the German advance into France, which had been stopped at the First Battle of the Marne and was followed by the First Battle of the Aisne a Franco-British counter-offensive.
The Rape of Belgium was the German mistreatment of civilians during the invasion and subsequent occupation of Belgium during World War I. The neutrality of Belgium had been guaranteed by the Treaty of London (1839), which had been signed by Prussia.
In military operations, reconnaissance or scouting is the exploration outside an area occupied by friendly forces to gain information about natural features and other activities in the area.
Robert Georges Nivelle (15 October 1856 – 22 March 1924) was a French artillery officer who served in the Boxer Rebellion, and the First World War.
Eugène Adrien Roland Georges Garros (6 October 1888 – 5 October 1918) was a French pioneering aviator and fighter pilot during World War I and early days of aviation.
The Royal Flying Corps (RFC) was the air arm of the British Army before and during the First World War, until it merged with the Royal Naval Air Service on 1 April 1918 to form the Royal Air Force.
Roye is a commune in the Somme department in Hauts-de-France in northern France.
The Russian Expeditionary Force (Corps Expéditionnaire Russe en France) was a World War I military force sent to France by the Russian Empire.
The Saar (Sarre; Saar) is a river in northeastern France and western Germany, and a right tributary of the Moselle.
Saint-Quentin is a commune in the Aisne department in Hauts-de-France in northern France.
A salient, also known as a bulge, is a battlefield feature that projects into enemy territory.
Scapa Flow viewed from its eastern end in June 2009 Scapa Flow is a body of water in the Orkney Islands, Scotland, sheltered by the islands of Mainland, Graemsay, Burray,S.
The Schlieffen Plan (Schlieffen-Plan) was the name given after World War I to the thinking behind the German invasion of France and Belgium on 4 August 1914.
A scorched-earth policy is a military strategy that aims to destroy anything that might be useful to the enemy while it is advancing through or withdrawing from a location.
The scuttling of the German fleet took place at the Royal Navy's base at Scapa Flow, in Scotland, after the First World War.
The Second Battle of Artois (Deuxième bataille de l'Artois or Lorettoschlacht) from was a battle on the Western Front during the First World War.
The Second Battle of Champagne (Herbstschlacht or Autumn Battle) in World War I was a French offensive against the German army.
The Second Battle of Passchendaele was the culminating attack during the Third Battle of Ypres of the First World War.
The Second Battle of the Aisne (Bataille du Chemin des Dames or Seconde bataille de l'Aisne, 16 April – mid-May 1917) was the main part of the Nivelle Offensive, a Franco-British attempt to inflict a decisive defeat on the German armies in France.
The Second Battle of the Marne (Seconde Bataille de la Marne), or Battle of Reims (15 July – 6 August 1918) was the last major German offensive on the Western Front during the First World War.
During World War I, the Second Battle of Ypres was fought from for control of the strategic Flemish town of Ypres in western Belgium after the First Battle of Ypres the previous autumn.
A shell is a payload-carrying projectile that, as opposed to shot, contains an explosive or other filling, though modern usage sometimes includes large solid projectiles properly termed shot.
The Shell Crisis of 1915 was a shortage of artillery shells on the front lines of World War I that led to a political crisis in Britain.
The Siege of Antwerp (Beleg van Antwerpen, Siège d'Anvers, Belagerung von Antwerpen.) was an engagement between the German and the Belgian, British and French armies around the fortified city of Antwerp during World War I. German troops besieged a garrison of Belgian fortress troops, the Belgian field army and the British Royal Naval Division in the Antwerp area, after the German invasion of Belgium in August 1914.
The Siege of Maubeuge took place from at le camp retranché de Maubeuge (the Entrenched Camp of Maubeuge) the start of World War I on the Western Front.
The Siege of Namur (Siège de Namur) was a battle between Belgian and German forces around the fortified city of Namur during World War I. Namur was defended by a ring of modern fortresses, known as the Fortified Position of Namur and guarded by the Belgian 4th Division.
The Somme is a river in Picardy, northern France.
The 1918 Spring Offensive, or Kaiserschlacht (Kaiser's Battle), also known as the Ludendorff Offensive, was a series of German attacks along the Western Front during the First World War, beginning on 21 March 1918, which marked the deepest advances by either side since 1914.
The stab-in-the-back myth (Dolchstoßlegende) was the notion, widely believed and promulgated in right-wing circles in Germany after 1918, that the German Army did not lose World War I on the battlefield but was instead betrayed by the civilians on the home front, especially the republicans who overthrew the monarchy in the German Revolution of 1918–19.
Steelmaking is the process for producing steel from iron ore and scrap.
Stormtroopers were specialist soldiers of the German Army in World War I. In the last years of the war, Stoßtruppen ("shock troops" or "thrust troops") were trained to fight with "infiltration tactics", part of the Germans' new method of attack on enemy trenches.
A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.
