Get it on Google Play
New! Download Unionpedia on your Android™ device!
Faster access than browser!


Index Melanoma

Melanoma, also known as malignant melanoma, is a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes. [1]

191 relations: Acral lentiginous melanoma, Adjuvant therapy, Adoptive cell transfer, Amelanotic melanoma, American Academy of Dermatology, American Society of Clinical Oncology, Apoptosis, Australia, Avobenzone, Benign fibrous histiocytoma, Biopharmaceutical, Biopsy, Blue nevus, BRAF (gene), Brain metastasis, Bread loafing, Breslow's depth, Bristol-Myers Squibb, British Association of Dermatologists, Cancer, Cancer immunotherapy, Cancer staging, Cancer stem cell, Cancer vaccine, Carbon-14, Cell division, Chemotherapy, Choosing Wisely, Chromosomal translocation, Chromosome, Chromosome 9, Clark's level, Clinical trial, Complete circumferential peripheral and deep margin assessment, Congenital melanocytic nevus, CT scan, Cyclin, Cyclin-dependent kinase, Cyclin-dependent kinase 4, Cytosine, Dabrafenib, Dacarbazine, Dendritic cell, Dermatology, Dermatoscopy, Dermis, Desmoplastic melanoma, Direct DNA damage, Disease, DNA, ..., DNA repair, Dye, Dysplasia, Dysplastic nevus, EPH receptor A2, Epidermis, False alarm, Fine-needle aspiration, Five-year survival rate, Food and Drug Administration, Fort Washington, Pennsylvania, Gastrointestinal tract, Gene, Gene therapy, Genetic testing, Greek language, H&E stain, Histology, HMB-45, Human skin color, Imiquimod, Immunoperoxidase, Immunosuppression, In vivo, Indoor tanning, Interferon, Interleukin 2, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Ipilimumab, Itch, John Hunter (surgeon), Kinase, Lactate dehydrogenase, Lentigo, Lentigo maligna, Lentigo maligna melanoma, Local anesthesia, Lung cancer, Lymph node, Lymphadenectomy, Lymphatic vessel, Lymphocyte, Magnetic resonance imaging, MCM6, Mdm2, MEK inhibitor, Melanocortin 1 receptor, Melanocyte, Melanocytic nevus, Melanoma with features of a Spitz nevus, Melanosis, Metastasis, Missense mutation, Mitogen-activated protein kinase, Mitosis, MLANA, Mohs surgery, Molecular mass, Mucosal melanoma, Mutation, National Cancer Institute, Nausea, Neoplasm, Nevus, Nivolumab, Nodular melanoma, Nonsense mutation, Northern Europe, Oncogene, Oncology, Oncolytic virus, P16, P53, Palliative care, Paraneoplastic syndrome, Pathogenesis, Pathology, Pembrolizumab, Perineural invasion, Peru, PMEL (gene), Polymerase chain reaction, Polypoid melanoma, Positron emission tomography, Prognosis, Progression-free survival, Protein, Protein dimer, Purine, Pyrimidine, Pyrimidine dimer, Quality of life, Radiation therapy, Radioimmunotherapy, Reactive oxygen species, Reading frame, René Laennec, Resection margin, Royal College of Surgeons of England, S100 protein, Samuel Cooper (surgeon), Seborrheic keratosis, Sentinel lymph node, Skin biopsy, Small-cell melanoma, Splice site mutation, Squamous cell carcinoma, Sun protective clothing, Sunburn, Sunscreen, Superficial spreading melanoma, T cell, T-cell receptor, Tanning lamp, Temozolomide, The Lancet, The New York Times, Thymine, Timeless (gene), Titanium dioxide, TNM staging system, Trametinib, Transcription factor, Transition (genetics), Tumor suppressor, Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, Tyrosinase, Ulcer (dermatology), Ultraviolet, Unnecessary health care, Uveal melanoma, Vaginal melanoma, Vemurafenib, Virotherapy, Vitamin D, White people, Wide local excision, WIPI1, Xeroderma pigmentosum, Zinc oxide, 8-Oxoguanine. Expand index (141 more) »

Acral lentiginous melanoma

Acral lentiginous melanoma is a kind of lentiginous skin melanoma.

New!!: Melanoma and Acral lentiginous melanoma · See more »

Adjuvant therapy

Adjuvant therapy, also known as adjunct therapy, add-on therapy, and adjuvant care, is therapy that is given in addition to the primary or initial therapy to maximize its effectiveness.

New!!: Melanoma and Adjuvant therapy · See more »

Adoptive cell transfer

Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) is the transfer of cells into a patient.

