289 relations: Accessory visual structures, Acute erythroid leukemia, Acute leukemia, Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia, Acute monocytic leukemia, Acute myeloid leukemia, Acute myelomonocytic leukemia, Acute panmyelosis with myelofibrosis, Acute promyelocytic leukemia, Adenoma, Adrenal gland, Adrenal medulla, Adrenal tumor, Adrenocortical carcinoma, Anal canal, Anal cancer, Angioleiomyoma, Angiolipoma, Angioma, Angiosarcoma, Anus, Aortic body, Appendix (anatomy), Ascending colon, Atypical fibroxanthoma, Autonomic nervous system, B-cell lymphoma, Benign tumor, Benignity, Bile duct, Bladder cancer, Bone, Bone tumor, Bowen's disease, Brain, Brain tumor, Brainstem, Breast, Breast cancer, Bronchus, Burkitt's lymphoma, Cancer, Carcinoma, Carcinoma in situ, Carotid body, Cauda equina, Cavernous hemangioma, Cecum, Central nervous system, ..., Cerebellum, Cerebrum, Cervical cancer, Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, Cholangiocarcinoma, Chondroma, Choriocarcinoma, Choroid, Chronic leukemia, Chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Chronic myelogenous leukemia, Ciliary body, Clavicle, Coccyx, Cochlear nerve, Colic flexures, Colorectal cancer, Conjunctiva, Connective tissue, Cornea, Cranial nerves, Craniopharyngeal canal, Curvatures of the stomach, Cutaneous T cell lymphoma, Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, Descending colon, Duodenal cancer, Duodenum, Endocrine gland, Endometrial cancer, Esophageal cancer, Esophagus, Eye neoplasm, Face, Familial adenomatous polyposis, Female reproductive system, Fiber, Fibrosarcoma, Follicular lymphoma, Frontal lobe, Gallbladder cancer, Gastrointestinal tract, Haematopoiesis, Hairy cell leukemia, Head and neck cancer, Health care, Heart, Heart cancer, Heavy chain disease, Hemangiopericytoma, Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, Hepatoblastoma, Hepatocellular carcinoma, Hibernoma, Histiocyte, Histiocytoma, Histiocytosis, Hodgkin's lymphoma, Human brain, Human digestive system, Human eye, Human leg, Human mouth, Human skin, Hyaline cartilage, ICD-10, Ileum, Immunoproliferative disorder, In situ, Infantile hemangioma, International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Intrahepatic bile ducts, Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia, Jejunum, Kaposi's sarcoma, Kidney, Lacrimal gland, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, Large cell, Large intestine, Large-cell lymphoma, Laryngeal cancer, Larynx, Leiomyoma, Leiomyosarcoma, Lennert lymphoma, Letterer–Siwe disease, Leukemia, Limb (anatomy), Lip, Lipoblastomatosis, Lipoma, Liver, Long bone, Lung, Lung cancer, Lymph node, Lymphangioma, Lymphangiosarcoma, Lymphatic system, Lymphoblast, Lymphoid leukemia, Lymphoma, Male reproductive system, Malignancy, Malignant histiocytosis, Mast cell, Mast cell leukemia, Mast cell sarcoma, Mastocytoma, Mastocytosis, Meckel's diverticulum, Mediastinum, Medical classification, Melanocytic nevus, Melanoma, Meninges, Mesothelioma, Mesothelium, Middle ear, Monocytic leukemia, Mouth, Multiple endocrine neoplasia, Multiple myeloma, Mycosis fungoides, Myelodysplastic syndrome, Myelofibrosis, Myeloid leukemia, Myeloid sarcoma, Myeloproliferative neoplasm, Myxoma, Nasal cavity, Nasopharynx cancer, Neoplasm, Neuroblastoma, Nodular sclerosis, Nodule (medicine), Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Occipital lobe, Olfactory nerve, Optic nerve, Oral cancer, Orbit, Ovarian cancer, Ovary, Pancoast tumor, Pancreas, Pancreatic cancer, Pancreatic duct, Pancreatic islets, Paraganglion, Paraproteinemia, Parathyroid gland, Parietal lobe, Parotid gland, Pelvis, Penile cancer, Peripheral, Peripheral nervous system, Peripheral T-cell lymphoma, Peritoneum, Pharynx, Pheochromocytoma, Pineal gland, Pituitary adenoma, Pituitary gland, Placenta, Plasma cell, Plasmacytoma, Pleomorphic adenoma, Polycythemia, Polycythemia vera, Precancerous condition, Prolactinoma, Prostate cancer, Pulmonary pleurae, Pylorus, Rectum, Renal cell carcinoma, Renal pelvis, Respiration (physiology), Respiratory system, Retina, Retinoblastoma, Retroperitoneal space, Rhabdomyoma, Rhabdomyosarcoma, Rib cage, Sacrum, Salivary gland, Sarcoma, Sézary disease, Scapula, Schwannoma, Sex organ, Short bone, Sigmoid colon, Skin, Skin cancer, Skull, Small cleaved cells, Small intestine, Small intestine cancer, Soft tissue, Spinal cord, Spleen, Sternum, Stomach, Stomach cancer, Sublingual gland, Submandibular gland, Temporal lobe, Testicular cancer, The International League of Dermatological Societies, Thoracic cavity, Thrombocythemia, Thymus, Thyroid, Thyroid cancer, Trachea, Transverse colon, Upper limb, Ureter, Urethra, Urinary bladder, Urinary system, Uterine cancer, Uterine fibroid, Uterus, Vaginal cancer, Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia, Ventricular system, Vertebral column, Vulva, Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, Warthin's tumor, Wilms' tumor, World Health Organization. Expand index (239 more) » « Shrink index
Accessory visual structures are the adnexa of the eye, including the eyebrow, eyelids, and lacrimal apparatus.
