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Aconcagua is the highest mountain outside Asia, at, and the highest point in the Southern Hemisphere.
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The Aconcagua River is a river in Chile that rises from the conflux of two minor tributary rivers at above sea level in the Andes, Juncal River from the east (which rise in the Nevado Juncal) and Blanco River from the south east.
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Adventism is a branch of Protestant Christianity which was started in the United States during the Second Great Awakening when Baptist preacher William Miller first publicly shared his belief that the Second Coming of Jesus Christ would occur at some point between 1843 and 1844.
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Agrarian reform can refer either, narrowly, to government-initiated or government-backed redistribution of agricultural land (see land reform) or, broadly, to an overall redirection of the agrarian system of the country, which often includes land reform measures.
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Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
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Agustín de Jáuregui
Agustín de Jáuregui y Aldecoa (May 17, 1711 (some sources say 1708) – April 29, 1784) was a Spanish politician and soldier who served as governor of Chile (1772–80) and viceroy of Peru (1780–84).
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An airline is a company that provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight.
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Saint Alberto Hurtado Cruchaga, S.J. (born Luis Alberto Hurtado Cruchaga on January 22, 1901 in Viña del Mar, Chile – August 18, 1952 in Santiago, Chile), popularly known in Chile as Padre Hurtado (Father Hurtado), was a Chilean Jesuit priest, lawyer, social worker and writer of Basque origin, founder of the Hogar de Cristo foundation.
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All Saints' Day
All Saints' Day, also known as All Hallows' Day, Hallowmas, Feast of All Saints, or Solemnity of All Saints, is a Christian festival celebrated in honour of all the saints, known and unknown.
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The Alliance (Alianza), previously known as Alliance for Chile (Alianza por Chile), was a coalition of right-wing Chilean political parties.
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Alpine tundra is a type of natural region or biome that does not contain trees because it is at high altitude.
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The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.
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Andrés Sabella Gálvez International Airport
Andrés Sabella Gálvez International Airport is an airport serving Antofagasta, capital of the Antofagasta Region of Chile.
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Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
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Anita Lizana de Ellis (19 November 1915 – 21 August 1994) was a world No.
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Antarctic Treaty System
The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively known as the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS), regulate international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earth's only continent without a native human population.
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Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.
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Antofagasta is a port city in northern Chile, about north of Santiago.
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The Antofagasta Region (Región de Antofagasta.) is one of Chile's fifteen first-order administrative divisions.
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An apple is a sweet, edible fruit produced by an apple tree (Malus pumila).
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The La Araucanía, La Araucanía Region (Región de La Araucanía) is one of Chile's 15 first order administrative divisions and comprises two provinces: Malleco in the north and Cautín in the south.
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Araucaria araucana (commonly called the monkey puzzle tree, monkey tail tree, or Chilean pine) is an evergreen tree growing to 1–1.5 m (3–5 ft) in diameter and 30–40 m (100–130 ft) in height.
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The Arauco War was a long-running conflict between colonial Spaniards and the Mapuche people, mostly fought in the Araucanía.
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Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
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Argentine War of Independence
The Argentine War of Independence was fought from 1810 to 1818 by Argentine patriotic forces under Manuel Belgrano, Juan José Castelli and José de San Martín against royalist forces loyal to the Spanish crown.
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Argentine–Chilean naval arms race
In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the South American nations of Argentina and Chile engaged in an expensive naval arms race to ensure the other would not gain supremacy in the Southern Cone.
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Arica is a commune and a port city with a population of 196,590 in the Arica Province of northern Chile's Arica y Parinacota Region.
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Arica y Parinacota Region
The Arica and Parinacota Region (Región de Arica y Parinacota) is one of Chile's 15 first order administrative divisions.
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Army of the Andes
The Army of the Andes (Ejército de los Andes) was a military force created by the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata (Argentina) and mustered by general José de San Martín in his campaign to free Chile from the Spanish Empire.
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Arturo Fortunato Alessandri Palma (December 20, 1868 – August 24, 1950) was a Chilean political figure and reformer, who served thrice as the President of Chile, first between 1920 and 1924, then for part of 1925, and finally from 1932 until 1938.
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Asado techniques and the social event of having or attending a barbecue in Argentina, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay, where it is very popular.
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Asparagus, or garden asparagus, folk name sparrow grass, scientific name Asparagus officinalis, is a spring vegetable, a flowering perennial plant species in the genus Asparagus.
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Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
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Assumption of Mary
The Assumption of Mary into Heaven (often shortened to the Assumption and also known as the Feast of Saint Mary the Virgin, Mother of Our Lord Jesus Christ and the Falling Asleep of the Blessed Virgin Mary (the Dormition)) is, according to the beliefs of the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, and parts of Anglicanism, the bodily taking up of the Virgin Mary into Heaven at the end of her earthly life.
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The Atacama Desert (Desierto de Atacama) is a plateau in South America (primarily in Chile), covering a 1000-km (600-mi) strip of land on the Pacific coast, west of the Andes mountains.
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The Atacama Region (III Región de Atacama) is one of Chile's 15 first order administrative divisions.
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Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte (25 November 1915 – 10 December 2006) was a Chilean general, politician and the dictator of Chile between 1973 and 1990 who remained the Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army until 1998 and was also President of the Government Junta of Chile between 1973 and 1981.
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Austrians (Österreicher) are a Germanic nation and ethnic group, native to modern Austria and South Tyrol that share a common Austrian culture, Austrian descent and Austrian history.
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Aymara (Aymar aru) is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara people of the Andes.
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The Aymara or Aimara (aymara) people are an indigenous nation in the Andes and Altiplano regions of South America; about 1 million live in Bolivia, Peru and Chile.
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The Aysén del General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo Region (Región de Aysén,, XI Región Aysén del General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo), often shortened to Aysén Region or Aisén,Examples of name usage:, official regional government site refers to the region as "Región de Aysén".
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Baker River (Chile)
The Baker River is a river located in the Aysén del General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo Region of the Chilean Patagonia.
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Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and doing so by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling).
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Base Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva
Base Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva is the most important Antarctic base of Chile.
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Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.
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Battle of the Maule
The Battle of the Maule was fought between the Mapuche people of Chile and the Inca Empire of Peru in what is now the Maule River, Chile.
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Bío Bío Region
The Bío Bío Region (Región del Bío-Bío), is one of Chile's fifteen first-order administrative divisions; it is divided into four provinces: Arauco, Bío Bío, Concepción, and Ñuble.
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BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
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A bean is a seed of one of several genera of the flowering plant family Fabaceae, which are used for human or animal food.
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Beef is the culinary name for meat from cattle, particularly skeletal muscle.
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Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.
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Bernardo O'Higgins Riquelme (1778–1842) was a Chilean independence leader who freed Chile from Spanish rule in the Chilean War of Independence.
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A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.
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The binomial system (Sistema binominal) is a voting system that was used in the parliamentary elections of Chile between 1989 and 2013.
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The Biobío River (also known as Bío Bío or Bio-Bio) is the second largest river in Chile.
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The birth rate (technically, births/population rate) is the total number of live births per 1,000 in a population in a year or period.
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Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
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Boundary Treaty of 1881 between Chile and Argentina
The Boundary Treaty of 1881 (Tratado de Límites de 1881) between Argentina and Chile was signed on the 23 July 1881 in Buenos Aires by Bernardo de Irigoyen, on the part of Argentina, and Francisco de Borja Echeverría, on the part of Chile, with the aim to establish a precise and exact borderline between the two countries based on the uti possidetis juris principle.
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Bovine spongiform encephalopathy
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly known as mad cow disease, is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy and fatal neurodegenerative disease in cattle that may be passed to humans who have eaten infected flesh.
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Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined set of time in a boxing ring.
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Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
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The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
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Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs
In the United States government, the Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs (WHA) is a part of the U.S. Department of State, charged with implementing U.S. foreign policy and promoting U.S. interests in the Western Hemisphere, as well as advising the Under Secretary for Political Affairs.
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El Callao is a city in Peru.
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Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
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Campanula is one of several genera in the family Campanulaceae with the common name bellflower.
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Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
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Capital flight, in economics, occurs when assets or money rapidly flow out of a country, due to an event of economic consequence.
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Carabineros de Chile
Carabiniers of Chile (Carabineros de Chile) are the Chilean national police force, who have jurisdiction over the entire national territory of Chile.
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Caravan of Death
The Caravan of Death (Caravana de la Muerte) was a Chilean Army death squad that, following the Chilean coup of 1973, flew by helicopters from south to north of Chile between September 30 and October 22, 1973.
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Carlos Ibáñez del Campo
General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo (November 3, 1877 – April 28, 1960) was a Chilean Army officer and political figure.
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Carlos Pezoa Véliz
Carlos Pezoa Véliz (July 21, 1879 – April 21, 1908) was a poet, educator and journalist from Chile.
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Carriel Sur International Airport
Carriel Sur International Airport is located in Talcahuano, Greater Concepción in the Bío Bío Region, approximately southwest of Santiago.
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A casino is a facility which houses and accommodates certain types of gambling activities.
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The Casma River which upstream is called Río Grande is a river that crosses northern Casma province in the Ancash Region of Peru.
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The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
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Cazuela is the common name given to a variety of dishes, especially from South America.
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A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.
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Central Bank of Chile
The Central Bank of Chile (Banco Central de Chile) is the central bank of Chile.
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Central Chile (Zona central) is one of the three natural regions into which CORFO divided continental Chile in 1950.
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Central Intelligence Agency
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
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Cerro El Muerto
Cerro el Muerto (sometimes "El Muerto" fully translated as The Dead One Hill") is a mountain peak of South America and is part of the Andes mountain range.