New!!: Melanoma and Adoptive cell transfer · See more »

Amelanotic melanoma

Amelanotic melanoma is a type of skin cancer in which the cells do not make melanin.

New!!: Melanoma and Amelanotic melanoma · See more »

American Academy of Dermatology

The American Academy of Dermatology (AAD) is one of the largest organizations of dermatologists in the world.

New!!: Melanoma and American Academy of Dermatology · See more »

American Society of Clinical Oncology

The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) is a professional organization representing physicians of all oncology sub-specialties who care for people with cancer.

New!!: Melanoma and American Society of Clinical Oncology · See more »


Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.

New!!: Melanoma and Apoptosis · See more »


Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

New!!: Melanoma and Australia · See more »


Avobenzone (trade names Parsol 1789, Milestab 1789, Eusolex 9020, Escalol 517, Neo Heliopan 357 and others, INCI Butyl Methoxydibenzoylmethane) is an oil-soluble ingredient used in sunscreen products to absorb the full spectrum of UVA rays.

New!!: Melanoma and Avobenzone · See more »

Benign fibrous histiocytoma

Benign fibrous histiocytomas (also known as dermal dendrocytoma, dermatofibroma, fibrous dermatofibroma, fibrous histiocytoma, fibroma simplex, nodular subepidermal fibrosis, and sclerosing hemangioma) are benign skin growths.

New!!: Melanoma and Benign fibrous histiocytoma · See more »


A biopharmaceutical, also known as a biologic(al) medical product, biological, or biologic, is any pharmaceutical drug product manufactured in, extracted from, or semisynthesized from biological sources.

New!!: Melanoma and Biopharmaceutical · See more »


A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease.

New!!: Melanoma and Biopsy · See more »

Blue nevus

Blue nevus (also known as "blue neuronevus", "dermal melanocytoma", and "nevus bleu") is a type of melanocytic nevus.

New!!: Melanoma and Blue nevus · See more »

BRAF (gene)

BRAF is a human gene that encodes a protein called B-Raf.

New!!: Melanoma and BRAF (gene) · See more »

Brain metastasis

A brain metastasis is a cancer that has metastasized (spread) to the brain from another location in the body and is therefore considered a secondary brain tumor.

New!!: Melanoma and Brain metastasis · See more »

Bread loafing

Bread loafing is a common method of processing surgical specimens for histopathology.

New!!: Melanoma and Bread loafing · See more »

Breslow's depth

In medicine, Breslow's depth was used as a prognostic factor in melanoma of the skin.

New!!: Melanoma and Breslow's depth · See more »

Bristol-Myers Squibb

Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS) is an American pharmaceutical company, headquartered in New York City.

New!!: Melanoma and Bristol-Myers Squibb · See more »

British Association of Dermatologists

The British Association of Dermatologists is a charity established in 1920 whose charitable objects are the practice, teaching, training, and research of dermatology.

New!!: Melanoma and British Association of Dermatologists · See more »


Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

New!!: Melanoma and Cancer · See more »

Cancer immunotherapy

Cancer immunotherapy (sometimes called immuno-oncology, abbreviated IO) is the use of the immune system to treat cancer.

New!!: Melanoma and Cancer immunotherapy · See more »

Cancer staging

Cancer staging is the process of determining the extent to which a cancer has developed by growing and spreading.

New!!: Melanoma and Cancer staging · See more »

Cancer stem cell

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are cancer cells (found within tumors or hematological cancers) that possess characteristics associated with normal stem cells, specifically the ability to give rise to all cell types found in a particular cancer sample.

New!!: Melanoma and Cancer stem cell · See more »

Cancer vaccine

A cancer vaccine is a vaccine that either treats existing cancer or prevents development of a cancer.

New!!: Melanoma and Cancer vaccine · See more »


Carbon-14, 14C, or radiocarbon, is a radioactive isotope of carbon with an atomic nucleus containing 6 protons and 8 neutrons.

New!!: Melanoma and Carbon-14 · See more »

Cell division

Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.

New!!: Melanoma and Cell division · See more »


Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.

New!!: Melanoma and Chemotherapy · See more »

Choosing Wisely

Choosing Wisely is a United States-based health educational campaign, led by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM).

New!!: Melanoma and Choosing Wisely · See more »

Chromosomal translocation

In genetics, a chromosome translocation is a chromosome abnormality caused by rearrangement of parts between nonhomologous chromosomes.

New!!: Melanoma and Chromosomal translocation · See more »


A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.

New!!: Melanoma and Chromosome · See more »

Chromosome 9

Chromosome 9 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.

