191 relations: Acral lentiginous melanoma, Adjuvant therapy, Adoptive cell transfer, Amelanotic melanoma, American Academy of Dermatology, American Society of Clinical Oncology, Apoptosis, Australia, Avobenzone, Benign fibrous histiocytoma, Biopharmaceutical, Biopsy, Blue nevus, BRAF (gene), Brain metastasis, Bread loafing, Breslow's depth, Bristol-Myers Squibb, British Association of Dermatologists, Cancer, Cancer immunotherapy, Cancer staging, Cancer stem cell, Cancer vaccine, Carbon-14, Cell division, Chemotherapy, Choosing Wisely, Chromosomal translocation, Chromosome, Chromosome 9, Clark's level, Clinical trial, Complete circumferential peripheral and deep margin assessment, Congenital melanocytic nevus, CT scan, Cyclin, Cyclin-dependent kinase, Cyclin-dependent kinase 4, Cytosine, Dabrafenib, Dacarbazine, Dendritic cell, Dermatology, Dermatoscopy, Dermis, Desmoplastic melanoma, Direct DNA damage, Disease, DNA, ..., DNA repair, Dye, Dysplasia, Dysplastic nevus, EPH receptor A2, Epidermis, False alarm, Fine-needle aspiration, Five-year survival rate, Food and Drug Administration, Fort Washington, Pennsylvania, Gastrointestinal tract, Gene, Gene therapy, Genetic testing, Greek language, H&E stain, Histology, HMB-45, Human skin color, Imiquimod, Immunoperoxidase, Immunosuppression, In vivo, Indoor tanning, Interferon, Interleukin 2, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Ipilimumab, Itch, John Hunter (surgeon), Kinase, Lactate dehydrogenase, Lentigo, Lentigo maligna, Lentigo maligna melanoma, Local anesthesia, Lung cancer, Lymph node, Lymphadenectomy, Lymphatic vessel, Lymphocyte, Magnetic resonance imaging, MCM6, Mdm2, MEK inhibitor, Melanocortin 1 receptor, Melanocyte, Melanocytic nevus, Melanoma with features of a Spitz nevus, Melanosis, Metastasis, Missense mutation, Mitogen-activated protein kinase, Mitosis, MLANA, Mohs surgery, Molecular mass, Mucosal melanoma, Mutation, National Cancer Institute, Nausea, Neoplasm, Nevus, Nivolumab, Nodular melanoma, Nonsense mutation, Northern Europe, Oncogene, Oncology, Oncolytic virus, P16, P53, Palliative care, Paraneoplastic syndrome, Pathogenesis, Pathology, Pembrolizumab, Perineural invasion, Peru, PMEL (gene), Polymerase chain reaction, Polypoid melanoma, Positron emission tomography, Prognosis, Progression-free survival, Protein, Protein dimer, Purine, Pyrimidine, Pyrimidine dimer, Quality of life, Radiation therapy, Radioimmunotherapy, Reactive oxygen species, Reading frame, René Laennec, Resection margin, Royal College of Surgeons of England, S100 protein, Samuel Cooper (surgeon), Seborrheic keratosis, Sentinel lymph node, Skin biopsy, Small-cell melanoma, Splice site mutation, Squamous cell carcinoma, Sun protective clothing, Sunburn, Sunscreen, Superficial spreading melanoma, T cell, T-cell receptor, Tanning lamp, Temozolomide, The Lancet, The New York Times, Thymine, Timeless (gene), Titanium dioxide, TNM staging system, Trametinib, Transcription factor, Transition (genetics), Tumor suppressor, Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, Tyrosinase, Ulcer (dermatology), Ultraviolet, Unnecessary health care, Uveal melanoma, Vaginal melanoma, Vemurafenib, Virotherapy, Vitamin D, White people, Wide local excision, WIPI1, Xeroderma pigmentosum, Zinc oxide, 8-Oxoguanine. Expand index (141 more) » « Shrink index
Acral lentiginous melanoma is a kind of lentiginous skin melanoma.
Adjuvant therapy, also known as adjunct therapy, add-on therapy, and adjuvant care, is therapy that is given in addition to the primary or initial therapy to maximize its effectiveness.
Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) is the transfer of cells into a patient.
Amelanotic melanoma is a type of skin cancer in which the cells do not make melanin.
The American Academy of Dermatology (AAD) is one of the largest organizations of dermatologists in the world.
The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) is a professional organization representing physicians of all oncology sub-specialties who care for people with cancer.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Avobenzone (trade names Parsol 1789, Milestab 1789, Eusolex 9020, Escalol 517, Neo Heliopan 357 and others, INCI Butyl Methoxydibenzoylmethane) is an oil-soluble ingredient used in sunscreen products to absorb the full spectrum of UVA rays.