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Chacalluta International Airport
Chacalluta International Airport (Aeródromo de Chacalluta Arica) is an airport serving the city of Arica, capital of the Arica Province in the northern Arica y Parinacota Region of Chile.
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Chamber of Deputies of Chile
The Honourable Chamber of Deputies of the Republic of Chile (Cámara de Diputados) is the lower house of Chile's bicameral Congress.
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Chile Davis Cup team
The Chile Davis Cup Team represents Chile in Davis Cup tennis tournament and is governed by Chile Tennis Federation.
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Chile national football team
The Chile national football team (Selección de fútbol de Chile) represents Chile in major international football competitions and is controlled by the Federación de Fútbol de Chile which was established in 1895.
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Chile Vamos (Spanish for "Let’s go Chile”) is a Chilean political coalition of four centre-right parties.
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Chilean Air Force
The Chilean Air Force (Fuerza Aérea de Chile, FACh) is the air force of Chile, a branch of the Chilean military.
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Chilean Antarctic Territory
The Chilean Antarctic Territory or Chilean Antarctica (Spanish: Territorio Chileno Antártico, Antártica Chilena) is the territory in Antarctica claimed by Chile.
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The Chilean Army (Ejército de Chile) is the land arm of the Military of Chile.
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Chilean Civil War of 1891
The Chilean Civil War of 1891, also known as Revolution of 1891 was an armed conflict between forces supporting Congress and forces supporting the President, José Manuel Balmaceda.
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Chilean gastronomy stems mainly from the combination of traditional Spanish cuisine, Chilean Indigenous Mapuche culture and local ingredients, with later important influences from other European cuisines, particularly from Germany, Italy and France.
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Chilean Declaration of Independence
The Chilean Declaration of Independence is a document declaring the independence of Chile from the Spanish Empire.
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Chilean football league system
The Chilean football league system, called the Campeonatos Nacionales de Fútbol en Chile or Liga Chilena de Fútbol in Spanish, is a series of interconnected leagues for football clubs in Chile.
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Chilean National Museum of Fine Arts
The Chilean National Museum of Fine Arts (Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes or MNBA), located in Santiago, Chile, is one of the major centers for Chilean art and for broader South American art.
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Chilean national plebiscite, 1988
The 1988 Chilean national plebiscite was a national referendum held on 5 October 1988 to determine whether Chile's de facto leader, Augusto Pinochet, should extend his rule for another eight years.
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The Chilean Navy (Armada de Chile) is the naval force of Chile.
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Chilean parliamentary election, 2005
The 2005 Chilean parliamentary election took place on December 11, 2005, in conjunction with the presidential election.
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The peso is the currency of Chile.
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Chilean presidential election, 1964
Presidential elections were held in Chile on 4 September 1964.
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Chilean presidential election, 1999–2000
Presidential elections were held in Chile on 12 December 1999, with a second round run-off on 16 January 2000.
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Chilean presidential election, 2009–10
The first round of the Chilean presidential election of 2009–2010 was held on Sunday December 13, 2009.
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Chilean Primera División
The Chilean Primera División (First Division) is the top tier league of the Chilean football league system.
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Rodeo is a traditional sport in Chile.
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Chilean schooner Ancud (1843)
The schooner Ancud was the ship sent by Chile in 1843 to claim sovereignty over the Strait of Magellan.
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Chilean Spanish (español chileno, español de Chile or castellano de Chile) is any of several varieties of Spanish spoken in most of Chile.
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Chilean Traditional Universities
In Chile, universidades tradicionales ("traditional universities") is the group of universities founded before the 1980s.
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Chilean War of Independence
The Chilean War of Independence was a war between pro-independence Chilean criollos seeking political and economic independence from Spain and royalist criollos supporting continued allegiance to the Captaincy General of Chile and membership of the Spanish Empire.
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The Chiloé Archipelago (Archipiélago de Chiloé) is a group of islands lying off the coast of Chile, in the Los Lagos Region.
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Chiloé Island (Spanish: Isla de Chiloé), also known as Greater Island of Chiloé (Isla Grande de Chiloé), is the largest island of the Chiloé Archipelago off the coast of Chile, in the Pacific Ocean.
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Chiloé Province (Provincia de Chiloé) is one of the four provinces in the southern Chilean region of Los Lagos (X).
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The Chilote mythology or Chilota mythology is formed by the myths, legends and beliefs of the people who live in the Chiloé Archipelago, in the south of Chile.
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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
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Chonos Archipelago is a series of low mountainous elongated islands with deep bays, traces of a submerged Chilean Coast Range.
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Christian Democratic Party (Chile)
The Christian Democratic Party (Partido Demócrata Cristiano, PDC) is a Christian democratic political party in Chile and governs as part of the Nueva Mayoría coalition.
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Chueca is a neighborhood of downtown Madrid, named after its main square, Plaza de Chueca.
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Chungará (hispanicized spelling of Aymara chunkara "pointed mountain") is a lake situated in the extreme north of Chile, in the Altiplano of Arica y Parinacota Region in the Lauca National Park.
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Churches of Chiloé
The Churches of Chiloé in Chile's Chiloé Archipelago are a unique architectural phenomenon in the Americas, and one of the most prominent styles of Chilota architecture.
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Civil resistance is political action that relies on the use of nonviolent resistance by civil groups to challenge a particular power, force, policy or regime.
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Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.
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Climate of Chile
The climate of Chile comprises a wide range of weather conditions across a large geographic scale, extending across 38 degrees in latitude, making generalizations difficult.
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Club Deportivo Universidad Católica
Club Deportivo Universidad Católica is a professional football club based in Santiago, Chile, which plays in the Primera División.
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Club Universidad de Chile
Club Universidad de Chile is a professional football club based in Santiago, Chile, that plays in the Primera División.
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A coastal plain is flat, low-lying land adjacent to a sea coast.
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Coat of arms of Chile
The coat of arms of Chile dates from 1834 and was designed by the English artist Charles Wood Taylor (1792-1856).
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CODELCO (Corporación Nacional del Cobre de Chile or, in English, the National Copper Corporation of Chile) is a Chilean state owned copper mining company.
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Colina is a Chilean city and commune, capital of the Chacabuco Province, in the northern part of the Santiago Metropolitan Region, approximately 30 kilometers north of Santiago Centro.
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Club Social y Deportivo Colo-Colo is a Chilean football club based in Macul, Santiago.
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Communes of Chile
A commune (comuna) is the smallest administrative subdivision in Chile.
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Communist Party of Chile
The Communist Party of Chile (Partido Comunista de Chile) is a Chilean political party inspired by the thoughts of Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin.
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Community of Latin American and Caribbean States
The Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (Comunidad de Estados Latinoamericanos y Caribeños, CELAC; Comunidade de Estados Latino-Americanos e Caribenhos; Communauté des États Latino-Américains et Caribéens; Gemeenschap van Latijns-Amerikaanse en Caraïbische Staten) is a regional bloc of Latin American and Caribbean states thought out on February 23, 2010, at the Rio Group–Caribbean Community Unity Summit, and created on December 3, 2011, in Caracas, Venezuela, with the signature of The Declaration of Caracas.
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Comodoro Arturo Merino Benítez International Airport
Comodoro Arturo Merino Benítez International Airport (Aeropuerto Internacional Comodoro Arturo Merino Benítez), also known as Santiago International Airport and Nuevo Pudahuel Airport, located in Pudahuel, north-west of downtown Santiago, is Chile's largest aviation facility and the busiest international airport in the country.
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Company competition, or competitiveness, pertains to the ability and performance of a firm, sub-sector or country to sell and supply goods and services in a given market, in relation to the ability and performance of other firms, sub-sectors or countries in the same market.
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Concepción (in full: Concepción de la Madre Santísima de la Luz, "Conception of the Blessed Mother of Light") is a Chilean city and commune belonging to the metropolitan area of Greater Concepción, it is one of the largest urban conurbations of Chile.
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The Concertación (full Spanish name: Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia, English: Coalition of Parties for Democracy) was a coalition of center-left political parties in Chile, founded in 1988.
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Condor is the common name for two species of New World vultures, each in a monotypic genus.
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Conguillío National Park
Conguillío National Park is located in the Andes, in the provinces of Cautín and Malleco, in the Araucanía Region of Chile also known as Region IX.
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Conquest of Chile
The Conquest of Chile is a period in Chilean historiography that starts with the arrival of Pedro de Valdivia to Chile in 1541 and ends with the death of Martín García Óñez de Loyola in the Battle of Curalaba in 1598, and the destruction of the Seven Cities in 1600 in the Araucanía region.
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Conquistadors (from Spanish or Portuguese conquistadores "conquerors") is a term used to refer to the soldiers and explorers of the Spanish Empire or the Portuguese Empire in a general sense.
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Constitution of Chile
The current Political Constitution of the Republic of Chile, approved by Chilean voters in a controversial plebiscite on September 11, 1980, under the military dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet, partially effective March 11, 1981, fully effective 11 March 1990 and amended considerably on August 17, 1989 (via referendum) and on September 22, 2005 (legislatively), and also in 1991, 1994, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2003, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010, replaced the earlier constitution of 1925.
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A Constitutional republic is a republic that operates under a system of separation of powers, where both the chief executive and members of the legislature are elected by the citizens and must govern within an existing written constitution.
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Copa América (America Cup), known until 1975 as the South American Football Championship (Campeonato Sudamericano de Fútbol in Spanish and Campeonato Sul-americano de Futebol (Portugal) ou Copa Sul-Americana de Futebol (Brazil) in Portuguese), is an international men's football tournament contested between national teams from CONMEBOL.