Acute erythroid leukemia or Di Guglielmo syndrome is a rare form of acute myeloid leukemia (less than 5% of AML cases) where the myeloproliferation is of erythroblastic precursors.
Acute leukemia or acute leukaemia is a family of serious medical conditions relating to an original diagnosis of leukemia.
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a cancer of the lymphoid line of blood cells characterized by the development of large numbers of immature lymphocytes.
Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) is a form of leukemia where a majority of the blasts are megakaryoblastic.
Acute monocytic leukemia (AMoL, or AML-M5) is considered a type of acute myeloid leukemia.
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer of the myeloid line of blood cells, characterized by the rapid growth of abnormal cells that build up in the bone marrow and blood and interfere with normal blood cells.
Acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AMMoL) is a form of acute myeloid leukemia that involves a proliferation of CFU-GM myeloblasts and monoblasts.
Acute panmyelosis with myelofibrosis (APMF) it is a poorly defined disorder that arises as either a clonal disorder, or following toxic exposure to the bone marrow.
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APML, APL) is a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a cancer of the white blood cells.
An adenoma (from Greek αδένας, adeno-, "gland" + -ώμα, -oma, "tumor") (plural adenomas or adenomata) is a benign tumor of epithelial tissue with glandular origin, glandular characteristics, or both.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
The adrenal medulla (medulla glandulae suprarenalis) is part of the adrenal gland.
An adrenal tumor or adrenal mass is any benign or malignant neoplasms of the adrenal gland, several of which are notable for their tendency to overproduce endocrine hormones.
Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC, adrenal cortical carcinoma, adrenal cortical cancer, adrenal cortex cancer, etc.) is an aggressive cancer originating in the cortex (steroid hormone-producing tissue) of the adrenal gland.
The anal canal is the terminal part of the large intestine.
Anal cancer is a cancer (malignant tumor) which arises from the anus, the distal opening of the gastrointestinal tract.
Angioleiomyoma (vascular leiomyoma, angiomyoma) of the skin is thought to arise from vascular smooth muscle, and is generally acquired.
Angiolipoma is a subcutaneous nodule with vascular structure, having all other features of a typical lipoma.
Angiomas are benign tumors derived from cells of the vascular or lymphatic vessel walls (endothelium) derived from cells of the tissues surrounding these vessels.
Angiosarcoma is a cancer of the cells that line the walls of blood vessels or lymphatic vessels.
The anus (from Latin anus meaning "ring", "circle") is an opening at the opposite end of an animal's digestive tract from the mouth.
The aortic body is one of several small clusters of peripheral chemoreceptors known as glomus cells, baroreceptors, and supporting cells located along the aortic arch.
The appendix (or vermiform appendix; also cecal appendix; vermix; or vermiform process) is a blind-ended tube connected to the cecum, from which it develops in the embryo.
The ascending colon is the part of the colon located between the cecum and the transverse colon.
Atypical fibroxanthoma of the skin is a low-grade malignancy related to malignant fibrous histiocytoma, which it resembles histologically.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.
The B-cell lymphomas are types of lymphoma affecting B cells.
A benign tumor is a mass of cells (tumor) that lacks the ability to invade neighboring tissue or metastasize.
