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Index Bioterrorism

Bioterrorism is terrorism involving the intentional release or dissemination of biological agents. [1]

165 relations: Abrin, Abrus precatorius, Africa, Alphavirus, Anthrax, Anthrax vaccine adsorbed, Anthrax vaccines, Antibiotic, Antibody, Anton Dilger, Arenavirus, Aum Shinrikyo, Avalanche photodiode, Bacteria, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Bill Gates, Bill Joy, Bill Pascrell, Bioaerosol, Biological agent, Biological warfare, Biomedicine, Biosecurity, Black Death, Blue Ribbon Study Panel on Biodefense, Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, Bomb disposal, Botulinum toxin, Brucella, Brucellosis, Bubonic plague, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Case fatality rate, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Chemical Biological Incident Response Force, Chevy Chase, Maryland, Chicago, Chile, Chlamydia psittaci, Ciprofloxacin, Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium perfringens, CNN, Contamination, Coxiella burnetii, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cuba, Decontamination, DHS Office of Health Affairs, ..., Directed-energy weapon, Drinking water, Eastern equine encephalitis, Ebola virus, Ebola virus disease, Election, Electronic health record, Encephalitis, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Europe, False alarm, Feedlot, Filoviridae, Flea, Foodborne illness, Foot-and-mouth disease, Forensic science, Francisella tularensis, Fur, Genetic engineering, George W. Bush, Glanders, Globalization, Henipavirus, HIV, HIV/AIDS, Hypovolemia, Influenza, Influenza A virus subtype H1N1, Integrated circuit, Interoperability, Joe Lieberman, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Lassa virus, Law of the United States, Marburg, Marburg virus, Masonic Temple, Melioidosis, Mortality rate, Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Neuron, New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Optical fiber, Oregon, Oriskany, New York, Orthohantavirus, Orthopoxvirus, Oxford University Press, Paralysis, Pathogen, Pneumonic plague, Project Bioshield Act, Psittacosis, Public health, Public health surveillance, Q fever, Rajneesh, Ranch, Real-time outbreak and disease surveillance, Respiratory failure, Ricin, Ricinus, Rickettsia prowazekii, Salad, Salmonella, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, Select agent, Severe acute respiratory syndrome, Shigella, Smallpox, South America, Spanish flu, Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Stevedore, Super Bowl, Terrorism, The Dalles, Oregon, The Journal of Infectious Diseases, Toxin, Tularemia, Typhoid fever, Typhus, United States, United States Army, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, United States Department of Agriculture, United States Department of Health and Human Services, United States Department of Homeland Security, United States dollar, United States Marine Corps, University of Alberta, University of Pittsburgh, Urbanization, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Vibrio cholerae, Viral hemorrhagic fever, Virus, Weapon of mass destruction, Western equine encephalitis virus, Why The Future Doesn't Need Us, Wil S. Hylton, WKTV, World Health Organization, World War I, Yersinia pestis, 1984 Rajneeshee bioterror attack, 2001 anthrax attacks, 2001 United Kingdom foot-and-mouth outbreak, 2007 United Kingdom foot-and-mouth outbreak, 20th CBRNE Command. Expand index (115 more) »


Abrin is an extremely toxic toxalbumin found in the seeds of the rosary pea (or jequirity pea), Abrus precatorius.

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Abrus precatorius

Abrus precatorius, known commonly as jequirity, Crab's eye, or crab's eye creeper, cock's eyes, rosary pea, paternoster pea, love pea, precatory pea or bean, prayer bead, John Crow Bead, coral bead, red-bead vine, country licorice, Indian licorice, wild licorice, Jamaica wild licorice, Akar Saga, coondrimany, gidee gidee, Jumbie beadMendes (1986), p. 79.

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Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).

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In biology and immunology, an alphavirus belongs to the group IV Togaviridae family of viruses, according to the system of classification based on viral genome composition introduced by David Baltimore in 1971.

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Anthrax is an infection caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis.

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Anthrax vaccine adsorbed

Anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) is the only FDA-licensed human anthrax vaccine in the United States.

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Anthrax vaccines

Vaccines against the livestock and human disease anthrax—caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis—have had a prominent place in the history of medicine, from Pasteur’s pioneering 19th-century work with cattle (the first effective bacterial vaccine and the second effective vaccine ever) to the controversial late 20th century use of a modern product to protect American troops against the use of anthrax in biological warfare.

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An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.

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An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.