New!!: Melanoma and Chromosome 9 · See more »

Clark's level

Clark's level is a staging system, used in conjunction with Breslow's depth, which describes the level of anatomical invasion of the melanoma in the skin.

New!!: Melanoma and Clark's level · See more »

Clinical trial

Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.

New!!: Melanoma and Clinical trial · See more »

Complete circumferential peripheral and deep margin assessment

CCPDMA is the acronym for "complete circumferential peripheral and deep margin assessment".

New!!: Melanoma and Complete circumferential peripheral and deep margin assessment · See more »

Congenital melanocytic nevus

The congenital melanocytic nevus is a type of melanocytic nevus (or mole) found in infants at birth.

New!!: Melanoma and Congenital melanocytic nevus · See more »

CT scan

A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.

New!!: Melanoma and CT scan · See more »


Cyclin is a family of proteins that control the progression of cells through the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) enzymes.

New!!: Melanoma and Cyclin · See more »

Cyclin-dependent kinase

Gap phase 2. The duration of mitosis in relation to the other phases has been exaggerated in this diagram Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are a family of sugar kinases first discovered for their role in regulating the cell cycle.

New!!: Melanoma and Cyclin-dependent kinase · See more »

Cyclin-dependent kinase 4

Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 also known as cell division protein kinase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK4 gene.

New!!: Melanoma and Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 · See more »


Cytosine (C) is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).

New!!: Melanoma and Cytosine · See more »


Dabrafenib (trade name Tafinlar, GSK2118436) is a drug for the treatment of cancers associated with a mutated version of the gene BRAF.

New!!: Melanoma and Dabrafenib · See more »


Dacarbazine (DTIC), also known as imidazole carboxamide, is a chemotherapy medication used in the treatment of melanoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma.

New!!: Melanoma and Dacarbazine · See more »

Dendritic cell

Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (also known as accessory cells) of the mammalian immune system.

New!!: Melanoma and Dendritic cell · See more »


Dermatology (from ancient Greek δέρμα, derma which means skin and λογία, logia) is the branch of medicine dealing with the skin, nails, hair and its diseases.

New!!: Melanoma and Dermatology · See more »


Dermatoscopy (also known as dermoscopy or epiluminescence microscopy) is the examination of with a 'dermatoscope'.

New!!: Melanoma and Dermatoscopy · See more »


The dermis or corium is a layer of skin between the epidermis (with which it makes up the cutis) and subcutaneous tissues, that primarily consists of dense irregular connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and strain.

New!!: Melanoma and Dermis · See more »

Desmoplastic melanoma

Desmoplastic melanoma (also known as a "Neurotropic melanoma," or "Spindled melanoma") is a rare cutaneous condition characterized by a deeply infiltrating type of melanoma with an abundance of fibrous matrix.

New!!: Melanoma and Desmoplastic melanoma · See more »

Direct DNA damage

Direct DNA damage can occur when DNA directly absorbs a UVB photon, or for numerous other reasons.

New!!: Melanoma and Direct DNA damage · See more »


A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.

New!!: Melanoma and Disease · See more »


Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

New!!: Melanoma and DNA · See more »

DNA repair

DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.

New!!: Melanoma and DNA repair · See more »


A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.

New!!: Melanoma and Dye · See more »


Dysplasia (from Ancient Greek δυσ- dys-, "bad" or "difficult" and πλάσις plasis, "formation") is a term used in pathology to refer to an abnormality of development or an epithelial anomaly of growth and differentiation (epithelial dysplasia).

New!!: Melanoma and Dysplasia · See more »

Dysplastic nevus

A dysplastic nevus or atypical mole is a nevus (mole) whose appearance is different from that of common moles.

New!!: Melanoma and Dysplastic nevus · See more »

EPH receptor A2

EPH receptor A2 (ephrin type-A receptor 2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EPHA2 gene.

New!!: Melanoma and EPH receptor A2 · See more »


The epidermis is the outer layer of the three layers that make up the skin, the inner layers being the dermis and hypodermis.

New!!: Melanoma and Epidermis · See more »

False alarm

A false alarm, also called a nuisance alarm, is the deceptive or erroneous report of an emergency, causing unnecessary panic and/or bringing resources (such as emergency services) to a place where they are not needed.

New!!: Melanoma and False alarm · See more »

Fine-needle aspiration

Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a diagnostic procedure used to investigate lumps or masses.

New!!: Melanoma and Fine-needle aspiration · See more »

Five-year survival rate

The five-year survival rate is a type of survival rate for estimating the prognosis of a particular disease, normally calculated from the point of diagnosis.