Benignity (from Latin benignus "kind, good", itself deriving from bonus "good" and genus "origin") is any condition that is harmless in the long run.
A bile duct is any of a number of long tube-like structures that carry bile, and is present in most vertebrates.
Bladder cancer is any of several types of cancer arising from the tissues of the urinary bladder.
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
A bone tumor (also spelled bone tumour) is a neoplastic growth of tissue in bone.
Bowen's disease, also known as squamous cell carcinoma in situJames, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
A brain tumor occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain.
The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.
The breast is one of two prominences located on the upper ventral region of the torso of primates.
Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.
A bronchus, is a passage of airway in the respiratory system that conducts air into the lungs.
Burkitt lymphoma is a cancer of the lymphatic system, particularly B lymphocytes found in the germinal center.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Carcinoma is a type of cancer that develops from epithelial cells.
Carcinoma in situ (CIS), also known as in situ neoplasm, is a group of abnormal cells.
The carotid body (carotid glomus or glomus caroticum) is a small cluster of chemoreceptors and supporting cells located near the fork (bifurcation) of the carotid artery (which runs along both sides of the throat).
The cauda equina is a bundle of spinal nerves and spinal nerve rootlets, consisting of the second through fifth lumbar nerve pairs, the first through fifth sacral nerve pairs, and the coccygeal nerve, all of which arise from the lumbar enlargement and the conus medullaris of the spinal cord.
Cavernous hemangioma, also called cavernous angioma, cavernoma, or cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) (when referring to presence in the brain) is a type of blood vessel malformation or hemangioma, where a collection of dilated blood vessels form a benign tumor.
The cecum or caecum (plural ceca; from the Latin caecus meaning blind) is an intraperitoneal pouch that is considered to be the beginning of the large intestine.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.
The cerebrum is a large part of the brain containing the cerebral cortex (of the two cerebral hemispheres), as well as several subcortical structures, including the hippocampus, basal ganglia, and olfactory bulb.
Cervical cancer is a cancer arising from the cervix.
Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), also known as cervical dysplasia, is the abnormal growth of cells on the surface of the cervix that could potentially lead to cervical cancer.
Cholangiocarcinoma, also known as bile duct cancer or "sneaky Pete", is a form of cancer that is composed of mutated epithelial cells (or cells showing characteristics of epithelial differentiation) that originate in the bile ducts which drain bile from the liver into the small intestine.
A chondroma is a benign cartilaginous tumor, which is encapsulated with a lobular growing pattern.
Choriocarcinoma is a malignant, trophoblastic cancer, usually of the placenta.
The choroid, also known as the choroidea or choroid coat, is the vascular layer of the eye, containing connective tissues, and lying between the retina and the sclera.
Chronic leukemia is an increase of abnormal white blood cells.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes too many lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), also known as chronic myeloid leukemia, is a cancer of the white blood cells.
The ciliary body is a part of the eye that includes the ciliary muscle, which controls the shape of the lens, and the ciliary epithelium, which produces the aqueous humor.
The clavicle or collarbone is a long bone that serves as a strut between the shoulder blade and the sternum or breastbone.
The coccyx, commonly referred to as the tailbone, is the final segment of the vertebral column in humans and apes, and certain other mammals such as horses.
The cochlear nerve (also auditory or acoustic neuron) is one of two parts of the vestibulocochlear nerve, a cranial nerve present in amniotes, the other part being the vestibular nerve.
There are two colic flexures, or curvatures in the transverse colon.
Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer and colon cancer, is the development of cancer from the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine).
The conjunctiva lines the inside of the eyelids and covers the sclera (the white of the eye).
Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue.
The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber.
Cranial nerves are the nerves that emerge directly from the brain (including the brainstem), in contrast to spinal nerves (which emerge from segments of the spinal cord).
The craniopharyngeal canal, is a human anatomical feature sometimes found in the sphenoid bone opening to the sella turcica.
The curvatures of the stomach refer to the greater and lesser curvatures.
Cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a class of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which is a type of cancer of the immune system.
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a rare tumor.
The descending colon is the part of the large intestine from the splenic flexure to the beginning of the sigmoid colon.
Duodenal cancer is a cancer in the beginning section of the small intestine.
The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
Endocrine glands are glands of the endocrine system that secrete their products, hormones, directly into the blood rather than through a duct.
Endometrial cancer is a cancer that arises from the endometrium (the lining of the uterus or womb).
Esophageal cancer is cancer arising from the esophagus—the food pipe that runs between the throat and the stomach.