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Anton Dilger

Anton Casimir Dilger (13 February 1884 – 17 October 1918) was a German-American medical doctor, and the main proponent of the German biological warfare sabotage program during World War I. His father, Hubert Dilger, was a United States Army captain who had received the Medal of Honor for his work as an artilleryman at the Battle of Chancellorsville (1863) during the American Civil War.

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An arenavirus is a virus which is a member of the family Arenaviridae.

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Aum Shinrikyo

, formerly, is a Japanese doomsday cult founded by Shoko Asahara in 1984.

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Avalanche photodiode

An avalanche photodiode (APD) is a highly sensitive semiconductor electronic device that exploits the photoelectric effect to convert light to electricity.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF), also known as the Gates Foundation, is a private foundation founded by Bill and Melinda Gates.

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Bill Gates

William Henry Gates III (born October 28, 1955) is an American business magnate, investor, author, philanthropist, humanitarian, and principal founder of Microsoft Corporation.

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Bill Joy

William Nelson Joy (born November 8, 1954) is an American computer scientist.

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Bill Pascrell

William James Pascrell Jr. (born January 25, 1937), is the U.S. Representative for.

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Bioaerosols (short for biological aerosols) are a subcategory of particles released from terrestrial and marine ecosystems into the atmosphere.

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Biological agent

A biological agent—also called bio-agent, biological threat agent, biological warfare agent, biological weapon, or bioweapon—is a bacterium, virus, protozoan, parasite, or fungus that can be used purposefully as a weapon in bioterrorism or biological warfare (BW).

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Biological warfare

Biological warfare (BW)—also known as germ warfare—is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi with the intent to kill or incapacitate humans, animals or plants as an act of war.

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Biomedicine (i.e. medical biology) is a branch of medical science that applies biological and physiological principles to clinical practice.

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Biosecurity has multiple meanings and is defined differently according to various disciplines.

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Black Death

The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.

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Blue Ribbon Study Panel on Biodefense

The Blue Ribbon Study Panel on Biodefense (BRSPB) is a panel of former high-ranking government officials and academic experts that analyzes the United States' defense capabilities against biological threats.

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Bolivian hemorrhagic fever

Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF), also known as black typhus or Ordog Fever, is a hemorrhagic fever and zoonotic infectious disease originating in Bolivia after infection by Machupo virus.

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Bomb disposal

Bomb disposal is the process by which hazardous explosive devices are rendered safe.

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Botulinum toxin

Botulinum toxin (BTX) or Botox is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species.

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Brucella is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria, named after David Bruce (1855–1931).

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Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis caused by ingestion of unpasteurized milk or undercooked meat from infected animals, or close contact with their secretions.

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Bubonic plague

Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by bacterium Yersinia pestis.

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Burkholderia mallei

Burkholderia mallei is a Gram-negative, bipolar, aerobic bacterium, a human and animal pathogen of genus Burkholderia causing glanders; the Latin name of this disease (malleus) gave its name to the species causing it.

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Burkholderia pseudomallei

Burkholderia pseudomallei (also known as Pseudomonas pseudomallei) is a Gram-negative, bipolar, aerobic, motile rod-shaped bacterium.

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Case fatality rate

In epidemiology, a case fatality rate (CFR)—or case fatality risk, case fatality ratio or just fatality rate—is the proportion of deaths within a designated population of "cases" (people with a medical condition) over the course of the disease.

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.

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Chemical Biological Incident Response Force

The Chemical Biological Incident Response Force (CBIRF) is a unit in the United States Marine Corps responsible for countering the effects of a chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, or high-yield explosive (CBRNE) incident.

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Chevy Chase, Maryland

Chevy Chase is the name of both a town and an unincorporated census-designated place (Chevy Chase (CDP), Maryland) that straddle the northwest border of Washington, D.C. and Montgomery County, Maryland.

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Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.

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Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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Chlamydia psittaci

Chlamydia psittaci is a lethal intracellular bacterial species that may cause endemic avian chlamydiosis, epizootic outbreaks in mammals, and respiratory psittacosis in humans.

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Ciprofloxacin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.

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Clostridium botulinum

Clostridium botulinum is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming, motile bacterium with the ability to produce the neurotoxin botulinum.

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Clostridium perfringens

Clostridium perfringens (formerly known as C. welchii, or Bacillus welchii) is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming pathogenic bacterium of the genus Clostridium.

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Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.

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Contamination is the presence of an unwanted constituent, contaminant or impurity in a material, physical body, natural environment, workplace, etc.