New!!: Melanoma and Five-year survival rate · See more »

Food and Drug Administration

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.

New!!: Melanoma and Food and Drug Administration · See more »

Fort Washington, Pennsylvania

Fort Washington is a census-designated place and suburb of Philadelphia in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, United States.

New!!: Melanoma and Fort Washington, Pennsylvania · See more »

Gastrointestinal tract

The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.

New!!: Melanoma and Gastrointestinal tract · See more »


In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.

New!!: Melanoma and Gene · See more »

Gene therapy

In the medicine field, gene therapy (also called human gene transfer) is the therapeutic delivery of nucleic acid into a patient's cells as a drug to treat disease.

New!!: Melanoma and Gene therapy · See more »

Genetic testing

Genetic testing, also known as DNA testing, allows the determination of bloodlines and the genetic diagnosis of vulnerabilities to inherited diseases.

New!!: Melanoma and Genetic testing · See more »

Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

New!!: Melanoma and Greek language · See more »

H&E stain

Hematoxylin and eosin stain or haematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E stain or HE stain) is one of the principal stains in histology.

New!!: Melanoma and H&E stain · See more »


Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.

New!!: Melanoma and Histology · See more »


HMB-45 is a monoclonal antibody that reacts against an antigen present in melanocytic tumors such as melanomas, and stands for Human Melanoma Black.

New!!: Melanoma and HMB-45 · See more »

Human skin color

Human skin color ranges in variety from the darkest brown to the lightest hues.

New!!: Melanoma and Human skin color · See more »


Imiquimod (INN) is a prescription medication that acts as an immune response modifier and is used to treat genital warts, superficial basal cell carcinoma, and actinic keratosis.

New!!: Melanoma and Imiquimod · See more »


Immunoperoxidase is a type of immunostain used in molecular biology, medical research, and clinical diagnostics.

New!!: Melanoma and Immunoperoxidase · See more »


Immunosuppression is a reduction of the activation or efficacy of the immune system.

New!!: Melanoma and Immunosuppression · See more »

In vivo

Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.

New!!: Melanoma and In vivo · See more »

Indoor tanning

Indoor tanning involves using a device that emits ultraviolet radiation to produce a cosmetic tan.

New!!: Melanoma and Indoor tanning · See more »


Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells.

New!!: Melanoma and Interferon · See more »

Interleukin 2

Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an interleukin, a type of cytokine signaling molecule in the immune system.

New!!: Melanoma and Interleukin 2 · See more »

International Agency for Research on Cancer

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC; Centre International de Recherche sur le Cancer, CIRC) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organization of the United Nations.

New!!: Melanoma and International Agency for Research on Cancer · See more »


Ipilimumab (trade name Yervoy) is a monoclonal antibody that works to activate the immune system by targeting CTLA-4, a protein receptor that downregulates the immune system.

New!!: Melanoma and Ipilimumab · See more »


Itch (also known as pruritus) is a sensation that causes the desire or reflex to scratch.

New!!: Melanoma and Itch · See more »

John Hunter (surgeon)

John Hunter (13 February 1728 – 16 October 1793) was a Scottish surgeon, one of the most distinguished scientists and surgeons of his day.

New!!: Melanoma and John Hunter (surgeon) · See more »


In biochemistry, a kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups from high-energy, phosphate-donating molecules to specific substrates.

New!!: Melanoma and Kinase · See more »

Lactate dehydrogenase

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH or LD) is an enzyme found in nearly all living cells (animals, plants, and prokaryotes).

New!!: Melanoma and Lactate dehydrogenase · See more »


A lentigo (plural lentigines) is a small pigmented spot on the skin with a clearly defined edge, surrounded by normal-appearing skin.

New!!: Melanoma and Lentigo · See more »

Lentigo maligna

Lentigo maligna (also known as "lentiginous melanoma on sun-damaged skin") is a melanoma in situ that consists of malignant cells but does not show invasive growth.

New!!: Melanoma and Lentigo maligna · See more »

Lentigo maligna melanoma

Lentigo maligna melanoma is a melanoma that has evolved from a lentigo maligna.

New!!: Melanoma and Lentigo maligna melanoma · See more »

Local anesthesia

Local anesthesia is any technique to induce the absence of sensation in a specific part of the body, generally for the aim of inducing local analgesia, that is, local insensitivity to pain, although other local senses may be affected as well.

New!!: Melanoma and Local anesthesia · See more »

Lung cancer

Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.

New!!: Melanoma and Lung cancer · See more »

Lymph node

A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.

New!!: Melanoma and Lymph node · See more »


Lymphadenectomy or lymph node dissection is the surgical removal of one or more groups of lymph nodes.