Benign fibrous histiocytomas (also known as dermal dendrocytoma, dermatofibroma, fibrous dermatofibroma, fibrous histiocytoma, fibroma simplex, nodular subepidermal fibrosis, and sclerosing hemangioma) are benign skin growths.
A biopharmaceutical, also known as a biologic(al) medical product, biological, or biologic, is any pharmaceutical drug product manufactured in, extracted from, or semisynthesized from biological sources.
A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease.
Blue nevus (also known as "blue neuronevus", "dermal melanocytoma", and "nevus bleu") is a type of melanocytic nevus.
BRAF is a human gene that encodes a protein called B-Raf.
A brain metastasis is a cancer that has metastasized (spread) to the brain from another location in the body and is therefore considered a secondary brain tumor.
Bread loafing is a common method of processing surgical specimens for histopathology.
In medicine, Breslow's depth was used as a prognostic factor in melanoma of the skin.
Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS) is an American pharmaceutical company, headquartered in New York City.
The British Association of Dermatologists is a charity established in 1920 whose charitable objects are the practice, teaching, training, and research of dermatology.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Cancer immunotherapy (sometimes called immuno-oncology, abbreviated IO) is the use of the immune system to treat cancer.
Cancer staging is the process of determining the extent to which a cancer has developed by growing and spreading.
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are cancer cells (found within tumors or hematological cancers) that possess characteristics associated with normal stem cells, specifically the ability to give rise to all cell types found in a particular cancer sample.
A cancer vaccine is a vaccine that either treats existing cancer or prevents development of a cancer.
Carbon-14, 14C, or radiocarbon, is a radioactive isotope of carbon with an atomic nucleus containing 6 protons and 8 neutrons.
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
Choosing Wisely is a United States-based health educational campaign, led by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM).
In genetics, a chromosome translocation is a chromosome abnormality caused by rearrangement of parts between nonhomologous chromosomes.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
Chromosome 9 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
Clark's level is a staging system, used in conjunction with Breslow's depth, which describes the level of anatomical invasion of the melanoma in the skin.
Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.
CCPDMA is the acronym for "complete circumferential peripheral and deep margin assessment".
The congenital melanocytic nevus is a type of melanocytic nevus (or mole) found in infants at birth.
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
Cyclin is a family of proteins that control the progression of cells through the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) enzymes.
Gap phase 2. The duration of mitosis in relation to the other phases has been exaggerated in this diagram Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are a family of sugar kinases first discovered for their role in regulating the cell cycle.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 also known as cell division protein kinase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK4 gene.
Cytosine (C) is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
Dabrafenib (trade name Tafinlar, GSK2118436) is a drug for the treatment of cancers associated with a mutated version of the gene BRAF.
Dacarbazine (DTIC), also known as imidazole carboxamide, is a chemotherapy medication used in the treatment of melanoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (also known as accessory cells) of the mammalian immune system.
Dermatology (from ancient Greek δέρμα, derma which means skin and λογία, logia) is the branch of medicine dealing with the skin, nails, hair and its diseases.
Dermatoscopy (also known as dermoscopy or epiluminescence microscopy) is the examination of with a 'dermatoscope'.
The dermis or corium is a layer of skin between the epidermis (with which it makes up the cutis) and subcutaneous tissues, that primarily consists of dense irregular connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and strain.
Desmoplastic melanoma (also known as a "Neurotropic melanoma," or "Spindled melanoma") is a rare cutaneous condition characterized by a deeply infiltrating type of melanoma with an abundance of fibrous matrix.
Direct DNA damage can occur when DNA directly absorbs a UVB photon, or for numerous other reasons.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.
A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.
Dysplasia (from Ancient Greek δυσ- dys-, "bad" or "difficult" and πλάσις plasis, "formation") is a term used in pathology to refer to an abnormality of development or an epithelial anomaly of growth and differentiation (epithelial dysplasia).
A dysplastic nevus or atypical mole is a nevus (mole) whose appearance is different from that of common moles.
EPH receptor A2 (ephrin type-A receptor 2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EPHA2 gene.
The epidermis is the outer layer of the three layers that make up the skin, the inner layers being the dermis and hypodermis.
A false alarm, also called a nuisance alarm, is the deceptive or erroneous report of an emergency, causing unnecessary panic and/or bringing resources (such as emergency services) to a place where they are not needed.
Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a diagnostic procedure used to investigate lumps or masses.