The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the food pipe or gullet (gut), is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.
Eye neoplasms can affect all parts of the eye, and can be a benign tumor or a malignant tumor (cancer).
The face is a central body region of sense and is also very central in the expression of emotion among humans and among numerous other species.
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant inherited condition in which numerous adenomatous polyps form mainly in the epithelium of the large intestine.
The female reproductive system is made up of the internal and external sex organs that function in reproduction of new offspring.
Fiber or fibre (see spelling differences, from the Latin fibra) is a natural or synthetic substance that is significantly longer than it is wide.
Fibrosarcoma (fibroblastic sarcoma) is a malignant mesenchymal tumour derived from fibrous connective tissue and characterized by the presence of immature proliferating fibroblasts or undifferentiated anaplastic spindle cells in a storiform pattern.
Follicular lymphoma is a type of blood cancer.
The frontal lobe, located at the front of the brain, is the largest of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the mammalian brain.
Gallbladder cancer is a relatively uncommon cancer.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Haematopoiesis (from Greek αἷμα, "blood" and ποιεῖν "to make"; also hematopoiesis in American English; sometimes also haemopoiesis or hemopoiesis) is the formation of blood cellular components.
Hairy cell leukemia is an uncommon hematological malignancy characterized by an accumulation of abnormal B lymphocytes.
Head and neck cancer is a group of cancers that starts in the mouth, nose, throat, larynx, sinuses, or salivary glands.
Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Heart cancer is an extremely rare form of cancer that is divided into primary tumors of the heart and secondary tumors of the heart.
Heavy chain disease is a form of paraproteinemia and plasma cell dyscrasia that involves the proliferation of cells producing immunoglobulin heavy chains.
A hemangiopericytoma (HPC) is a type of soft tissue sarcoma that originates in the pericytes in the walls of capillaries.
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), also known as haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (British spelling), and hemophagocytic or haemophagocytic syndrome, is an uncommon hematologic disorder seen more often in children than in adults.
Hepatoblastoma is an uncommon malignant liver cancer occurring in infants and children and composed of tissue resembling fetal liver cells, mature liver cells, or bile duct cells.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer in adults, and is the most common cause of death in people with cirrhosis.
A hibernoma is a benign neoplasm of vestigial brown fat.
A histiocyte is an animal cell that is part of the mononuclear phagocyte system (also known as the reticuloendothelial system or lymphoreticular system).
A histiocytoma is a tumour consisting of histiocytes.
In medicine, histiocytosis is an excessive number of histiocytes (tissue macrophages), and the term is also often used to refer to a group of rare diseases which share this sign as a characteristic.
Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is a type of lymphoma which is generally believed to result from white blood cells of the lymphocyte kind.
The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.
The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder).
The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure.
The human leg, in the general meaning, is the entire lower limb of the human body, including the foot, thigh and even the hip or gluteal region.
In human anatomy, the mouth is the first portion of the alimentary canal that receives food and produces saliva.
The human skin is the outer covering of the body.
Hyaline cartilage is glass-like (hyaline) but translucent cartilage.
ICD-10 is the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), a medical classification list by the World Health Organization (WHO).
The ileum is the final section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
Immunoproliferative disorders, also known as immunoproliferative diseases or immunoproliferative neoplasms, are disorders of the immune system that are characterized by the abnormal proliferation of the primary cells of the immune system, which includes B cells, T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, or by the excessive production of immunoglobulins (also known as antibodies).
In situ (often not italicized in English) is a Latin phrase that translates literally to "on site" or "in position".
A hemangioma, also known as infantile hemangioma (IH), is one of the most common benign tumors of infancy and occurs in approximately 5–10% of infants,Drolet BA, Esterly NB, Frieden IJ.
The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain-specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases.
The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes." Its full official name is International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization (WHO), the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System.
Intrahepatic bile ducts compose the outflow system of exocrine bile product from the liver.
Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (also known as "Masson's hemangio-endotheliome vegetant intravasculaire," "Masson's lesion," "Masson's pseudoangiosarcoma," "Masson's tumor," and "Papillary endothelial hyperplasia") is a rare, benign tumor.
The jejunum is the second part of the small intestine in humans and most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a type of cancer that can form masses in the skin, lymph nodes, or other organs.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
The lacrimal glands are paired, almond-shaped exocrine glands, one for each eye, that secrete the aqueous layer of the tear film.
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease involving clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells, abnormal cells deriving from bone marrow and capable of migrating from skin to lymph nodes.