New!!: Melanoma and Lymphadenectomy · See more »

Lymphatic vessel

The lymphatic vessels (or lymph vessels or lymphatics) are thin-walled vessels structured like blood vessels, that carry lymph.

New!!: Melanoma and Lymphatic vessel · See more »


A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.

New!!: Melanoma and Lymphocyte · See more »

Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.

New!!: Melanoma and Magnetic resonance imaging · See more »


DNA replication licensing factor MCM6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MCM6 gene.

New!!: Melanoma and MCM6 · See more »


Mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) also known as E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Mdm2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MDM2 gene.

New!!: Melanoma and Mdm2 · See more »

MEK inhibitor

A MEK inhibitor is a chemical or drug that inhibits the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase enzymes MEK1 and/or MEK2.

New!!: Melanoma and MEK inhibitor · See more »

Melanocortin 1 receptor

The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), also known as melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor (MSHR), melanin-activating peptide receptor, or melanotropin receptor, is a G protein–coupled receptor that binds to a class of pituitary peptide hormones known as the melanocortins, which include adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and the different forms of melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH).

New!!: Melanoma and Melanocortin 1 receptor · See more »


Melanocytes are melanin-producing neural crest-derived cells located in the bottom layer (the stratum basale) of the skin's epidermis, the middle layer of the eye (the uvea), the inner ear, vaginal epithelium, meninges, bones, and heart.

New!!: Melanoma and Melanocyte · See more »

Melanocytic nevus

A melanocytic nevus (also known as nevocytic nevus, nevus-cell nevus and commonly as a mole) is a type of melanocytic tumor that contains nevus cells.

New!!: Melanoma and Melanocytic nevus · See more »

Melanoma with features of a Spitz nevus

Melanoma with features of a Spitz nevus (also known as a "Spitzoid melanoma") is a cutaneous condition characterized histologically with tissue similar to a spitz nevus and with overall symmetry and a dermal nodule of epithelioid melanocytes that do not mature with progressively deeper dermal extension.

New!!: Melanoma and Melanoma with features of a Spitz nevus · See more »


Melanosis is a form of hyperpigmentation associated with increased melanin.

New!!: Melanoma and Melanosis · See more »


Metastasis is a pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body; it is typically spoken of as such spread by a cancerous tumor.

New!!: Melanoma and Metastasis · See more »

Missense mutation

In genetics, a missense mutation is a point mutation in which a single nucleotide change results in a codon that codes for a different amino acid.

New!!: Melanoma and Missense mutation · See more »

Mitogen-activated protein kinase

A mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK or MAP kinase) is a type of protein kinase that is specific to the amino acids serine and threonine (i.e., a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase).

New!!: Melanoma and Mitogen-activated protein kinase · See more »


In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei.

New!!: Melanoma and Mitosis · See more »


Protein melan-A also known as melanoma antigen recognized by T cells 1 or MART-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MLANA o "MALENA" gene.

New!!: Melanoma and MLANA · See more »

Mohs surgery

Mohs surgery, developed in 1938 by a general surgeon, Frederic E. Mohs, is microscopically controlled surgery used to treat common types of skin cancer.

New!!: Melanoma and Mohs surgery · See more »

Molecular mass

Relative Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule.

New!!: Melanoma and Molecular mass · See more »

Mucosal melanoma

Mucosal melanoma is a rare cutaneous condition characterized by a melanoma of the mucous membranes.

New!!: Melanoma and Mucosal melanoma · See more »


In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.

New!!: Melanoma and Mutation · See more »

National Cancer Institute

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is one of eleven agencies that are part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

New!!: Melanoma and National Cancer Institute · See more »


Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.

New!!: Melanoma and Nausea · See more »


Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.

New!!: Melanoma and Neoplasm · See more »


Nevus (or nevi if multiple) is a nonspecific medical term for a visible, circumscribed, chronic lesion of the skin or mucosa.

New!!: Melanoma and Nevus · See more »


Nivolumab, marketed as Opdivo, is a medication used to treat cancer.

New!!: Melanoma and Nivolumab · See more »

Nodular melanoma

Nodular melanoma (NM) is the most aggressive form of melanoma.

New!!: Melanoma and Nodular melanoma · See more »

Nonsense mutation

In genetics, a point-nonsense mutation is a point mutation in a sequence of DNA that results in a premature stop codon, or a point-nonsense codon in the transcribed mRNA, and in a truncated, incomplete, and usually nonfunctional protein product.

New!!: Melanoma and Nonsense mutation · See more »

Northern Europe

Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.