The five-year survival rate is a type of survival rate for estimating the prognosis of a particular disease, normally calculated from the point of diagnosis.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Fort Washington is a census-designated place and suburb of Philadelphia in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, United States.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
In the medicine field, gene therapy (also called human gene transfer) is the therapeutic delivery of nucleic acid into a patient's cells as a drug to treat disease.
Genetic testing, also known as DNA testing, allows the determination of bloodlines and the genetic diagnosis of vulnerabilities to inherited diseases.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Hematoxylin and eosin stain or haematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E stain or HE stain) is one of the principal stains in histology.
Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.
HMB-45 is a monoclonal antibody that reacts against an antigen present in melanocytic tumors such as melanomas, and stands for Human Melanoma Black.
Human skin color ranges in variety from the darkest brown to the lightest hues.
Imiquimod (INN) is a prescription medication that acts as an immune response modifier and is used to treat genital warts, superficial basal cell carcinoma, and actinic keratosis.
Immunoperoxidase is a type of immunostain used in molecular biology, medical research, and clinical diagnostics.
Immunosuppression is a reduction of the activation or efficacy of the immune system.
Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.
Indoor tanning involves using a device that emits ultraviolet radiation to produce a cosmetic tan.
Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells.
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an interleukin, a type of cytokine signaling molecule in the immune system.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC; Centre International de Recherche sur le Cancer, CIRC) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organization of the United Nations.
Ipilimumab (trade name Yervoy) is a monoclonal antibody that works to activate the immune system by targeting CTLA-4, a protein receptor that downregulates the immune system.
Itch (also known as pruritus) is a sensation that causes the desire or reflex to scratch.
John Hunter (13 February 1728 – 16 October 1793) was a Scottish surgeon, one of the most distinguished scientists and surgeons of his day.
In biochemistry, a kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups from high-energy, phosphate-donating molecules to specific substrates.
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH or LD) is an enzyme found in nearly all living cells (animals, plants, and prokaryotes).
A lentigo (plural lentigines) is a small pigmented spot on the skin with a clearly defined edge, surrounded by normal-appearing skin.
Lentigo maligna (also known as "lentiginous melanoma on sun-damaged skin") is a melanoma in situ that consists of malignant cells but does not show invasive growth.
Lentigo maligna melanoma is a melanoma that has evolved from a lentigo maligna.
Local anesthesia is any technique to induce the absence of sensation in a specific part of the body, generally for the aim of inducing local analgesia, that is, local insensitivity to pain, although other local senses may be affected as well.
Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.
A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.
Lymphadenectomy or lymph node dissection is the surgical removal of one or more groups of lymph nodes.
The lymphatic vessels (or lymph vessels or lymphatics) are thin-walled vessels structured like blood vessels, that carry lymph.
A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
DNA replication licensing factor MCM6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MCM6 gene.
Mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) also known as E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Mdm2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MDM2 gene.
A MEK inhibitor is a chemical or drug that inhibits the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase enzymes MEK1 and/or MEK2.
The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), also known as melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor (MSHR), melanin-activating peptide receptor, or melanotropin receptor, is a G protein–coupled receptor that binds to a class of pituitary peptide hormones known as the melanocortins, which include adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and the different forms of melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH).
Melanocytes are melanin-producing neural crest-derived cells located in the bottom layer (the stratum basale) of the skin's epidermis, the middle layer of the eye (the uvea), the inner ear, vaginal epithelium, meninges, bones, and heart.
A melanocytic nevus (also known as nevocytic nevus, nevus-cell nevus and commonly as a mole) is a type of melanocytic tumor that contains nevus cells.
Melanoma with features of a Spitz nevus (also known as a "Spitzoid melanoma") is a cutaneous condition characterized histologically with tissue similar to a spitz nevus and with overall symmetry and a dermal nodule of epithelioid melanocytes that do not mature with progressively deeper dermal extension.
Melanosis is a form of hyperpigmentation associated with increased melanin.
Metastasis is a pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body; it is typically spoken of as such spread by a cancerous tumor.
In genetics, a missense mutation is a point mutation in which a single nucleotide change results in a codon that codes for a different amino acid.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK or MAP kinase) is a type of protein kinase that is specific to the amino acids serine and threonine (i.e., a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase).
In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei.
Protein melan-A also known as melanoma antigen recognized by T cells 1 or MART-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MLANA o "MALENA" gene.
Mohs surgery, developed in 1938 by a general surgeon, Frederic E. Mohs, is microscopically controlled surgery used to treat common types of skin cancer.
Relative Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule.