Large cell is a term used in oncology.
The large intestine, also known as the large bowel or colon, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates.
One classification system for lymphomas divides the diseases according to the size of the white blood cells that has turned cancerous.
Laryngeal cancer, also known as cancer of the larynx or laryngeal carcinoma, are mostly squamous cell carcinomas, reflecting their origin from the skin of the larynx.
The larynx, commonly called the voice box, is an organ in the top of the neck of tetrapods involved in breathing, producing sound, and protecting the trachea against food aspiration.
A leiomyoma, also known as fibroids, is a benign smooth muscle tumor that very rarely becomes cancer (0.1%).
Leiomyosarcoma, also referred to as LMS, is a malignant (cancerous) smooth muscle tumor.
Lennert lymphoma (also known as "Lymphoepithelioid lymphoma") is a systemic T-cell lymphoma that presents with cutaneous skin lesions roughly 10% of the time.
Letterer–Siwe disease is one of the four recognized clinical syndromes of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH).
Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.
A limb (from the Old English lim), or extremity, is a jointed, or prehensile (as octopus arms or new world monkey tails), appendage of the human or other animal body.
Lips are a visible body part at the mouth of humans and many animals.
Benign lipoblastomatosis (also known as an "embryonic lipoma") is a tumor frequently confused with a liposarcoma, affecting exclusively infants and young children, with approximately 90% occurring before 3 years of age.
A lipoma is a benign tumor made of fat tissue.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
The long bones are those that are longer than they are wide.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.
A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.
Lymphangiomas are malformations of the lymphatic system characterized by lesions that are thin-walled cysts; these cysts can be macroscopic, as in a cystic hygroma, or microscopic.
Lymphangiosarcoma is a rare malignant tumor which occurs in long-standing cases of primary or secondary lymphedema.
The lymphatic system is part of the vascular system and an important part of the immune system, comprising a network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph (from Latin, lympha meaning "water") directionally towards the heart.
A lymphoblast is a modified naive lymphocyte that also looks completely different.
Lymphoid leukemias — also called lymphocytic, lymphogenous, or lymphoblastic leukemias — are a group of leukemias affecting circulating lymphocytes, a type of white blood cells.
Lymphoma is a group of blood cancers that develop from lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).
The male reproductive system consists of a number of sex organs that play a role in the process of human reproduction.
Malignancy is the tendency of a medical condition to become progressively worse.
Malignant histiocytosis (also known as "Histiocytic medullary reticulosis") is a rare hereditary disease found in the Bernese Mountain Dog and humans, characterized by histiocytic infiltration of the lungs and lymph nodes.
A mast cell (also known as a mastocyte or a labrocyte) is a type of white blood cell.
Mast cell leukemia is an extremely aggressive subtype of acute myeloid leukemia that usually occurs de novo but can, rarely, evolve from transformation of chronic myeloid leukemia into the more aggressive acute myeloid leukemia.
Mast cell sarcoma is an extremely aggressive form of sarcoma made up of neoplastic mast cells.
A mastocytoma or mast cell tumor is a type of round-cell tumor consisting of mast cells.
Mastocytosis, a type of mast cell disease, is a rare disorder affecting both children and adults caused by the accumulation of functionally defective mast cells (also called mastocytes) and CD34+ mast cell precursors.
A Meckel's diverticulum, a true congenital diverticulum, is a slight bulge in the small intestine present at birth and a vestigial remnant of the omphalomesenteric duct (also called the vitelline duct or yolk stalk).
The mediastinum (from Medieval Latin mediastinus, "midway") is the central compartment of the thoracic cavity surrounded by loose connective tissue, as an undelineated region that contains a group of structures within the thorax.
Medical classification, or medical coding, is the process of transforming descriptions of medical diagnoses and procedures into universal medical code numbers.
A melanocytic nevus (also known as nevocytic nevus, nevus-cell nevus and commonly as a mole) is a type of melanocytic tumor that contains nevus cells.
Melanoma, also known as malignant melanoma, is a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes.
The meninges (singular: meninx, from membrane, adjectival: meningeal) are the three membranes that envelop the brain and spinal cord.
Mesothelioma is a type of cancer that develops from the thin layer of tissue that covers many of the internal organs (known as the mesothelium).
The mesothelium is a membrane composed of simple squamous epithelium that forms the lining of several body cavities: the pleura (thoracic cavity), peritoneum (abdominal cavity including the mesentery), mediastinum and pericardium (heart sac).