New!!: Melanoma and Northern Europe · See more »


An oncogene is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer.

New!!: Melanoma and Oncogene · See more »


Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer.

New!!: Melanoma and Oncology · See more »

Oncolytic virus

An oncolytic virus is a virus that preferentially infects and kills cancer cells.

New!!: Melanoma and Oncolytic virus · See more »


p16 (also known as p16INK4a, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, multiple tumor suppressor 1 and as several other synonyms), is a tumor suppressor protein, that in humans is encoded by the CDKN2A gene.

New!!: Melanoma and P16 · See more »


Tumor protein p53, also known as p53, cellular tumor antigen p53 (UniProt name), phosphoprotein p53, tumor suppressor p53, antigen NY-CO-13, or transformation-related protein 53 (TRP53), is any isoform of a protein encoded by homologous genes in various organisms, such as TP53 (humans) and Trp53 (mice).

New!!: Melanoma and P53 · See more »

Palliative care

Palliative care is a multidisciplinary approach to specialized medical and nursing care for people with life-limiting illnesses.

New!!: Melanoma and Palliative care · See more »

Paraneoplastic syndrome

A paraneoplastic syndrome is a syndrome (a set of signs and symptoms) that is the consequence of cancer in the body, but unlike mass effect, is not due to the local presence of cancer cells.

New!!: Melanoma and Paraneoplastic syndrome · See more »


The pathogenesis of a disease is the biological mechanism (or mechanisms) that leads to the diseased state.

New!!: Melanoma and Pathogenesis · See more »


Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder.

New!!: Melanoma and Pathology · See more »


Pembrolizumab (formerly MK-3475 and lambrolizumab, trade name Keytruda) is a humanized antibody used in cancer immunotherapy.

New!!: Melanoma and Pembrolizumab · See more »

Perineural invasion

In pathology, perineural invasion, abbreviated PNI, refers to cancer spreading to the space surrounding a nerve.

New!!: Melanoma and Perineural invasion · See more »


Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.

New!!: Melanoma and Peru · See more »

PMEL (gene)

Melanocyte protein PMEL also known as premelanosome protein (PMEL) or silver locus protein homolog (SILV) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PMEL gene.

New!!: Melanoma and PMEL (gene) · See more »

Polymerase chain reaction

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.

New!!: Melanoma and Polymerase chain reaction · See more »

Polypoid melanoma

Polypoid melanoma is a rare cutaneous condition, a virulent variant of nodular melanoma.

New!!: Melanoma and Polypoid melanoma · See more »

Positron emission tomography

Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.

New!!: Melanoma and Positron emission tomography · See more »


Prognosis (Greek: πρόγνωσις "fore-knowing, foreseeing") is a medical term for predicting the likely or expected development of a disease, including whether the signs and symptoms will improve or worsen (and how quickly) or remain stable over time; expectations of quality of life, such as the ability to carry out daily activities; the potential for complications and associated health issues; and the likelihood of survival (including life expectancy).

New!!: Melanoma and Prognosis · See more »

Progression-free survival

Progression-free survival (PFS) is "the length of time during and after the treatment of a disease, such as cancer, that a patient lives with the disease but it does not get worse".

New!!: Melanoma and Progression-free survival · See more »


Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

New!!: Melanoma and Protein · See more »

Protein dimer

In biochemistry, a protein dimer is a macromolecular complex formed by two protein monomers, or single proteins, which are usually non-covalently bound.

New!!: Melanoma and Protein dimer · See more »


A purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound that consists of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.

New!!: Melanoma and Purine · See more »


Pyrimidine is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound similar to pyridine.

New!!: Melanoma and Pyrimidine · See more »

Pyrimidine dimer

Pyrimidine dimers are molecular lesions formed from thymine or cytosine bases in DNA via photochemical reactions.

New!!: Melanoma and Pyrimidine dimer · See more »

Quality of life

Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.

New!!: Melanoma and Quality of life · See more »

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.

New!!: Melanoma and Radiation therapy · See more »


Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) uses an antibody labeled with a radionuclide to deliver cytotoxic radiation to a target cell.

New!!: Melanoma and Radioimmunotherapy · See more »

Reactive oxygen species

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen.

New!!: Melanoma and Reactive oxygen species · See more »

Reading frame

In molecular biology, a reading frame is a way of dividing the sequence of nucleotides in a nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) molecule into a set of consecutive, non-overlapping triplets.

New!!: Melanoma and Reading frame · See more »

René Laennec

René-Théophile-Hyacinthe Laennec (17 February 1781 – 13 August 1826) was a French physician.