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Copa América Centenario
The Copa América Centenario (Centennial Cup Americas; literally Centennial America Cup) was an international men's association football tournament that was hosted in the United States in 2016.
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The CONMEBOL Libertadores, named as Copa Libertadores de América (Copa Libertadores da América or Taça Libertadores da América), is an annual international club football competition organized by CONMEBOL since 1960.
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The CONMEBOL Sudamericana, named as Copa Sudamericana (Copa Sul-Americana) is an annual international club football competition organized by the CONMEBOL since 2002.
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Copiapó is a city in northern Chile, located about 65 kilometers east of the coastal town of Caldera.
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Copiapó River is a river of Chile located in the Atacama Region.
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Coquimbo is a port city, commune and capital of the Elqui Province, located on the Pan-American Highway, in the Coquimbo Region of Chile.
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The Coquimbo Region (IV Región de Coquimbo) is one of Chile's 15 first order administrative divisions.
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Cordillera de Nahuelbuta
The Nahuelbuta Range or Cordillera de Nahuelbuta is a mountain range in Bio-Bio and Araucania Region, southern Chile.
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The cougar (Puma concolor), also commonly known as the mountain lion, puma, panther, or catamount, is a large felid of the subfamily Felinae native to the Americas.
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Coyhaique, also spelled Coihaique in Patagonia, is the capital city of both the Coyhaique Province and the Aysén Region of Chile.
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A credit rating is an evaluation of the credit risk of a prospective debtor (an individual, a business, company or a government), predicting their ability to pay back the debt, and an implicit forecast of the likelihood of the debtor defaulting.
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Crossing of the Andes
The Crossing of the Andes (Cruce de los Andes) was one of the most important feats in the Argentine and Chilean wars of independence, in which a combined army of Argentine soldiers and Chilean exiles invaded Chile leading to Chile's liberation from Spanish rule.
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Bistec alemán or Crudo alemán (Crudo is Spanish for raw) is a typical German-Chilean dish similar to a steak tartare.
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Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
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Cueca is a family of musical styles and associated dances from Argentina, Chile and Bolivia.
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Cueva del Milodón Natural Monument
Cueva del Milodón Natural Monument is a Natural Monument located in the Chilean Patagonia, northwest of Puerto Natales and north of Punta Arenas.
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Cultural heritage is the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present and preserved for the benefit of future generations.
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Culture of Chile
The culture of Chile reflects the relatively homogeneous population as well as the geographic isolation of the country in relation to the rest of South America.
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Curanto is a traditional food of Chiloé Archipelago that has spread to the southern areas of Chile and Argentina, whose remains dated back about 11,525 ± 90 uncalibrated years before present.
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In economics, a country's current account is one of the two components of its balance of payments, the other being the capital account (also known as the financial account).
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The Dakar Rally (or simply "The Dakar"; formerly known as the "Paris–Dakar Rally") is an annual rally raid organised by the Amaury Sport Organisation.
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The Davis Cup is the premier international team event in men's tennis.
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In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
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In economics, a depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies.
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A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.
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The Desventuradas Islands (Islas Desventuradas,, "Unfortunate Islands" or Islas de los Desventurados, "Islands of the Unfortunate Ones") is a group of four small islands located off the coast of Chile, northwest of Santiago in the Pacific Ocean.
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Diego Aracena International Airport
Diego Aracena International Airport (Aeropuerto Internacional Diego Aracena) is an airport serving Iquique, capital of the Tarapacá Region in Chile.
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Diego de Almagro
Diego de Almagro, (– July 8, 1538), also known as El Adelantado and El Viejo, was a Spanish conquistador and a companion.
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Diego de Rosales
Diego de Rosales (Madrid, 1601 - Santiago, 1677) was a Spanish chronicler and author of Historia General del Reino de Chile.
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Diego Portales University
Diego Portales University (Universidad Diego Portales, UDP) is one of the first private universities founded in Chile and is named after the Chilean statesman Diego Portales.
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The Drake Passage or Mar de Hoces—Sea of Hoces—is the body of water between South America's Cape Horn and the South Shetland Islands of Antarctica.
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The Drosophilidae are a diverse, cosmopolitan family of flies, which includes fruit flies.
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The Dutch (Dutch), occasionally referred to as Netherlanders—a term that is cognate to the Dutch word for Dutch people, "Nederlanders"—are a Germanic ethnic group native to the Netherlands.
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Easter Island (Rapa Nui, Isla de Pascua) is a Chilean island in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, at the southeasternmost point of the Polynesian Triangle in Oceania.
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Eastern Orthodox Church
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
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Economic freedom or economic liberty is the ability of people of a society to take economic actions.
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Eduardo Frei Montalva
Eduardo Nicanor Frei Montalva (January 16, 1911 – January 22, 1982) was a Chilean political leader.
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Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle
Eduardo Alfredo Juan Bernardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle (born June 24, 1942) is a Chilean politician and civil engineer who was President of Chile from 1994 to 2000.
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El Tepual Airport
El Tepual International Airport is a commercial and private aviation facility which serves the tourist area of Puerto Montt, Chile.
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An empanada is a type of pasty baked or fried in many countries of the Americas and in Spain.
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An endorheic basin (also endoreic basin or endorreic basin) (from the ἔνδον, éndon, "within" and ῥεῖν, rheîn, "to flow") is a limited drainage basin that normally retains water and allows no outflow to other external bodies of water, such as rivers or oceans, but converges instead into lakes or swamps, permanent or seasonal, that equilibrate through evaporation.
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English Opens Doors
The English Opens Doors Programme (Spanish language: Programa Inglés Abre Puertas) is an initiative of the Chilean Ministry of Education (MINEDUC) to apply technical expertise and improve English as a foreign language (EFL) teaching, making it more accessible to Chilean people.
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Equestrian at the Summer Olympics
Equestrianism made its Summer Olympics debut at the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris, France.
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Escondida is a copper mine in the Atacama Desert in Antofagasta Region, Chile.
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Ethnic groups in Europe
The Indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe.
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Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of people and cultures.
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Evelyn Rose Matthei Fornet (born November 11, 1953) is a Chilean politician who served as Minister of Labor and Social Security under Chilean President Sebastián Piñera until July 2013.
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Faja Maisan is a coastal town located in the Chilean commune of Pitrufquén, Araucanía Region.
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Feast of Saints Peter and Paul
The Feast of Saints Peter and Paul or Solemnity of Saints Peter and Paul is a liturgical feast in honour of the martyrdom in Rome of the apostles Saint Peter and Saint Paul, which is observed on 29 June.
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Feast of the Immaculate Conception
The Feast of the Immaculate Conception celebrates the solemn celebration of belief in the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary.
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Ferdinand Magellan (or; Fernão de Magalhães,; Fernando de Magallanes,; c. 1480 – 27 April 1521) was a Portuguese explorer who organised the Spanish expedition to the East Indies from 1519 to 1522, resulting in the first circumnavigation of the Earth, completed by Juan Sebastián Elcano.
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Ferdinand VII of Spain
Ferdinand VII (Fernando; 14 October 1784 – 29 September 1833) was twice King of Spain: in 1808 and again from 1813 to his death.
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Fernando Francisco González Ciuffardi (born 29 July 1980) is a retired professional tennis player from Chile.
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FIBA Basketball World Cup
The FIBA Basketball World Cup, also known as the FIBA World Cup of Basketball or simply the FIBA World Cup, between 1950 and 2010 known as the FIBA World Championship, is an international basketball competition contested by the men's national teams of the members of the International Basketball Federation (FIBA), the sport's global governing body.
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FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup
The FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup (also called the Basketball World Championship for Women or the FIBA Women's World Cup) is a world basketball tournament for women's national teams held quadrennially.
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Fiestas Patrias (Chile)
The Fiestas Patrias (literally Native Land Holidays) of Chile consists of two days.
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Financial crisis of 2007–2008
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
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Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
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Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish.
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Geologically, a fjord or fiord is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by a glacier.
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Fjords and channels of Chile
The southern coast of Chile presents a large number of fjords and fjord-like channels from the latitudes of Cape Horn (55° S) to Reloncaví Estuary (42° S).
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A flag carrier is a transportation company, such as an airline or shipping company, that, being locally registered in a given sovereign state, enjoys preferential rights or privileges accorded by the government for international operations.
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Flag of Chile
The flag of Chile consists of two equal horizontal bands of white and red, with a blue square the same height as the white band in the canton, which bears a white five-pointed star in the center.
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Flag of Texas
The flag of Texas is the official flag of the U.S. state of Texas.
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Flag of the United States
The flag of the United States of America, often referred to as the American flag, is the national flag of the United States.
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Fodor's is a publisher of English language travel and tourism information and the first relatively professional producer of travel guidebooks.
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Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.
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Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.
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Fondo Nacional de Salud
Fondo Nacional de Salud, also known as FONASA, is the financial entity entrusted to collect, manage and distribute state funds for health in Chile.
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Foreign exchange market
The foreign exchange market (Forex, FX, or currency market) is a global decentralized or over-the-counter (OTC) market for the trading of currencies.
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Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests, woodlands, and associated resources to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human and environment benefits.
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Sir Francis Drake (– 28 January 1596) was an English sea captain, privateer, slave trader, naval officer and explorer of the Elizabethan era.
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Francisco Pizarro González (– 26 June 1541) was a Spanish conquistador who led an expedition that conquered the Inca Empire.