The middle ear is the portion of the ear internal to the eardrum, and external to the oval window of the inner ear.
Monocytic leukemia is a type of myeloid leukemia characterized by a dominance of monocytes in the marrow.
In animal anatomy, the mouth, also known as the oral cavity, buccal cavity, or in Latin cavum oris, is the opening through which many animals take in food and issue vocal sounds.
The term multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) encompasses several distinct syndromes featuring tumors of endocrine glands, each with its own characteristic pattern.
Multiple myeloma, also known as plasma cell myeloma, is a cancer of plasma cells, a type of white blood cell normally responsible for producing antibodies.
Mycosis fungoides, also known as Alibert-Bazin syndrome or granuloma fungoides, is the most common form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of cancers in which immature blood cells in the bone marrow do not mature and therefore do not become healthy blood cells.
Myelofibrosis, also known as osteomyelofibrosis, is a relatively rare bone marrow cancer.
Myeloid leukemia is a type of leukemia affecting myeloid tissue.
A myeloid sarcoma (chloroma, granulocytic sarcoma, extramedullary myeloid tumor), is a solid tumor composed of immature white blood cells called myeloblasts.
The myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), previously myeloproliferative diseases (MPDs), are a group of diseases of the bone marrow in which excess cells are produced.
A myxoma (New Latin from Greek 'muxa' for mucus) is a myxoid tumor of primitive connective tissue.
The nasal cavity (nasal fossa, or nasal passage) is a large air filled space above and behind the nose in the middle of the face.
Nasopharynx cancer or nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the most common cancer originating in the nasopharynx, most commonly in the postero-lateral nasopharynx or pharyngeal recess or 'Fossa of Rosenmüller' accounting for 50% cases.
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
Neuroblastoma (NB) is a type of cancer that forms in certain types of nerve tissue. It most frequently starts from one of the adrenal glands, but can also develop in the neck, chest, abdomen, or spine. Symptoms may include bone pain, a lump in the abdomen, neck, or chest, or a painless bluish lump under the skin. Occasionally, neuroblastoma may be due to a mutation inherited from a person's parents. Environmental factors have not been found to be involved. Diagnosis is based on a tissue biopsy. Occasionally it may be found in a baby by ultrasound during pregnancy. At diagnosis, the cancer has usually already spread. The cancer is divided into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups based on a child's age, cancer stage, and what the cancer looks like. Treatment and outcomes depends on the risk group a person is in. Treatments may include observation, surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, or stem cell transplantation. Low-risk disease in babies typically has a good outcome with surgery or simply observation. In high-risk disease, chances of long-term survival, however, are less than 40% despite aggressive treatment. Neuroblastoma is the most common cancer in babies and the third-most common cancer in children after leukemia and brain cancer. About one in every 7,000 children is affected at some time. About 90% of cases occur in children less than 5 years old and it is rare in adults. Of cancer deaths in children, about 15% are due to neuroblastoma. The disease was first described in the 1800s.
Nodular sclerosis (or "NSHL") is a form of Hodgkin's lymphoma that is the most common subtype of HL in developed countries.
In medicine, nodules are solid, elevated areas of tissue or fluid inside or under the skin with a diameter greater than 0.5 centimeters.
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a group of blood cancers that includes all types of lymphoma except Hodgkin's lymphomas.
The occipital lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.
The olfactory nerve is typically considered the first cranial nerve, or simply CN I, that contains sensory nerve fibers relating to smell.
The optic nerve, also known as cranial nerve II, is a paired nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain.
Oral cancer, also known as mouth cancer, is a type of head and neck cancer and is any cancerous tissue growth located in the oral cavity.
In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object, such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet.
Ovarian cancer is a cancer that forms in or on an ovary.
The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum.
A Pancoast tumor is a tumor of the pulmonary apex.
The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.
Pancreatic cancer arises when cells in the pancreas, a glandular organ behind the stomach, begin to multiply out of control and form a mass.
The pancreatic duct, or duct of Wirsung (also, the major pancreatic duct due to the existence of an accessory pancreatic duct), is a duct joining the pancreas to the common bile duct to supply pancreatic juice provided from the exocrine pancreas which aids in digestion.
The pancreatic islets or islets of Langerhans are the regions of the pancreas that contain its endocrine (hormone-producing) cells, discovered in 1869 by German pathological anatomist Paul Langerhans.
A paraganglion (pl. paraganglia) is a group of non-neuronal cells derived of the neural crest.
Paraproteinemia, also known as monoclonal gammopathy, is the presence of excessive amounts of paraprotein or single monoclonal gammaglobulin in the blood.