New!!: Melanoma and René Laennec · See more »

Resection margin

A resection margin or surgical margin is the margin of apparently non-tumerous tissue around a tumor that has been surgically removed, called "resected", in surgical oncology.

New!!: Melanoma and Resection margin · See more »

Royal College of Surgeons of England

The Royal College of Surgeons of England (abbreviated RCS and sometimes RCSEng), is an independent professional body and registered charity promoting and advancing standards of surgical care for patients, regulating surgery, including dentistry, in England and Wales.

New!!: Melanoma and Royal College of Surgeons of England · See more »

S100 protein

The S100 proteins are a family of low-molecular-weight proteins found in vertebrates and characterized by two calcium-binding sites that have helix-loop-helix ("EF-hand type") conformation.

New!!: Melanoma and S100 protein · See more »

Samuel Cooper (surgeon)

Samuel Cooper FRS (September 1780 – 2 December 1848) was an English surgeon and medical writer.

New!!: Melanoma and Samuel Cooper (surgeon) · See more »

Seborrheic keratosis

A seborrheic keratosis, also known as seborrheic verruca, basal cell papilloma, or a senile wart,Freedberg, et al.

New!!: Melanoma and Seborrheic keratosis · See more »

Sentinel lymph node

The sentinel lymph node is the hypothetical first lymph node or group of nodes draining a cancer.

New!!: Melanoma and Sentinel lymph node · See more »

Skin biopsy

Skin biopsy is a biopsy technique in which a skin lesion is removed to be sent to a pathologist to render a microscopic diagnosis.

New!!: Melanoma and Skin biopsy · See more »

Small-cell melanoma

Small-cell melanoma, also known as melanoma with small nevus-like cells, is a cutaneous condition, a tumor that contains variably-sized, large nests of small melanocytes with hyperchromatic nuclei and prominent nucleoli.

New!!: Melanoma and Small-cell melanoma · See more »

Splice site mutation

A splice site mutation is a genetic mutation that inserts, deletes or changes a number of nucleotides in the specific site at which splicing takes place during the processing of precursor messenger RNA into mature messenger RNA.

New!!: Melanoma and Splice site mutation · See more »

Squamous cell carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinomas, also known as epidermoid carcinoma are a number of different types of cancer that result from squamous cells.

New!!: Melanoma and Squamous cell carcinoma · See more »

Sun protective clothing

Sun protective clothing is clothing specifically designed for sun protection and is produced from a fabric rated for its level of ultraviolet (UV) protection.

New!!: Melanoma and Sun protective clothing · See more »


Sunburn is a form of radiation burn that affects living tissue, such as skin, that results from an overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, commonly from the sun.

New!!: Melanoma and Sunburn · See more »


Sunscreen, also known as sunblock, sun cream or suntan lotion, is a lotion, spray, gel or other topical product that absorbs or reflects some of the sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation and thus helps protect against sunburn.

New!!: Melanoma and Sunscreen · See more »

Superficial spreading melanoma

Superficial spreading melanoma (also known as "superficially spreading melanoma") (SSM) is usually characterized as the most common form of cutaneous melanoma in Caucasians.

New!!: Melanoma and Superficial spreading melanoma · See more »

T cell

A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.

New!!: Melanoma and T cell · See more »

T-cell receptor

The T-cell receptor, or TCR, is a molecule found on the surface of T cells, or T lymphocytes, that is responsible for recognizing fragments of antigen as peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules.

New!!: Melanoma and T-cell receptor · See more »

Tanning lamp

Tanning lamps (sometimes called tanning bulbs in the United States or tanning tubes in Europe) are the part of a tanning bed, booth or other tanning device which produces ultraviolet light responsible for tanning.

New!!: Melanoma and Tanning lamp · See more »


Temozolomide (TMZ; brand names Temodar and Temodal and Temcad) is an oral chemotherapy drug.

New!!: Melanoma and Temozolomide · See more »

The Lancet

The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal.

New!!: Melanoma and The Lancet · See more »

The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

New!!: Melanoma and The New York Times · See more »


---> Thymine (T, Thy) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T.

New!!: Melanoma and Thymine · See more »

Timeless (gene)

Timeless (tim) is a gene in multiple species but is most notable for its role in Drosophila for encoding TIM, an essential protein that regulates circadian rhythm.

New!!: Melanoma and Timeless (gene) · See more »

Titanium dioxide

Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula.

New!!: Melanoma and Titanium dioxide · See more »

TNM staging system

The TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours (TNM) is a notation system that describes the stage of a cancer which originates from a solid tumour with alphanumeric codes.