Sulfur mustard, commonly known as mustard gas, is the prototypical substance of the sulfur-based family of cytotoxic and vesicant chemical warfare agents known as the sulfur mustards which have the ability to form large blisters on exposed skin and in the lungs.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
A synchronization gear, or a gun synchronizer, sometimes rather less accurately called an interrupter, is attached to the armament of a single-engine tractor-configuration aircraft so it can fire through the arc of its spinning propeller without bullets striking the blades.
A tank is an armoured fighting vehicle designed for front-line combat, with heavy firepower, strong armour, tracks and a powerful engine providing good battlefield maneuverability.
Tear gas, formally known as a lachrymator agent or lachrymator (from the Latin lacrima, meaning "tear"), sometimes colloquially known as mace,"Mace" is a brand name for a tear gas spray is a chemical weapon that causes severe eye and respiratory pain, skin irritation, bleeding, and even blindness.
Technology during World War I (1914–1918) reflected a trend toward industrialism and the application of mass-production methods to weapons and to the technology of warfare in general.
The Tenth Army (Xe Armée) was a Field army of the French Army during World War I and World War II.
The Territory of the Saar Basin (Saarbeckengebiet, Saarterritorium; Le Territoire du Bassin de la Sarre) was a region of Germany occupied and governed by the United Kingdom and France from 1920 to 1935 under a League of Nations mandate.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
In warfare, a theater or theatre (see spelling differences) is an area or place in which important military events occur or are progressing.
Theobald Theodor Friedrich Alfred von Bethmann-Hollweg (29 November 1856 – 1 January 1921) was a German politician who was the Chancellor of the German Empire from 1909 to 1917.
The Third Battle of Artois (25 September – 4 November 1915), was fought by the French Tenth Army against the German 6th Army on the Western Front of World War I. The battle is also known as the Loos–Artois Offensive and included the big British offensive by the British First Army, known as the Battle of Loos.
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on 3 March 1918 between the new Bolshevik government of Soviet Russia and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire), that ended Russia's participation in World War I. The treaty was signed at Brest-Litovsk (Brześć Litewski; since 1945 Brest), after two months of negotiations.
The Treaty of London of 1839, also called the First Treaty of London, the Convention of 1839, the Treaty of Separation, the Quintuple Treaty of 1839, or the Treaty of the XXIV articles, was a treaty signed on 19 April 1839 between the Concert of Europe, the United Kingdom of the Netherlands and the Kingdom of Belgium.
The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.
Trench warfare is a type of land warfare using occupied fighting lines consisting largely of military trenches, in which troops are well-protected from the enemy's small arms fire and are substantially sheltered from artillery.
Royal Engineer tunnelling companies were specialist units of the Corps of Royal Engineers within the British Army, formed to dig attacking tunnels under enemy lines during the First World War.
Unrestricted submarine warfare is a type of naval warfare in which submarines sink vessels such as freighters and tankers without warning, as opposed to attacks per prize rules (also known as "cruiser rules").
Valenciennes (Dutch: Valencijn, Latin: Valentianae, Valincyinne) is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.
Verdun (official name before 1970 Verdun-sur-Meuse) is a small city in the Meuse department in Grand Est in northeastern France.
The Vosges (or; Vogesen), also called the Vosges Mountains, are a range of low mountains in eastern France, near its border with Germany.
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
The War Office was a department of the British Government responsible for the administration of the British Army between 1857 and 1964, when its functions were transferred to the Ministry of Defence.
The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933.
West Flanders (West-Vlaanderen; West Flemish: West Vloandern; French: (Province de) Flandre-Occidentale; German: Westflandern) is the most western province of the Flemish Region, in Belgium.
Western Germany is a region in the west of Germany.
Karl Eduard Wilhelm Groener (22 November 1867 – 3 May 1939) was a German soldier and politician.
Wilhelm II (Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern; 27 January 18594 June 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918.
A withdrawal is a type of military operation, generally meaning retreating forces back while maintaining contact with the enemy.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Ypres (Ieper) is a Belgian municipality in the province of West Flanders.
The Yser (l'Yser, IJzer) is a river that rises in French Flanders (the north of France), enters the Belgian province of West Flanders and flows through the Ganzepoot and into the North Sea at the town of Nieuwpoort.
The Yser Front (Front de l'Yser, Front aan de IJzer or IJzerfront), also known as the West Flemish Front, was a section of the Western Front during World War I held by Belgian troops from October 1914 until 1918.
The 16th (Irish) Division was an infantry division of the British Army, raised for service during World War I. The division was a voluntary 'Service' formation of Lord Kitchener's New Armies, created in Ireland from the 'National Volunteers', initially in September 1914, after the outbreak of the Great War.
The 1917 French Army mutinies took place amongst French Army troops on the Western Front in Northern France during World War I. They started just after the disastrous Second Battle of the Aisne, the main action in the Nivelle Offensive in April 1917.
The 1st Infantry Division is a combined arms division of the United States Army, and is the oldest continuously serving in the Regular Army.
The 4th Army (4.) was an army level command of the German Army in World War I. It was formed on mobilization in August 1914 from the VI Army Inspection.
The 5th Infantry Division was a regular army infantry division of the British Army.
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