Mucosal melanoma is a rare cutaneous condition characterized by a melanoma of the mucous membranes.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is one of eleven agencies that are part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
Nevus (or nevi if multiple) is a nonspecific medical term for a visible, circumscribed, chronic lesion of the skin or mucosa.
Nivolumab, marketed as Opdivo, is a medication used to treat cancer.
Nodular melanoma (NM) is the most aggressive form of melanoma.
In genetics, a point-nonsense mutation is a point mutation in a sequence of DNA that results in a premature stop codon, or a point-nonsense codon in the transcribed mRNA, and in a truncated, incomplete, and usually nonfunctional protein product.
Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
An oncogene is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer.
Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer.
An oncolytic virus is a virus that preferentially infects and kills cancer cells.
p16 (also known as p16INK4a, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, multiple tumor suppressor 1 and as several other synonyms), is a tumor suppressor protein, that in humans is encoded by the CDKN2A gene.
Tumor protein p53, also known as p53, cellular tumor antigen p53 (UniProt name), phosphoprotein p53, tumor suppressor p53, antigen NY-CO-13, or transformation-related protein 53 (TRP53), is any isoform of a protein encoded by homologous genes in various organisms, such as TP53 (humans) and Trp53 (mice).
Palliative care is a multidisciplinary approach to specialized medical and nursing care for people with life-limiting illnesses.
A paraneoplastic syndrome is a syndrome (a set of signs and symptoms) that is the consequence of cancer in the body, but unlike mass effect, is not due to the local presence of cancer cells.
The pathogenesis of a disease is the biological mechanism (or mechanisms) that leads to the diseased state.
Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder.
Pembrolizumab (formerly MK-3475 and lambrolizumab, trade name Keytruda) is a humanized antibody used in cancer immunotherapy.
In pathology, perineural invasion, abbreviated PNI, refers to cancer spreading to the space surrounding a nerve.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
Melanocyte protein PMEL also known as premelanosome protein (PMEL) or silver locus protein homolog (SILV) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PMEL gene.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.
Polypoid melanoma is a rare cutaneous condition, a virulent variant of nodular melanoma.
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.
Prognosis (Greek: πρόγνωσις "fore-knowing, foreseeing") is a medical term for predicting the likely or expected development of a disease, including whether the signs and symptoms will improve or worsen (and how quickly) or remain stable over time; expectations of quality of life, such as the ability to carry out daily activities; the potential for complications and associated health issues; and the likelihood of survival (including life expectancy).
Progression-free survival (PFS) is "the length of time during and after the treatment of a disease, such as cancer, that a patient lives with the disease but it does not get worse".
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
In biochemistry, a protein dimer is a macromolecular complex formed by two protein monomers, or single proteins, which are usually non-covalently bound.
A purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound that consists of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.
Pyrimidine is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound similar to pyridine.
Pyrimidine dimers are molecular lesions formed from thymine or cytosine bases in DNA via photochemical reactions.
Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) uses an antibody labeled with a radionuclide to deliver cytotoxic radiation to a target cell.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen.
In molecular biology, a reading frame is a way of dividing the sequence of nucleotides in a nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) molecule into a set of consecutive, non-overlapping triplets.
René-Théophile-Hyacinthe Laennec (17 February 1781 – 13 August 1826) was a French physician.
A resection margin or surgical margin is the margin of apparently non-tumerous tissue around a tumor that has been surgically removed, called "resected", in surgical oncology.
The Royal College of Surgeons of England (abbreviated RCS and sometimes RCSEng), is an independent professional body and registered charity promoting and advancing standards of surgical care for patients, regulating surgery, including dentistry, in England and Wales.
The S100 proteins are a family of low-molecular-weight proteins found in vertebrates and characterized by two calcium-binding sites that have helix-loop-helix ("EF-hand type") conformation.
Samuel Cooper FRS (September 1780 – 2 December 1848) was an English surgeon and medical writer.
A seborrheic keratosis, also known as seborrheic verruca, basal cell papilloma, or a senile wart,Freedberg, et al.
The sentinel lymph node is the hypothetical first lymph node or group of nodes draining a cancer.
Skin biopsy is a biopsy technique in which a skin lesion is removed to be sent to a pathologist to render a microscopic diagnosis.
Small-cell melanoma, also known as melanoma with small nevus-like cells, is a cutaneous condition, a tumor that contains variably-sized, large nests of small melanocytes with hyperchromatic nuclei and prominent nucleoli.
A splice site mutation is a genetic mutation that inserts, deletes or changes a number of nucleotides in the specific site at which splicing takes place during the processing of precursor messenger RNA into mature messenger RNA.