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A free-trade area is the region encompassing a trade bloc whose member countries have signed a free-trade agreement (FTA).
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Freedom of religion
Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.
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Freedom of speech
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.
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Frutillar is a city and commune located in southern Chile in the Los Lagos Region.
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Fuerte Bulnes is a Chilean fort located by the Strait of Magellan, 62 km south of Punta Arenas.
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The Futaleufú River, located in northern Patagonia, is one of the premier whitewater rivers in the world.
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Lucila Godoy Alcayaga (7 April 1889 – 10 January 1957), known by her pseudonym Gabriela Mistral, was a Chilean poet-diplomat, educator and humanist.
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Garlic (Allium sativum) is a species in the onion genus, Allium.
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Garrison (various spellings) (from the French garnison, itself from the verb garnir, "to equip") is the collective term for a body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but now often simply using it as a home base.
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General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon
The General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon is a single-engine supersonic multirole fighter aircraft originally developed by General Dynamics (now Lockheed Martin) for the United States Air Force (USAF).
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Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.
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Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.
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German Chileans (Spanish germanochilenos, German Deutsch-Chilenen) are Chilean citizens who derive their German ancestry from one or both parents.
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German colonization of Valdivia, Osorno and Llanquihue
From 1850 to 1875 the region around Valdivia, Osorno and Llanquihue in Southern Chile received some 6,000 German immigrants as part of a state-led colonization scheme.
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German revolutions of 1848–49
The German revolutions of 1848–49 (Deutsche Revolution 1848/1849), the opening phase of which was also called the March Revolution (Märzrevolution), were initially part of the Revolutions of 1848 that broke out in many European countries.
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A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
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Global Peace Index
Global Peace Index (GPI) measures the relative position of nations' and regions' peacefulness.
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Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
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Gonzalo Rojas Pizarro (December 20, 1916 – April 25, 2011) was a Chilean poet.
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Good Friday is a Christian holiday celebrating the crucifixion of Jesus and his death at Calvary.
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Government Junta of Chile (1810)
Government Assembly of the Kingdom of Chile (September 18, 1810 – July 4, 1811), also known as the First Government Junta, was the organization established to rule Chile following the deposition and imprisonment of King Ferdinand VII by Napoleon Bonaparte.
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Grand Slam (tennis)
The Grand Slam tournaments, also called majors, are the four most important annual tennis events.
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A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis.
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Gran Concepción is the second largest conurbation in Chile, after Greater Santiago, with 945,650 inhabitants according to the 2012 pre census.
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Greater Valparaíso (Gran Valparaíso) is the second largest metropolitan area in Chile, after Greater Santiago.
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Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
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The guanaco (Lama guanicoe) is a camelid native to South America.
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Harold Bloom (born July 11, 1930) is an American literary critic and Sterling Professor of Humanities at Yale University.
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Hemp, or industrial hemp (from Old English hænep), typically found in the northern hemisphere, is a variety of the Cannabis sativa plant species that is grown specifically for the industrial uses of its derived products.
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Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger, May 27, 1923) is an American statesman, political scientist, diplomat and geopolitical consultant who served as the United States Secretary of State and National Security Advisor under the presidential administrations of Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford.
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Hernán Alberto Büchi Buc (born March 6, 1949) is a Chilean economist who served as minister of finance of the Pinochet dicatorship.
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Higher education (also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education) is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education.
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Hippocamelus is a genus of Cervidae, the deer family.
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History of Chile
The territory of Chile has been populated since at least 3000 BC.
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Hockey is a sport in which two teams play against each other by trying to maneuver a ball or a puck into the opponent's goal using a hockey stick.
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A holding company is a company that owns other companies' outstanding stock.
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Huasco River is a river of Chile located in the Huasco Province, Atacama Region.
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Human development (humanity)
Human development is the science that seeks to understand how and why the people of all ages and circumstances change or remain the same over time.
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Human rights violations in Pinochet's Chile
Human rights violations during the military government of Chile refer to the acts of human rights abuses, persecution of opponents, political repression and state terrorism committed by the Chilean armed forces and the Police, government agents and civilians in the service of security agencies, during the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet in Chile from September 11, 1973, until March 11, 1990.
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Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works
Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works are two former saltpeter refineries located in northern Chile.
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Humid subtropical climate
A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and mild to cool winters.
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Humita (from Quechua humint'a) is a Native American dish from pre-Hispanic times, and a traditional food in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador and Peru, although their origin is unclear.
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Illapel is a Chilean city, which is the capital of the Choapa Province, Coquimbo Region.
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The Inca Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, "The Four Regions"), also known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America, and possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century.
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Incahuasi (possibly from Quechua: inka Inca, wasi house) is a volcanic mountain in the Andes of South America.
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Incas in Central Chile
Inca rule in Chile was brief, it lasted from the 1470s to the 1530s when the Inca Empire collapsed.
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Independent Democratic Union
The Independent Democratic Union (Unión Demócrata Independiente, UDI) is a Chilean right-wing, conservative political party, founded in 1983.
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Index of Chile-related articles
The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to the Republic of Chile.
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Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989
The Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989 is an International Labour Organization Convention, also known as ILO-convention 169, or C169.
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Indigenous peoples in Chile
Indigenous peoples in Chile, or Native Chileans, form about 10% of the total population of Chile (2,000,000 self-identified persons of indigenous origins (according to the 2012 census) While many Chileans are of partially indigenous descent, typically the term and its legal ramifications are reserved to those who self-identify with and are accepted within one or more indigenous group. The Mapuches, from the south, accounted for approximately 85% of this number. There were also small populations of Aymara, Quechua, Atacameño, Kolla, Diaguita, Yaghan, Rapa Nui, and Kawaskhar in other parts of the country,. United States Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (March 6, 2007). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. as well as many other extinct cultures such as Cacahue, Chango, Picunche, Chono, Tehuelche, Cunco and Selknam.
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Indigenous peoples of the Americas
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
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International Federation of Football History & Statistics
The International Federation of Football History & Statistics (IFFHS) is an organization that chronicles the history and records of association football.
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International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
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International Labour Organization
The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency dealing with labour problems, particularly international labour standards, social protection, and work opportunities for all.
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International Telecommunication Union
The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; Union Internationale des Télécommunications (UIT)), originally the International Telegraph Union (Union Télégraphique Internationale), is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies.
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Inti-Illimani (from Quechuan inti and / Aymara illimani) are an instrumental and vocal Latin American folk music ensemble from Chile.
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Iquique is a port city and commune in northern Chile, capital of both the Iquique Province and Tarapacá Region.
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Isabel Allende (born August 2, 1942) is a Chilean writer.
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Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego
Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego (English: Big Island of Land of Fire) also formerly Isla de Xativa is an island near the southern tip of South America from which it is separated by the Strait of Magellan.
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Isla Negra is a coastal area in El Quisco commune in central Chile, some 45 km (70 km by road) south of Valparaiso and 96 km (110 km by road) west of Santiago.
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Isla Salas y Gómez
Isla Salas y Gómez, also known as Isla Sala y Gómez, is a small uninhabited Chilean island in the Pacific Ocean.
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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
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James, son of Zebedee
James, son of Zebedee (Hebrew:, Yaʿqob; Greek: Ἰάκωβος; ⲓⲁⲕⲱⲃⲟⲥ; died 44 AD) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus, and traditionally considered the first apostle to be martyred.
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Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
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Joaquín José Lavín Infante (born 23 October 1953) is a Chilean politician and economist.
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John Williams Wilson
John Williams Wilson, also known as Juan Guillermos (1798 – September 14, 1857), was a British-Chilean sailor and politician.
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Jorge Alessandri Rodríguez (19 May 1896 – 31 August 1986) was the 27th President of Chile from 1958 to 1964, and was the candidate of the Chilean right in the crucial presidential election of 1970, which he lost to Salvador Allende.
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José de San Martín
José Francisco de San Martín y Matorras (25 February 1778 – 17 August 1850), known simply as José de San Martín or El Libertador of Argentina, Chile and Peru, was an Argentine general and the prime leader of the southern part of South America's successful struggle for independence from the Spanish Empire who served as the Protector of Peru.
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José Donoso Yáñez (October 5, 1924 – December 7, 1996) was a Chilean writer.
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José Miguel Carrera
José Miguel Carrera Verdugo (October 15, 1785 – September 4, 1821) was a Chilean general, member of the prominent Carrera family, and considered one of the founders of independent Chile.
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Joseph-Napoléon Bonaparte, born Giuseppe Buonaparte (7 January 1768 – 28 July 1844) was a French diplomat and nobleman, the elder brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, who made him King of Naples and Sicily (1806–1808, as Giuseppe I), and later King of Spain (1808–1813, as José I).
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Juan Fernández Islands
The Juan Fernández Islands (Archipiélago Juan Fernández) are a sparsely inhabited island group reliant on tourism and fishing in the South Pacific Ocean.
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Junta (governing body)
Junta, pronounced as "hee-yun-nta", is a Spanish, Greek and Portuguese term for a civil deliberative or administrative council.
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Karel Doorman-class frigate
The Karel Doorman class is a class of eight multi-purpose frigates of the Royal Netherlands Navy.
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Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
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The kilometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: km; or) or kilometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousand metres (kilo- being the SI prefix for). It is now the measurement unit used officially for expressing distances between geographical places on land in most of the world; notable exceptions are the United States and the road network of the United Kingdom where the statute mile is the official unit used.
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King George Island (South Shetland Islands)
King George Island (Argentina: Isla 25 de Mayo, Chile: Isla Rey Jorge, Russian: Ватерло́о Vaterloo) is the largest of the South Shetland Islands, lying off the coast of Antarctica in the Southern Ocean.