Parathyroid glands are small endocrine glands in the neck of humans and other tetrapods that produce parathyroid hormone.
The parietal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The parietal lobe is positioned above the temporal lobe and behind the frontal lobe and central sulcus. The parietal lobe integrates sensory information among various modalities, including spatial sense and navigation (proprioception), the main sensory receptive area for the sense of touch (mechanoreception) in the somatosensory cortex which is just posterior to the central sulcus in the postcentral gyrus, and the dorsal stream of the visual system. The major sensory inputs from the skin (touch, temperature, and pain receptors), relay through the thalamus to the parietal lobe. Several areas of the parietal lobe are important in language processing. The somatosensory cortex can be illustrated as a distorted figure – the homunculus (Latin: "little man"), in which the body parts are rendered according to how much of the somatosensory cortex is devoted to them.Schacter, D. L., Gilbert, D. L. & Wegner, D. M. (2009). Psychology. (2nd ed.). New York (NY): Worth Publishers. The superior parietal lobule and inferior parietal lobule are the primary areas of body or spacial awareness. A lesion commonly in the right superior or inferior parietal lobule leads to hemineglect. The name comes from the parietal bone, which is named from the Latin paries-, meaning "wall".
The parotid gland is a major salivary gland in many animals.
The pelvis (plural pelves or pelvises) is either the lower part of the trunk of the human body between the abdomen and the thighs (sometimes also called pelvic region of the trunk) or the skeleton embedded in it (sometimes also called bony pelvis, or pelvic skeleton).
Penile cancer is a malignant growth found on the skin or in the tissues of the penis.
A peripheral device is "an ancillary device used to put information into and get information out of the computer." Three categories of peripheral devices exist based on their relationship with the computer.
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).
Peripheral T-cell lymphoma refers to a group of T-cell lymphomas that develop away from the thymus.
The peritoneum is the serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity or coelom in amniotes and some invertebrates, such as annelids.
The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the esophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs.
Pheochromocytoma (PCC) is a neuroendocrine tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands (originating in the chromaffin cells), or extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue that failed to involute after birth, that secretes high amounts of catecholamines, mostly norepinephrine, plus epinephrine to a lesser extent.
The pineal gland, also known as the conarium, kônarion or epiphysis cerebri, is a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain.
Pituitary adenomas are tumors that occur in the pituitary gland.
An explanation of the development of the pituitary gland (Hypophysis cerebri) & the congenital anomalies. In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing in humans.
The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy.
Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete large volumes of antibodies.
Plasmacytoma is a plasma cell dyscrasia in which a plasma cell tumour grows within soft tissue or within the axial skeleton.
Pleomorphic adenoma is a common benign salivary gland neoplasm characterised by neoplastic proliferation of parenchymatous glandular cells along with myoepithelial components, having a malignant potentiality.
Polycythemia (also known as polycythaemia or polyglobulia) is a disease state in which the hematocrit (the volume percentage of red blood cells in the blood) is elevated.
Polycythemia vera is an uncommon neoplasm in which the bone marrow makes too many red blood cells.
A precancerous condition or premalignant condition, sometimes called a potentially precancerous condition or potentially premalignant condition, is a term used to describe certain conditions or lesions involving abnormal cells which are associated with an increased risk of developing into cancer.
A prolactinoma is a benign tumor (adenoma) of the pituitary gland that produces a hormone called prolactin.
Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.
The pulmonary pleurae (sing. pleura) are the two pleurae of the invaginated sac surrounding each lung and attaching to the thoracic cavity.
The pylorus, or pyloric part, connects the stomach to the duodenum.
The rectum is the final straight portion of the large intestine in humans and some other mammals, and the gut in others.
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a kidney cancer that originates in the lining of the proximal convoluted tubule, a part of the very small tubes in the kidney that transport primary urine.
The renal pelvis or pelvis of the kidney is the basin-like or funnel-like dilated proximal part of the ureter in the kidney.
In physiology, respiration is defined as the movement of oxygen from the outside environment to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction.
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
Retinoblastoma (Rb) is a rare form of cancer that rapidly develops from the immature cells of a retina, the light-detecting tissue of the eye.
The retroperitoneal space (retroperitoneum) is the anatomical space (sometimes a potential space) in the abdominal cavity behind (retro) the peritoneum.
A rhabdomyoma is a benign tumor of striated muscle.