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Coxiella burnetii

Coxiella burnetii is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen, and is the causative agent of Q fever.

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Cryptosporidium parvum

Cryptosporidium parvum is one of several species that cause cryptosporidiosis, a parasitic disease of the mammalian intestinal tract.

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Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.

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Decontamination (sometimes abbreviated as decon, dcon, or decontam) is the process of cleansing an object or substance to remove contaminants such as micro-organisms or hazardous materials, including chemicals, radioactive substances, and infectious diseases.

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DHS Office of Health Affairs

The Office of Health Affairs (OHA) is a component within the United States Department of Homeland Security.

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Directed-energy weapon

A directed-energy weapon (DEW) is a ranged weapon system that inflicts damage at a target by emission of highly focused energy, including laser, microwaves and particle beams.

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Drinking water

Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation.

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Eastern equine encephalitis

Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE), commonly called Triple E or, sleeping sickness (not to be confused with Trypanosomiasis) is a zoonotic alphavirus and arbovirus present in North, Central and South America and the Caribbean.

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Ebola virus

Ebola virus (EBOV, formerly designated Zaire ebolavirus) is one of five known viruses within the genus Ebolavirus.

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Ebola virus disease

Ebola virus disease (EVD), also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) or simply Ebola, is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and other primates caused by ebolaviruses.

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An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office.

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Electronic health record

An electronic health record (EHR), or electronic medical record (EMR), is the systematized collection of patient and population electronically-stored health information in a digital format.

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Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain.

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Escherichia coli

Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).

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Escherichia coli O157:H7

Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a serotype of the bacterial species Escherichia coli and is one of the Shiga toxin–producing types of E. coli.

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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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False alarm

A false alarm, also called a nuisance alarm, is the deceptive or erroneous report of an emergency, causing unnecessary panic and/or bringing resources (such as emergency services) to a place where they are not needed.

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A feedlot or feed yard is a type of animal feeding operation (AFO) which is used in intensive animal farming for finishing livestock, notably beef cattle, but also swine, horses, sheep, turkeys, chickens or ducks, prior to slaughter.

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The family Filoviridae is the taxonomic home of several related viruses (filoviruses or filovirids) that form filamentous infectious viral particles (virions), and encode their genome in the form of single-stranded negative-sense RNA.

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Fleas are small flightless insects that form the order Siphonaptera.

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Foodborne illness

Foodborne illness (also foodborne disease and colloquially referred to as food poisoning) is any illness resulting from the food spoilage of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or parasites that contaminate food, as well as toxins such as poisonous mushrooms and various species of beans that have not been boiled for at least 10 minutes.

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Foot-and-mouth disease

Foot-and-mouth disease or hoof-and-mouth disease (Aphthae epizooticae) is an infectious and sometimes fatal viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals, including domestic and wild bovids.

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Forensic science

Forensic science is the application of science to criminal and civil laws, mainly—on the criminal side—during criminal investigation, as governed by the legal standards of admissible evidence and criminal procedure.

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Francisella tularensis

Francisella tularensis is a pathogenic species of Gram-negative, rod-shaped coccobacillus, an aerobe bacterium.

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Fur is the hair covering of non-human mammals, particularly those mammals with extensive body hair that is soft and thick.

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Genetic engineering

Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.

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George W. Bush

George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.

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Glanders (from Middle English glaundres or Old French glandres, both meaning glands; malleus, Rotz; also known as "equinia", "farcy", and "malleus") is an infectious disease that occurs primarily in horses, mules, and donkeys.

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Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.

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Henipavirus is a genus of RNA viruses in the family Paramyxoviridae, order Mononegavirales containing five established species.

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The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

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Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

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Hypovolemia is a state of decreased blood volume; more specifically, decrease in volume of blood plasma.

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Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.

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Influenza A virus subtype H1N1

Influenza A (H1N1) virus is the subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009, and is associated with the 1918 outbreak known as the Spanish Flu.

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Integrated circuit

An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.

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Interoperability is a characteristic of a product or system, whose interfaces are completely understood, to work with other products or systems, at present or in the future, in either implementation or access, without any restrictions.

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Joe Lieberman

Joseph Isadore Lieberman (born February 24, 1942) is an American politician and attorney who was a United States Senator for Connecticut from 1989 to 2013.

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Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (JHSPH) is part of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, United States.

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Lassa virus

Lassa virus (LASV) is an arenavirus that causes Lassa hemorrhagic fever, a type of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF), in humans and other primates.