New!!: Melanoma and TNM staging system · See more »


Trametinib (trade name Mekinist) is a cancer drug.

New!!: Melanoma and Trametinib · See more »

Transcription factor

In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.

New!!: Melanoma and Transcription factor · See more »

Transition (genetics)

In genetics, a transition is a point mutation that changes a purine nucleotide to another purine (A ↔ G) or a pyrimidine nucleotide to another pyrimidine (C ↔ T).

New!!: Melanoma and Transition (genetics) · See more »

Tumor suppressor

A tumor suppressor gene, or antioncogene, is a gene that protects a cell from one step on the path to cancer.

New!!: Melanoma and Tumor suppressor · See more »

Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes

Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are white blood cells that have left the bloodstream and migrated toward tumor.

New!!: Melanoma and Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes · See more »


Tyrosinase is an oxidase that is the rate-limiting enzyme for controlling the production of melanin.

New!!: Melanoma and Tyrosinase · See more »

Ulcer (dermatology)

An ulcer is a sore on the skin or a mucous membrane, accompanied by the disintegration of tissue.

New!!: Melanoma and Ulcer (dermatology) · See more »


Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

New!!: Melanoma and Ultraviolet · See more »

Unnecessary health care

Unnecessary health care (overutilization, overuse, or overtreatment) is healthcare provided with a higher volume or cost than is appropriate.

New!!: Melanoma and Unnecessary health care · See more »

Uveal melanoma

Uveal melanoma is a cancer (melanoma) of the eye involving the iris, ciliary body, or choroid (collectively referred to as the uvea).

New!!: Melanoma and Uveal melanoma · See more »

Vaginal melanoma

Vaginal melanoma is a rare malignancy that originates from melanocytes in the vaginal epithelium.

New!!: Melanoma and Vaginal melanoma · See more »


Vemurafenib (INN, marketed as Zelboraf) is a B-Raf enzyme inhibitor developed by Plexxikon (now part of Daiichi-Sankyo) and Genentech for the treatment of late-stage melanoma.

New!!: Melanoma and Vemurafenib · See more »


Virotherapy is a treatment using biotechnology to convert viruses into therapeutic agents by reprogramming viruses to treat diseases.

New!!: Melanoma and Virotherapy · See more »

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.

New!!: Melanoma and Vitamin D · See more »

White people

White people is a racial classification specifier, used mostly for people of European descent; depending on context, nationality, and point of view, the term has at times been expanded to encompass certain persons of North African, Middle Eastern, and South Asian descent, persons who are often considered non-white in other contexts.

New!!: Melanoma and White people · See more »

Wide local excision

A wide local excision (WLE) is a surgical procedure to remove a small area of diseased or problematic tissue with a margin of normal tissue.

New!!: Melanoma and Wide local excision · See more »


WD repeat domain phosphoinositide-interacting protein 1 (WIPI-1), also known as Atg18 protein homolog (ATG18) and WD40 repeat protein interacting with phosphoinositides of 49 kDa (WIPI 49 kDa), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the WIPI1 gene.

New!!: Melanoma and WIPI1 · See more »

Xeroderma pigmentosum

Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a genetic disorder in which there is a decreased ability to repair DNA damage such as that caused by ultraviolet (UV) light.

New!!: Melanoma and Xeroderma pigmentosum · See more »

Zinc oxide

Zinc oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula ZnO.

New!!: Melanoma and Zinc oxide · See more »


8-Oxoguanine (8-hydroxyguanine, 8-oxo-Gua, or OH8Gua) is one of the most common DNA lesions resulting from reactive oxygen species and can result in a mismatched pairing with adenine resulting in G to T and C to A substitutions in the genome.

New!!: Melanoma and 8-Oxoguanine · See more »

Redirects here:

ABCD guideline, Clinical & histological type unspecified malignant melanoma, Extracutaneous malignant melanoma, Histological type unclassifiable malignant melanoma, In situ malignant melanoma, Lymph node matastasis due to melanoma, Malign melanoma, Malignant melanoma, Malignant melanoma of vulva, Melanoblastoma, Melanocarcinoma, Melanoma diagnosis, Melanoma in situ, Melanoma, Malignant, Melanoma-in-situ, Melanomas, Melinoma, Metastatic melanoma, Mucosal malignant melanoma, Seborrheic keratosis-like melanoma, Skin melanoma, Subungual melanoma, Sun exposure and melanoma, Treatment and prognosis of melanoma, Treatment of melanoma, Types of melanoma, Ulcerated melanoma, Visceral metastasis due to melanoma.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melanoma

Hey! We are on Facebook now! »