Rhabdomyosarcoma, or RMS, is an aggressive and highly malignant form of cancer that develops from skeletal (striated) muscle cells that have failed to fully differentiate.
The rib cage is an arrangement of bones in the thorax of most vertebrates.
The sacrum (or; plural: sacra or sacrums) in human anatomy is a large, triangular bone at the base of the spine, that forms by the fusing of sacral vertebrae S1S5 between 18 and 30years of age.
The salivary glands in mammals are exocrine glands that produce saliva through a system of ducts.
A sarcoma is a cancer that arises from transformed cells of mesenchymal origin.
Sézary disease is a type of cutaneous lymphoma that was first described by Albert Sézary.
In anatomy, the scapula (plural scapulae or scapulas; also known as shoulder bone, shoulder blade or wing bone) is the bone that connects the humerus (upper arm bone) with the clavicle (collar bone).
A schwannoma is a usually benign nerve sheath tumor composed of Schwann cells, which normally produce the insulating myelin sheath covering peripheral nerves.
A sex organ (or reproductive organ) is any part of an animal's body that is involved in sexual reproduction.
Short bones are designated as those bones that are as wide as they are long.
The sigmoid colon (pelvic colon) is the part of the large intestine that is closest to the rectum and anus.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
Skin cancers are cancers that arise from the skin.
The skull is a bony structure that forms the head in vertebrates.
Small cleaved cells are a distinctive type of cell that appears in certain types of lymphoma.
The small intestine or small bowel is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine, and is where most of the end absorption of food takes place.
In oncology, small intestine cancer, also small bowel cancer and cancer of the small bowel, is a cancer of the small intestine.
In anatomy, soft tissue includes the tissues that connect, support, or surround other structures and organs of the body, not being hard tissue such as bone.
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrates.
The sternum or breastbone is a long flat bone located in the center of the chest.
The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.
Stomach cancer, also known as gastric cancer, is cancer developing from the lining of the stomach.
The paired sublingual glands are major salivary glands in the mouth.
The paired submandibular glands (historically known as submaxillary glands) are major salivary glands located beneath the floor of the mouth.
The temporal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.
Testicular cancer is cancer that develops in the testicles, a part of the male reproductive system.
The International League of Dermatological Societies (ILDS) is a non-governmental organization that works closely with the World Health Organization.
The thoracic cavity (or chest cavity) is the chamber of the body of vertebrates that is protected by the thoracic wall (rib cage and associated skin, muscle, and fascia).
Thrombocythemia (also thrombocytosis) is the presence of high platelet (thrombocyte) counts in the blood, and can be either primary (also termed essential thrombocythemia, and caused by a myeloproliferative disease) or secondary (also termed reactive).
The thymus is a specialized primary lymphoid organ of the immune system.
The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus.
Thyroid cancer is cancer that develops from the tissues of the thyroid gland.
The trachea, colloquially called the windpipe, is a cartilaginous tube that connects the pharynx and larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air, and so is present in almost all air-breathing animals with lungs.
The transverse colon is the longest and most movable part of the colon.
The upper limb or upper extremity is the region in a vertebrate animal extending from the deltoid region up to and including the hand, including the arm, axilla and shoulder.
In human anatomy, the ureters are tubes made of smooth muscle fibers that propel urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
In anatomy, the urethra (from Greek οὐρήθρα – ourḗthrā) is a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the urinary meatus for the removal of urine from the body.
The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ in humans and some other animals that collects and stores urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination.
The urinary system, also known as the renal system or urinary tract, consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and the urethra.
Uterine cancer, also known as womb cancer, is any type of cancer that emerges from the tissue of the uterus.
Uterine fibroids, also known as uterine leiomyomas or fibroids, are benign smooth muscle tumors of the uterus.
The uterus (from Latin "uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals.
Vaginal cancer is a malignant tumor that forms in the tissues of the vagina.
Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN) is a condition that describes premalignant histological findings in the vagina characterized by dysplastic changes.
The ventricular system is a set of four interconnected cavities (ventricles) in the brain, where the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced.
The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton.
The vulva (wrapper, covering, plural vulvae or vulvas) consists of the external female sex organs.
Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM), also known as lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, is a type of cancer affecting two types of B cells, lymphoplasmacytoid cells and plasma cells.
Warthin's tumor, also known as papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum, is a benign cystic tumor of the salivary glands containing abundant lymphocytes and germinal centers (lymph node-like stroma).
Wilms tumor, also known as nephroblastoma, is a cancer of the kidneys that typically occurs in children, rarely in adults.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.