Squamous cell carcinomas, also known as epidermoid carcinoma are a number of different types of cancer that result from squamous cells.
Sun protective clothing is clothing specifically designed for sun protection and is produced from a fabric rated for its level of ultraviolet (UV) protection.
Sunburn is a form of radiation burn that affects living tissue, such as skin, that results from an overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, commonly from the sun.
Sunscreen, also known as sunblock, sun cream or suntan lotion, is a lotion, spray, gel or other topical product that absorbs or reflects some of the sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation and thus helps protect against sunburn.
Superficial spreading melanoma (also known as "superficially spreading melanoma") (SSM) is usually characterized as the most common form of cutaneous melanoma in Caucasians.
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.
The T-cell receptor, or TCR, is a molecule found on the surface of T cells, or T lymphocytes, that is responsible for recognizing fragments of antigen as peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules.
Tanning lamps (sometimes called tanning bulbs in the United States or tanning tubes in Europe) are the part of a tanning bed, booth or other tanning device which produces ultraviolet light responsible for tanning.
Temozolomide (TMZ; brand names Temodar and Temodal and Temcad) is an oral chemotherapy drug.
The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
---> Thymine (T, Thy) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T.
Timeless (tim) is a gene in multiple species but is most notable for its role in Drosophila for encoding TIM, an essential protein that regulates circadian rhythm.
Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula.
The TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours (TNM) is a notation system that describes the stage of a cancer which originates from a solid tumour with alphanumeric codes.
Trametinib (trade name Mekinist) is a cancer drug.
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.
In genetics, a transition is a point mutation that changes a purine nucleotide to another purine (A ↔ G) or a pyrimidine nucleotide to another pyrimidine (C ↔ T).
A tumor suppressor gene, or antioncogene, is a gene that protects a cell from one step on the path to cancer.
Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are white blood cells that have left the bloodstream and migrated toward tumor.
Tyrosinase is an oxidase that is the rate-limiting enzyme for controlling the production of melanin.
An ulcer is a sore on the skin or a mucous membrane, accompanied by the disintegration of tissue.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
Unnecessary health care (overutilization, overuse, or overtreatment) is healthcare provided with a higher volume or cost than is appropriate.
Uveal melanoma is a cancer (melanoma) of the eye involving the iris, ciliary body, or choroid (collectively referred to as the uvea).
Vaginal melanoma is a rare malignancy that originates from melanocytes in the vaginal epithelium.
Vemurafenib (INN, marketed as Zelboraf) is a B-Raf enzyme inhibitor developed by Plexxikon (now part of Daiichi-Sankyo) and Genentech for the treatment of late-stage melanoma.
Virotherapy is a treatment using biotechnology to convert viruses into therapeutic agents by reprogramming viruses to treat diseases.
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.
White people is a racial classification specifier, used mostly for people of European descent; depending on context, nationality, and point of view, the term has at times been expanded to encompass certain persons of North African, Middle Eastern, and South Asian descent, persons who are often considered non-white in other contexts.
A wide local excision (WLE) is a surgical procedure to remove a small area of diseased or problematic tissue with a margin of normal tissue.
WD repeat domain phosphoinositide-interacting protein 1 (WIPI-1), also known as Atg18 protein homolog (ATG18) and WD40 repeat protein interacting with phosphoinositides of 49 kDa (WIPI 49 kDa), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the WIPI1 gene.
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a genetic disorder in which there is a decreased ability to repair DNA damage such as that caused by ultraviolet (UV) light.
Zinc oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula ZnO.
8-Oxoguanine (8-hydroxyguanine, 8-oxo-Gua, or OH8Gua) is one of the most common DNA lesions resulting from reactive oxygen species and can result in a mismatched pairing with adenine resulting in G to T and C to A substitutions in the genome.
ABCD guideline, Clinical & histological type unspecified malignant melanoma, Extracutaneous malignant melanoma, Histological type unclassifiable malignant melanoma, In situ malignant melanoma, Lymph node matastasis due to melanoma, Malign melanoma, Malignant melanoma, Malignant melanoma of vulva, Melanoblastoma, Melanocarcinoma, Melanoma diagnosis, Melanoma in situ, Melanoma, Malignant, Melanoma-in-situ, Melanomas, Melinoma, Metastatic melanoma, Mucosal malignant melanoma, Seborrheic keratosis-like melanoma, Skin melanoma, Subungual melanoma, Sun exposure and melanoma, Treatment and prognosis of melanoma, Treatment of melanoma, Types of melanoma, Ulcerated melanoma, Visceral metastasis due to melanoma.