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Law of the United States

The law of the United States comprises many levels of codified and uncodified forms of law, of which the most important is the United States Constitution, the foundation of the federal government of the United States.

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Marburg is a university town in the German federal state (Bundesland) of Hesse, capital of the Marburg-Biedenkopf district (Landkreis).

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Marburg virus

Marburg virus is a hemorrhagic fever virus of the Filoviridae family of viruses and a member of the species Marburg marburgvirus, genus Marburgvirus.

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Masonic Temple

A Masonic Temple or Masonic Hall is, within Freemasonry, the room or edifice where a Masonic Lodge meets.

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Melioidosis is an infectious disease caused by a Gram-negative bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei, found in soil and water.

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Mortality rate

Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.

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Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome

Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), also known as multiple organ failure (MOF), total organ failure (TOF) or multisystem organ failure (MSOF), is altered organ function in an acutely ill patient requiring medical intervention to achieve homeostasis.

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National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) is one of the 27 institutes and centers that make up the National Institutes of Health (NIH), an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).

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National Institutes of Health

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.

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A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.

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New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene

The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) is the department of the government of New York City responsible for public health along with issuing birth certificates, dog licenses, and conducting restaurant inspection and enforcement.

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Optical fiber

An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.

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Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States.

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Oriskany, New York

Oriskany is a village in Oneida County, New York, United States.

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Orthohantaviruses (or hantaviruses) are single-stranded, enveloped, negative-sense RNA viruses in the Hantaviridae family of the order Bunyavirales, which normally infect rodents where they do not cause disease.

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Orthopoxvirus is a genus of viruses in the family Poxviridae and subfamily Chordopoxvirinae.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Paralysis is a loss of muscle function for one or more muscles.

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In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.

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Pneumonic plague

Pneumonic plague is a severe lung infection caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis.

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Project Bioshield Act

The Project Bioshield Act was an act passed by the United States Congress in 2004 calling for $5 billion for purchasing vaccines that would be used in the event of a bioterrorist attack.

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Psittacosis—also known as parrot fever, and ornithosis—is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by a bacterium called Chlamydia psittaci and contracted from infected parrots, such as macaws, cockatiels and budgerigars, and pigeons, sparrows, ducks, hens, gulls and many other species of bird.

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Public health

Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".

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Public health surveillance

Public health surveillance (also epidemiological surveillance, clinical surveillance or syndromic surveillance) is, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), "the continuous, systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of health-related data needed for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of public health practice.", World Health Organization (accessed January 14, 2016).

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Q fever

Q fever is a disease caused by infection with Coxiella burnetii, a bacterium that affects humans and other animals.

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Rajneesh (born Chandra Mohan Jain, 11 December 1931 – 19 January 1990), also known as Acharya Rajneesh, Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh, and latterly as Osho, was an Indian godman and leader of the Rajneesh movement.

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A ranch is an area of land, including various structures, given primarily to the practice of ranching, the practice of raising grazing livestock such as cattle or sheep for meat or wool.

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Real-time outbreak and disease surveillance

Real-time outbreak and disease surveillance system (RODS) is a syndromic surveillance system developed by the University of Pittsburgh, Department of Biomedical Informatics.

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Respiratory failure

Respiratory failure results from inadequate gas exchange by the respiratory system, meaning that the arterial oxygen, carbon dioxide or both cannot be kept at normal levels.

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Ricin, a lectin (a carbohydrate-binding protein) produced in the seeds of the castor oil plant, Ricinus communis, is a highly potent toxin.

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Ricinus communis, the castor bean or castor oil plant, is a species of perennial flowering plant in the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.

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Rickettsia prowazekii

Rickettsia prowazekii is a species of gram-negative, alphaproteobacteria, obligate intracellular parasitic, aerobic Bacillus bacteria that is the etiologic agent of epidemic typhus, transmitted in the feces of lice.

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A salad is a dish consisting of a mixture of small pieces of food, usually vegetables.

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Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped (bacillus) Gram-negative bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae.

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Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica

Salmonella enterica subsp.

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Select agent

Under United States law, "Biological Select Agents or Toxins" (BSATs) — or simply select agents for short — are bio-agents which since 1997 have been declared by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) or by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to have the "potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety".

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Severe acute respiratory syndrome

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory disease of zoonotic origin caused by the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV).

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Shigella is a genus of gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, nonspore-forming, non-motile, rod-shaped bacteria genetically closely related to E. coli.