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La Araucanía International Airport
La Araucanía International Airport also known as Temuco Airport is the main airport in the Araucanía Region and southern Chile.
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La Frontera, Chile
La Frontera is the name given to a geographical region in Chile.
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La Ley (band)
La Ley (Spanish for "The Law") were a Chilean rock band formed by Andrés Bobe, Rodrigo Aboitiz, Luciano Rojas and Mauricio Claveria with Beto Cuevas.
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La Moneda Palace
Palacio de La Moneda (Palace of the Mint), or simply La Moneda, is the seat of the President of the Republic of Chile.
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La Nación (The Nation) is an Argentine daily newspaper.
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La Serena, Chile
La Serena is a city and commune in northern Chile, capital of the Coquimbo Region.
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Laguna San Rafael National Park
Laguna San Rafael National Park is a park located on the Pacific coast of southern Chile.
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A land bridge, in biogeography, is an isthmus or wider land connection between otherwise separate areas, over which animals and plants are able to cross and colonise new lands.
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Lapageria is a genus of flowering plants with only one known species, Lapageria rosea, commonly known as Chilean bellflower or copihue (co-pee-way Lapageria rosea is the national flower of Chile. It grows in forests in the southern part of Chile, being part of the Valdivian temperate rain forests flora.
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LATAM Airlines, formerly LAN Airlines S.A., is an airline based in Santiago, Chile, and is one of the founders of LATAM Airlines Group, Latin America's largest airline holding company.
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Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
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The Lauca River is a binational river.
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A lava tube is a natural conduit formed by flowing lava which moves beneath the hardened surface of a lava flow.
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Legal education is the education of individuals in the principles, practices, and theory of law.
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The Leopard 2 is a main battle tank developed by Krauss-Maffei in the 1970s for the West German Army.
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Library of Congress
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
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A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
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List of Chilean artists
This is a list of notable of visual artists from, or associated with, Chile.
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List of countries by intentional homicide rate
List of countries by intentional homicide rate per year per 100,000 inhabitants.
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List of hospitals in Chile
There are 425 hospitals in Chile.
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List of museums in Chile
This is a list of museums in Chile.
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Lists of ATP number 1 ranked players
Lists of ATP number 1 ranked players are found in the following articles.
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The llama (Lama glama) is a domesticated South American camelid, widely used as a meat and pack animal by Andean cultures since the Pre-Columbian era.
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The last glacial period and its associated glaciation is known in southern Chile as the Llanquihue glaciation (Glaciación de Llanquihue).
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Llanquihue Province (Provincia de Llanquihue) is one of four provinces of the Chilean region of Los Lagos (X).
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Llullaillaco is a dormant stratovolcano at the border of Argentina (Salta Province) and Chile (Antofagasta Region).
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The Lluta River is a river located in the northern portion of the Arica y Parinacota Region of Chile.
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The Loa River (Spanish: Río Loa) is a U-shaped river in Chile's northern Antofagasta Region.
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Logging is the cutting, skidding, on-site processing, and loading of trees or logs onto trucks or skeleton cars.
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Los de Ramón
Los de Ramón are a Chilean folkloric group of vast trajectory and extended musical diffusion not only in Chile, also in Latin America.
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Los Jaivas is a Chilean musical group who perform in folk, rock, and progressive rock styles.
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Los Lagos Region
Los Lagos Region (Región de Los Lagos, Region of the Lakes) is one of Chile's 15 regions, which are first order administrative divisions, and comprises four provinces: Chiloé, Llanquihue, Osorno and Palena.
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Los Patos (also known as Tres Quebradas) is a mountain in the Andes mountain range of South America.
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Los Prisioneros ("The Prisoners") were a Chilean rock / pop band formed in San Miguel, Santiago, Chile in 1979.
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Los Ríos Region
The Los Ríos Region (Spanish: XIV Región de Los Ríos,, Region of the Rivers) is one of Chile's 15 regions, the country's first-order administrative divisions.
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Los Tres ("The Three (men)") is a Chilean rock band.
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Division General Luis Altamirano Talavera (July 5, 1867 – July 25, 1938) was a Chilean military officer, minister, Vice President of the Republic and finally President of the Government Junta of Chile between 1924 and 1925.
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Luis Ayala (tennis)
Luis Alberto Ayala Salinas (born 18 September 1932) is a Chilean former tennis player who competed in the 1950s and 1960s.
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Colonel Luis Florentino Juan Manuel Silvestre de los Dolores de la Carrera y Verdugo (1791 – April 8, 1818) was a Chilean military officer who fought in the Chilean War of Independence.
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Lumber (American English; used only in North America) or timber (used in the rest of the English speaking world) is a type of wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production.
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Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
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The Region of Magallanes, officially the XII Region of Magallanes and Chilean Antarctica (Región de Magallanes y de la Antártica Chilena), is one of Chile's 15 first order administrative divisions.
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The Maipo River is the main river flowing through the Santiago Metropolitan Region and the Valparaiso Region of Chile.
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Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
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The River Mapocho (Río Mapocho) (Mapudungun: Mapu chuco, "water that penetrates the land") flows from the Andes mountains onto the west and divides Chile's capital Santiago in two.
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The Mapuche are a group of indigenous inhabitants of south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day Patagonia.
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Mapuche or Mapudungun (from mapu 'land' and dungun 'speak, speech') is a language isolate spoken in south-central Chile and west central Argentina by the Mapuche people (from mapu 'land' and che 'people').
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The mythology and religion of the indigenous Mapuche people of south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina is an extensive and ancient belief system.
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Marcelo Andrés Ríos Mayorga (born 26 December 1975) is a former world No. 1 tennis player from Chile.
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Margot Loyola Palacios (September 15, 1918 – August 3, 2015) was a musician, folk singer and researcher of the folklore of Chile and Latin America in general.
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A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
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Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
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Mataveri International Airport
Mataveri International Airport or Isla de Pascua Airport is located at Hanga Roa on Rapa Nui (Easter Island) (Isla de Pascua in Spanish).
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The Maule Region (VII Región del Maule) is one of Chile's 15 first order administrative divisions.
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The Maule river or Río Maule (Mapudungun: rainy) is one of the most important rivers of Chile.
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Mayonnaise (also), informally mayo, is a thick cold sauce or dressing usually used in sandwiches and composed salads.
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A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.
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Mestizo is a term traditionally used in Spain, Latin America, and the Philippines that originally referred a person of combined European and Native American descent, regardless of where the person was born.
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Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley, an Anglican minister in England.
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The metre (British spelling and BIPM spelling) or meter (American spelling) (from the French unit mètre, from the Greek noun μέτρον, "measure") is the base unit of length in some metric systems, including the International System of Units (SI).
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Verónica Michelle Bachelet Jeria (born 29 September 1951) is a Chilean politician who was the President of Chile twice, from 2006 to 2010 and from 2014 to 2018, the first woman in her country to occupy this position.
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Military dictatorship of Chile (1973–90)
The military dictatorship of Chile (dictadura militar de Chile) was an authoritarian military government that ruled Chile between 1973 and 1990.
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Ministry of Health (Chile)
The Ministry of Health of Chile (Ministerio de Salud de Chile), also known as MINSAL, is the cabinet-level administrative office in charge of planning, directing, coordinating, executing, controlling and informing the public health policies formulated by the President of Chile.
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Mocha (Isla Mocha) is a small Chilean island located west of the coast of Arauco Province in the Pacific Ocean.
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Monarchy of Spain
The monarchy of Spain (Monarquía de España), constitutionally referred to as the Crown (La Corona), is a constitutional institution and historic office of Spain.
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Monte Verde is an archaeological site in southern Chile, located near Puerto Montt, Southern Chile, which has been dated to as early as 18,500 BP (16,500 B.C.). Until recently, the widely published date has been 14,800 years BP.
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Mormons are a religious and cultural group related to Mormonism, the principal branch of the Latter Day Saint movement of Restorationist Christianity, initiated by Joseph Smith in upstate New York during the 1820s.
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Mulatto is a term used to refer to people born of one white parent and one black parent or to people born of a mulatto parent or parents.
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Nahuelbuta National Park
Nahuelbuta National Park is one of the few parks located in La Araucanía Region of Chile's Coastal Mountain Range.
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Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
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National Anthem of Chile
The National Anthem of Chile (Himno Nacional de Chile) is also known as Canción Nacional (National Song).
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National Congress of Chile
The National Congress of Chile (Congreso Nacional de Chile) is the legislative branch of the government of the Republic of Chile.
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A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) that has some connection—de facto or de jure—with people and the territory they occupy.
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National Renewal (Chile)
National Renewal (Renovación Nacional, RN) is a liberal conservative political party belonging to the Chilean centre-right political coalition called Chile Vamos in conjunction with the Independent Democratic Union (UDI), the Independent Regionalist Party (PRI) and Political Evolution (Evópoli).
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A national sport is considered to be an intrinsic part of the culture of a nation.
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National Statistics Institute (Chile)
The National Statistics Institute of Chile (Instituto Nacional de Estadística de Chile, INE) is a state-run organization of the Government of Chile, created in the second half of the 19th century and tasked with performing a general census of population and housing, then collecting, producing and publishing official demographic statistics of people in Chile, in addition to other specific tasks entrusted to it by law.
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Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.
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Net asset value
Net asset value (NAV) is the value of an entity's assets minus the value of its liabilities, often in relation to open-end or mutual funds, since shares of such funds registered with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission are redeemed at their net asset value.