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Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.

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South America

South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.

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Spanish flu

The Spanish flu (January 1918 – December 1920), also known as the 1918 flu pandemic, was an unusually deadly influenza pandemic, the first of the two pandemics involving H1N1 influenza virus.

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Staphylococcus (from the σταφυλή, staphylē, "grape" and κόκκος, kókkos, "granule") is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria.

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Staphylococcus aureus

Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and it is a member of the normal flora of the body, frequently found in the nose, respiratory tract, and on the skin.

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A stevedore, longshoreman, or dockworker is a waterfront manual laborer who is involved in loading and unloading ships, trucks, trains or airplanes.

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Super Bowl

The Super Bowl is the annual championship game of the National Football League (NFL).

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Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a financial, political, religious or ideological aim.

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The Dalles, Oregon

The Dalles is the county seat and largest city of Wasco County, Oregon, United States.

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The Journal of Infectious Diseases

The Journal of Infectious Diseases is a peer-reviewed biweekly medical journal published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

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A toxin (from toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded.

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Tularemia, also known as rabbit fever, is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis.

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Typhoid fever

Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to ''Salmonella'' typhi that causes symptoms.

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Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus and murine typhus.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Army

The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.

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United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases

The United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID; pronounced: you-SAM-rid) is the U.S Army’s main institution and facility for defensive research into countermeasures against biological warfare.

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United States Department of Agriculture

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.

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United States Department of Health and Human Services

The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services.

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United States Department of Homeland Security

The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is a cabinet department of the United States federal government with responsibilities in public security, roughly comparable to the interior or home ministries of other countries.

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United States dollar

The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.

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United States Marine Corps

The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting amphibious operations with the United States Navy.

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University of Alberta

The University of Alberta (also known as U of A and UAlberta) is a public research university located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

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University of Pittsburgh

The University of Pittsburgh (commonly referred to as Pitt) is a state-related research university located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

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Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.

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Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus is a mosquito-borne viral pathogen that causes Venezuelan equine encephalitis or encephalomyelitis (VEE).

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Vibrio cholerae

Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative, comma-shaped bacterium.

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Viral hemorrhagic fever

Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are a diverse group of animal and human illnesses in which fever and hemorrhage are caused by a viral infection.

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A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.

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Weapon of mass destruction

A weapon of mass destruction (WMD) is a nuclear, radiological, chemical, biological or other weapon that can kill and bring significant harm to a large number of humans or cause great damage to human-made structures (e.g., buildings), natural structures (e.g., mountains), or the biosphere.

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Western equine encephalitis virus

The Western equine encephalomyelitis virus is the causative agent of relatively uncommon viral disease Western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE).

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Why The Future Doesn't Need Us

"Why The Future Doesn't Need Us" is an article written by Bill Joy (then Chief Scientist at Sun Microsystems) in the April 2000 issue of Wired magazine.

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Wil S. Hylton

Wil S. Hylton is an American journalist.

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WKTV is a dual NBC/CBS-affiliated television station licensed to Utica, New York, United States and serving Central Upstate New York's Mohawk Valley.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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Yersinia pestis

Yersinia pestis (formerly Pasteurella pestis) is a Gram-negative, non-motile rod-shaped coccobacillus, with no spores.

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1984 Rajneeshee bioterror attack

The 1984 Rajneeshee bioterror attack was the food poisoning of 751 individuals in The Dalles, Oregon, through the deliberate contamination of salad bars at ten local restaurants with Salmonella.

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2001 anthrax attacks

The 2001 anthrax attacks, also known as Amerithrax from its Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) case name, occurred within the United States over the course of several weeks beginning on September 18, 2001, one week after the September 11 attacks.

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2001 United Kingdom foot-and-mouth outbreak

The outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in the United Kingdom in 2001 caused a crisis in British agriculture and tourism.

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2007 United Kingdom foot-and-mouth outbreak

A contained four-site outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in the United Kingdom was found by regular livestock testing by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), namely in August 2007 three times, and once the following month, all in the west of Surrey, England.

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20th CBRNE Command

The 20th CBRNE Command (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear and high- yield Explosives or CBRNE) is the United States Army's Chemical, Biological, Nuclear, Radiological and high-yield explosives headquarters.

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A agent, B agent, Bio-terrorism, Bio-terrorist, Biological terrorism, Bioterror, Bioterrorist, C agent, Man-made disease, Mary Theresa Urbano.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bioterrorism

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