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Nevado Tres Cruces
Nevado Tres Cruces is a massif of volcanic origin in the Andes Mountains on the border of Argentina and Chile.
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New Majority (Chile)
The New Majority (Nueva Mayoría) is a Chilean centre-left electoral coalition created in 2013 and composed mainly of centre-left political parties supporting the presidential candidacy of Michelle Bachelet in the 2013 election.
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Nicanor Segundo Parra Sandoval (5 September 1914 – 23 January 2018) was a Chilean poet, mathematician, and physicist.
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Nicaragua, officially the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the north, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
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Nobel Prize in Literature
The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").
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Norte Chico, Chile
The Norte Chico (Small North, Near North, Little North) is one of the five natural regions on which CORFO divided continental Chile in 1950.
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The Norte Grande (Big North, Far North, Great North) is one of the five natural regions into which CORFO divided continental Chile in 1950.
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The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is north of the Equator.
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Nothofagus, also known as the southern beeches, is a genus of 43 species of trees and shrubs native to the Southern Hemisphere in southern South America (Chile, Argentina) and Australasia (east and southeast Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea and New Caledonia).
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Nueva canción ((standard European) or (American) 'new song') is a social movement and musical genre in Iberian America and the Iberian peninsula, characterized by folk-inspired styles and socially committed lyrics.
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The Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins Region (VI Región del Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins), often shortened to O'Higgins Region, is one of Chile's 15 first order administrative divisions.
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The oat (Avena sativa), sometimes called the common oat, is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed, which is known by the same name (usually in the plural, unlike other cereals and pseudocereals).
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Occupation of Araucanía
The Occupation of Araucanía or Pacification of Araucanía (1861–1883) was a series of military campaigns, agreements and penetrations by the Chilean army and settlers into Mapuche territory which led to the incorporation of Araucanía into Chilean national territory.
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Oceania is a geographic region comprising Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia and Australasia.
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An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.
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The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
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Off-road racing is a form of racing consisting of specially-modified vehicles (including cars, trucks, motorcycles, and buggies) racing in off-road environments.
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Ojos del Salado
Nevado Ojos del Salado is a stratovolcano in the Andes on the Argentina–Chile border and the highest active volcano in the world at.
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Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people.
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The onion (Allium cepa L., from Latin cepa "onion"), also known as the bulb onion or common onion, is a vegetable that is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Allium.
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Osorno is a city and commune in southern Chile and capital of Osorno Province in the Los Lagos Region.
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Our Lady of Mount Carmel
Our Lady of Mount Carmel is the title given to the Blessed Virgin Mary in her role as patroness of the Carmelite Order.
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Outline of Chile
188px An enlargeable relief map of the Republic of Chile The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Chile: Chile – country in South America occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes mountains to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
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Pablo de Rokha
Pablo de Rokha (October 20, 1894 in Licantén, Chile - September 10, 1968 in Santiago, Chile) was a Chilean poet.
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Ricardo Eliécer Neftalí Reyes Basoalto (12 July 1904 – 23 September 1973), better known by his pen name and, later, legal name Pablo Neruda, was a Chilean poet-diplomat and politician.
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The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
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The Palena River or Carrenleufú is a river shared by Chile and Argentina in Northern Patagonia.
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The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon.
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The Palestinian people (الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha‘b al-Filasṭīnī), also referred to as Palestinians (الفلسطينيون, al-Filasṭīniyyūn, פָלַסְטִינִים) or Palestinian Arabs (العربي الفلسطيني, al-'arabi il-filastini), are an ethnonational group comprising the modern descendants of the peoples who have lived in Palestine over the centuries, including Jews and Samaritans, and who today are largely culturally and linguistically Arab.
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Pali-Aike volcanic field
Pali-Aike volcanic field is a volcanic field in Argentina which straddles the border with Chile.
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Pampa del Tamarugal
Pampa del Tamarugal ("Plateau of the Tamarugal") is a vast plain encompassing a significant portion of the Norte Grande, Chile, and originally named for the Prosopis tamarugo trees that used to cover its surface.
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Pan American Games
The Pan American Games (also known colloquially as the Pan Am Games) is a major sporting event in the Americas featuring summer sports, in which thousands of athletes participate in a variety of competitions.
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In geometry, parallel lines are lines in a plane which do not meet; that is, two lines in a plane that do not intersect or touch each other at any point are said to be parallel.
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Parinacota (in Hispanicized spelling), Parina Quta or Parinaquta is a dormant stratovolcano on the border of Chile and Bolivia.
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A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
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The Parra family is a Chilean family known for its many artists.
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Pastel de choclo
Pastel de choclo ('corn pie') is a South American dish based on sweetcorn or choclo.
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Patagonia is a sparsely populated region located at the southern end of South America, shared by Argentina and Chile.
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Patricio Aylwin Azócar (26 November 1918 – 19 April 2016) was a Chilean politician from the Christian Democratic Party, lawyer, author, professor and former senator.
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A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism, Eastern Orthodoxy, or particular branches of Islam, is regarded as the heavenly advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family or person.
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The peach (Prunus persica) is a deciduous tree native to the region of Northwest China between the Tarim Basin and the north slopes of the Kunlun Mountains, where it was first domesticated and cultivated.
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The pear is any of several tree and shrub species of genus Pyrus, in the family Rosaceae.
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Pedro de Valdivia
Pedro Gutiérrez de Valdivia or Valdiva (April 17, 1497 – December 25, 1553) was a Spanish missionary and the first Cardinal of Chile.
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Pensions in Chile
The Chile Pension system (Spanish: Sistema Previsional) refers to old-age, disability and survivor pensions for workers in Chile.
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Pentecostalism or Classical Pentecostalism is a renewal movement"Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals",.
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Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area (city, region, country, etc.) in a specified year.
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Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
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The Peru–Bolivian Confederation was a short-lived state that existed in South America between 1836 and 1839.
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Grape phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch 1855); family Phylloxeridae, within the order Hemiptera, bugs); originally described in France as Phylloxera vastatrix; equated to the previously described Daktulosphaira vitifoliae, Phylloxera vitifoliae; commonly just called phylloxera (from φύλλον, leaf, and ξηρός, dry) is a pest of commercial grapevines worldwide, originally native to eastern North America.
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Pichilemu, originally known as Pichilemo, is a beach resort city and commune in central Chile, and capital of Cardenal Caro Province.
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The Picunche (a Mapudungun word meaning "North People"), also referred to as picones by the Spanish, were a Mapudungun-speaking Chilean people living to the north of the Mapuches or Araucanians (a name given to those Mapuche living between the Itata and Toltén rivers) and south of the Choapa River and the Diaguitas.
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Pitrufquén is a Chilean city and commune in Cautín Province, Araucanía Region.
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A plurality vote (in North America) or relative majority (in the United Kingdom) describes the circumstance when a candidate or proposition polls more votes than any other, but does not receive a majority.
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In politics, polarization (or polarisation) can refer to the divergence of political attitudes to ideological extremes.
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Political corruption is the use of powers by government officials or their network contacts for illegitimate private gain.
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Polo is a team sport played on horseback.
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Pomerape is a stratovolcano lying on the border of northern Chile and Bolivia (Oruro Department, Sajama Province, Curahuara de Carangas Municipality).
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Pontifical Catholic University of Chile
The Pontifical Catholic University of Chile (UC) (Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile) is one of the six Catholic Universities existing in the Chilean university system and one of the two Pontifical Universities in the country, along with the Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaíso.
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Pope Benedict XVI
Pope Benedict XVI (Benedictus XVI; Benedetto XVI; Benedikt XVI; born Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger;; 16 April 1927) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 2005 until his resignation in 2013.
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Popular Unity (Chile)
The Popular Unity (Unidad Popular, UP) was a left-wing political alliance in Chile that stood behind the successful candidacy of Salvador Allende for the 1970 Chilean presidential election.
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Portillo is a ski resort in South America, located in the Andes mountains of Chile.
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Poultry are domesticated birds kept by humans for their eggs, their meat or their feathers.
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Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism which traces its origins to Britain, particularly Scotland, and Ireland.
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A preschool, also known as nursery school, pre-primary school, playschool or kindergarten, is an educational establishment or learning space offering early childhood education to children before they begin compulsory education at primary school.
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President of Chile
The President of the Republic of Chile (Presidente de la República de Chile) is the head of state and the head of government of the Republic of Chile.
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President of the Chamber of Deputies of Chile
List of Presidents of the Chamber of Deputies of Chile.
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President of the Senate of Chile
The President of the Senate of Chile is the highest authority of the Senate of Chile.
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President of the United States
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
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Presidente Carlos Ibáñez del Campo International Airport
Presidente Carlos Ibáñez International Airport (Aeropuerto Internacional Presidente Carlos Ibáñez) is an airport serving the city of Punta Arenas in southern Chile in the Patagonia region of South America.
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A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.
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A primary school (or elementary school in American English and often in Canadian English) is a school in which children receive primary or elementary education from the age of about seven to twelve, coming after preschool, infant school and before secondary school.
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Private universities are typically not operated by governments, although many receive tax breaks, public student loans, and grants.
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Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
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A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state.
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Provinces of Chile
A province is the second largest administrative division in Chile with 54 in total.
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Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
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A public holiday, national holiday or legal holiday is a holiday generally established by law and is usually a non-working day during the year.
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A public university is a university that is predominantly funded by public means through a national or subnational government, as opposed to private universities.
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Public works (or internal improvements historically in the United States)Carter Goodrich, (Greenwood Press, 1960)Stephen Minicucci,, Studies in American Political Development (2004), 18:2:160-185 Cambridge University Press.
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Pucón (Mapudungun: "entrance to the cordillera") is a Chilean city and commune administered by the municipality of Pucón.
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The pudús (Mapudungun püdü or püdu, pudú) are two species of South American deer from the genus Pudu, and are the world's smallest deer.
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Puerto Montt is a port city and commune in southern Chile, located at the northern end of the Reloncaví Sound in the Llanquihue Province, Los Lagos Region, 1,055 km to the south of the capital, Santiago.
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Puerto Octay is a town and commune located on the north shore of Llanquihue Lake in Los Lagos Region in the south of Chile.
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Puerto Varas, also known as "La ciudad de las rosas" or “the city of roses”, is a city and commune located in the southern Chilean province of Llanquihue, in the Los Lagos Region.
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Punta Arenas (historically Sandy Point in English) is the capital city of Chile's southernmost region, Magallanes and Antartica Chilena.
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Putre is a Chilean town and commune, capital of the Parinacota Province in the Arica-Parinacota Region.
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The Quechua people are the indigenous peoples of South America who speak any of the Quechua languages.
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Quechua, usually called Runasimi ("people's language") in Quechuan languages, is an indigenous language family spoken by the Quechua peoples, primarily living in the Andes and highlands of South America.
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Quilapayún are a folk music group from Chile and among the longest lasting and most influential ambassadors of the Nueva Canción Chilena movement and genre.
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Raúl de Ramón
Raúl de Ramón, full name Raúl Alberto de Ramón García del Postigo, (May 12, 1929, Santiago de Chile — April 1984) was a Chilean composer, musician and folklorist and author of numerous widely known songs in Chile, such as The Curanto, Nostalgia Colchaguina, Camino de Soledad, Rosa Colorada, Canción de la Caballería, El Amor del Arriero and many more.
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Raúl Zurita Canessa (born 1950) is a Chilean poet.
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Radical Party (Chile)
The Radical Party (Spanish: Partido Radical) of Chile was a Chilean political party.
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Rancagua is a city and commune in central Chile and part of the Rancagua conurbation.
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Rapa Nui language
Rapa Nui or Rapanui also known as Pascuan, or Pascuense, is an Eastern Polynesian language spoken on the island of Rapa Nui, also known as Easter Island.
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Rapa Nui mythology
Rapa Nui mythology, also known as Pascuense mythology or Easter Island mythology, refers to the native myths, legends, and beliefs of the Rapa Nui people of Easter Island in the south eastern Pacific Ocean.
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Rapa Nui National Park
Rapa Nui National Park is a national park and UNESCO World Heritage Site located on Easter Island, Chile.
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The Real Situado was an annual payment of silver from the Viceroyalty of Peru to finance the Spanish army of Chile that as result of the Arauco War.
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Reconquista (Spanish America)
In colonial Spanish America, the Reconquista refers to the period following the defeat of Napoleon in 1814 during which royalist armies were able to gain the upper hand in the Spanish American wars of independence.
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A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal.
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Reformation Day is a Protestant Christian religious holiday celebrated on October 31, alongside All Hallows' Eve (Halloween) during the triduum of Allhallowtide, in remembrance of the onset of the Reformation.
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In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental geography).
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Regions of Chile
Chile is divided into 15 regions (in Spanish, regiones; singular región), which are the country's first-level administrative division.
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Religious discrimination is treating a person or group differently because of the beliefs they hold about a religion.
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The Rettig Report, officially The National Commission for Truth and Reconciliation Report, is a 1991 report by a commission designated by then-President Patricio Aylwin (from the Concertación) encompassing human rights abuses resulting in death or disappearance that occurred in Chile during the years of military dictatorship under Augusto Pinochet, which began on September 11, 1973 and ended on March 11, 1990.
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Ricardo Froilán Lagos Escobar (born 2 March 1938) is a Chilean lawyer, economist and social democrat politician who served as President of Chile from 2000 to 2006.
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Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.
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Ring of Fire
The Ring of Fire is a major area in the basin of the Pacific Ocean where many earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur.
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Roberto Bolaño Ávalos (28 April 1953 – 15 July 2003) was a Chilean novelist, short-story writer, poet and essayist.
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Robinson Crusoe Island
Robinson Crusoe Island (Isla Róbinson Crusoe), formerly known as Más a Tierra (Closer to Land), is the second largest of the Juan Fernández Islands, situated west of San Antonio, Chile, in the South Pacific Ocean.
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The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages.
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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
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Salar de Atacama
Salar de Atacama is the largest salt flat in Chile.
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Salvador Guillermo Allende Gossens (26 June 1908 – 11 September 1973) was a Chilean physician and politician, known as the first Marxist to become president of a Latin American country through open elections.
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San Pedro de Atacama
San Pedro de Atacama is a Chilean town and commune in El Loa Province, Antofagasta Region.
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Sandinista National Liberation Front
The Sandinista National Liberation Front (Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional, FSLN) is a democratic socialist political party in Nicaragua.
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Santiago, also known as Santiago de Chile, is the capital and largest city of Chile as well as one of the largest cities in the Americas.
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Santiago Metropolitan Region
Santiago Metropolitan Region (Región Metropolitana de Santiago) is one of Chile's 15 first-order administrative divisions.
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Miguel Juan Sebastián Piñera Echenique (born 1 December 1949) is a Chilean politician and businessman.
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A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place.
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Seismology (from Ancient Greek σεισμός (seismós) meaning "earthquake" and -λογία (-logía) meaning "study of") is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies.
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Senate of Chile
The Senate of the Republic of Chile is the upper house of Chile's bicameral National Congress, as established in the current Constitution of Chile.
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Senator for life
A senator for life is a member of the senate or equivalent upper chamber of a legislature who has life tenure.
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Separation of church and state
The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the nation state.
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Seventh-day Adventist Church
The Seventh-day Adventist Church is a Protestant Christian denomination distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the seventh day of the week in Christian and Jewish calendars, as the Sabbath, and by its emphasis on the imminent Second Coming (advent) of Jesus Christ.
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Sewell is an uninhabited Chilean mining town located on the slopes of the Andes in the commune of Machalí in Cachapoal Province, Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins Region, at an altitude of between 2,000 and 2,250 metres.
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Skiing can be a means of transport, a recreational activity or a competitive winter sport in which the participant uses skis to glide on snow.
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Slash-and-burn agriculture, or fire–fallow cultivation, is a farming method that involves the cutting and burning of plants in a forest or woodland to create a field called a swidden.
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Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
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Snowboarding is a recreational activity and Olympic and Paralympic sport that involves descending a snow-covered slope while standing on a snowboard attached to a rider's feet.
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Socialist Party of Chile
The Socialist Party of Chile (Partido Socialista de Chile, or PS) is a political party within the centre-left Nueva Mayoría.
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South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
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South American gray fox
The South American gray fox (Lycalopex griseus), also known as the Patagonian fox, the chilla or the gray zorro, is a species of Lycalopex, the "false" foxes.
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South American Plate
The South American Plate is a tectonic plate which includes the continent of South America and also a sizeable region of the Atlantic Ocean seabed extending eastward to the African Plate creating the Mid-Atlantic Ridge The easterly side is a divergent boundary with the African Plate forming the southern part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
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South Bolivian Quechua
South Bolivian Quechua, also known as Central Bolivian Quechua, is a dialect of Southern Quechua spoken in Bolivia and adjacent areas of Argentina, where it is also known as Colla.
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South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
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The Southern Cone (Cono Sur, Cone Sul) is a geographic and cultural region composed of the southernmost areas of South America, south of and around the Tropic of Capricorn.
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The Southern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is south of the Equator.
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Southern Patagonian Ice Field
The Southern Patagonian Ice Field (Hielo Continental or Campo de Hielo Sur), located at the Southern Patagonic Andes between Chile and Argentina, is the world's second largest contiguous extrapolar ice field.
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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
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The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
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Spanish immigration to Chile
Spanish Chileans (in Spanish: Chileno-español) refer more often to Chileans of post-independence Spanish immigrant descent, as they have retained a Spanish cultural identity.
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Standard & Poor's
Standard & Poor's Financial Services LLC (S&P) is an American financial services company.
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Standard of living
Standard of living refers to the level of wealth, comfort, material goods, and necessities available to a certain socioeconomic class in a certain geographic area, usually a country.
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Strait of Magellan
The Strait of Magellan, also called the Straits of Magellan, is a navigable sea route in southern Chile separating mainland South America to the north and Tierra del Fuego to the south.
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A supermajority or supra-majority or a qualified majority, is a requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level of support which is greater than the threshold of one-half used for majority.
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Supreme Court of Chile
The Supreme Court of Chile is the highest court in Chile.
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Surfing is a surface water sport in which the wave rider, referred to as a surfer, rides on the forward or deep face of a moving wave, which is usually carrying the surfer towards the shore.
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Surfing in Chile
Chile has many beaches for surfing, especially in the northern region where the weather conditions attract many surfers from all over the world.
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Talca is a city and commune in Chile located about south of Santiago, and is the capital of both Talca Province and Maule Region (7th Region of Chile).
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Talcahuano is a port city and commune in the Biobío Region of Chile.
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The Tarapacá Region (I Región de Tarapacá) is one of Chile's 15 first-order administrative divisions.
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Telecommunications in Chile
The technical regulator of communications in Chile is the Ministry of Transportation and Telecommunications, through the Undersecretariat of Telecommunications (Subtel).
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Telephone numbers in Chile
The following telephone numbers in Chile are geographic area codes for all national and international calls terminating in Chile.
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Temuco is a city and commune, capital of the Cautín Province and of the Araucanía Region in southern Chile.
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Teresa of the Andes
Saint Teresa of Jesus of Los Andes (13 July 1900 – 12 April 1920) - born as Juana Fernández Solar - (Teresa de Jesús de Los Andes) was a Chilean professed religious from the Discalced Carmelites.
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Termas de Chillán
Termas de Chillán is a town located 82 km east of the Chilean city of Chillán.
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The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), often informally known as the Mormon Church, is a nontrinitarian, Christian restorationist church that is considered by its members to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ.
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The Obscene Bird of Night
The Obscene Bird of Night (El obsceno pájaro de la noche, 1970) is the most acclaimed novel by the Chilean writer José Donoso.
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The World Factbook
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
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Time in Chile
Time in Chile is divided into three time zones.
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Toltén River is a river located in the La Araucanía Region of Chile.
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Torres del Paine National Park
Torres del Paine National Park (Parque Nacional Torres del Paine) is a national park encompassing mountains, glaciers, lakes, and rivers in southern Chilean Patagonia.
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The Transverse Valleys (Spanish: Valles transversales) are a group of transverse valleys in the semi-arid northern Chile.
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A tribal chief is the leader of a tribal society or chiefdom.
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A tsunami (from 津波, "harbour wave"; English pronunciation) or tidal wave, also known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake.
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Tupungato, one of the highest mountains in the Americas, is a massive Andean stratovolcano dating to Pleistocene times.
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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
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Union of South American Nations
The Union of South American Nations (USAN; Unión de Naciones Suramericanas, UNASUR; União de Nações Sul-Americanas, UNASUL; Unie van Zuid-Amerikaanse Naties, UZAN; and sometimes referred to as the South American Union) is an intergovernmental regional organization comprising twelve South American countries.
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A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
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The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
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United Nations Charter
The Charter of the United Nations (also known as the UN Charter) of 1945 is the foundational treaty of the United Nations, an intergovernmental organization.
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United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
The United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, known as ECLAC, UNECLAC or in Spanish and Portuguese CEPAL, is a United Nations regional commission to encourage economic cooperation.
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United Nations General Assembly
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
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United Nations Human Rights Council
The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) is a United Nations body whose mission is to promote and protect human rights around the world.
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United Nations Security Council
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
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United Nations Security Council election, 2013
The 2013 United Nations Security Council election was held on 17 October 2013 during the 68th session of the United Nations General Assembly, held at United Nations Headquarters in New York City.
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United States Department of State
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
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United States intervention in Chile
Chile is a country in the southern South America.
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University of Chile
The University of Chile (Universidad de Chile) is a public university located in Santiago, Chile.
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University of Concepción
Universidad de Concepción, also known by its acronym UdeC, is a traditional Chilean private university, the work of the Penquista community, one of the most traditional and prestigious in its country, considered complex due to its extensive research in the various areas of knowledge.
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US Open (tennis)
The United States Open Tennis Championships is a hard court tennis tournament.
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Vachellia caven (Roman Cassie, Aromita, Aromo Criollo, Caven, Churque, Churqui, Espinillo, Espinillo de Baado, Espino, Espino Maulino) is an ornamental tree in the Fabaceae family.
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Valdivia is a city and commune in southern Chile, administered by the Municipality of Valdivia.
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The Valech Report (officially The National Commission on Political Imprisonment and Torture Report) was a record of abuses committed in Chile between 1973 and 1990 by agents of Augusto Pinochet's military regime.
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Valle de la Luna (Chile)
El Valle de la Luna (Valley of the Moon) is located west of San Pedro de Atacama, to the north of Chile in the Cordillera de la Sal, in the Atacama desert.
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Valle Nevado (Snowy Valley in the Spanish language) is a ski resort located on the El Plomo foothills in the Andes Mountains, at 46 km to the east of Santiago, the capital of Chile.
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Valparaíso is a major city, seaport, and educational center in the commune of Valparaíso, Chile.
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The Valparaíso Region is one of Chile's 15 first order administrative divisions.
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Víctor Lidio Jara Martínez (28 September 1932 – 16 September 1973) was a Chilean teacher, theater director, poet, singer-songwriter and political activist tortured and killed during the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet.
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Viña del Mar
Viña del Mar (meaning "Vineyard of the Sea"), is a city and commune on central Chile's Pacific coast.
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Viña del Mar International Song Festival
The Viña del Mar International Song Festival (Festival Internacional de la Canción de Viña del Mar) is a music festival that has been held annually during the 3rd week of February in Viña del Mar, Chile.
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Vicente García-Huidobro Fernández (January 10, 1893 – January 2, 1948) was a Chilean poet born to an aristocratic family.
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Victoria is a city and commune in Malleco Province of La Araucanía Region, Chile.
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Lake Villarrica, also known as Mallalafquén (its pre-Hispanic name in Mapudungun), is located about 700 kilometers south of Santiago in Chile’s Lake District in the southeast area of the Province of Cautín.
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Violeta del Carmen Parra Sandoval (4 October 1917 – 5 February 1967) was a Chilean composer, songwriter, folklorist, ethnomusicologist and visual artist.
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A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
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War of the Confederation
The War of the Confederation (Guerra de la Confederación) was a conflict between the Peru-Bolivian Confederation and a coalition of Argentina and the United Restorative Army, composed of Chile and North Peruvian dissidents, from 1836 to 1839.
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War of the Pacific
The War of the Pacific (Guerra del Pacífico), also known as the Salpeter War (Guerra del Salitre) and by multiple other names (see the etymology section below) was a war between Chile on one side and a Bolivian-Peruvian alliance on the other.
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The Wesleyan Church is a holiness Protestant Christian denomination in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, South Africa, Namibia, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Indonesia, Asia, and Australia.
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Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
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White Latin Americans
White Latin Americans or European Latin Americans are Latin Americans who are considered white, typically due to European, or in some cases Levantine, descent.
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White people is a racial classification specifier, used mostly for people of European descent; depending on context, nationality, and point of view, the term has at times been expanded to encompass certain persons of North African, Middle Eastern, and South Asian descent, persons who are often considered non-white in other contexts.
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Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, angora from rabbits, and other types of wool from camelids.
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The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
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World Bank high-income economy
A high-income economy is defined by the World Bank as a country with a gross national income per capita US$12,236 or more in 2016, calculated using the Atlas method.
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World Heritage site
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
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World Polo Championship
The World Polo Championship is a polo competition between countries.
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World Team Cup
The World Team Cup was the international men's team championship of the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP).
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Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.
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The Yelcho River is a river in the Los Lagos Region of southern Chile.
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The yellow-winged blackbird (Agelasticus thilius) is a species of bird in the family Icteridae.
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Yogurt, yoghurt, or yoghourt (or; from yoğurt; other spellings listed below) is a food produced by bacterial fermentation of milk.
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The Zona Austral (Southernmost Zone) is one of the five natural regions into which CORFO divided continental Chile in 1950 corresponding to the Chilean portion of Patagonia.
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The Zona Sur (Southern Zone) is one of the five natural regions on which CORFO divided continental Chile in 1950.
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.cl is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Chile.
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17th parallel south
The 17th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 17 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.
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1959 FIBA World Championship
The 1959 FIBA World Championship was an international basketball competition hosted by Chile from January 16 to 31, 1959.
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1962 FIFA World Cup
The 1962 FIFA World Cup was the seventh FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international football championship for men's national teams.
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1973 Chilean coup d'état
The 1973 Chilean coup d'état was a watershed moment in both the history of Chile and the Cold War.
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2000 Summer Olympics
The 2000 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXVII Olympiad and commonly known as Sydney 2000 or the Millennium Olympic Games/Games of the New Millennium, were an international multi-sport event which was held between 15 September and 1 October 2000 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
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2004 Summer Olympics
The 2004 Summer Olympic Games (Θερινοί Ολυμπιακοί Αγώνες 2004), officially known as the Games of the XXVIII Olympiad and commonly known as Athens 2004, was a premier international multi-sport event held in Athens, Greece, from 13 to 29 August 2004 with the motto Welcome Home. 10,625 athletes competed, some 600 more than expected, accompanied by 5,501 team officials from 201 countries.
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2008 Summer Olympics
The 2008 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad and commonly known as Beijing 2008, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 8 to 24 August 2008 in Beijing, China.
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2010 Chile earthquake
The 2010 Chile earthquake (Terremoto del 27F) occurred off the coast of central Chile on Saturday, 27 February at 03:34 local time (06:34 UTC), having a magnitude of 8.8 on the moment magnitude scale, with intense shaking lasting for about three minutes.
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2010 Copiapó mining accident
The 2010 Copiapó mining accident, also known then as the "Chilean mining accident", began on Thursday, 5 August 2010 with a cave-in at the San José copper–gold mine, located in the Atacama Desert north of the regional capital of Copiapó, in northern Chile.
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2015 Copa América
The 2015 Copa América was the 44th edition of the Copa América, the main international football tournament for national teams in South America, and took place in Chile between 11 June and 4 July 2015.
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56th parallel south
The 56th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 56 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.
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66th meridian west
The meridian 66° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, North America, the Atlantic Ocean, the Caribbean Sea, South America, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
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75th meridian west
The meridian 75° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, North America, the Atlantic Ocean, the Caribbean Sea, South America, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
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Chilean Republic, Chilé, Etymology of Chile, Far left of bottom America, ISO 3166-1:CL, Name of Chile, Republic of Chile, República de Chile, State of Chile.